Science.gov

Sample records for 3x vertical exaggeration

  1. Dissociated vertical deviation: an exaggerated normal eye movement used to damp cyclovertical latent nystagmus.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, D L; Cheeseman, E W; Ellis, F J; Straumann, D; Zee, D S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) has eluded explanation for more than a century. The purpose of this study has been to elucidate the etiology and mechanism of DVD. METHODS: Eye movement recordings of six young adults with DVD were made with dual-coil scleral search coils under various conditions of fixation, illumination, and head tilt. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements were recorded for both eyes simultaneously. Analyses of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements occurring during the DVD response were used to separate and identify the component vergence and version eye movements involved. RESULTS: Typically, both horizontal and cyclovertical latent nystagmus developed upon occlusion of either eye. A cycloversion then occurred, with the fixing eye intorting and tending to depress, the covered eye extorting and elevating. Simultaneously, upward versions occurred for the maintenance of fixation, consisting variously of saccades and smooth eye movements, leading to further elevation of the eye behind the cover. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus became partially damped as the DVD developed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an early-onset defect of binocular function, the occlusion of one eye, or even concentration on fixing with one eye, produces unbalanced input to the vestibular system. This results in latent nystagmus, sometimes seen only with magnification. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus, when present, is similar to normal vestibular nystagmus induced by dynamic head tilting about an oblique axis. Such vestibular nystagmus characteristically produces a hyperdeviation of the eyes. In the case of cyclovertical latent nystagmus, the analogous hyperdeviation will persist unless corrected by a vertical vergence. A normal, oblique-muscle-mediated, cycloversion/vertical vergence is called into play. This occurs in the proper direction to correct the hyperdeviation, but it occurs in an exaggerated

  2. Vertical Interface Induced Dielectric Relaxation in Nanocomposite (BaTiO3)1-x:(Sm2O3)x Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Le; Gu, Junxing; Chen, Aiping; Zhao, Run; Liang, Yan; Guo, Haizhong; Tang, Rujun; Wang, Chunchang; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Vertical interfaces in vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films have been approved to be an effective method to manipulate functionalities. However, several challenges with regard to the understanding on the physical process underlying the manipulation still remain. In this work, because of the ordered interfaces and large interfacial area, heteroepitaxial (BaTiO3)1-x:(Sm2O3)x thin films have been fabricated and used as a model system to investigate the relationship between vertical interfaces and dielectric properties. Due to a relatively large strain generated at the interfaces, vertical interfaces between BaTiO3 and Sm2O3 are revealed to become the sinks to attract oxygen vacancies. The movement of oxygen vacancies is confined at the interfaces and hampered by the misfit dislocations, which contributed to a relaxation behavior in (BaTiO3)1-x:(Sm2O3)x thin films. This work represents an approach to further understand that how interfaces influence on dielectric properties in oxide thin films. PMID:26061829

  3. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  4. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  5. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  6. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  7. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-07

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait.

  8. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  9. PINS-3X Operations

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  10. Exaggerated pain behavior: by what standard?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a philosophical, historical, and clinical analysis of exaggerated pain behavior, focusing on the nature of the standards used to judge behavior as exaggerated. Malingering is understood as a special case of exaggerated pain behavior. Drawing upon the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and psychiatrist-anthropologist Horacio Fabrega, I argue that these standards are primarily moral rather than scientific in nature. Pain behavior is not validated by matching public pain behavior with private pain experience. If this pain experience is truly private, it is not available to scientific investigation. Rather, pain behavior is judged as appropriate or exaggerated through complex assessments of the function of this behavior in its social context. As human social contexts have become more complex through history, so have the accommodations made for sick and disabled members of the group. Criteria for legitimate entry to the sick role have evolved with society, with only modern industrial society placing heavy emphasis on tissue damage demonstrated on medical tests. The highly variable relation between clinical pain and tissue damage, as well as the common problem of medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care, pose serious challenges to this strategy of illness behavior validation. It will remain necessary to triage suffering presented to health care providers into that which should be addressed in the medical setting and that which is better addressed elsewhere. But we need to discard pseudoscientific reliance on medical tests and develop new standards that are openly acknowledged to be moral and social in nature.

  11. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  12. Exaggerated natriuresis in adult polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Pedersen, E B; Herlevsen, P; Kornerup, H J; Posborg, V

    1986-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII), aldosterone (Aldo) arginine vasopressin (AVP) in plasma, serum osmolality (Sosm), and renal sodium excretion (UNaV) were studied before and after infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride solution in 20 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease (PKD) with normal or moderately reduced creatinine clearance (Ccr) and in 10 healthy control subjects. UNaV increased after sodium loading in all, significantly more in the PKD patients. AII and Aldo were normal before sodium loading and suppressed after saline in PKD patients and controls. The increase in VNaV correlated with Aldo in patients but not in controls. AVP before loading was increased in hypertensive PKD patients with reduced Ccr, but not in normotensive patients with normal Ccr. After hypertonic saline, Sosm increased to the same degree both in PKD and control subjects, but AVP increased more in those with PKD. The exaggerated natriuresis of PKD is probably not explained by a change in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The enhanced response of AVP to osmotic stimuli in PKD may be a compensatory reaction to a reduced renal tubular effect of AVP.

  13. Perceived azimuth direction is exaggerated: Converging evidence from explicit and implicit measures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that perceived visual direction in the sagittal plane (angular direction in elevation, both upward and downward from eye level) is exaggerated. Foley, Ribeiro-Filho, and Da Silva's (2004) study of perceived size of exocentric ground extent implies that perceived angular direction in azimuth may also be exaggerated. In the present study, we directly examined whether perceived azimuth direction is overestimated. In Experiment 1, numeric estimates of azimuth direction (−48° to 48° relative to straight ahead) were obtained. The results showed a linear exaggeration in perceived azimuth direction with a gain of about 1.26. In Experiment 2, a perceptual extent-matching task served as an implicit measure of perceived azimuth direction. Participants matched an egocentric distance in one direction to a frontal extent in nearly the opposite direction. The angular biases implied by the matching data well replicated Foley et al.'s finding and were also fairly consistent with the azimuth bias function found in Experiment 1, although a slight overall shift was observed between the results of the two experiments. Experiment 3, in which half the observers were tilted sideways while making frontal/depth extent comparisons, suggested that the discrepancy between the results of Experiment 1 and 2 can partially be explained by a retinal horizontal vertical illusion affecting distance estimation tasks. Overall the present study provides converging evidence to suggest that the perception of azimuth direction is overestimated. PMID:26756174

  14. Sexual imprinting can induce sexual preferences for exaggerated parental traits.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Carel; Verzijden, Machteld N; Etman, Eric

    2006-06-06

    Sexual preferences in animals are often skewed toward mates with exaggerated traits. In many vertebrates, parents provide, through the learning process of "sexual imprinting," the model for the later sexual preference. How imprinting can result in sexual preferences for mates having exaggerated traits rather than resembling the parental appearance is not clear. We test the hypothesis that a by-product of the learning process, "peak shift", may induce skewed sexual preferences for exaggerated parental phenotypes. To this end, zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males were raised by white parents, with beak color as the most prominent sexual dimorphism. We manipulated this feature with nail varnish. At adult age, each male was given a preference test in which he could choose among eight females with beak colors ranging from more extreme on the paternal to more extreme on the maternal side. The males preferred females with a beak of a more extreme color than that of their mothers, i.e., they showed a peak shift. Sexual imprinting can thus generate skewed sexual preferences for exaggerated maternal phenotypes, phenotypes that have not been present at the time of the learning. We suggest that such preferences can drive the evolution of sexual dimorphism and exaggerated sexual traits.

  15. Axillary shoulder with exaggerated rotation: the Hill-Sachs defect.

    PubMed

    Rafert, J A; Long, B W; Hernandez, E M; Kreipke, D L

    1990-01-01

    One of the most common fractures of the humeral head resulting from an anterior dislocation is the Hill-Sachs defect. Other special radiographic positions to demonstrate this injury may prove difficult for the patient to assume and maintain. An axillary shoulder projection with exaggerated external rotation is easy to position and clearly demonstrates the Hill-Sachs defect.

  16. Interstitial-boron solution strengthened WB3+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiyue; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Niu, Haiyang; Liu, Peitao; Du, Kui; Liu, Gang; Li, Dianzhong; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ye, Hengqiang; Li, Yiyi

    2013-10-01

    By means of variable-composition evolutionary algorithm coupled with density functional theory and in combination with aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments, we have studied and characterized the composition, structure, and hardness properties of WB3+x (x < 0.5). We provide robust evidence for the occurrence of stoichiometric WB3 and non-stoichiometric WB3+x, both crystallizing in the metastable hP16 (P63/mmc) structure. No signs for the formation of the highly debated WB4 (both hP20 and hP10) phases were found. Our results rationalize the seemingly contradictory high-pressure experimental findings and suggest that the interstitial boron atom is located in the tungsten layer and vertically interconnect with four boron atoms, thus forming a typical three-center boron net with the upper and lower boron layers in a three-dimensional covalent network, which thereby strengthen the hardness.

  17. The evolution of acoustic size exaggeration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Reby, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that some mammals possess adaptations that enable them to produce vocal signals with much lower fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequency spacing (ΔF) than expected for their size. Although these adaptations are assumed to reflect selection pressures for males to lower frequency components and exaggerate body size in reproductive contexts, this hypothesis has not been tested across a broad range of species. Here we show that male terrestrial mammals produce vocal signals with lower ΔF (but not F0) than expected for their size in mating systems with greater sexual size dimorphism. We also reveal that males produce calls with higher than expected F0 and ΔF in species with increased sperm competition. This investigation confirms that sexual selection favours the use of ΔF as an acoustic size exaggerator and supports the notion of an evolutionary trade-off between pre-copulatory signalling displays and sperm production. PMID:27598835

  18. Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; MacAskill, Andrew F; Carter, Adam G; Pierre, Philippe; Ruggero, Davide; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Klann, Eric

    2013-01-17

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an early onset, heterogeneous group of heritable neuropsychiatric disorders with symptoms that include deficits in social interaction skills, impaired communication abilities, and ritualistic-like repetitive behaviours. One of the hypotheses for a common molecular mechanism underlying ASDs is altered translational control resulting in exaggerated protein synthesis. Genetic variants in chromosome 4q, which contains the EIF4E locus, have been described in patients with autism. Importantly, a rare single nucleotide polymorphism has been identified in autism that is associated with increased promoter activity in the EIF4E gene. Here we show that genetically increasing the levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in mice results in exaggerated cap-dependent translation and aberrant behaviours reminiscent of autism, including repetitive and perseverative behaviours and social interaction deficits. Moreover, these autistic-like behaviours are accompanied by synaptic pathophysiology in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The autistic-like behaviours displayed by the eIF4E-transgenic mice are corrected by intracerebroventricular infusions of the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1. Our findings demonstrate a causal relationship between exaggerated cap-dependent translation, synaptic dysfunction and aberrant behaviours associated with autism.

  19. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP <180 mm Hg]). Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and norepinephrine (NE) were used to assess vascular reactivity. Proximal aortic compliance was assessed with ultrasound, and neurohormonal blood sampling was performed at rest and during peak exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; P<.001), as well as decreased proximal aortic compliance. The vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly impaired in the hyper-responder group in comparison to the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF -40.2% [1.6] vs -50.2% [2.6]; P<.05). In contrast, the vascular response to SNP and NE were comparable in both groups. Peak exercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease.

  20. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  1. Exaggerated risk: prospect theory and probability weighting in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Ayton, Peter; Dent, John; Chater, Nick

    2009-11-01

    In 5 experiments, we studied precautionary decisions in which participants decided whether or not to buy insurance with specified cost against an undesirable event with specified probability and cost. We compared the risks taken for precautionary decisions with those taken for equivalent monetary gambles. Fitting these data to Tversky and Kahneman's (1992) prospect theory, we found that the weighting function required to model precautionary decisions differed from that required for monetary gambles. This result indicates a failure of the descriptive invariance axiom of expected utility theory. For precautionary decisions, people overweighted small, medium-sized, and moderately large probabilities-they exaggerated risks. This effect is not anticipated by prospect theory or experience-based decision research (Hertwig, Barron, Weber, & Erev, 2004). We found evidence that exaggerated risk is caused by the accessibility of events in memory: The weighting function varies as a function of the accessibility of events. This suggests that people's experiences of events leak into decisions even when risk information is explicitly provided. Our findings highlight a need to investigate how variation in decision content produces variation in preferences for risk.

  2. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  4. Neural Coding of Formant-Exaggerated Speech in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yang; Koerner, Tess; Miller, Sharon; Grice-Patil, Zach; Svec, Adam; Akbari, David; Tusler, Liz; Carney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of…

  5. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  6. Women and AIDS: the ethics of exaggerated harm.

    PubMed

    Mertz, David; Sushinsky, Mary Ann; Schüklenk, Udo

    1996-04-01

    This article examines the way in which some biomedical ethicists have constructed sexually transmitted AIDS as a significant threat to women's health. We demonstrate that the familiar claim that 'women are the fastest growing group' -- whether of HIV-infected or of AIDS patients -- is misleading because it obscures the distinction between proportional rate of growth and absolute increase. Feminist ethicists have suggested that misogyny of a male dominated health care system has led to underreporting of women AIDS cases in order to support these feminists' claim of AIDS being a real threat to women's health. Given the apparent rarity of tertiary transmissions of AIDS, the assertion that most or even many women are at significant risk for AIDS seems wrong. Particularly disturbing in this campaign is the fact that the theme of 'risky sex' has been extended all the way to lesbians, even though their risk to acquire AIDS sexually is non-existent to miniscule. We argue that actual harm is done to women by this exaggeration of their risk of contracting AIDS sexually. The scare has led to misappropriations of scarce health care funds. AIDS disproportionately affects women who inject drugs, and who suffer other diseases, poverty and malnutrition. It would have been better to concentrate health care efforts in this area instead of 'educating' women not at risk for AIDS how to prevent the acquisition of this disease. Unjustifiable AIDS anxiety has been created in women and has resulted in millions of unnecessary HIV-tests, and many broken relationships. This anxiety has inevitably reduced the pleasure of having sex for many women. We reject the kind of 'victim ideology' that lies at the heart of this strategy which has, unfortunately, been supported by a number of influential feminist ethicists.

  7. Ethylene Is Not Responsible for Phytochrome-Mediated Apical Hook Exaggeration in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Asami, Miki; Shichijo, Chizuko; Tsurumi, Seiji; Hashimoto, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The apical hook of tomato seedlings is exaggerated by phytochrome actions, while in other species such as bean, pea and Arabidopsis, the hook is exaggerated by ethylene and opens by phytochrome actions. The present study was aimed to clarify mainly whether ethylene is responsible for the phytochrome-mediated hook exaggeration of tomato seedlings. Dark-grown 5-day-old seedlings were subjected to various ways of ethylene application in the dark as well as under the actions of red (R) or far-red light (FR). The ethylene emitted by seedlings was also quantified relative to hook exaggeration. The results show: Ambient ethylene, up-to about 1.0 μL L-1, suppressed (opened) the hooks formed in the dark as well as the ones exaggerated by R or FR, while at 3.0–10 μL L-1 it enhanced (closed) the hook only slightly as compared with the most-suppressed level at about 1.0 μL L-1. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, did not enhance the hook, only mimicking the suppressive effects of ambient ethylene. The biosynthesis inhibitor, CoCl2 or aminoethoxyvinylglycine, enhanced hook curvature, and the enhancement was canceled by supplement of ethylene below 1.0 μL L-1. Auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, by contrast, suppressed curvature markedly without altering ethylene emission. The effects of the above-stated treatments did not differentiate qualitatively among the R-, FR-irradiated seedlings and dark control so as to explain phytochrome-mediated hook exaggeration. In addition, ethylene emission by seedlings was affected neither by R nor FR at such fluences as to cause hook exaggeration. In conclusion, (1) ethylene suppresses not only the light-exaggerated hook, but also the dark-formed one; (2) ethylene emission is not affected by R or FR, and also not correlated with the hook exaggerations; thus ethylene is not responsible for the hook exaggeration in tomato; and (3) auxin is

  8. The Y 3-xBa 3+xCu 6O 14+δ system of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarji, A. M.; Somasundaram, P.; Ganapathi, L.; Rao, C. N. R.

    1988-04-01

    Members of the Y 3-xBa 3+xCu 6O 14+δ system prepared at relatively low temperatures by nitrate decomposition have a tetragonal structure and show superconducting transitions (zero-resistance) around 50K.

  9. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key Points For many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use. Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause

  10. Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key PointsFor many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use.Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause and

  11. Cryptic female exaggeration: the asymmetric female internal genitalia of Kaliana yuruani (Araneae: Pholcidae).

    PubMed

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2006-06-01

    Males of the Venezuelan pholcid spider Kaliana yuruani have unique genitalia, with the procursi about six times as long as usual in the family. The present article describes the previously unknown female, searching for a morphological correlate in the female genitalia to the male's exaggeration. Reconstruction of histological serial sections reveals an internal female complexity that is unequalled in pholcid spiders. An intricate system of ducts and folds is arranged in an asymmetric way, making this the third known case of genital asymmetry in spiders. The term "cryptic female exaggeration" is used in analogy to cryptic female choice, pointing to the fact that from the outside, the female genitalia do not appear unusual. I propose that cryptic female exaggeration may be relatively common in copulatory structures if male exaggerations need to be evaluated according to the female choice by mechanical fit model. Finally, the evolution of genital asymmetry in spiders is contrasted with that in insects.

  12. Exaggerations and Caveats in Press Releases and Health-Related Science News

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Petroc; Boivin, Jacky; Bott, Lewis; Adams, Rachel; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exaggerated or simplistic news is often blamed for adversely influencing public health. However, recent findings suggested many exaggerations were already present in university press releases, which scientists approve. Surprisingly, these exaggerations were not associated with more news coverage. Here we test whether these two controversial results also arise in press releases from prominent science and medical journals. We then investigate the influence of mitigating caveats in press releases, to test assumptions that caveats harm news interest or are ignored. Methods and Findings Using quantitative content analysis, we analyzed press releases (N = 534) on biomedical and health-related science issued by leading peer-reviewed journals. We similarly analysed the associated peer-reviewed papers (N = 534) and news stories (N = 582). Main outcome measures were advice to readers and causal statements drawn from correlational research. Exaggerations in press releases predicted exaggerations in news (odds ratios 2.4 and 10.9, 95% CIs 1.3 to 4.5 and 3.9 to 30.1) but were not associated with increased news coverage, consistent with previous findings. Combining datasets from universities and journals (996 press releases, 1250 news), we found that when caveats appeared in press releases there was no reduction in journalistic uptake, but there was a clear increase in caveats in news (odds ratios 9.6 and 9.5 for caveats for advice and causal claims, CIs 4.1 to 24.3 and 6.0 to 15.2). The main study limitation is its retrospective correlational nature. Conclusions For health and science news directly inspired by press releases, the main source of both exaggerations and caveats appears to be the press release itself. However we find no evidence that exaggerations increase, or caveats decrease, the likelihood of news coverage. These findings should be encouraging for press officers and scientists who wish to minimise exaggeration and include caveats in their press

  13. Exaggerated perception of facial expressions is increased in individuals with schizotypal traits

    PubMed Central

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are indispensable communicative tools, and social interactions involving facial expressions are impaired in some psychiatric disorders. Recent studies revealed that the perception of dynamic facial expressions was exaggerated in normal participants, and this exaggerated perception is weakened in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the notion that ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder are at two extremes of the continuum with respect to social impairment, we hypothesized that schizophrenic characteristics would strengthen the exaggerated perception of dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the perception of facial expressions and schizotypal traits in a normal population. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions, and asked participants to change an emotional face display to match the perceived final image. The presence of schizotypal traits was positively correlated with the degree of exaggeration for dynamic, as well as static, facial expressions. Among its subscales, the paranoia trait was positively correlated with the exaggerated perception of facial expressions. These results suggest that schizotypal traits, specifically the tendency to over-attribute mental states to others, exaggerate the perception of emotional facial expressions. PMID:26135081

  14. The role of movement exaggeration in the anticipation of deceptive soccer penalty kicks.

    PubMed

    Smeeton, N J; Williams, A M

    2012-11-01

    Human movement containing deception about the true outcome is thought to be perceived differently compared to the non-deceptive version. Exaggeration in the movement is thought to change the perceiver's mode of functioning from an invariant to a cue-based mode. We tested these ideas by examining anticipation in skilled and less skilled soccer players while they viewed temporally occluded (-240 ms, -160 ms, -80 ms, 0 ms, +80 ms) deceptive, non-deceptive, and non-deceptive-exaggerated penalty kicks. Kinematic analyses were used to ascertain that the kicking actions differed across conditions. The accuracy of judging the direction of an opponent's kick as well as response confidence were recorded. Players were over confident when anticipating deceptive penalty kicks compared to non-deceptive kicks, suggesting a cue-based mode was used. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between less skilled players' confidence ratings and their accuracy 80 ms before ball-foot contact in the deceptive and non-deceptive-exaggerated conditions, but not the non-deceptive condition. Because both deceptive and non-deceptive-exaggerated kicks contained exaggeration, results suggest exaggerated movements in the kickers' action at 80 ms before ball-foot contact explains why a cue-based mode prevails when anticipating deceptive kicks at this time point.

  15. Exaggerated perception of facial expressions is increased in individuals with schizotypal traits.

    PubMed

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-07-02

    Emotional facial expressions are indispensable communicative tools, and social interactions involving facial expressions are impaired in some psychiatric disorders. Recent studies revealed that the perception of dynamic facial expressions was exaggerated in normal participants, and this exaggerated perception is weakened in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the notion that ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder are at two extremes of the continuum with respect to social impairment, we hypothesized that schizophrenic characteristics would strengthen the exaggerated perception of dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the perception of facial expressions and schizotypal traits in a normal population. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions, and asked participants to change an emotional face display to match the perceived final image. The presence of schizotypal traits was positively correlated with the degree of exaggeration for dynamic, as well as static, facial expressions. Among its subscales, the paranoia trait was positively correlated with the exaggerated perception of facial expressions. These results suggest that schizotypal traits, specifically the tendency to over-attribute mental states to others, exaggerate the perception of emotional facial expressions.

  16. Exaggerated male genitalia intensify interspecific reproductive interference by damaging heterospecific female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, D; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species.

  17. Y 3-xBa 3+xCu 6O 14+δ system: A new family of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarji, A. M.; Somasundaram, P.; Rao, C. N. R.

    1988-06-01

    Compounds of the Y 3-x Ba 3+x Cu 6O 14+δ system, which YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (x = 1) is member, have been prepared. A relatively low temperature nitrate decomposition method gives almost single phase compounds with tetragonal structure. The phases are metastable and show superconducting transitions (zero-resistance) around 50K.

  18. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  19. The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences across the Political Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, liberals endorse the individual-focused moral concerns of compassion and fairness more than conservatives do, and conservatives endorse the group-focused moral concerns of ingroup loyalty, respect for authorities and traditions, and physical/spiritual purity more than liberals do. 2,212 U.S. participants filled out the Moral Foundations Questionnaire with their own answers, or as a typical liberal or conservative would answer. Across the political spectrum, moral stereotypes about “typical” liberals and conservatives correctly reflected the direction of actual differences in foundation endorsement but exaggerated the magnitude of these differences. Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroup's morality. Both liberals and conservatives exaggerated the ideological extremity of moral concerns for the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Liberals were least accurate about both groups. PMID:23251357

  20. The Earliest Case of Extreme Sexual Display with Exaggerated Male Organs by Two Middle Jurassic Mecopterans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Many extant male animals exhibit exaggerated body parts for display, defense or offence in sexual selection, such as male birds of paradise showing off colorful and elegant feathers and male moose and reindeers bearing large structured antlers. For insects, male rhinoceros and stag beetles have huge horn-like structure for fighting and competition and some male Leptopanorpa scorpionflies have very long abdominal terminal segments for sexual display and competition. Fossil records of insects having exaggerated body parts for sexual display are fairly rare. One example is two male holcorpids with elongate abdominal segments from sixth (A6) to eighth (A8) and enlarged male genitalia from Eocene, suggesting evolution of these characters occurred fairly late. Principal Findings We document two mecopterans with exaggerated male body parts from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in northeastern China. Both have extremely extended abdominal segments from A6 to A8 and enlarged genitalia, which might have been used for sexual display and, to less extent, for fighting with other males in the competition for mates. Although Fortiholcorpa paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and Miriholcorpa forcipata gen. et sp. nov. seem to have affinities with Holcorpidae, we deem both as Family Incertae sedis mainly due to significant differences in branching pattern of Media (M) veins and relative length of A8 for F. paradoxa, and indiscernible preservation of 5-branched M veins in hind wing for M. forcipata. Conclusions/Significance These two new taxa have extended the records of exaggerated male body parts of mecopterans for sexual display and/or selection from the Early Eocene to the late Middle Jurassic. The similar character present in some Leptopanorpa of Panorpidae suggests that the sexual display and/or sexual selection due to extremely elongated male abdominal and sexual organs outweigh the negative impact of bulky body and poor mobility in the evolutionary process

  1. Exaggerated Trait Allometry, Compensation and Trade-Offs in the New Zealand Giraffe Weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis)

    PubMed Central

    Painting, Christina. J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  2. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen

    PubMed Central

    Painting, Christina J.; Probert, Anna F.; Townsend, Daniel J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance. PMID:26542456

  3. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen.

    PubMed

    Painting, Christina J; Probert, Anna F; Townsend, Daniel J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2015-11-06

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance.

  4. Symptom exaggeration by college adults in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disorder assessments.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian K; May, Kim; Galbally, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sub-optimal effort detected by one popular symptom validity measure, the Word Memory Test (WMT), should be interpreted as symptom exaggeration, the authors examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disorder (LD) assessment data collected from healthy adult patients over the past four years at one mid-size Southeastern college. They conducted six tests of this hypothesis, drawing upon extant research. Rates of apparent symptom exaggeration comparable to those found in medicolegal settings (e.g., personal injury cases), particularly in the context of ADHD evaluations, were found. WMT scores were positively correlated with intellectual and neurocognitive test scores, and negatively correlated with self-report symptom inventory scores. Measures of negative response bias embedded in one common self-report measure of psychopathology (the Personality Assessment Inventory) were not correlated with WMT performance. Unattended WMT administrations led to somewhat higher failure rates than were found when the examiners were present in the room during all phases of the test's administration. In light of considerable secondary gain motives in this population, the authors conclude that poor effort as evidenced by low WMT scores implies symptom exaggeration and not other factors in these assessments. The routine inclusion of empirically supported symptom validity measures in these evaluations is recommended, and future research directions are suggested.

  5. Developing triploid (3X) apomictic eastern gamagrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass is a perennial warm-season bunchgrass native from Oklahoma and the Texas pan-handle to the east coast and has long been recognized as a highly productive and palatable forage. In 2004 a breeding project was initiated to develop a novel set of triploid (3X) true breeding apomictic ...

  6. NASA N3-X with Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation summarizing the phase I study of the NASA N3-X turboelectric distributed propulsion power aircraft to the IMechE Disruptive Green Propulsion Technologies conference in London, UK November 16th and 17th, 2014. This presentation contains the results of a NASA internal study funded by the NASA Fixed Wing program to look at the application of turboelectric distributed propulsion to a long-range 300 seat aircraft. The reference aircraft is the Boeing 777-200LR. The N3-X reduced energy consumption by 70 compared to the 777-200LR, LTO NOx by 85 compared to the CAEP 6 limits, and noise by 32-64 EPNdB depending on engine placement compared to the stage 4 noise standards. This exceeded the N+3 metrics of reducing energy by 60, LTO NOx by 80, and noise by 52 EPNdB. Cruise NOx was not estimated, but likely meet the 80 reduction goal as well.

  7. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.

  8. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort.

  9. Dominant tree species are at risk from exaggerated drought under climate change.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Fraser, Josie; MacDermott, Harry J; Firn, Jenifer

    2015-10-01

    Predicting the consequences of climate change on forest systems is difficult because trees may display species-specific responses to exaggerated droughts that may not be reflected by the climatic envelope of their geographic range. Furthermore, few studies have examined the postdrought recovery potential of drought-susceptible tree species. This study develops a robust ranking of the drought susceptibility of 21 tree species based on their mortality after two droughts (1990s and 2000s) in the savanna of north-eastern Australia. Drought-induced mortality was positively related to species dominance, negatively related to the ratio of postdrought seedlings to adults and had no relationship to the magnitude of extreme drought within the species current geographic ranges. These results suggest that predicting the consequences of exaggerated drought on species' geographic ranges is difficult, but that dominant species like Eucalyptus with relatively slow rates of population recovery and dispersal are the most susceptible. The implications for savanna ecosystems are lower tree densities and basal area.

  10. Does High Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption Prevent HAPE in Individuals with Exaggerated Pulmonary Hypertension in Hypoxia?

    PubMed

    Betz, Theresa; Dehnert, Christoph; Bärtsch, Peter; Schommer, Kai; Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2015-12-01

    An exaggerated increase in pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PAsP) is a highlight of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). However, the incidence of HAPE at 4559 m was much lower in altitude-naïve individuals with exaggerated pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in normobaric hypoxia than in known HAPE-susceptibles, indicating that elevated PAsP alone is insufficient to induce HAPE. A decreased nasal potential difference (NPD) has been found in HAPE-susceptibles, where, based on animal models, NPD serves as surrogate of alveolar epithelial ion transport. We hypothesize that those HAPE-resistant individuals with high HPV may be protected by elevated alveolar Na and fluid reabsorption, which might be detected as increased NPD. To test this hypothesis, we measured NPD in normoxia of subjects who were phenotyped in previous studies as high altitude tolerant (controls), known HAPE-susceptibles with high HPV (HP+HAPE), as well as individuals with high HPV but without HAPE (HP-no-HAPE) at 4559 m. NPD and amiloride-sensitive NPD were lower in HP+HAPE than in controls, whereas HP-no-HAPE were not different from either group. There were no differences in Cl-transport between groups. Our results show low nasal ion transport in HAPE but higher transport in those individuals with the highest HPV but without HAPE. This indicates that in some individuals with high PAsP at high altitude high alveolar fluid reabsorption might protect them from HAPE.

  11. Small polaron formation in porous WO3-x nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, J.; Hoel, A.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2004-11-01

    Porous tungsten oxide nanoparticle films were prepared by reactive gas evaporation. The structure was studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and the oxygen nonstoichiometry was inferred by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and neutron scattering. Specifically, the films consisted of WO3-x with 0.25

  12. Inhibition of phosphoinositol 3 kinase contributes to nanoparticle-mediated exaggeration of endotoxin-induced leukocyte procoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Man, Sonny; Patri, Anil K; Clogston, Jeffrey D; Crist, Rachael M; Cachau, Raul E; McNeil, Scott E; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Aim Disseminated intravascular coagulation is an increasing concern for certain types of engineered nanomaterials. Recent studies have shed some light on the nanoparticle physicochemical properties contributing to this toxicity; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Leukocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) is a key factor contributing to the initiation of this toxicity. We have previously reported on the exaggeration of endotoxin-induced PCA by cationic dendrimers. Herein, we report an effort to discern the mechanism. Materials & methods Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with various sizes and surface functionalities were studied in vitro by the recalcification test, flow cytometry and other relevant assays. Results & conclusion Cationic dendrimers exaggerated endotoxin-induced PCA, but their anionic or neutral counterparts did not; the cationic charge prompts this phenomenon, but different cationic surface chemistries do not influence it. Cationic dendrimers and endotoxin differentially affect the PCA complex. The inhibition of phosphoinositol 3 kinase by dendrimers contributes to the exaggeration of the endotoxin-induced PCA. PMID:24279459

  13. The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated male cranial shapes in Anolis lizards

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Thomas J.; Seav, Susan M.; Tokita, Masayoshi; Langerhans, R. Brian; Ross, Lela M.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms vary widely among species. This variation must arise through sex-specific evolutionary modifications to developmental processes. Anolis lizards vary extensively in their expression of cranial dimorphism. Compared with other Anolis species, members of the carolinensis clade have evolved relatively high levels of cranial dimorphism; males of this clade have exceptionally long faces relative to conspecific females. Developmentally, this facial length dimorphism arises through an evolutionarily novel, clade-specific strategy. Our analyses herein reveal that sex-specific regulation of the oestrogen pathway underlies evolution of this exaggerated male phenotype, rather than the androgen or insulin growth factor pathways that have long been considered the primary regulators of male-biased dimorphism among vertebrates. Our results suggest greater intricacy in the genetic mechanisms that underlie sexual dimorphisms than previously appreciated. PMID:24741020

  14. A general test of self-control theory: has its importance been exaggerated?

    PubMed

    Cretacci, Michael A

    2008-10-01

    Self-control theory has been tested for 2 decades. However, mixed results and measurement problems have made it difficult to ascertain its true utility. This study addresses recent concerns and includes variables such as risk, consequences, criminal opportunity, an interaction term, and bond controls in one complete test. It also addresses self-control's ability to explain different forms of crime and whether the support that it has garnered has been exaggerated. Results of both cross-sectional and semilongitudinal tests indicate that self-control significantly predicts a higher probability of involvement in property and drug crime but is virtually silent in its ability to explain violence. Furthermore, it can be tentatively stated that support for the theory wanes over time. Finally, neglected concepts such as opportunity, risk, consequences, and bond controls may be important to the theory's ability to explain crime, and further negligence of these concepts may hamper a true understanding of its impact.

  15. The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated male cranial shapes in Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Thomas J; Seav, Susan M; Tokita, Masayoshi; Langerhans, R Brian; Ross, Lela M; Losos, Jonathan B; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2014-06-07

    Sexual dimorphisms vary widely among species. This variation must arise through sex-specific evolutionary modifications to developmental processes. Anolis lizards vary extensively in their expression of cranial dimorphism. Compared with other Anolis species, members of the carolinensis clade have evolved relatively high levels of cranial dimorphism; males of this clade have exceptionally long faces relative to conspecific females. Developmentally, this facial length dimorphism arises through an evolutionarily novel, clade-specific strategy. Our analyses herein reveal that sex-specific regulation of the oestrogen pathway underlies evolution of this exaggerated male phenotype, rather than the androgen or insulin growth factor pathways that have long been considered the primary regulators of male-biased dimorphism among vertebrates. Our results suggest greater intricacy in the genetic mechanisms that underlie sexual dimorphisms than previously appreciated.

  16. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cian-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives.

  17. Exaggerated sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nan; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic and pressor responses to exercise are exaggerated in hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain to be fully elucidated. Central command, a neural drive originating in higher brain centers, is known to activate cardiovascular and locomotor control circuits concomitantly. As such, it is a viable candidate for the generation of the augmented vascular response to exercise in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in central command function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. To test this hypothesis, changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20–50 μA in 10-μA steps evoking fictive locomotion), a putative component of the central command pathway, were examined in decerebrate, paralyzed normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Tibial nerve discharge during MLR stimulation significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner in both WKY and SHR but was not different between groups. Stimulation of the MLR evoked significantly larger increases in RSNA and MAP with increasing stimulation intensity in both groups. Importantly, the increases in sympathetic and pressor responses to this fictive locomotion were significantly greater in SHR compared with WKY across all stimulation intensities (e.g., at 50 μA, ΔRSNA: WKY 153±31%, SHR 287±42%; ΔMAP: WKY 87±9 mmHg, SHR 139±7 mmHg). These findings provide the first evidence that central command may be a critical contributor to the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in hypertension. PMID:26545711

  18. Genotoxicity testing of peptides: Folate deprivation as a marker of exaggerated pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Guérard, Melanie Zeller, Andreas; Festag, Matthias; Schubert, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz

    2014-09-15

    The incidence of micronucleated-cells is considered to be a marker of a genotoxic event and can be caused by direct- or indirect-DNA reactive mechanisms. In particular, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei, which are not associated with toxicity in the target tissue or any structurally altering properties of the compound, trigger the suspicion that an indirect mechanism could be at play. In a bone marrow micronucleus test of a synthetic peptide (a dual agonist of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors) that had been integrated into a regulatory 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study in the rat, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei had been observed, together with pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain. Because it is well established that folate plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic integrity and pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain were observed, folate levels were determined from plasma samples initially collected for toxicokinetic analytics. A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident after 4 weeks of treatment at the mid and high dose levels, persisted until the end of the treatment duration of 13-weeks and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period of 4 weeks. Based on these properties, and the fact that the compound tested (peptide) per se is not expected to reach the nucleus and cause DNA damage, the rationale is supported that the elevated incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes is directly linked to the exaggerated pharmacology of the compound resulting in a decreased folate level. - Highlights: • A synthetic peptide has been evaluated for potential genotoxicity • Small increases in an integrated (13-weeks) micronucleus test were observed • Further, animals had a pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain • A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident from week 4 onwards • Elevated micronuclei-incidence due to the

  19. Exaggerated sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nan; Mitchell, Jere H; Smith, Scott A; Mizuno, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The sympathetic and pressor responses to exercise are exaggerated in hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain to be fully elucidated. Central command, a neural drive originating in higher brain centers, is known to activate cardiovascular and locomotor control circuits concomitantly. As such, it is a viable candidate for the generation of the augmented vascular response to exercise in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in central command function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. To test this hypothesis, changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20-50 μA in 10-μA steps evoking fictive locomotion), a putative component of the central command pathway, were examined in decerebrate, paralyzed normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Tibial nerve discharge during MLR stimulation significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner in both WKY and SHR but was not different between groups. Stimulation of the MLR evoked significantly larger increases in RSNA and MAP with increasing stimulation intensity in both groups. Importantly, the increases in sympathetic and pressor responses to this fictive locomotion were significantly greater in SHR compared with WKY across all stimulation intensities (e.g., at 50 μA, ΔRSNA: WKY 153 ± 31%, SHR 287 ± 42%; ΔMAP: WKY 87 ± 9 mmHg, SHR 139 ± 7 mmHg). These findings provide the first evidence that central command may be a critical contributor to the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in hypertension.

  20. Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Huber, Domitila A; Schreihofer, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity leads to altered autonomic reflexes that reduce stability of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sympathoinhibitory reflexes such as baroreflexes are impaired, but reflexes that raise MAP appear to be augmented. In obese Zucker rats (OZR) sciatic nerve stimulation evokes larger increases in MAP by unknown mechanisms. We sought to determine the autonomic underpinnings of this enhanced somatic pressor reflex and whether other sympathoexcitatory reflexes are augmented. We also determined whether their final common pathway, glutamatergic activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), was enhanced in male OZR compared with lean Zucker rats (LZR). Sciatic nerve stimulation or activation of the nasopharyngeal reflex evoked larger rises in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) (79% and 45% larger in OZR, respectively; P < 0.05) and MAP in urethane-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed adult OZR compared with LZR. After elimination of baroreflex feedback by pharmacological prevention of changes in MAP and heart rate, these two sympathoexcitatory reflexes were still exaggerated in OZR (167% and 69% larger, respectively, P < 0.05). In adult OZR microinjections of glutamate, AMPA, or NMDA into the RVLM produced larger rises in SNA (∼61% larger in OZR, P < 0.05 for each drug) and MAP, but stimulation of axonal fibers in the upper thoracic spinal cord yielded equivalent responses in OZR and LZR. In juvenile OZR and LZR, sympathoexcitatory reflexes and physiological responses to RVLM activation were comparable. These data suggest that the ability of glutamate to activate the RVLM becomes enhanced in adult OZR and may contribute to the development of exaggerated sympathoexcitatory responses independent of impaired baroreflexes.

  1. Diet choice exaggerates food hoarding, intake and pup survival across reproduction.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Mintz, Eric M; Bartness, Timothy J

    Siberian hamsters increase food intake and hoarding during pregnancy and lactation, perhaps to compensate for large decreases in body fat (approximately 50%). We tested the effects of diet choice on these responses in pregnant, lactating and virgin hamsters housed in a simulated burrow system. Hamsters were offered pellet chow (PC) or a choice of sunflower seeds (SS), rabbit chow (RC) and PC. Pregnant or lactating PC-fed hamsters had increased food intake and hoard size compared with virgins, effects exaggerated by diet self-selection. The pregnancy-induced increases and lactation-induced decreases in body mass were enhanced and diminished by diet self-selection, respectively. Pregnant self-selecting hamsters ate relatively more carbohydrate and less fat and hoarded less carbohydrate and more fat than their virgin counterparts (protein not affected). Lactating and virgin self-selecting hamsters both ate and hoarded relatively more carbohydrate than protein or fat compared with PC-fed hamsters but were not different from each other. Litter and pup sizes were similar at birth, but pups from self-selecting mothers had decreased lipid content (50%) compared with pups from PC-fed mothers, whereas at weaning they were heavier but not fatter. Only lactating PC-fed mothers cannibalized their pups (approximately 60% eaten, 8/10 litters). The pregnancy-induced increased eating and hoarding of carbohydrate may have helped meet immediate energy needs sparing dwindling lipid reserves, whereas the decreased fetal lipid investment may have helped conserve energy in anticipation of the increased demands of lactation. The diet-induced exaggerated caloric intake and food hoard size of lactating hamsters may have promoted pup growth and survival.

  2. Detecting Symptom Exaggeration in Combat Veterans Using the MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scales: A Mixed Group Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.; Steenkamp, Maria M.; Marx, Brian P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2010-01-01

    Although validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) have proven useful in the detection of symptom exaggeration in criterion-group validation (CGV) studies, usually comparing instructed feigners with known patient groups, the…

  3. Mechanism of exaggerated natriuresis in hypertensive man: impaired sodium transport in the loop of henle

    PubMed Central

    Buckalew, Vardaman M.; Puschett, Jules B.; Kintzel, James E.; Goldberg, Martin

    1969-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of saline loading on distal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive man, studies were performed during both water deprivation and water diuresis in eight hypertensive subjects, and the results were compared to data obtained from similar studies in normal subjects. All hypertensive patients exhibited an enhanced excretion of filtered sodium (CNa/CIn) at any level of distal delivery of sodium compared to normal controls. Free water reabsorption (TcH2O) during hypertonic saline loading was quantitatively abnormal in the hypertensives at high levels of osmolar clearance (COsm), and also the curve of TcH2O vs. COsm leveled off above a COsm of 18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the hypertensive group in contrast to the normal controls in whom TcH2O showed no evidence of achieving an upper limit. Sodium depletion exaggerated the abnormality in TcH2O in hypertensives, and resulted in a positive free water clearance (CH2O) during hydropenia. During hypotonic saline loading in water diuresis, changes in free water clearance per 100 ml of glomerular filtrate (CH2O/CIn) were less at any given increment in urine flow per 100 ml of glomerular filtrate (V/CIn) in the hypertensives compared to normal controls (P < 0.001). This abnormality in CH2O/CIn in the hypertensives in conjunction with the defect in TcH2O observed during hydropenia indicates that sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle was abnormal at any given rate of distal delivery of sodium in hypertension. Furthermore, these abnormalities in TcH2O and CH2O coincided temporally with the development of the exaggerated natriuresis. Although the distal defect in sodium transport, in large part, accounted for the augmented natriuresis in hypertension, evidence was present also for enhanced rejection of sodium in the proximal tubule during saline loading in the hypertensives. Additional studies utilizing acetazolamide which increases distal delivery of sodium without extracellular fluid volume expansion showed only

  4. Glutamatergic receptor dysfunction in spinal cord contributes to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han-Jun; Cahoon, Rebecca; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P.

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory amino acids (e.g., glutamate) released by contraction-activated skeletal muscle afferents into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord initiate the central component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) in physiological conditions. However, the role of glutamate and glutamate receptors in mediating the exaggerated EPR in the chronic heart failure (CHF) state remains to be determined. In the present study, we performed microinjection of glutamate receptor antagonists into ipisilateral L4/L5 dorsal horns to investigate their effects on the pressor response to static contraction induced by stimulation of the peripheral end of L4/L5 ventral roots in decerebrate sham-operated (sham) and CHF rats. Microinjection of glutamate (10 mM, 100 nl) into the L4 or L5 dorsal horn caused a greater pressor response in CHF rats compared with sham rats. Furthermore, microinjection of either the broad-spectrum glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenate (10 mM, 100 nl) or the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50 mM, 100 nl) or the non-NMDA-sensitive receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (5 mM, 100 nl) into L4/5 dorsal horns decreased the pressor response to static contraction in CHF rats to a greater extent than in sham rats. Molecular evidence showed that the protein expression of glutamate receptors (both non-NMDA and NMDA) was elevated in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in CHF rats. In addition, data from microdialysis experiments demonstrated that although basal glutamate release at the dorsal horn at rest was similar between sham and CHF rats (225 ± 50 vs. 260 ± 63 nM in sham vs. CHF rats, n = 4, P > 0.05), CHF rats exhibit greater glutamate release into the dorsal horn during muscle contraction compared with sham rats (549 ± 60 vs. 980 ± 65 nM in sham vs. CHF rats, n = 4, P < 0.01). These data indicate that the spinal glutamate system contributes to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state. PMID

  5. The nature of allometry in an exaggerated trait: The postocular flange in Platyneuromus Weele (Insecta: Megaloptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés; Garfias-Lozano, Gabriela; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano

    2017-01-01

    The origin and function of exaggerated traits exhibited by a great number of species with sexual dimorphism remain largely unexplored. The usual model considered as the evolutionary mechanism for the development of these structures is sexual selection. The nature of growth of the postocular flange (POF) in three species of the dobsonfly genus Platyneuromus (Megaloptera, Corydalidae, Corydalinae) is analyzed to explore sexual size dimorphism and allometric scaling. Results involve positive allometry of POF in males of two species, and negative allometry in males of one species, in general with a female-biased sexual dimorphism. We suggest an ancestral condition of dual incipient ornamentation in Platyneuromus, with a subsequent departure of size and shape of POF in males, triggered by sexual selection. Different sexual selection intensities may explain the parallel or divergent growth of POF within the scheme of dual ornamentation. Empirical behavioral data as well as a phylogenetic framework are necessary to clarify possible causes of phenotypic development, time of origin, and evolution of the POF. PMID:28212437

  6. Volitional exaggeration of body size through fundamental and formant frequency modulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Mora, Emanuel C.; Pisanski, Annette; Reby, David; Sorokowski, Piotr; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Feinberg, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Several mammalian species scale their voice fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies in competitive and mating contexts, reducing vocal tract and laryngeal allometry thereby exaggerating apparent body size. Although humans’ rare capacity to volitionally modulate these same frequencies is thought to subserve articulated speech, the potential function of voice frequency modulation in human nonverbal communication remains largely unexplored. Here, the voices of 167 men and women from Canada, Cuba, and Poland were recorded in a baseline condition and while volitionally imitating a physically small and large body size. Modulation of F0, formant spacing (∆F), and apparent vocal tract length (VTL) were measured using Praat. Our results indicate that men and women spontaneously and systemically increased VTL and decreased F0 to imitate a large body size, and reduced VTL and increased F0 to imitate small size. These voice modulations did not differ substantially across cultures, indicating potentially universal sound-size correspondences or anatomical and biomechanical constraints on voice modulation. In each culture, men generally modulated their voices (particularly formants) more than did women. This latter finding could help to explain sexual dimorphism in F0 and formants that is currently unaccounted for by sexual dimorphism in human vocal anatomy and body size. PMID:27687571

  7. Justice is not blind: visual attention exaggerates effects of group identification on legal punishment.

    PubMed

    Granot, Yael; Balcetis, Emily; Schneider, Kristin E; Tyler, Tom R

    2014-12-01

    Why do some people demand harsher legal punishments than do others after viewing the same video evidence? We predict that inconsistent patterns of punishment decisions can be reconciled by considering the simultaneous effects of social group identification and visual attention. We tested 2 competing predictions--the attention unites and attention divides hypotheses--to understand whether visual attention exaggerates or eliminates differences in legal decision making as a function of social identification with outgroups. We measured social identification with police (Studies 1a, 1b) or manipulated identification with a novel outgroup (Study 2). Participants watched videos depicting physical altercations in which the targets' culpability was ambiguous. We surreptitiously tracked (Studies 1a, 2) or manipulated (Study 1b) visual attention to outgroup targets. Results support the attention divides hypothesis. Among participants who fixated frequently on outgroup targets, prior identification influenced punishment decisions. This relationship did not emerge among participants who fixated infrequently on the target. Subjective interpretations of and accurate recall for targets' actions mediated the relationship between identification and attention on punishment. We discuss implications for bias in legal decision making and policy.

  8. Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure.

  9. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  10. Exaggerated allometric structures in relation to demographic and ecological parameters in Lucanus cervus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Romiti, Federico; Tini, Massimiliano; Redolfi De Zan, Lara; Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M

    2015-10-01

    Enlarged weapons and ornamental traits under sexual selection often show a positive allometric relationship with the overall body size. The present study explores the allometry of mandibles and their supporting structure, the head, in males of the European stag beetle, Lucanus cervus. This species shows a remarkable dimorphism in mandible shape and size that are used by males in intraspecific combats. Stag beetles were captured, measured, weighed, and released in the framework of a capture-mark-recapture study. The relationship of mandible length (ML) and head width in respect to the overall body size was described by a segmented regression model. A linear relationship was detected between ML and head width. The scaling relationships for both ML and head width identified the same switchpoint, highlighting the advantages of using combined results of weapons and their supporting structures in such analysis. These results led to a more consistent distinction of males in two morphologies: minor and major. The survival probability of individuals was dependent on the morphological class and was higher for minor males than for major. Elytron length and body mass of the individuals did not show any significant variation during the season. Differences in predatory pressure were detected between morphs by the collection and analysis of body fragments due to the predatory activity of corvids. Morphological differences and shift in demographic and ecological parameters between the two classes suggested that selection continues to favor intrasexual dimorphism in this species throughout a trade-off mechanism between costs and benefits of carrying exaggerated traits.

  11. The nature of allometry in an exaggerated trait: The postocular flange in Platyneuromus Weele (Insecta: Megaloptera).

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés; Garfias-Lozano, Gabriela; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano

    2017-01-01

    The origin and function of exaggerated traits exhibited by a great number of species with sexual dimorphism remain largely unexplored. The usual model considered as the evolutionary mechanism for the development of these structures is sexual selection. The nature of growth of the postocular flange (POF) in three species of the dobsonfly genus Platyneuromus (Megaloptera, Corydalidae, Corydalinae) is analyzed to explore sexual size dimorphism and allometric scaling. Results involve positive allometry of POF in males of two species, and negative allometry in males of one species, in general with a female-biased sexual dimorphism. We suggest an ancestral condition of dual incipient ornamentation in Platyneuromus, with a subsequent departure of size and shape of POF in males, triggered by sexual selection. Different sexual selection intensities may explain the parallel or divergent growth of POF within the scheme of dual ornamentation. Empirical behavioral data as well as a phylogenetic framework are necessary to clarify possible causes of phenotypic development, time of origin, and evolution of the POF.

  12. Exaggerated blood pressure response during the exercise treadmill test as a risk factor for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lima, S.G.; Albuquerque, M.F.P.M.; Oliveira, J.R.M.; Ayres, C.F.J.; Cunha, J.E.G.; Oliveira, D.F.; Lemos, R.R.; Souza, M.B.R.; Silva, O. Barbosa e

    2013-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) during the exercise treadmill test (ETT) has been considered to be a risk factor for hypertension. The relationship of polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system gene with hypertension has not been established. Our objective was to evaluate whether EBPR during exercise is a clinical marker for hypertension. The study concerned a historical cohort of normotensive individuals. The exposed individuals were those who presented EBPR. At the end of the observation period (41.7 months = 3.5 years), the development of hypertension was analyzed within the two groups. Genetic polymorphisms and blood pressure behavior were assessed as independent variables, together with the classical risk factors for hypertension. The I/D gene polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme and M235T of angiotensinogen were ruled out as risk factors for hypertension. EBPR during ETT is not an independent influence on the chances of developing hypertension. No differences were observed between the hypertensive and normotensive individuals regarding gender (P = 0.655), skin color (P = 0.636), family history of hypertension (P = 0.225), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.285), or hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.734). The risk of developing hypertension increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) and advancing age. The risk factors, which independently influenced the development of hypertension, were age and BMI. EBPR did not constitute an independent risk factor for hypertension and is probably a preclinical phase in the spectrum of normotension and hypertension. PMID:23598646

  13. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-02-09

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system.

  14. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  15. CXCR2 deficient mice display macrophage-dependent exaggerated acute inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Douglas P.; Pallas, Kenneth; Ruiz, Laura Medina; Schuette, Fabian; Wilson, Gillian J.; Graham, Gerard J.

    2017-01-01

    CXCR2 is an essential regulator of neutrophil recruitment to inflamed and damaged sites and plays prominent roles in inflammatory pathologies and cancer. It has therefore been highlighted as an important therapeutic target. However the success of the therapeutic targeting of CXCR2 is threatened by our relative lack of knowledge of its precise in vivo mode of action. Here we demonstrate that CXCR2-deficient mice display a counterintuitive transient exaggerated inflammatory response to cutaneous and peritoneal inflammatory stimuli. In both situations, this is associated with reduced expression of cytokines associated with the resolution of the inflammatory response and an increase in macrophage accumulation at inflamed sites. Analysis using neutrophil depletion strategies indicates that this is a consequence of impaired recruitment of a non-neutrophilic CXCR2 positive leukocyte population. We suggest that these cells may be myeloid derived suppressor cells. Our data therefore reveal novel and previously unanticipated roles for CXCR2 in the orchestration of the inflammatory response. PMID:28205614

  16. Swim stress exaggerates the hyperactive mesocortical dopamine system in a rodent model of autism.

    PubMed

    Nakasato, Akane; Nakatani, Yasushi; Seki, Yoshinari; Tsujino, Naohisa; Umino, Masahiro; Arita, Hideho

    2008-02-08

    Several clinical reports have suggested that there is a hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system in people with autism. Using rats exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) as an animal model of autism, we measured dopamine (DA) levels in samples collected from the frontal cortex (FC) using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. The basal DA level in FC was significantly higher in VPA-exposed rats relative to controls. Since the mesocortical DA system is known to be sensitive to physical and psychological stressors, we measured DA levels in FC before, during, and after a 60-min forced swim test (FST). There were further gradual increases in FC DA levels during the FST in the VPA-exposed rats, but not in the control rats. Behavioral analysis during the last 10 min of the FST revealed a significant decrease in active, escape-oriented behavior and an increase in immobility, which is thought to reflect the development of depressive behavior that disengages the animal from active forms of coping with stressful stimuli. These results suggest that this rodent model of autism exhibits a hyperactive mesocortical DA system, which is exaggerated by swim stress. This abnormality may be responsible for depressive and withdrawal behavior observed in autism.

  17. Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD.

  18. The ATP-Dependent RNA Helicase DDX3X Modulates Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Khadivjam, Bita; Stegen, Camille; Hogue-Racine, Marc-Aurèle; El Bilali, Nabil; Döhner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Lippé, Roger

    2017-04-15

    The human protein DDX3X is a DEAD box ATP-dependent RNA helicase that regulates transcription, mRNA maturation, and mRNA export and translation. DDX3X concomitantly modulates the replication of several RNA viruses and promotes innate immunity. We previously showed that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a human DNA virus, incorporates DDX3X into its mature particles and that DDX3X is required for optimal HSV-1 infectivity. Here, we show that viral gene expression, replication, and propagation depend on optimal DDX3X protein levels. Surprisingly, DDX3X from incoming viral particles was not required for the early stages of the HSV-1 infection, but, rather, the protein controlled the assembly of new viral particles. This was independent of the previously reported ability of DDX3X to stimulate interferon type I production. Instead, both the lack and overexpression of DDX3X disturbed viral gene transcription and thus subsequent genome replication. This suggests that in addition to its effect on RNA viruses, DDX3X impacts DNA viruses such as HSV-1 by an interferon-independent pathway.IMPORTANCE Viruses interact with a variety of cellular proteins to complete their life cycle. Among them is DDX3X, an RNA helicase that participates in most aspects of RNA biology, including transcription, splicing, nuclear export, and translation. Several RNA viruses and a limited number of DNA viruses are known to manipulate DDX3X for their own benefit. In contrast, DDX3X is also known to promote interferon production to limit viral propagation. Here, we show that DDX3X, which we previously identified in mature HSV-1 virions, stimulates HSV-1 gene expression and, consequently, virion assembly by a process that is independent of its ability to promote the interferon pathway.

  19. The genetic and developmental basis of an exaggerated craniofacial trait in East African cichlids.

    PubMed

    Concannon, Moira R; Albertson, R Craig

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of an exaggerated trait can lead to a novel morphology that allows organisms to exploit new niches. The molecular bases of such phenotypes can reveal insights into the evolution of unique traits. Here, we investigate a rare morphological innovation in modern haplochromine cichlids, a flap of fibrous tissue that causes a pronounced projection of the snout, which is limited to a single genus (Labeotropheus) of Lake Malawi cichlids. We compare flap size in our focal species L. fuelleborni (LF) to homologous landmarks in other closely related cichlid species that show a range of ecological overlap with LF, and demonstrate that variation in flap size is discontinuous among Malawi cichlid species. We demonstrate further that flap development in LF begins at early juvenile stages, and scales allometrically with body size. We then used an F2 hybrid mapping population, derived via crossing LF to a close ecological competitor that lacks this trait, Tropheops "red cheek" (TRC), to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that underlie flap development. In all, we identified four loci associated with variation in flap size, and for each the LF allele contributed to a larger flap. We next cross-referenced our QTL map with population genomic data, comparing natural populations of LF and TRC, to identify divergent polymorphisms within each QTL interval. Candidate genes for flap development are discussed. Together, these data indicate a relatively simple and tractable genetic basis for this morphological innovation, which is consistent with its apparently sudden and saltatory evolutionary history. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 662-670, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Inadvertent exaggerated anticoagulation following use of bismuth subsalicylate in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Angela L; Brown, Rex O; Dickerson, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of an inadvertent increase in the international normalized ratio (INR) after the addition of bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of diarrhea in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy. A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple lower extremity fractures. Warfarin was initiated for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis due to the patient's inability to ambulate. The target INR was 2-3. Continuous intragastric enteral feeding was withheld 1 hour before and 1 hour after intragastric administration of warfarin. Bismuth subsalicylate 30 mL every 4 hours was prescribed for diarrhea. Within 3 days after starting bismuth subsalicylate therapy, the patient's INR increased from 2.56 to 3.54 and minor bleeding was noted from the patient's tracheostomy site. No significant change in warfarin dosage, variability in vitamin K intake, or medications that potentially alter warfarin metabolism were present during the unexpected rise in INR. When the bismuth subsalicylate was discontinued, the patient's INR stabilized into the target range on the same warfarin dose given at the time of the supratherapeutic INR. Salicylate displaces warfarin from plasma protein binding sites and may result in a significant increase in INR secondary to redistribution of warfarin to the free active form. Evaluation of this case report using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale and Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale yielded scores consistent with a probable adverse drug interaction. Bismuth subsalicylate exaggerates warfarin's anticoagulant response and its concurrent use during warfarin therapy should be avoided.

  1. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    PubMed Central

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  2. Progranulin protects against exaggerated axonal injury and astrogliosis following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Lutz; Kleber, Lisa; Friedrich, Carina; Hummel, Regina; Dangel, Larissa; Winter, Jennifer; Schmitz, Katja; Tegeder, Irmgard; Schäfer, Michael K E

    2017-02-01

    In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) microglia/macrophages and astrocytes release inflammatory mediators with dual effects on secondary brain damage progression. The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we studied histopathology, neurology and gene expression of inflammatory markers in PGRN-deficient mice (Grn(-/-) ) 24 h and 5 days after experimental TBI. Grn(-/-) mice displayed increased perilesional axonal injury even though the overall brain tissue loss and neurological consequences were similar to wild-type mice. Brain inflammation was elevated in Grn(-/-) mice as reflected by increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and decreased transcription of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. However, numbers of Iba1(+) microglia/macrophages and immigrated CD45(+) leukocytes were similar at perilesional sites while determination of IgG extravasation suggested stronger impairment of blood brain barrier integrity in Grn(-/-) compared to wild-type mice. Most strikingly, Grn(-/-) mice displayed exaggerated astrogliosis 5 days after TBI as demonstrated by anti-GFAP immunohistochemistry and immunoblot. GFAP(+) astrocytes at perilesional sites were immunolabelled for iNOS and TNFα suggesting that pro-inflammatory activation of astrocytes was attenuated by PGRN. Accordingly, recombinant PGRN (rPGRN) attenuated LPS- and cytokine-evoked iNOS and TNFα mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of rPGRN immediately before trauma reduced brain damage and neurological deficits, and restored normal levels of cytokine transcription, axonal injury and astrogliosis 5 days after TBI in Grn(-/-) mice. Our results show that endogenous and recombinant PGRN limit axonal injury and astrogliosis and suggest therapeutic potential of PGRN in TBI. GLIA 2017;65:278-292.

  3. Residual force depression following muscle shortening is exaggerated by prior eccentric drop jump exercise.

    PubMed

    Dargeviciute, Gintare; Masiulis, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2013-10-15

    We studied the relation between two common force modifications in skeletal muscle: the prolonged force depression induced by unaccustomed eccentric contractions, and the residual force depression (rFD) observed immediately after active shortening. We hypothesized that rFD originates from distortion within the sarcomeres and the extent of rFD: 1) correlates to the force and work performed during the shortening steps, which depend on sarcomeric integrity; and 2) is increased by sarcomeric disorganization induced by eccentric contractions. Nine healthy untrained men (mean age 26 yr) participated in the study. rFD was studied in electrically stimulated knee extensor muscles. rFD was defined as the reduction in isometric torque after active shortening compared with the torque in a purely isometric contraction. Eccentric contractions were performed as 50 repeated drop jumps with active deceleration to 90° knee angle, immediately followed by a maximal upward jump. rFD was assessed before and 5 min to 72 h after drop jumps. The series of drop jumps caused a prolonged force depression, which was about two times larger at 20-Hz than at 50-Hz stimulation. There was a significant correlation between increasing rFD and increasing mechanical work performed during active shortening both before and after drop jumps. In addition, a given rFD was obtained at a markedly lower mechanical work after drop jumps. In conclusion, the extent of rFD correlates to the mechanical work performed during active shortening. A series of eccentric contractions causes a prolonged reduction of isometric force. In addition, eccentric contractions exaggerate rFD, which further decreases muscle performance during dynamic contractions.

  4. Studies on the exaggerated natriuretic response to a saline infusion in the hypothyroid rat

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Edward W.; DiScala, Vincent A.

    1970-01-01

    The exaggerated natriuresis of hypothyroid rats receiving a 5% saline infusion was studied to determine the mechanism and the site within the nephron responsible for this increase in sodium excretion. Sodium clearance (CNa) and fractional sodium excretion were both demonstrated to be greater in hypothyroid rats for any amount of sodium infused. The rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion in response to saline loading was 3.4 times greater in hypothyroid animals. At the conclusion of the diuresis some of the hypothyroid animals excreted greater than 45% of the filtered sodium load, while no control animal excreted more than 12% of the filtered sodium load. The mean clearance of insulin during the saline diuresis was 36.6% lower (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. D-Aldosterone given to hypothyroid animals 3 hr before the experiment did not alter the magnitude or rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion. Inulin space determinations in nephrectomized rats revealed that extracellular fluid volume was contracted by 17.1% in the hypothyroid rats (P < 0.01). Plasma sodium was not significantly different in hypothyroid and control animals. A limit on solute free water reabsorption (TeH2O) per osmolar clearance (COsm) was demonstrated in the hypothyroid rats when these animals excreted greater than 12% of the filtered osmotic load. The limit on TeH2O formation was associated with an acceleration in the rate of sodium excretion and a decline in the rate of potassium excretion. Early in the diuresis when COsm, CNa, and TeH2O were comparable in hypothyroid and control rats, the filtered sodium load was 31% lower (P < 0.01) in the hypothyroid animals. These findings indicate that diminished thyroid hormone activity decreases renal sodium reabsorptive capacity. Indirect evidence suggests that the distal and possibly the proximal tubules are the sites of this diminished sodium reabsorption in hypothyroid animals. PMID:5422024

  5. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation.

  6. Clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory validity scales to screen for symptom exaggeration following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (p<.001) on the Validity-10, NIM5, LOW6, NSI total, and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) clinical scales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration.

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure and Doppler echocardiographic indexes of borderline hypertensive men presenting an exaggerated blood pressure response during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Herkenhoff, F L; Vasquez, E C; Mill, J G; Lima, E G

    2001-10-01

    Borderline hypertension (BH) has been associated with an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response during laboratory stressors. However, the incidence of target organ damage in this condition and its relation to BP hyperreactivity is an unsettled issue. Thus, we assessed the Doppler echocardiographic profile of a group of BH men (N = 36) according to office BP measurements with exaggerated BP in the cycloergometric test. A group of normotensive men (NT, N = 36) with a normal BP response during the cycloergometric test was used as control. To assess vascular function and reactivity, all subjects were submitted to the cold pressor test. Before Doppler echocardiography, the BP profile of all subjects was evaluated by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. All subjects from the NT group presented normal monitored levels of BP. In contrast, 19 subjects from the original BH group presented normal monitored BP levels and 17 presented elevated monitored BP levels. In the NT group all Doppler echocardiographic indexes were normal. All subjects from the original BH group presented normal left ventricular mass and geometrical pattern. However, in the subjects with elevated monitored BP levels, fractional shortening was greater, isovolumetric relaxation time longer, and early to late flow velocity ratio was reduced in relation to subjects from the original BH group with normal monitored BP levels (P<0.05). These subjects also presented an exaggerated BP response during the cold pressor test. These results support the notion of an integrated pattern of cardiac and vascular adaptation during the development of hypertension.

  8. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles and Metabolic Pathways in the Amygdala Associated with Exaggerated Fear in an Animal Model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Li, Xin; Smerin, Stanley E.; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Min; Xing, Guoqiang; Su, Yan A.; Wen, Jillian; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic mechanisms underlying the development of exaggerated fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well defined. In the present study, alteration in the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function in the amygdala of an animal model of PTSD was determined. Amygdala tissue samples were excised from 10 non-stressed control rats and 10 stressed rats, 14 days post-stress treatment. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined using a cDNA microarray. During the development of the exaggerated fear associated with PTSD, 48 genes were found to be significantly upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated in the amygdala complex based on stringent criteria (p < 0.01). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed up- or downregulation in the amygdala complex of four signaling networks – one associated with inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, one with immune mediators and metabolism, one with transcriptional factors, and one with chromatin remodeling. Thus, informatics of a neuronal gene array allowed us to determine the expression profile of mitochondrial genes in the amygdala complex of an animal model of PTSD. The result is a further understanding of the metabolic and neuronal signaling mechanisms associated with delayed and exaggerated fear. PMID:25295026

  9. Cancer-associated DDX3X mutations drive stress granule assembly and impair global translation

    PubMed Central

    Valentin-Vega, Yasmine A.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Parker, Matthew; Patmore, Deanna M.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Moore, Jennifer; Rusch, Michael; Finkelstein, David; Ellison, David W.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Zhang, Jinghui; Kim, Hong Joo; Taylor, J. Paul

    2016-01-01

    DDX3X is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that has been implicated in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism including translation initiation and the assembly of stress granules (SGs). Recent genomic studies have reported recurrent DDX3X mutations in numerous tumors including medulloblastoma (MB), but the physiological impact of these mutations is poorly understood. Here we show that a consistent feature of MB-associated mutations is SG hyper-assembly and concomitant translation impairment. We used CLIP-seq to obtain a comprehensive assessment of DDX3X binding targets and ribosome profiling for high-resolution assessment of global translation. Surprisingly, mutant DDX3X expression caused broad inhibition of translation that impacted DDX3X targeted and non-targeted mRNAs alike. Assessment of translation efficiency with single-cell resolution revealed that SG hyper-assembly correlated precisely with impaired global translation. SG hyper-assembly and translation impairment driven by mutant DDX3X were rescued by a genetic approach that limited SG assembly and by deletion of the N-terminal low complexity domain within DDX3X. Thus, in addition to a primary defect at the level of translation initiation caused by DDX3X mutation, SG assembly itself contributes to global translation inhibition. This work provides mechanistic insights into the consequences of cancer-related DDX3X mutations, suggesting that globally reduced translation may provide a context-dependent survival advantage that must be considered as a possible contributor to tumorigenesis. PMID:27180681

  10. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in subjects with EBPR when compared with those without. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the decrease in systolic BP during the recovery and degree of HRR in individuals without EBPR (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). Such a correlation was not observed in subjects with EBPR (r = 0.11, P = 0.34). The percentage of abnormal HRR indicating impaired parasympathetic reactivation was higher in subjects with EBPR (29 % vs 13 %, P = 0.02). In logistic regression analyses, HRR and resting systolic BP were the only determinants associated with the occurrence of EBPR (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Decreased HRR was observed in normotensive individuals with EBPR. In subjects with normal BP response to exercise, a linear correlation existed between the degree of HRR and decrease in systolic BP during the recovery period. However, such a correlation

  11. Bradykinin B2 receptor contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    each group). In contrast, there was no significant difference in B1 receptor expression in both experimental groups, and arterial injection of R-715, a B1 receptors blocker, had no significant effects on RSNA and MAP responses evoked by muscle stretch. Accordingly, results obtained from this study support our hypothesis that heightened kinin B2 receptor expression in the sensory nerves contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion. PMID:23417862

  12. Surgery for endometriosis-associated infertility: do we exaggerate the magnitude of effect?

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, B.; Turki, R.; Lotfy, H.; Ranganathan, S.; Zahed, H.; Freeman, A.R.; Shilbayeh, Z.; Sassy, M.; Shalaby, M.; Malik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgery remains the mainstay in the diagnosis and management of endometriosis. The number of surgeries performed for endometriosis worldwide is ever increasing, however do we have evidence for improvement of infertility after the surgery and do we exaggerate the magnitude of effect of surgery when we counsel our patients? The management of patients who failed the surgery could be by repeat surgery or assisted reproduction. What evidence do we have for patients who fail assisted reproduction and what is their best chance for achieving pregnancy? Material and methods: In this study we reviewed the evidence-based practice pertaining to the outcome of surgery assisted infertility associated with endometriosis. Manuscripts published in PubMed and Science Direct as well as the bibliography cited in these articles were reviewed. Patients with peritoneal endometriosis with mild and severe disease were addressed separately. Patients who failed the primary surgery and managed by repeat or assisted reproduction technology were also evaluated. Patients who failed assisted reproduction and managed by surgery were also studied to determine of the best course of action. Results: In patients with minimal and mild pelvic endometriosis, excision or ablation of the peritoneal endometriosis increases the pregnancy rate. In women with severe endometriosis, controlled trials suggested an improvement of pregnancy rate. In women with ovarian endometrioma 4 cm or larger ovarian cystectomy increases the pregnancy rate, decreases the recurrence rate, but is associated with decrease in ovarian reserve. In patients who have failed the primary surgery, assisted reproduction appears to be significantly more effective than repeat surgery. In patients who failed assisted reproduction, the management remains to be extremely controversial. Surgery in expert hands might result in significant improvement in pregnancy rate. Conclusion: In women with minimal and mild endometriosis, surgical

  13. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed. PMID:27445907

  14. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed.

  15. Nine Galileo Views in Exaggerated Color of Main-Belt Asteroid Ida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This set of color images of asteroid 243 Ida was taken by the imaging system on the Galileo spacecraft as it approached and raced past the asteroid on August 28, 1993. These images were taken through the 4100-angstrom (violet), 7560-angstrom (infrared) and 9680- angstrom (infrared) filters and have been processed to show Ida in exaggerated color to bring out subtle color contrasts caused by small variations in composition and surface microtexture of the asteroid's soil. In natural color Ida appears gray with slight overtones of red or brown. Stark shadows portray Ida's irregular shape, which changes its silhouetted outline when seen from different angles. More subtle shadings reveal surface topography (such as craters) and differences in the physical state and composition of the soil ('regolith'). Note in particular the color differences associated with the rims and floors of certain impact craters, which may have excavated to layers of slightly differing composition or may have ingested material from impactors of different compositions. Analysis of the images show that Ida is 58 kilometers long and 23 kilometers wide (36 x 14 miles). Ida is the first asteroid discovered to have a natural satellite, Dactyl (not shown here). Ida and Dactyl are heavily cratered by impacts with smaller asteroids and comets, including some of the same populations of small objects that bombard Earth. These data, combined with reflectance spectra from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, may allow scientists to determine whether Ida is a relatively unaltered primitive object made of material condensed from the primordial Solar Nebula at the origin of the Solar System or whether it has been altered by strong heating--evidence interpreted so far suggests that Ida is a piece of a larger object that has been severely heated. Whereas heating and melting of large planets is well understood, the cause of heating of small asteroids is more enigmatic--it may have involved exotic

  16. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg−1), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 μM) on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 μM), guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 μM), calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM), and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 μM) were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6-gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3–10 μM) alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially

  17. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  18. Exaggerated Increases in Microglia Proliferation, Brain Inflammatory Response and Sickness Behaviour upon Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    McGuiness, Barry; Gibney, Sinead M.; Beumer, Wouter; Versnel, Marjan A.; Sillaber, Inge; Harkin, Andrew; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2016-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an established model for autoimmune diabetes, shows an exaggerated reaction of pancreas macrophages to inflammatory stimuli. NOD mice also display anxiety when immune-stimulated. Chronic mild brain inflammation and a pro-inflammatory microglial activation is critical in psychiatric behaviour. Objective To explore brain/microglial activation and behaviour in NOD mice at steady state and after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Methods Affymetrix analysis on purified microglia of pre-diabetic NOD mice (8-10 weeks) and control mice (C57BL/6 and CD1 mice, the parental non-autoimmune strain) at steady state and after systemic LPS (100 μg/kg) administration. Quantitative PCR was performed on the hypothalamus for immune activation markers (IL-1β, IFNγ and TNFα) and growth factors (BDNF and PDGF). Behavioural profiling of NOD, CD1, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice at steady state was conducted and sickness behaviour/anxiety in NOD and CD1 mice was monitored before and after LPS injection. Results Genome analysis revealed cell cycle/cell death and survival aberrancies of NOD microglia, substantiated as higher proliferation on BrdU staining. Inflammation signs were absent. NOD mice had a hyper-reactive response to novel environments with some signs of anxiety. LPS injection induced a higher expression of microglial activation markers, a higher brain pro-inflammatory set point (IFNγ, IDO) and a reduced expression of BDNF and PDGF after immune stimulation in NOD mice. NOD mice displayed exaggerated and prolonged sickness behaviour after LPS administration. Conclusion After stimulation with LPS, NOD mice display an increased microglial proliferation and an exaggerated inflammatory brain response with reduced BDNF and PDGF expression and increased sickness behaviour as compared to controls. PMID:27529430

  19. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  20. Hepatitis C virus 3'X region interacts with human ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Wood, J; Frederickson, R M; Fields, S; Patel, A H

    2001-02-01

    To identify proteins that can bind the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) we screened human cDNA libraries using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae three-hybrid system. Screening with an RNA sequence derived from the 3'-terminal 98 nucleotides (3'X region) of an infectious clone of HCV (H77c) yielded clones of human ribosomal proteins L22, L3, S3, and mL3, a mitochondrial homologue of L3. We performed preliminary characterization of the binding between the 3'X region and these proteins by a three-hybrid mating assay using mutant 3'X sequences. We have further characterized the interaction between 3'X and L22, since this protein is known to be associated with two small Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA species (EBERs) which are abundantly produced in cells latently infected with EBV. The EBERs, which have similar predicted secondary structure to the HCV 3'X, assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles that include L22 and La protein. To confirm that L22 binds HCV 3'X we performed in vitro binding assays using recombinant L22 (expressed as a glutathione S-transferase [GST] fusion protein) together with a 3'X riboprobe. The 3'X region binds to the GST-L22 fusion protein (but not to GST alone), and this interaction is subject to competition with unlabeled 3'X RNA. To establish the functional role played by L22 in internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of HCV sequences we performed translational analysis in HuH-7 cells using monocistronic and bicistronic reporter constructs. The relative amount of core-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter protein translated under the control of the HCV IRES was stimulated in the presence of L22 and La when these proteins were supplied in trans.

  1. Exaggerated force production in altered Gz-levels during parabolic flight: the role of computational resources allocation.

    PubMed

    Mierau, Andreas; Girgenrath, Michaela

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to examine whether the previously observed exaggerated isometric force production in changed-Gz during parabolic flight (Mierau et al. 2008) can be explained by a higher computational demand and, thus, inadequate allocation of the brain's computational resources to the task. Subjects (n = 12) were tested during the micro-Gz, high-Gz and normal-Gz episodes of parabolic flight. They produced isometric forces of different magnitudes and directions, according to visually prescribed vectors with their right, dominant hand and performed a choice reaction-time task with their left hand. Tasks were performed either separately (single-task) or simultaneously (dual-task). Dual-task interference was present for both tasks, indicating that each task was resources-demanding. However, this interference remained unaffected by the Gz-level. It was concluded that exaggerated force production in changed-Gz is probably not related to inadequate allocation of the brain's computational resources to the force production task. Statement of Relevance: The present study shows that deficient motor performance in changed-Gz environments (both micro-Gz and high-Gz) is not necessarily related to inadequate computational resources allocation, as was suggested in some previous studies. This finding is of great relevance not only for fundamental research, but also for the training and safety of humans operating in changed-Gz environments, such as astronauts and jet pilots.

  2. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat as a mechanism linking anxiety with increased risk for diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Aoife; Slavich, George M; Epel, Elissa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders increase risk for the early development of several diseases of aging. Elevated inflammation, a common risk factor across diseases of aging, may play a key role in the relationship between anxiety and physical disease. However, the neurobiological mechanisms linking anxiety with elevated inflammation remain unclear. In this review, we present a neurobiological model of the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes inflammation. Specifically we propose that exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat in anxious individuals may lead to sustained threat perception, which is accompanied by prolonged activation of threat-related neural circuitry and threat-responsive biological systems including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and inflammatory response. Over time, this pattern of responding can promote chronic inflammation through structural and functional brain changes, altered sensitivity of immune cell receptors, dysregulation of the HPA axis and ANS, and accelerated cellular aging. Chronic inflammation, in turn, increases risk for diseases of aging. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat may thus be a treatment target for reducing disease risk in anxious individuals.

  3. Offset vertical radar profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witten, A.; Lane, J.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

  4. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  5. W3X: A Cost-Effective Post-CCSD(T) Composite Procedure.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Radom, Leo

    2013-11-12

    We have formulated the W3X procedure by incorporating cost-effective post-CCSD(T) components (up to the CCSDT(Q) level) into the W1X-1 protocol, the latter representing a recently reported economical yet accurate approximation to CCSD(T)/CBS. For medium-sized systems, W3X is moderately more computationally demanding than W1X-1, but it is significantly less costly than the W3.2lite and (especially) W3.2 procedures. Because of the use of the cost-effective W1X-1 method as the underlying CCSD(T) component, W3X is also less expensive than the W2.2 protocol, which does not incorporate post-CCSD(T) excitations. We find that, for single-reference systems (the G2/97 set and most of the W4-11 set), W3X is comparable in accuracy to the underlying W1X-1 protocol, as might have been expected. For the more challenging cases of the multireference systems within the W4-11 set, the dissociation of F2 and the automerization of cyclobutadiene, W3X provides improved performance compared with the CCSD(T)-based procedures (W1X-1 and W2.2). Highly multireference chromium oxides CrO, CrO2, and CrO3 are still somewhat challenging for W3X (and even for the higher-level W3.2lite and W3.2 procedures), but the inclusion of the economical post-CCSD(T) terms in W3X already leads to a significant improvement over W1X-1. Thus, W3X provides a cost-effective means for treating systems with significant (but perhaps not excessive) multireference character that are otherwise not well-described by CCSD(T)-based methods.

  6. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  7. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  8. Effectiveness of symptom validity measures in identifying cognitive and behavioral symptom exaggeration in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul; Schroeder, Ryan; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Fischer, Rebecca; Ries, Adam; Blesi, Brita; Barker, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded and free-standing SVT measures, a score > 2 SD below the ADD population average on tests, failure on an ADHD behavior rating scale validity scale, or a major discrepancy between reported and observed ADHD behaviors. A total of 22% of patients engaged in symptom exaggeration. The Word Memory test immediate recall and consistency score (both 64%), TOVA omission errors (63%) and reaction time variability (54%), CAT-A infrequency scale (58%), and b Test (47%) had good sensitivity as well as at least 90% specificity. Clearly, such measures should be used to help avoid making false positive diagnoses of ADHD.

  9. Exaggerated sympathetic and pressor responses to handgrip exercise in older hypertensive humans: role of the muscle metaboreflex.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Erin P; Greaney, Jody L; Edwards, David G; Rose, William C; Fadel, Paul J; Farquhar, William B

    2010-11-01

    Recent animal studies have reported that exercise pressor reflex (EPR)-mediated increases in blood pressure are exaggerated in hypertensive (HTN) rodents. Whether these findings can be extended to human hypertension remains unclear. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and venous metabolites were measured in normotensive (NTN; n = 23; 60 ± 1 yr) and HTN (n = 15; 63 ± 1 yr) subjects at baseline, and during static handgrip at 30 and 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by a period of postexercise ischemia (PEI) to isolate the metabolic component of the EPR. Changes in MAP from baseline were augmented in HTN subjects during both 30 and 40% MVC handgrip (P < 0.05 for both), and these group differences were maintained during PEI (30% PEI trial: Δ15 ± 2 NTN vs. Δ19 ± 2 HTN mmHg; 40% PEI trial: Δ16 ± 1 NTN vs. Δ23 ± 2 HTN mmHg; P < 0.05 for both). Similarly, in HTN subjects, MSNA burst frequency was greater during 30 and 40% MVC handgrip (P < 0.05 for both), and these differences were maintained during PEI [30% PEI trial: 35 ± 2 (NTN) vs. 44 ± 2 (HTN) bursts/min; 40% PEI trial: 36 ± 2 (NTN) vs. 48 ± 2 (HTN) bursts/min; P < 0.05 for both]. No group differences in metabolites were observed. MAP and MSNA responses to a cold pressor test were not different between groups, suggesting no group differences in generalized sympathetic responsiveness. In summary, compared with NTN subjects, HTN adults exhibit exaggerated sympathetic and pressor responses to handgrip exercise that are maintained during PEI, indicating that activation of the metabolic component of the EPR is augmented in older HTN humans.

  10. MoO3-x quantum dots for photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal/photodynamic cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dandan; Guo, Wei; Guo, Chongshen; Sun, Jianzhe; Zheng, Nannan; Wang, Fei; Yan, Mei; Liu, Shaoqin

    2017-02-02

    A theranostic system of image-guided phototherapy is considered as a potential technique for cancer treatment because of the ability to integrate diagnostics and therapies together, thus enhancing accuracy and visualization during the treatment. In this work, we realized photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal (PT)/photodynamic (PD) combined cancer treatment just via a single material, MoO3-x quantum dots (QDs). Due to their strong NIR harvesting ability, MoO3-x QDs can convert incident light into hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen synchronously as evidenced by in vitro assay, hence, they can behave as both PT and PD agents effectively and act as a "dual-punch" to cancer cells. In a further study, elimination of solid tumors from HeLa-tumor bearing mice could be achieved in a MoO3-x QD mediated phototherapeutic group without obvious lesions to the major organs. In addition, the desired PT effect also makes MoO3-x QDs an exogenous PA contrast agent for in vivo live-imaging to depict tumors. Compared with previously reported theranostic systems that put several components into one system, our multifunctional agent of MoO3-x QDs is exempt from unpredictable mutual interference between components and ease of leakage of virtual components from the composited system.

  11. Flow Simulation of N3-X Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    System studies show that a N3-X hybrid wing-body aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion system using a mail-slot inlet/nozzle nacelle can meet the environmental and performance goals for N+3 generation transports (three generations beyond the current air transport technology level) set by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. In this study, a Navier-Stokes flow simulation of N3-X on hybrid unstructured meshes was conducted, including the mail-slot propulsor. The geometry of the mail-slot propulsor was generated by a CAD (Computer-Aided Design)-free shape parameterization. A body force approach was used for a more realistic and efficient simulation of the turning and loss effects of the fan blades and the inlet-fan interactions. Flow simulation results of the N3-X demonstrates the validity of the present approach.

  12. A Noise and Emissions Assessment of the N3-X Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical predictions of certification noise and exhaust emissions for NASA's N3-X - a notional, hybrid wingbody airplane - are presented in this paper. The N3-X is a 300-passenger concept transport propelled by an array of fans distributed spanwise near the trailing edge of the wingbody. These fans are driven by electric motors deriving power from twin generators driven by turboshaft engines. Turboelectric distributed hybrid propulsion has the potential to dramatically increase the propulsive efficiency of aircraft. The noise and exhaust emission estimates presented here are generated using NASA's conceptual design systems analysis tools with several key modifications to accommodate this unconventional architecture. These tools predict certification noise and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen by leveraging data generated from a recent analysis of the N3-X propulsion system.

  13. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  14. Physical exercise protects against Alzheimer's disease in 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    García-Mesa, Yoelvis; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Revilla, Susana; Guerra, Rafael; Gruart, Agnès; Laferla, Frank M; Cristòfol, Rosa; Delgado-García, José M; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is considered to exert a positive neurophysiological effect that helps to maintain normal brain activity in the elderly. Expectations that it could help to fight Alzheimer's disease (AD) were recently raised. This study analyzed the effects of different patterns of physical exercise on the 3xTg-AD mouse. Male and female 3xTg-AD mice at an early pathological stage (4-month-old) have had free access to a running wheel for 1 month, whereas mice at a moderate pathological stage(7-month-old) have had access either during 1 or 6 months. The non-transgenic mouse strain was used as a control. Parallel animal groups were housed in conventional conditions. Cognitive loss and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)-like behaviors were present in the 3xTg-AD mice along with alteration in synaptic function and ong-term potentiation impairment in vivo. Brain tissue showed AD-pathology and oxidative-related changes. Disturbances were more severe at the older age tested. Oxidative stress was higher in males but other changes were similar or higher in females. Exercise treatment ameliorated cognitive deterioration and BPSD-like behaviors such as anxiety and the startle response. Synaptic changes were partially protected by exercise. Oxidative stress was reduced. The best neuroprotection was generally obtained after 6 months of exercise in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice. Improved sensorimotor function and brain tissue antioxidant defence were induced in both 3xTg-AD and NonTg mice. Therefore, the benefits of aerobic physical exercise on synapse, redox homeostasis, and general brain function demonstrated in the 3xTg-AD mouse further support the value of this healthy life-style against neurodegeneration.

  15. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Comparison of Yamax pedometer and GT3X accelerometer steps in a free-living sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare steps detected by the Yamax pedometer (PEDO) versus the GT3X accelerometer (ACCEL) in free-living adults. Daily PEDO and ACCEL steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (18 females; mean +/- sd: age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; body mass index = 3...

  17. Adrenal androgen hyperresponsiveness to adrenocorticotropin in women with acne and/or hirsutism: adrenal enzyme defects and exaggerated adrenarche.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Rosenfield, R L; McGuire, J; Rudy, S; Helke, J

    1986-05-01

    To determine the adrenal contribution to elevated plasma androgens in 31 young hyperandrogenemic women with acne and/or hirsutism, we compared their responses to ACTH with those of 14 normal women. Each subject was given a low dose (10 micrograms/m2) of synthetic ACTH-(1-24) (Cortrosyn) after administration of 1.5 mg dexamethasone the night before the test. Thirty and 60 min responses of plasma 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone (17-Preg), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (17-prog), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol were measured. Eighteen (58%) patients had increased responses of at least one 17-ketosteroid or adrenal androgen precursor. All patients had cortisol responses within the range of those of the 14 normal subjects. Nine patients (29%) had evidence of steroid biosynthetic enzyme deficiencies, either mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia or the heterozygote state; after ACTH, 4 of these patients had elevated 17-prog in the range of values in heterozygote carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, 2 had elevated levels of 11-deoxycortisol compatible with 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency, and 3 had elevated levels of 17-Preg and DHEA, suggestive of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Another 9 subjects (29%) had 17-ketosteroid (DHEA and/or androstenedione) hyperresponsiveness to ACTH with associated elevated 17-Preg responses. As a group, their patterns suggested relatively deficient 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and relatively hyperactive C lyase without impairment of cortisol secretion. This pattern resembles exaggerated adrenarche, and we postulate that these 9 patients have hyperplasia of the zona reticularis. Neither basal levels of plasma androgens (free testosterone and DHEA sulfate) nor menstrual history predicted which patients would have abnormal ACTH responses. Although 5 of 11 (45%) patients with acne alone had abnormal responses to ACTH, 10 of 14 patients with acne and hirsutism (71%) had abnormal

  18. Insights into the Development and Evolution of Exaggerated Traits Using De Novo Transcriptomes of Two Species of Horned Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Vera, J. Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits. PMID:24586317

  19. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Vera, J Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H; Emlen, Douglas J; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  20. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  1. Monocyte subpopulations from pre-eclamptic patients are abnormally skewed and exhibit exaggerated responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14(high)CD16(+) and CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease.

  2. Cues to body size in the formant spacing of male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) bellows: honesty in an exaggerated trait.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Cowin, Gary J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-10-15

    Determining the information content of vocal signals and understanding morphological modifications of vocal anatomy are key steps towards revealing the selection pressures acting on a given species' vocal communication system. Here, we used a combination of acoustic and anatomical data to investigate whether male koala bellows provide reliable information on the caller's body size, and to confirm whether male koalas have a permanently descended larynx. Our results indicate that the spectral prominences of male koala bellows are formants (vocal tract resonances), and show that larger males have lower formant spacing. In contrast, no relationship between body size and the fundamental frequency was found. Anatomical investigations revealed that male koalas have a permanently descended larynx: the first example of this in a marsupial. Furthermore, we found a deeply anchored sternothyroid muscle that could allow male koalas to retract their larynx into the thorax. While this would explain the low formant spacing of the exhalation and initial inhalation phases of male bellows, further research will be required to reveal the anatomical basis for the formant spacing of the later inhalation phases, which is predictive of vocal tract lengths of around 50 cm (nearly the length of an adult koala's body). Taken together, these findings show that the formant spacing of male koala bellows has the potential to provide receivers with reliable information on the caller's body size, and reveal that vocal adaptations allowing callers to exaggerate (or maximise) the acoustic impression of their size have evolved independently in marsupials and placental mammals.

  3. Sources of variance in a female fertility signal: exaggerated estrous swellings in a natural population of baboons

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Signals of fertility in female animals are of increasing interest to evolutionary biologists, a development that coincides with increasing interest in male mate choice and the potential for female traits to evolve under sexual selection. We characterized variation in size of an exaggerated female fertility signal in baboons and investigated the sources of that variance. The number of sexual cycles that a female had experienced after her most recent pregnancy (“cycles since resumption”) was the strongest predictor of swelling size. Furthermore, the relationship between cycles since resumption and swelling size was most evident during rainy periods and was not evident during times of drought. Finally, we found significant differences in swelling size between individual females; these differences endured across cycles (i.e., were not explained by variation within individuals) and persisted in spite of ecological effects. This study is the first to provide conclusive evidence of significant variation in swelling size between female primates (controlling for cycles since resumption) and to demonstrate that ecological constraints influence variation in this signal of fertility. PMID:25089069

  4. Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is not associated with masked hypertension in patients with high normal blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Joseph; Koren-Morag, Nira; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Grossman, Ehud

    2014-04-01

    The association between exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise (ExBPR) and "masked hypertension" is unclear. Medical records of patients with high-normal BP who were evaluated in the Chaim Sheba Screening Institute Ramat Gan, Israel, during the years 2002-2007 and referred for 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and exercise test were reviewed. Data on exercise tests performed in the preceding 5 years were retrieved. Reproducible ExBPR was defined when it was recorded at least twice. BP levels on 24-hour ABPM were compared between patients with a normal BP response and those with an ExBPR (systolic BP ≥200 mm Hg). Sixty-nine normotensive patients with high normal BP levels were identified. ExBPR was recorded in 43 patients and was reproducible in 28. BP levels on 24-hour ABPM were similar in patients with and without ExBPR. In patients with high-normal BP levels, ExBPR is not associated with masked hypertension.

  5. A vertical cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Alió Sanz, Juan J; Iglesias Conde, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Correctly assessing open-bite malocclusions has remained problematic because clinicians have not had entirely reliable methods of determining the exact amount of skeletal and dental contributions to the problem. A new cephalometric technique, the vertical cephalometric analysis, offers orthodontists a system that precisely identifies the percentage of skeletal and dentoalveolar components that open-bite patients have. The vertical cephalometric analysis offers a discriminating diagnostic method for evaluating, diagnosing, and treatment planning for patients with open bite. This technique will allow clinicians to classify patients with accuracy, as well as to establish prognoses and select therapies.

  6. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  7. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  8. Laboratory Detection of IZnCH_{3} (X^{1}A_{1}) : Further Evidence for Zinc Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchino, Matthew P.; Young, Justin P.; Sheridan, Phil M.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-wave direct absorption techniques were used to record the pure rotational spectrum of IZnCH_{3} (X^{1}A_{1}). This species was produced by the reaction of zinc vapor with ICH_{3} in the presence of a DC discharge. Rotational transitions ranging from J = 109 {→} 108 to J = 122 {→} 121 were recorded for I^{64}ZnCH_{3} and I^{66}ZnCH_{3} in the frequency range of 250{-290} GHz. The Ka = 0{-4} components were measured for each transition, with the K-ladder structure and nuclear spin statistics indicative of a symmetric top. As with HZnCH_{3} (X^{1}A_{1}), the detection of IZnCH_{3} provides further evidence for a zinc insertion process.

  9. Fixing All Moduli for M-Theory on K3xK3

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Kallosh, Renata; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-06-15

    We analyze M-theory compactified on K3 x K3 with fluxes preserving half the supersymmetry and its F-theory limit, which is dual to an orientifold of the type IIB string on K3 x (T{sup 2}/Z{sub 2}). The geometry of attractive K3 surfaces plays a significant role in the analysis. We prove that the number of choices for the K3 surfaces is finite and we show how they can be completely classified. We list the possibilities in one case. We then study the instanton effects and see that they will generically fix all of the moduli. We also discuss situations where the instanton effects might not fix all the moduli.

  10. Superconductivity in the antiperovskite Dirac-metal oxide Sr3-xSnO.

    PubMed

    Oudah, Mohamed; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Hausmann, Jan Niklas; Yonezawa, Shingo; Fukumoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Masatoshi; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2016-12-12

    Investigations of perovskite oxides triggered by the discovery of high-temperature and unconventional superconductors have had crucial roles in stimulating and guiding the development of modern condensed-matter physics. Antiperovskite oxides are charge-inverted counterpart materials to perovskite oxides, with unusual negative ionic states of a constituent metal. No superconductivity was reported among the antiperovskite oxides so far. Here we present the first superconducting antiperovskite oxide Sr3-xSnO with the transition temperature of around 5 K. Sr3SnO possesses Dirac points in its electronic structure, and we propose from theoretical analysis a possibility of a topological odd-parity superconductivity analogous to the superfluid (3)He-B in moderately hole-doped Sr3-xSnO. We envision that this discovery of a new class of oxide superconductors will lead to a rapid progress in physics and chemistry of antiperovskite oxides consisting of unusual metallic anions.

  11. Superconductivity in the antiperovskite Dirac-metal oxide Sr3-xSnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudah, Mohamed; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Hausmann, Jan Niklas; Yonezawa, Shingo; Fukumoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Masatoshi; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of perovskite oxides triggered by the discovery of high-temperature and unconventional superconductors have had crucial roles in stimulating and guiding the development of modern condensed-matter physics. Antiperovskite oxides are charge-inverted counterpart materials to perovskite oxides, with unusual negative ionic states of a constituent metal. No superconductivity was reported among the antiperovskite oxides so far. Here we present the first superconducting antiperovskite oxide Sr3-xSnO with the transition temperature of around 5 K. Sr3SnO possesses Dirac points in its electronic structure, and we propose from theoretical analysis a possibility of a topological odd-parity superconductivity analogous to the superfluid 3He-B in moderately hole-doped Sr3-xSnO. We envision that this discovery of a new class of oxide superconductors will lead to a rapid progress in physics and chemistry of antiperovskite oxides consisting of unusual metallic anions.

  12. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Rapidly Quenched Tetragonal Mn3-xGa Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Y; Kharel, P; Shah, VR; Krage, E; Skomski, R; Shield, JE; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured Mn3-x Ga ribbons with x = 0, 0.4, 0.9 and 1.1 were prepared using arc-melting, melt-spinning and annealing. As-spun samples crystallized into hexagonal D0(19) and cubic L2(1) Heusler crystal structures based on the concentration of Mn in Mn3-xGa. Upon vacuum-annealing the samples at 450 degrees C for about 50 hours, both the hexagonal and cubic structures transformed into a tetragonal D0(22) structure. High-temperature x-ray diffraction and high-temperature magnetometry showed that the samples with low Mn content (Mn-1.9 Ga and Mn-2.1 Ga) retain their tetragonal structure up to 850 K but the samples with high Mn concentrations (Mn-2.6 Ga and Mn-3.0 Ga) undergo a structural phase transition from tetragonal to hexagonal phases around 800 K. The magnetic properties of Mn3-x Ga ribbons were very sensitive to Mn concentration, where the magnetization and anisotropy energy increased and the coercivity decreased as x increased from 0 to 1.1. Although the Curie temperatures of Mn-2.6 Ga and Mn-3.0 Ga samples could not be determined because of the structural phase transition, the Curie temperature decreased with increasing x in Mn3-x Ga. The maximum magnetization of 57 emu/g (300 emu/cm(3)) and the coercivity of 6.5 kOe were measured in the Mn-1.9 Ga and Mn-3.0 Ga ribbons, respectively.

  13. Design of 3x3 focusing array for heavy ion driver. Final report on CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2005-03-30

    This memo presents a design of a 3 x 3 quadrupole array for HIF. It contains 3 D magnetic field computations of the array build with racetrack coils with and without different shields. It is shown that it is possible to have a low error magnetic field in the cells and shield the stray fields to acceptable levels. The array design seems to be a practical solution to any size array for future multi-beam heavy ion fusion drivers.

  14. High Curie temperature and coercivity performance of Fe3-xCrxSe4 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-jie; Li, Da; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong

    2015-03-12

    Monoclinic Fe3-xCrxSe4 nanostructures (0≤x≤2.5) were synthesized using a high-temperature solution chemical method. With increasing the Cr doping, the peak positions in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Fe3-xCrxSe4 nanostructures slightly shifted to lower 2θ values due to the changes in lattice parameters. Expansions in the unit cell volumes of Fe3-xCrxSe4 nanostructures (x>0.3) may have been responsible for enhancing the ferromagnetic (FM) interaction between magnetic ions, which resulted in a significant increase in the Curie temperature (TC) from 331 K for Fe3Se4 to 429 K for FeCr2Se4, distinctly differing from the magnetic properties of the corresponding bulk materials. A room-temperature coercivity (HC) analysis showed an obvious increase from 3.2 kOe for Fe3Se4 to 12 kOe for Fe2.3Cr0.7Se4 nanostructure, but gradually decreased upon further increasing the Cr content.

  15. Applying the ethoexperimental approach to neurodevelopmental syndrome research reveals exaggerated defensive behavior in Mecp2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Defensor, Erwin B; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Rett syndrome is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) associated with de novo mutations of the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mecp2 functions as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. Identification of the role of Mecp2 in specific neurodevelopmental symptoms remains an important research aim. We previously demonstrated that male mice possessing a truncation mutation in Mecp2 are hyper-social. We predicted that reduced fear or anxiety might underlie this enhanced affiliation. In order to probe risk assessment and anxiety-like behavior, we compared Mecp2 truncation mutants to their wild-type littermates in the elevated plus maze and elevated zero maze. Additionally, subjects were administered the mouse defense test battery to evaluate unconditioned fear- and panic-like behavior to a graded set of threat scenarios and a predator stimulus. Mutant mice showed no significant changes in anxiety-like behavior. Yet, they displayed hyper-reactive escape and defensive behaviors to an animate predatory threat stimulus. Notably, mutant mice engaged in exaggerated active defense responding to threat stimuli at nearly all phases of the fear battery. These results reveal abnormalities in emotion regulation in Mecp2 mutants particularly in response to ecologically relevant threats. This hyper-responsivity suggests that transcriptional targets of Mecp2 are critical to emotion regulation. Moreover, we suggest that detailed analysis of defensive behavior and aggression with ethologically relevant tasks provides an avenue to interrogate gene-behavior mechanisms of neurodevelopmental and other psychiatric conditions.

  16. A new measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum between 3 x 10 to the 15th power eV and 3 x 10 to the 16th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, A. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cerenkov photon density spectrum measurement is reported. The derivation of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum for energies from 3x10 to the 15th power eV to 3x10 to the 16th power eV are presented.

  17. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  18. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  19. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  20. Exaggerated TSH response to TRH ("sub-biochemical" hypothyroidism) in prepubertal and adolescent thalassaemic patients with iron overload: prevalence and 20-year natural history.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Tanas, Rita; Gamberini, Maria Rita; Sprocati, Monica; Govoni, Maria Rita; Marsella, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The severity of thyroid dysfunction in patients with beta-thalassaemia major is variable in different series. An exaggerated thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (TRH) has been found in 1 out of 5 beta-thalassaemia major patients. Because it is not well known how many of these patients will develop overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, we reviewed retrospectively the thyroid status (thyroid hormones, TBG, TG basal and TSH peak after TRH test) of 24 children and adolescents with beta-thalassemia major (mean age 12.1+/-3.9 years) on periodic transfusion therapy, regularly followed in our Centre during the last 20 years. As controls we studied 30 normal subjects aged 13.4+/-2.5 years. In our group of 24 thalassaemics an exaggerated TSH response to TRH test was found in 8 (33.3%), 3 of whom developed subclinical or overt hypothyroidism from 3 to 11 years later. TSH peak values correlated directly with ferritin levels, ALT, and compliance index to chelation therapy. Our data suggest that an exaggerated TSH response to TRH test is frequent in beta-thalassemia major, and may evolve into subclinical or overt hypothyroidism as we found in 37.5% of our patients with sub-biochemical hypothyroidism.

  1. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  2. Flexible electrochromics: magnetron sputtered tungsten oxide (WO3-x) thin films on Lexan (optically transparent polycarbonate) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uday Kumar, K.; Murali, Dhanya S.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) based electrochromics on flexible substrates is a topic of recent interest. The present communication reports the electrochromic properties of WO3-x thin films grown on lexan, an optically transparent polycarbonate thermoplastic substrate. The WO3-x films are prepared at room temperature (300 K) by the reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The physical properties of metal oxide thin films are known to be controlled by the oxygen stoichiometry of the film. In the present work, the WO3-x thin films are prepared by varying the oxygen flow rates. All the WO3-x thin films are amorphous in nature. The electrochromic performance of the WO3-x thin films is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) coated lexan and glass substrates. The optical band gap of WO3-x thin films grown on lexan substrates (at any given oxygen flow rate) is significantly higher than those grown on glass substrates. The coloration efficiency of WO3-x thin films (at an oxygen flow rate of 10 sccm) on lexan substrates is: 143.9 cm2 C-1 which is higher compared to that grown on glass: 90.4 cm2 C-1.

  3. Enhancement of photoelectric response of bacteriorhodopsin by multilayered WO3 x H2O nanocrystals/PVA membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Hu, Fengping; Bao, Qiaoliang; Bao, Shujuan; Qiao, Yan; Yu, Shucong; Guo, Jun; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-02-07

    For the first time, a multilayered WO(3) x H(2)O/PVA membrane on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is constructed to significantly enhance the photoelectric response of bR by the spillover effect of WO(3) x H(2)O nanocrystals, providing great potential in its important applications in bioelectronics and proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  4. 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar energy collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballheim, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Chamberlain engineers designed a 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector for the subject contract. The collector is a completely housed, 105.75 x 44.75 x 10.23-inch, 240-pound unit with six each evacuated receiver assemblies, a center manifold and a one-piece glass cover. A truncated version of a CPC trough reflector system and the General Electric Company tubular evacuated receiver have been integrated with a mass producible collector design suitable for operation at 250 to 450/sup 0/F. The key criterion for optimization of the design was minimization of the cost per Btu collected annually at an operating temperature of 400/sup 0/F. The reflector is a 4.1X design truncated to a total height of 8.0 inches with a resulting actual concentration ratio of 2.6 to 1. The manifold is an insulated area housing the fluid lines which connect the six receivers in series with inlet and outlet tubes extending from one side of the collector at the center. The reflectors are polished, anodized aluminum which are shaped by the roll form process. The housing is painted, galvanized steel, and the cover glass is 3/16-inch thick tempered, low iron glass. The collector requires four slope adjustments per year for optimum effectiveness. Chamberlain produced ten 3X CPC collectors for the subject contract. Two collectors were used to evaluate assembly procedures, six were sent to the project officer in Albuquerque, New Mexico, one was sent to Argonne National Laboratory for performance testing and one remained with the Company. A manufacturing cost study was conducted to estimate limited mass production costs, explore cost reduction ideas and define tooling requirements. The final effort discussed shows the preliminary design for application of a 3X CPC solar collector system for use in the Iowa State Capitol complex.

  5. Autoimmune Manifestations in the 3xTg-AD Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Monica; Cowan, David; Head, Elizabeth; Ma, Donglai; Karimi, Khalil; Ashthorpe, Vanessa; Kapadia, Minesh; Zhao, Hui; Davis, Paulina; Sakic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune system activation is frequently reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown whether this is a cause, a consequence, or an epiphenomenon of brain degeneration. Objective The present study examines whether immunological abnormalities occur in a well-established murine AD model and if so, how they relate temporally to behavioral deficits and neuropathology. Methods A broad battery of tests was employed to assess behavioral performance and autoimmune/inflammatory markers in 3xTg-AD (AD) mice and wild type controls from 1.5 to 12 months of age. Results Aged AD mice displayed severe manifestations of systemic autoimmune/inflammatory disease, as evidenced by splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated serum levels of anti-nuclear/anti-dsDNA antibodies, low hematocrit, and increased number of double-negative T splenocytes. However, anxiety-related behavior and altered spleen function were evident as early as 2 months of age, thus preceding typical AD-like brain pathology. Moreover, AD mice showed altered olfaction and impaired “cognitive” flexibility in the first 6 months of life, suggesting mild cognitive impairment-like manifestations before general learning/memory impairments emerged at an older age. Interestingly, all of these features were present in 3xTg-AD mice prior to significant amyloid-β or tau pathology. Conclusion The results indicate that behavioral deficits in AD mice develop in parallel with systemic autoimmune/inflammatory disease. These changes antedate AD-like neuropathology, thus supporting a causal link between autoimmunity and aberrant behavior. Consequently, 3xTg-AD mice may be a useful model in elucidating the role of immune system in the etiology of AD. PMID:24150111

  6. Polar decomposition of 3 x 3 Mueller matrix: a tool for quantitative tissue polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Swami, M K; Manhas, S; Buddhiwant, P; Ghosh, N; Uppal, A; Gupta, P K

    2006-10-02

    The polarization properties of any medium are completely described by the sixteen element Mueller matrix that relates the polarization parameters of the light incident on the medium to that emerging from it. Measurement of all the elements of the matrix requires a minimum of sixteen measurements involving both linear and circularly polarized light. However, for many diagnostic applications, it would be useful if the polarization parameters can be quantified with linear polarization measurements alone. In this paper, we present a method based on polar decomposition of Mueller matrix for quantification of the polarization parameters of a scattering medium using the nine element (3 x 3) Mueller matrix that requires linear polarization measurements only. The methodology for decomposition of the 3 x 3 Mueller matrix is based on the previously developed decomposition process for sixteen element (4 x 4) Mueller matrix but with an assumption that the depolarization of linearly polarized light due to scattering is independent of the orientation angle of the incident linear polarization vector. Studies conducted on various scattering samples demonstrated that this assumption is valid for a turbid medium like biological tissue where the depolarization of linearly polarized light primarily arises due to the randomization of the field vector's direction as a result of multiple scattering. For such medium, polar decomposition of 3 x 3 Mueller matrix can be used to quantify the four independent polarization parameters namely, the linear retardance (delta ), the circular retardance (psi), the linear depolarization coefficient (Delta) and the linear diattenuation (d) with reasonable accuracy. Since this approach requires measurements using linear polarizers only, it considerably simplifies measurement procedure and might find useful applications in tissue diagnosis using the retrieved polarization parameters.

  7. Enhancing figure-of-merit of n-type Bi2Te3-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Ma, Yi; Poudel, Bed; Lan, Yucheng; Wang, Dezhi; Ren, Zhifeng; Hao, Qing; Chen, Gang

    2008-03-01

    Themoelectric materials with high dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) are greatly demanded in energy industry, among which bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) exhibits decent ZT around room temperature. However, thermal conductivity of Bi2Te3 is still high which limits its wider use for low temperature cooling devices. Here we investigate nanostructured bulk n-type Bi2Te3-xSex by reducing the thermal conductivity via increased phonon scattering of the significantly increased grain boundaries due to nano size grains. We first make alloyed nanopowders by mechanical alloying a mixture of elements with the right ratio and then 100% nanostructured samples by hot press.

  8. Thermoelectric Properties Studies on n-type Bi2Te3-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Poudel, Bed; Lan, Yucheng; Wang, D. Z.; Ren, Z. F.; Hao, Q.; Chen, G.

    2008-03-01

    Bi2Te3-xSex is a classic room temperature n-type thermoelectric material. In spite of the long history of research, its ZT is still below 1. By directly making nano sized particles using mechanical alloy from element, then pressing the nanoparticles into 100% dense bulk sample with nano-structures by hot press, we expect to decrease the thermal conductivity by the increased grain boundary scattering of phonons so to improve the ZT above 1. The ratio of Te/Se was varied systematically to investigate its effect on thermal conductivity.

  9. Thermochemical Properties and Bond Dissociation Energies for Fluorinated Methanol, CH3-xFxOH, and Fluorinated Methyl Hydroperoxides, CH3-xFxOOH: Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-09-08

    Oxygenated fluorocarbons are routinely found in sampling of environmental soils and waters as a result of the widespread use of fluoro and chlorofluoro carbons as heat transfer fluids, inert materials, polymers, fire retardants and solvents; the influence of these chemicals on the environment is a growing concern. The thermochemical properties of these species are needed for understanding their stability and reactions in the environment and in thermal process. Structures and thermochemical properties on the mono- to trifluoromethanol, CH3-xFxOH, and fluoromethyl hydroperoxide, CH3-xFxOOH (1 ≤ x ≤ 3), are determined by CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, and G4 calculations. Entropy, S°298, and heat capacities, Cp(T)'s (300 ≤ T/K ≤ 1500) from vibration, translation, and external rotation contributions are calculated on the basis of the vibration frequencies and structures obtained from the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional method. Potential barriers for the internal rotations are also calculated from this method and used to calculate hindered rotor contributions to S°298 and Cp(T)'s using direct integration over energy levels of the internal rotational potentials. Standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°298 (units in kcal mol(-1)) are CH2FOOH (-83.7), CHF2OOH (-138.1), CF3OOH (-193.6), CH2FOO(•) (-44.9), CHF2OO(•) (-99.6), CF3OO(•) (-153.8), CH2FOH (-101.9), CHF2OH (-161.6), CF3OH (-218.1), CH2FO(•) (-49.1), CHF2O(•) (-97.8), CF3O(•) (-150.5), CH2F(•) (-7.6), CHF2(•) (-58.8), and CF3(•) (-112.6). Bond dissociation energies for the R-OOH, RO-OH, ROO-H, R-OO(•), RO-O(•), R-OH, RO-H, R-O(•), and R-H bonds are determined and compared with methyl hydroperoxide to observe the trends from added fluoro substitutions. Enthalpy of formation for the fluoro-hydrocarbon oxygen groups C/F/H2/O, C/F2/H/O, C/F3/O, are derived from the above fluorinated methanol and fluorinated hydroperoxide species for use in Benson's Group Additivity. It was determined that

  10. Proton radiation damage in vertical junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. H.; Statler, R. L.

    A comparative experimental study of proton radiation damage in silicon vertical junction (VJ) and silicon planar solar cells was performed at three energies, 1-MeV, 2-MeV, and 3.5-MeV, for a normal incidence monoenergetic proton beam. Proton fluence levels up to 3 x 10 to the 12th protons/sq cm were achieved, with solar cell I-V characterization measurements performed at incremental fluences, using a recently calibrated Spectrolab X-25L Solar Simulator. The VJ cells were made from 0.4 ohm-cm silicon, while the planar cells were made from 10 ohm-cm silicon and had a back surface reflector. The VJ cells proved to be more radiation resistant than the baseline planar cells, and the damage data from various proton energies indicate that the vertical junction concept does work effectively for maintaining high collection efficiency despite heavy radiation exposure.

  11. Symmetric 3 x 3 coupler-based demodulator for fiber optic interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.; Cameron, C. B.; Keolian, Robert M.; Gardner, David L.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1991-12-01

    A method for demodulation of fiber optic interferometric sensors that utilizes a 3 X 3 coupler is described. The passive demodulation scheme does not require carrier (phase) modulation. The demodulation scheme relies on the three outputs of a 3 X 3 coupler and uses all three of its phase modulated output signals to recreate the stimulus inducing the original optical phase modulation. The demodulator scale factor (volts/radian) is stable against fluctuations in both fringe visibility and average received power. Upon initial implementation of the scheme, a dynamic range of 116 dB was obtained (at 600 Hz in a 1 Hz bandwidth with maximum THD at 4%). The minimum detectable signal at 600 Hz was 220 (mu) rad/(root)Hz and the maximum tolerable signal was 140 radians. Both the maximum tolerable signal and the minimum detectable signal (noise floor) was observed to increase with decreasing frequency. Thus, depending on the frequency, the demodulation scheme is capable of detecting phase signals less than a milliradian to in excess of kiloradians.

  12. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin exacerbates Alzheimer-like changes of 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxing; Liang, Zhihou; Tian, Zhu; Blanchard, Julie; Dai, Chun-Ling; Chalbot, Sonia; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves several possible molecular mechanisms, including impaired brain insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. To investigate the role of metabolic insults in AD, we injected streptozotocin (STZ), a diabetogenic compound if used in the periphery, into the lateral ventricle of the 6-month-old 3xTg-AD mice and studied the cognitive function as well as AD-like brain abnormalities, such as tau phosphorylation and Aβ accumulation, 3-6 weeks later. We found that STZ exacerbated impairment of short-term and spatial reference memory in 3xTg-AD mice. We also observed an increase in tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation, a disturbance of brain insulin signaling, and a decrease in synaptic plasticity and amyloid β peptides in the brain after STZ treatment. The expression of 20 AD-related genes, including those involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein, cytoskeleton, glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, synaptic function, protein kinases, and apoptosis, was altered, suggesting that STZ disturbs multiple metabolic and cell signaling pathways in the brain. These findings provide experimental evidence of the role of metabolic insult in AD.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of ZnxMn3-xO4 spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nádherný, Ladislav; Maryško, Miroslav; Sedmidubský, David; Martin, Christine

    2016-09-01

    To study structural and magnetic properties of spinels a series of ceramic samples with a different Zn:Mn ratio was prepared by high-temperature annealing in air followed by quenching in liquid nitrogen. The spinels with nominal composition of ZnxMn3-xO4 (x=0-1.29) were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Two tetragonal spinels of the same I41/amd space-group were identified based on the crystallographic, vibrational and grain-morphology point of view and described in detail. The unit-cell parameters and phase ratio of the spinel phases were determined using Rietveld refinement. According to the factor-group analysis the majority of the vibrational modes were identified in the Raman spectra. The magnetic properties of ZnxMn3-xO4 spinels are in agreement with a model of nanoscale ferrimagnetic Mn3O4 clusters in the antiferromagnetic ZnMn2O4 matrix (TN≈60 K). New features are a constricted hysteresis loop for x=0.3, and the effect of defects on magnetic properties for high Zn content which points to a good quality of the samples prepared by a solid state reaction.

  14. Fabrication and properties of Bi2S3-xSex thermoelectric polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Ge, Zhen-Hua; Han, Cheng-Gong

    2013-05-01

    Bi2S3-x Sex (x=0-0.3) polycrystals were fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The phase, microstructure, electrical and thermal transport properties were investigated with a special emphasis on the influence of Se content. All the samples were indexed as single phase with an orthorhombic symmetry. Optimizing the Se content greatly improves the electrical conductivity, achieving a peak value of 750 Sm-1 at 573 K for the Bi2S2.85Se0.15 composition. The absolute value of Seebeck coefficient shows an inversely varying trend to the electrical conductivity with Se content, whereby a power factor at 573 K is enhanced from 91 µ Wm-1 K-2 for pristine Bi2S3 to 124 µ Wm-1 K-2 for Bi2S2.85Se0.15. The thermal conductivity of Bi2S3-xSex ranges from 0.44 to 0.73 Wm-1 K-1 at the temperature from 323 to 573 K. A maximum ZT value reached 0.16 at 573 K for the Bi2S2.8Se0.15 sample, which is about 1.6 times that (0.11) of the pristine Bi2S3 sample.

  15. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Study of Direct Immersion Cooling of a 3X3 Array of Vertically Orientated Electronic Components in a Dielectric Liquid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    73 v APPENDIX B. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS ............................. 81 A. DETERMINATION OF INPUT POWER OF CHIP...produced by the Melcor corporation and were utilized to remove the heat from the condenser. The cooling devices were normally operated at 2.0 volts and 0.4...DETERMINATION OF INPUT POWER OF CHIP For this sample calculation, the power drop across chip 2 was determined: Powerl- Voltl*Volt2/Resistl where Voltl and

  16. Dynamic Interaction of Stress Granules, DDX3X, and IKK-α Mediates Multiple Functions in Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Pène, Véronique; Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Liang, T Jake

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X is involved in many cellular functions, including innate immunity, and is a pivotal host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X specifically recognizes the HCV 3' untranslated region (UTR), leading to the activation of IKK-α and a cascade of lipogenic signaling to facilitate lipid droplet biogenesis and viral assembly (Q. Li, V. Pene, S. Krishnamurthy, H. Cha, and T. J. Liang, Nat Med 19:722-729, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3190). The interaction of DDX3X with HCV core protein seems to be dispensable for its proviral role. In this study, through systematic imaging and biochemical and virologic approaches, we identified a dynamic association between DDX3X and various cellular compartments and viral elements mediating multiple functions of DDX3X in productive HCV infection. Upon HCV infection, the HCV 3'UTR interacts with DDX3X and IKK-α, which redistribute to speckle-like cytoplasmic structures shown to be stress granules (SGs). As viral proteins accumulate in infected cells, DDX3X granules together with SG-associated proteins redistribute and colocalize with HCV core protein around lipid droplets (LDs). IKK-α, however, does not relocate to the LD but translocates to the nucleus. In HCV-infected cells, various HCV nonstructural proteins also interact or colocalize with DDX3X in close proximity to SGs and LDs, consistent with the tight juxtaposition of the replication complex and the assembly site at the surface of LDs. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of DDX3X and multiple SG components markedly inhibits HCV infection. Our data suggest that DDX3X initiates a multifaceted cellular program involving dynamic associations with HCV RNA and proteins, IKK-α, SG, and LD surfaces for its crucial role in the HCV life cycle. IMPORTANCE DDX3X is a proviral host factor for HCV infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X binds to the HCV 3'UTR, activating IKK-α and

  17. A World Vertical Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    and continental levelling nets into a unifiled World Vertical Network. OD ,~ 173 OITON F I OV 5 I OSOLEI tnc las 9if led SECURITY CLASSIP CATION O T...rp,0p,Xp is T(P) = V(P) - U (P) (2.2) The gravity potential of the Earth is W(P) = V(P) + ((P) (2.3) where o ( P) = w rp’ cos 2 Op corresponds to the...is, therefore, A W(P,Q) = U(P) + T(P) + 0 (P) - U(Q) - T(Q) - o (Q) (2.4) With both P and Q on the Earth’s surface, the uncertainties in the calculated

  18. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  19. Modulation of electronic and optical properties in mixed halide perovskites CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Cui, Yu; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Huang, Le; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of lead halide perovskites with band gaps in the visible presents important potential in the design of high efficient solar cells. CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are stable compounds within this new family of semiconductors. By performing the first-principles calculation, we explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with various compositions of halide atoms. Structural stability is demonstrated with halide atoms distributing randomly at the halide atomic sites. CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) exhibit the modulation of their band gaps by varying the halide composition. Our results also indicate that CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with different halide compositions are suitable to application to solar cells for the general features are well preserved. Good absorption to lights of different wavelengths has been obtained in these mixed halide perovskites.

  20. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 #6;± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  1. Tramadol and another atypical opioid meperidine have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioural effects, but decreased analgesic effects, in genetically deficient serotonin transporter (SERT) mice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Meredith A; Jensen, Catherine L; Murphy, Dennis L

    2009-09-01

    The serotonin syndrome is a potential side-effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). We recently reported a genetic mouse model for the serotonin syndrome, as serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioural responses to the MAOI tranylcypromine and the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). As numerous case reports implicate the atypical opioids tramadol and meperidine in the development of the human serotonin syndrome, we examined tramadol and meperidine as possible causative drugs in the rodent model of the serotonin syndrome in SERT wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice. Comparisons were made with SERT mice treated with either vehicle or morphine, an opioid not implicated in the serotonin syndrome in humans. Here we show that tramadol and meperidine, but not morphine, induce serotonin syndrome-like behaviours in mice, and we show that this response is exaggerated in mice lacking one or two copies of SERT. The exaggerated response to tramadol in SERT-/- mice was blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635. Further, we show that morphine-, meperidine- and tramadol-induced analgesia is markedly decreased in SERT-/- mice. These studies suggest that caution seems warranted in prescribing or not warning patients receiving SSRIs or MAOIs that dangerous side-effects may occur during concurrent use of tramadol and similar agents. These findings suggest that it is conceivable that there might be increased vulnerability in individuals with SERT polymorphisms that may reduce SERT by more than 50%, the level in SERT+/- mice.

  2. Dysfunction of Inflammation-Resolving Pathways Is Associated with Exaggerated Postoperative Cognitive Decline in a Rat Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Terrando, Niccolo; Yan, Yan; Chawla, Ajay; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Matthay, Michael A; Maze, Mervyn

    2012-01-01

    The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway (CAP), which terminates in the spleen, attenuates postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) in rodents. Surgical patients with metabolic syndrome exhibit exaggerated and persistent PCD that is reproduced in postoperative rats selectively bred for easy fatigability and that contain all features of metabolic syndrome (low-capacity runners [LCRs]). We compared the CAP and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), another inflammation-resolving pathway in LCR, with its counterpart high-capacity runner (HCR) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized LCR and HCR rats either underwent aseptic trauma involving tibial fracture (surgery) or not (sham). At postoperative d 3 (POD3), compared with HCR, LCR rats exhibited significantly exaggerated PCD (trace fear conditioning freezing time 43% versus 57%). Separate cohorts were killed at POD3 to collect plasma for LXA4 and to isolate splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) to analyze CAP signaling, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages (M2 Mφ). Under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α produced by splenic MNCs was 117% higher in LCR sham and 52% higher in LCR surgery compared with HCR sham and surgery rats; LPS-stimulated TNF-α production could not be inhibited by an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, whereas inhibition by the β2 adrenergic agonist, salmeterol, was significantly less (−35%) than that obtained in HCR rats. Compared to HCR, sham and surgery LCR rats had reduced β2 adrenergic receptor–expressing T lymphocytes (59%, 44%), Tregs (47%, 54%) and M2 Mφ (45%, 39%); surgical LCR rats’ hippocampal M2 Mφ was 66% reduced, and plasma LXA4 was decreased by 120%. Rats with the metabolic syndrome have ineffective inflammation-resolving mechanisms that represent plausible reasons for the exaggerated and persistent PCD. PMID:23296426

  3. Dysfunction of inflammation-resolving pathways is associated with exaggerated postoperative cognitive decline in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Terrando, Niccolo; Yan, Yan; Chawla, Ajay; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Matthay, Michael A; Maze, Mervyn

    2013-02-08

    The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway (CAP), which terminates in the spleen, attenuates postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) in rodents. Surgical patients with metabolic syndrome exhibit exaggerated and persistent PCD that is reproduced in postoperative rats selectively bred for easy fatigability and that contain all features of metabolic syndrome (low-capacity runners [LCRs]). We compared the CAP and lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)), another inflammation-resolving pathway in LCR, with its counterpart high-capacity runner (HCR) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized LCR and HCR rats either underwent aseptic trauma involving tibial fracture (surgery) or not (sham). At postoperative d 3 (POD3), compared with HCR, LCR rats exhibited significantly exaggerated PCD (trace fear conditioning freezing time 43% versus 57%). Separate cohorts were killed at POD3 to collect plasma for LXA4 and to isolate splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) to analyze CAP signaling, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages (M2 Mφ). Under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α produced by splenic MNCs was 117% higher in LCR sham and 52% higher in LCR surgery compared with HCR sham and surgery rats; LPS-stimulated TNF-α production could not be inhibited by an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, whereas inhibition by the β(2) adrenergic agonist, salmeterol, was significantly less (-35%) than that obtained in HCR rats. Compared to HCR, sham and surgery LCR rats had reduced β(2) adrenergic receptor-expressing T lymphocytes (59%, 44%), Tregs (47%, 54%) and M2 Mφ (45%, 39%); surgical LCR rats' hippocampal M2 Mφ was 66% reduced, and plasma LXA4 was decreased by 120%. Rats with the metabolic syndrome have ineffective inflammation-resolving mechanisms that represent plausible reasons for the exaggerated and persistent PCD.

  4. Lower Vitamin D Level and Distinct Tear Cytokine Profile Were Observed in Patients with Mild Dry Eye Signs but Exaggerated Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Rohit; Sethu, Swaminathan; Chevour, Priyanka; Deshpande, Kalyani; Pahuja, Natasha; Nagaraja, Harsha; Pindipapanahalli, Narendra; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye is associated with inflammation, pain, and discomfort. Vitamin D is known to modulate immune responses and pain. This study investigates the level of serum vitamin D and tear-inflammatory proteins with relation to exaggerated symptoms in patients with mild dry eye. Methods Patients with mild dry eye signs (Dry Eye Workshop [DEWS] severity grade 1) but with exaggerated symptoms and healthy controls (n = 19, each) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Schirmer's Test I (mm), tear film break-up time (TBUT; secs), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score were recorded. Serum vitamin D level and tear cytokine levels were measured. Results The mean OSDI score in the patient cohort (46 ± 3) was significantly higher than controls (8.4 ± 1.6). TBUT was lower (7.6 ± 0.3 secs) in patients compared with controls (11.0 ± 0.9 secs). Mean Schirmer's Test I value in patients (19.3 ± 1.4 mm) was lower than in controls (30.6 ± 1.9 mm). An inverse correlation was observed between serum vitamin D levels and OSDI score (r = −0.569; P = 0.01). Significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-17A/F, interferon (IFN)-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, IL-4, IL-10, and decreased IL-2 concentrations was observed in the tears of patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion Decreased serum vitamin D was associated with exaggerated symptoms in dry eye patients with mild dry eye signs. In addition, altered tear cytokine profile was also observed in these patients. Translational Relevance Vitamin D measurements would aid in the diagnosis and management of dry eye. PMID:27980879

  5. Electronic structures and optical properties of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys for solar absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu; Zhang, Qiming

    2015-05-01

    The band structures and optical properties of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys are studied by means of first-principles methods, considering different Se contents x. Numerical results show that Se content has an obvious influence on band structures and optical properties of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys. The band gap values of α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys decrease monotonically when Se concentrations increase, resulting in an obvious increase of the optical absorption edge in the visible range. In particular, our results show that α-Fe2O3-xSex alloys have the direct band gap properties with band gap values when Se content x ≈ 0.17, which is beneficial to solar cell applications.

  6. Composition dependence of superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))O(y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1993-01-01

    Eleven different compositions in the system YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))O(y) (x = 0 to 0.3) have been synthesized and characterized by electrical resistivity measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The superconducting transition temperature T sub c (onset) was almost unaffected by the presence of alumina due to its limited solubility in YBa2Cu3O(7-x). However, T sub c(R = 0) gradually decreased, and the resistive tails became longer with increasing Al2O3 concentration. This was probably due to formation of BaAl2O4 and other impurity phases from chemical decomposition of the superconducting phase by reaction with Al2O3.

  7. Composition dependence of superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))Oy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven different compositions in the system YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))O(y) (x = 0 to 0.3) have been synthesized and characterized by electrical resistivity measurements, powder x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The superconducting transition temperature T sub c (onset) was almost unaffected by the presence of alumina due to its limited solubility in YBa2Cu3O(7-x). However, T sub c(R = 0) gradually decreased, and the resistive tails became longer with increasing Al2O3 concentration. This was probably due to formation of BaAl2O4 and other impurity phases from chemical decomposition of the superconducting phase by reaction with Al2O3.

  8. Optimization design of periscope type 3X zoom lens design for a five megapixel cellphone camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Chao, Yu-Hao; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a periscope type 3X zoom lenses design for a five megapixel cellphone camera. The configuration of optical system uses the right angle prism in front of the zoom lenses to change the optical path rotated by a 90° angle resulting in the zoom lenses length of 6 mm. The zoom lenses can be embedded in mobile phone with a thickness of 6 mm. The zoom lenses have three groups with six elements. The half field of view is varied from 30° to 10.89°, the effective focal length is adjusted from 3.142 mm to 9.426 mm, and the F-number is changed from 2.8 to 5.13.

  9. Use of 3X3 integrated optic polarizer/splitters for a smart aerospace plane structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshamani, Ramani; Alex, T. K.

    1991-10-01

    A fiber-optic/integrated optic optoelectronic neural computer approach to the design of an 'intelligent' aerospace structure is described, and the methodology of the approach is defined. A source consisting of a strained-layer QW laser emitting 100 micro-W at 978 nm and an Er-doped single-mode polarization preserving fiber laser with a gain of 3.9 dB/mW is assumed. The SNR for the aerospace plane is calculated with 49 sensing arms. A 441-path splitter is required; this is designed using an eight-stage multipath coupler based on a 3X3 polarizer/splitter as the basic repeating element. A surface-mounted implementation is suggested, which includes a 448-path switch, an integrated-optic coupler, a detector, an ADC, and a processor.

  10. Optimization of a 3x3 focusing array for heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B

    2005-08-08

    A heavy ion driver for inertial fusion will accelerate an array of beams through common induction cores and then direct the beams onto the DT target. An array of quadrupole focusing magnets is used to prevent beam expansion from space charge forces. In the array, the magnet fields from the coils embracing the beams are coupled, which reduces the cost of superconductor and increases the focusing power. The challenges in designing such an array are meeting the strict requirements for the quadrupole field inside the beam pipes and preventing stray fields outside. We report our optimization effort on designing such an array and show that 3 x 3 or larger arrays are feasible and practical to build with flat racetrack coils.

  11. Bi2Te3-xSex series studied by resistivity and thermopower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrap, Ana; Ubaldini, Alberto; Giannini, Enrico; Forró, László

    2014-09-01

    We study the detailed temperature and composition dependence of the resistivity, \\rho(T) , and thermopower, S(T), for a series of layered bismuth chalcogenides Bi2Te3-xSex, and report the stoichiometry dependence of the optical band gap. In the resistivity of the most compensated member, Bi2Te2.1Se0.9, we find a low-temperature plateau whose onset temperature correlates with the high-temperature activation energy. For the whole series S(T) can be described by a simple model for an extrinsic semiconductor. By substituting Se for Te, the Fermi level is tuned from the valence band into the conduction band. The maximum values of S(T), bulk band gap as well the activation energy in the resistivity are found for x \\approx 0.9 .

  12. Dark matter from a classically scale-invariant S U (3 )X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Alexandros; Tamvakis, Kyriakos

    2016-09-01

    In this work we study a classically scale-invariant extension of the Standard Model in which the dark matter and electroweak scales are generated through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. The extra S U (3 )X gauge factor gets completely broken by the vacuum expectation values of two scalar triplets. Out of the eight resulting massive vector bosons the three lightest are stable due to an intrinsic Z2×Z2' discrete symmetry and can constitute dark matter candidates. We analyze the phenomenological viability of the predicted multi-Higgs sector imposing theoretical and experimental constraints. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the dark matter predictions of the model solving numerically the set of coupled Boltzmann equations involving all relevant dark matter processes and explore the direct detection prospects of the dark matter candidates.

  13. Tc(VII) Reduction Kinetics by Titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4) Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juan; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arenholz, Elke; Heald, Steve M.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-09-01

    Technetium contamination remains a major environmental problem at nuclear reprocessing sites, such as at the Hanford nuclear reservation, Washington, U.S.A. Here we investigate the heterogeneous reduction of the highly soluble pertechnetate anion [Tc(VII)O4-] to sparingly soluble Tc(IV)-bearing solids by a novel and well-characterized set of mixed-valent titanium-doped magnetite nanoparticles, structurally and chemically analogous to titanomagnetites naturally present in Hanford sediments. Titanomagnetite (Fe3 xTixO4) nanoparticles (10-12 nm) with varying Ti content (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.53) were synthesized in aqueous suspension. Reaction with 10 and 30 μM Tc(VII) solution yielded fast exponentially decaying reduction kinetics with rates that increased with increasing solid-state Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in the nanoparticles, a characteristic systematically controlled by the Ti-content. Nanoparticles before and after reduction experiments and surface-associated products of Tc(VII) reduction were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption nearedge spectroscopy (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), micro Xray diffraction (μ-XRD), X-ray absorption (XA) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). A mechanistic reaction model was developed involving reduction of Tc(VII) to form Tc(IV)/Fe(III) solids by structural Fe(II) enriched at the nanoparticle surface, a reactive Fe(II) pool that during reaction is resupplied and sustained by outward migration of Fe(II) from the particle interior with concurrent inward migration of charge-balancing cationic vacancies in a ratio of 3:1. The reaction process was quantitatively linked to mass and electron balanced changes in the Fe3-xTixO4 nanoparticles, and the accessibility of structural Fe(II) from these phases was determined.

  14. Triacylated cyanidin 3-(3X-glucosylsambubioside)-5-glucosides from the flowers of Malcolmia maritima.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2008-02-01

    Three acylated cyanidin 3-(3(X)-glucosylsambubioside)-5-glucosides (1-3) and one non-acylated cyanidin 3-(3(X)-glucosylsambubioside)-5-glucoside (4) were isolated from the purple-violet or violet flowers and purple stems of Malcolmia maritima (L.) R. Br (the Cruciferae), and their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In the flowers of this plant, pigment 1 was determined to be cyanidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-sinapoyl)-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) as a major pigment, and a minor pigment 2 was determined to be the cis-p-coumaroyl isomer of pigment 1. In the stems, pigment 3 was determined to be cyanidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-sinapoyl)-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) as a major anthocyanin, and also a non-acylated anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-[2-O-(3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) was determined to be a minor pigment (pigment 4). In this study, it was established that the acylation-enzymes of malonic acid has important roles for the acylation of 5-glucose residues of these anthocyanins in the flower-tissues of M. maritima; however, the similar enzymatic reactions seemed to be inhibited or lacking in the stem-tissues.

  15. Cu3-xP Nanocrystals as a Material Platform for Near-Infrared Plasmonics and Cation Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis approaches to colloidal Cu3P nanocrystals (NCs) have been recently developed, and their optical absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR) have been interpreted as arising from a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Our pump–probe measurements on platelet-shaped Cu3-xP NCs corroborate the plasmonic character of this absorption. In accordance with studies on crystal structure analysis of Cu3P dating back to the 1970s, our density functional calculations indicate that this material is substoichiometric in copper, since the energy of formation of Cu vacancies in certain crystallographic sites is negative, that is, they are thermodynamically favored. Also, thermoelectric measurements point to a p-type behavior of the majority carriers from films of Cu3-xP NCs. It is likely that both the LSPR and the p-type character of our Cu3-xP NCs arise from the presence of a large number of Cu vacancies in such NCs. Motivated by the presence of Cu vacancies that facilitate the ion diffusion, we have additionally exploited Cu3-xP NCs as a starting material on which to probe cation exchange reactions. We demonstrate here that Cu3-xP NCs can be easily cation-exchanged to hexagonal wurtzite InP NCs, with preservation of the anion framework (the anion framework in Cu3-xP is very close to that of wurtzite InP). Intermediate steps in this reaction are represented by Cu3-xP/InP heterostructures, as a consequence of the fact that the exchange between Cu+ and In3+ ions starts from the peripheral corners of each NC and gradually evolves toward the center. The feasibility of this transformation makes Cu3-xP NCs an interesting material platform from which to access other metal phosphides by cation exchange. PMID:25960605

  16. Cu3-x P Nanocrystals as a Material Platform for Near-Infrared Plasmonics and Cation Exchange Reactions.

    PubMed

    De Trizio, Luca; Gaspari, Roberto; Bertoni, Giovanni; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Scotognella, Francesco; Maserati, Lorenzo; Zhang, Yang; Messina, Gabriele C; Prato, Mirko; Marras, Sergio; Cavalli, Andrea; Manna, Liberato

    2015-02-10

    Synthesis approaches to colloidal Cu3P nanocrystals (NCs) have been recently developed, and their optical absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR) have been interpreted as arising from a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Our pump-probe measurements on platelet-shaped Cu3-x P NCs corroborate the plasmonic character of this absorption. In accordance with studies on crystal structure analysis of Cu3P dating back to the 1970s, our density functional calculations indicate that this material is substoichiometric in copper, since the energy of formation of Cu vacancies in certain crystallographic sites is negative, that is, they are thermodynamically favored. Also, thermoelectric measurements point to a p-type behavior of the majority carriers from films of Cu3-x P NCs. It is likely that both the LSPR and the p-type character of our Cu3-x P NCs arise from the presence of a large number of Cu vacancies in such NCs. Motivated by the presence of Cu vacancies that facilitate the ion diffusion, we have additionally exploited Cu3-x P NCs as a starting material on which to probe cation exchange reactions. We demonstrate here that Cu3-x P NCs can be easily cation-exchanged to hexagonal wurtzite InP NCs, with preservation of the anion framework (the anion framework in Cu3-x P is very close to that of wurtzite InP). Intermediate steps in this reaction are represented by Cu3-x P/InP heterostructures, as a consequence of the fact that the exchange between Cu(+) and In(3+) ions starts from the peripheral corners of each NC and gradually evolves toward the center. The feasibility of this transformation makes Cu3-x P NCs an interesting material platform from which to access other metal phosphides by cation exchange.

  17. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  18. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  19. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  20. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  2. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  3. Lack of evidence for a role for either the in utero or suckling periods in the exaggerated salt preference of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Di Nicolantonio, Robert; Westcott, Kerryn T; Koutsis, Kathy; Wlodek, Mary E

    2005-11-15

    When offered as a choice with drinking water in two-bottle preference tests, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the Okamoto strain exhibit a marked preference for saline solutions. While this behaviour is thought to be in part genetically determined, the role of environmental influences-in particular, perinatal ones-are poorly understood. In this study, we have used combined embryo transfer and cross-fostering techniques between SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to delineate the relative roles of the prenatal and postnatal, suckling environment on the exaggerated saline preference of male SHR and WKY offspring at 20 weeks of age. We found, using two-bottle preference tests using water and 140 mmol/l sodium chloride solution, that neither the in utero period nor the postnatal, suckling period played a role in the development of the much larger total fluid intake (water plus saline) or saline preference (proportion of the total fluid intake taken as saline) of the SHR. We thus conclude that maternal and perinatal environmental factors do not play a major role in this behaviour and that the exaggerated saline preference of the SHR is probably largely genetically determined.

  4. Processing and characterization of zeta-Ta4C 3-x: A high toughness tantalum carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sygnatowicz, Michael M.

    Tantalum carbides are commonly processed by hot-pressing, canned hot-isostatic-pressing, or spark-plasma sintering because of their high melting temperatures and low diffusivities. This study reports processing of dense ζ-Ta4C 3-x by reaction sintering of a Ta and TaC powder mixture (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66). ζ-Ta4C3-x is of interest due to its rhombohedral (trigonal) crystal structure that may be characterized as a polytype with both face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Ta stacking sequences interrupted by stacking faults and missing carbon layers. This structure leads to easy cleaving on the basal planes and high fracture toughness. A key step in processing is the hydrogenation of the Ta powder to produce beta-TaH x, a hard and brittle phase that enables efficient comminution during milling and production of small, equiaxed Ta particles that can be packed to high green density with the TaC powder. Studies of phase evolution by quantitative X-ray diffraction during sintering revealed several intermediate reactions: (a) decomposition of beta-TaHx to Ta, (b) diffusion of C from gamma-TaC to Ta leading to the formation of α-Ta2Cy' with the kinetics described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation with an exponent, n = 0.5, and an activation energy of 221 kJ/mole, (c) equilibration of α-Ta2Cy' and gamma-TaC 0.78 phases, and (d) formation of ζ-Ta4C2.56 from the equilibrated α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 phases with the kinetics characterized by a higher JMAK exponent ( n ≈ 3) and higher activation energy (1089 kJ/mole). The microstructure showed evidence of nucleation and growth of the ζ-Ta4C 2.56 phase in both the α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 parent phases with distinct difference in the morphology due to the different number of variants of the habit plane. A hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) material (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66), having formed 95 w% ζ-phase, attained a fracture toughness of 15.6 +/- 0.5 MPa√m and a

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) and Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) Cathode Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Wise, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Nanopowders of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) (LSC) and Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) (SSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) with La(Sr)Ga(Mg)O(3-x) (LSGM) as the electrolyte, were synthesized by low-temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Thermal decomposition of the citrate gels was followed by simultaneous DSC/TGA methods. Development of phases in the gels, on heat treatments at various temperatures, was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Solgel powders calcined at 550 to 1000 C consisted of a number of phases. Single perovskite phase La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) or Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) powders were obtained at 1200 and 1300 C, respectively. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy. The average particle size of the powders was approx.15 nm after 700 C calcinations and slowly increased to 70 to 100 nm after heat treatments at 1300 to 1400 C.

  6. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  7. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  8. The School Library Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  9. Calibration and Cross-Validation of the ActiGraph wGT3X+ Accelerometer for the Estimation of Physical Activity Intensity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    McGarty, Arlene M.; Penpraze, Victoria; Melville, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Valid objective measurement is integral to increasing our understanding of physical activity and sedentary behaviours. However, no population-specific cut points have been calibrated for children with intellectual disabilities. Therefore, this study aimed to calibrate and cross-validate the first population-specific accelerometer intensity cut points for children with intellectual disabilities. Methods Fifty children with intellectual disabilities were randomly assigned to the calibration (n = 36; boys = 28, 9.53±1.08yrs) or cross-validation (n = 14; boys = 9, 9.57±1.16yrs) group. Participants completed a semi-structured school-based activity session, which included various activities ranging from sedentary to vigorous intensity. Direct observation (SOFIT tool) was used to calibrate the ActiGraph wGT3X+, which participants wore on the right hip. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses determined the optimal cut points for sedentary, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity for the vertical axis and vector magnitude. Classification agreement was investigated using sensitivity, specificity, total agreement, and Cohen’s kappa scores against the criterion measure of SOFIT. Results The optimal (AUC = .87−.94) vertical axis cut points (cpm) were ≤507 (sedentary), 1008−2300 (moderate), and ≥2301 (vigorous), which demonstrated high sensitivity (81−88%) and specificity (81−85%). The optimal (AUC = .86−.92) vector magnitude cut points (cpm) of ≤1863 (sedentary), 2610−4214 (moderate), and ≥4215 (vigorous) demonstrated comparable, albeit marginally lower, accuracy than the vertical axis cut points (sensitivity = 80−86%; specificity = 77−82%). Classification agreement ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .51−.85) with high sensitivity and specificity, and confirmed the trend that accuracy increased with intensity, and vertical axis cut points provide higher classification agreement than vector magnitude cut points

  10. Superconductivity and Charge Density Wave in ZrTe3-xSex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangde; Ning, Wei; Li, Lijun; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Yu; Pi, Li; Ma, Yongchang; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Minglian; Sun, Yuping; Petrovic, Cedomir; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-06-02

    Charge density wave (CDW), the periodic modulation of the electronic charge density, will open a gap on the Fermi surface that commonly leads to decreased or vanishing conductivity. On the other hand superconductivity, a commonly believed competing order, features a Fermi surface gap that results in infinite conductivity. Here we report that superconductivity emerges upon Se doping in CDW conductor ZrTe3 when the long range CDW order is gradually suppressed. Superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) in ZrTe3-xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) increases up to 4 K plateau for 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07. Further increase in Se content results in diminishing Tc and filametary superconductivity. The CDW modes from Raman spectra are observed in x = 0.04 and 0.1 crystals, where signature of ZrTe3 CDW order in resistivity vanishes. The electronic-scattering for high Tc crystals is dominated by local CDW fluctuations at high temperatures, the resistivity is linear up to highest measured T = 300 K and contributes to substantial in-plane anisotropy.

  11. Coherent energy scale revealed by ultrafast dynamics of UX3 (X = Al, Sn, Ga) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Saritha K.; Zhu, J.-X.; Sarrao, J. L.; Taylor, A. J.; Chia, Elbert E. M.

    2012-09-01

    The temperature dependence of relaxation dynamics of UX3 (X = Al, Ga, Sn) compounds is studied using the time-resolved pump-probe technique in reflectance geometry. For UGa3, our data are consistent with the formation of a spin density wave gap as evidenced from the quasidivergence of the relaxation time τ near the Néel temperature TN. For UAl3 and USn3, the relaxation dynamics shows a change from single-exponential to two-exponential behavior below a particular temperature, suggestive of coherence formation of the 5f electrons with the conduction band electrons. This particular temperature can be attributed to the spin fluctuation temperature Tsf, a measure of the strength of Kondo coherence. Our Tsf is consistent with other data such as resistivity and susceptibility measurements. The temperature dependence of the relaxation amplitude and time of UAl3 and USn3 were also fitted by the Rothwarf-Taylor model. Our results show that ultrafast optical spectroscopy is sensitive to c-f Kondo hybridization in the f-electron systems.

  12. BF3 x Et2O-mediated cascade cyclizations: synthesis of schweinfurthins F and G.

    PubMed

    Mente, Nolan R; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F

    2008-10-17

    The total synthesis of the natural stilbene (+)-schweinfurthin G (8) has been accomplished through a sequence based on an efficient cationic cascade cyclization. This cascade process is initiated by Lewis acid promoted ring opening of an epoxide and terminated through a novel reaction with a phenolic oxygen "protected" as its MOM ether. Several Lewis acids have been examined for their ability to induce this new reaction, and BF3 x Et2O was found to be the most effective. The only major byproduct under these conditions was one where the expected secondary alcohol was found as its MOM ether derivative (e.g., 30). While this byproduct could be converted to the original target compound through hydrolysis, it also could be employed as a protected alcohol to allow preparation of a benzylic phosphonate (43) without dehydration of the secondary alcohol. The resulting phosphonate was employed in a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation with an aldehyde representing the right half of the target compounds, an approach complementary to previous studies based on condensation of a right-half phosphonate and a left-half aldehyde.

  13. Electronic structures and geometries of the XF{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I, At) fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; Amaouch, Mohamed; Pilmé, Julien; Galland, Nicolas; Maurice, Rémi

    2015-09-21

    The potential energy surfaces of the group 17 XF{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I, At) fluorides have been investigated for the first time with multiconfigurational wave function theory approaches. In agreement with experiment, bent T-shaped C{sub 2v} structures are computed for ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 3}, and IF{sub 3}, while we predict that an average D{sub 3h} structure would be experimentally observed for AtF{sub 3}. Electron correlation and scalar relativistic effects strongly reduce the energy difference between the D{sub 3h} geometry and the C{sub 2v} one, along the XF{sub 3} series, and in the X = At case, spin-orbit coupling also slightly reduces this energy difference. AtF{sub 3} is a borderline system where the D{sub 3h} structure becomes a minimum, i.e., the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect is inhibited since electron correlation and scalar-relativistic effects create small energy barriers leading to the global C{sub 2v} minima, although both types of effects interfere.

  14. Understanding the evolution of anomalous anharmonicity in Bi2Te3 -xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yao; Jia, Shuang; Cava, R. J.; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Gu, Genda; Burch, Kenneth S.

    2017-03-01

    The anharmonic effect in thermoelectrics has been a central topic for decades in both condensed matter physics and material science. However, despite the long-believed strong and complex anharmonicity in the Bi2Te3 -xSex series, experimental verification of anharmonicity and its evolution with doping remains elusive. We fill this important gap with high-resolution, temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in high-quality single crystals of Bi2Te3 , Bi2Te2Se , and Bi2Se3 over the temperature range from 4 to 293 K. Klemens's model was employed to explain the renormalization of their phonon linewidths. The phonon energies of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 are analyzed in detail from three aspects: lattice expansion, cubic anharmonicity, and quartic anharmonicity. For the first time, we explain the evolution of anharmonicity in various phonon modes and across the series. In particular, we find that the interplay between cubic and quartic anharmonicity is governed by their distinct dependence on the phonon density of states, providing insights into anomalous anharmonicity designing of new thermoelectrics.

  15. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  16. A sequence of transformations related to the formation of M{sub 3}X{sub 2}-type superstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, A. I.

    2015-01-15

    A symmetry analysis of monoclinic, orthorhombic, and trigonal M{sub 3}X{sub 2}-type superstructures that can be formed in strongly stoichiometric MX{sub y} compounds with B1 structure is carried out. Channels of order-disorder transitions MX{sub y} → M{sub 3}X{sub 2} are determined. It is shown that, as temperature decreases, two physically admissible sequences of transformations associated with the formation of M{sub 3}X{sub 2} superstructures are possible in nonstoichiometric MX{sub y} compounds of group IV transition metals. By an example of vanadium carbide VC{sub y}, it is demonstrated that orthorhombic or monoclinic V{sub 3}C{sub 2} superstructures can be obtained with the formation of a nanostructure.

  17. Ferromagnetism and electronic structures of nonstoichiometric Heusler-alloy Fe3-xMnxSi Epilayers grown on Ge(111).

    PubMed

    Hamaya, K; Itoh, H; Nakatsuka, O; Ueda, K; Yamamoto, K; Itakura, M; Taniyama, T; Ono, T; Miyao, M

    2009-04-03

    For the study of ferromagnetic materials which are compatible with group-IV semiconductor spintronics, we demonstrate control of the ferromagnetic properties of Heusler-alloy Fe3-xMnxSi epitaxially grown on Ge(111) by tuning the Mn composition x. Interestingly, we obtain L2(1)-ordered structures even for nonstoichiometric atomic compositions. The Curie temperature of the epilayers with x approximately 0.6 exceeds 300 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the electronic structures of the nonstoichiometric Fe3-xMnxSi alloys become half-metallic for 0.75 < or = x < or = 1.5. We discuss the possibility of room-temperature ferromagnetic Fe(3-x)Mn(x)Si/Ge epilayers with high spin polarization.

  18. In-situ observation of self-regulated switching behavior in WO{sub 3-x} based resistive switching devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, D. S.; Wang, W. X.; Chen, Y. S. Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2014-09-15

    The transmittance of tungsten oxides can be adjusted by oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) concentration due to its electrochromic property. Here, we report an in-situ observation of resistive switching phenomenon in the oxygen-deficient WO{sub 3-x} planar devices. Besides directly identifying the formation/rupture of dark-colored conductive filaments in oxide layer, the stripe-like WO{sub 3-x} device demonstrated self-regulated switching behavior during the endurance testing, resulting in highly consistent switching parameters after a stabilizing process. For very high V{sub o}s mobility was demonstrated in the WO{sub 3-x} film by the pulse experiment, we suggested that the electric-field-induced homogeneous migration of V{sub o}s was the physical origin for such unique switching characteristics.

  19. Vertical Beam Polarization at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Baunack, S.; Bender, D.; Beričič, J.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Dehn, M.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Gutheil, B.; Herrmann, P.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kolar, T.; Kreidel, H.-J.; Maas, F.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Nillius, F.; Nuck, A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Spruck, B.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Tioukine, V.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time a vertically polarized electron beam has been used for physics experiments at MAMI in the energy range between 180 and 855 MeV. The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry An, which is a direct probe of higher-order photon exchange beyond the first Born approximation, has been measured in the reaction 12C (e → , e ‧)12C . Vertical polarization orientation was necessary to measure this asymmetry with the existing experimental setup. In this paper we describe the procedure to orient the electron polarization vector vertically, and the concept of determining both its magnitude and orientation with the available setup. A sophisticated method has been developed to overcome the lack of a polarimeter setup sensitive to the vertical polarization component.

  20. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  1. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  2. Structural and superconducting properties of co-doped YBa2-xLaxCu3-xMxOz and La-free YBa2Cu3-xMxOz (M = Al, Zn) high-TC superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, S. J.; Jin, W. T.; Guo, C. Q.; Zhang, H.

    2012-05-01

    Two co-doped high-Tc superconducting systems, YBa2-xLaxCu3-xAlxOz and YBa2-xLaxCu3-xZnxOz (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3), both of which have not been reported up to the present, were synthesized. The structural and superconducting properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and DC magnetization measurement. Comparing the properties of these co-doped systems with single-doped systems YBa2Cu3-xAlxOz and YBa2Cu3-xZnxOz, it shows that in the Al-single-doped YBCO system, the depression of the critical temperature (Tc) with doping is stronger than that in (La, Al)-co-doped system, however, in the Zn-single-doped system, the Tc descends slower than that in (La, Zn)-co-doped system. This is possibly due to the opposite change of the distance between the Ba site and the CuO2 plane induced by the La doping. Besides, the La doping has another effect of improving the solid solubility compared with the Al- or Zn-single-doped system.

  3. Quantitative representations of an exaggerated anxiety response in the brain of female spider phobics-a parametric fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zilverstand, Anna; Sorger, Bettina; Kaemingk, Anita; Goebel, Rainer

    2017-03-21

    We employed a novel parametric spider picture set in the context of a parametric fMRI anxiety provocation study, designed to tease apart brain regions involved in threat monitoring from regions representing an exaggerated anxiety response in spider phobics. For the stimulus set, we systematically manipulated perceived proximity of threat by varying a depicted spider's context, size, and posture. All stimuli were validated in a behavioral rating study (phobics n = 20; controls n = 20; all female). An independent group participated in a subsequent fMRI anxiety provocation study (phobics n = 7; controls n = 7; all female), in which we compared a whole-brain categorical to a whole-brain parametric analysis. Results demonstrated that the parametric analysis provided a richer characterization of the functional role of the involved brain networks. In three brain regions-the mid insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-activation was linearly modulated by perceived proximity specifically in the spider phobia group, indicating a quantitative representation of an exaggerated anxiety response. In other regions (e.g., the amygdala), activation was linearly modulated in both groups, suggesting a functional role in threat monitoring. Prefrontal regions, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were activated during anxiety provocation but did not show a stimulus-dependent linear modulation in either group. The results confirm that brain regions involved in anxiety processing hold a quantitative representation of a pathological anxiety response and more generally suggest that parametric fMRI designs may be a very powerful tool for clinical research in the future, particularly when developing novel brain-based interventions (e.g., neurofeedback training). Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Metabolic and cellular alterations underlying the exaggerated renal prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in ureter obstruction in rabbits. Inflammatory response involving fibroblasts and mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Okegawa, T; Jonas, P E; DeSchryver, K; Kawasaki, A; Needleman, P

    1983-01-01

    Unilateral ureter obstruction in rabbits produced profound changes in endogenous and exogenous renal arachidonic acid metabolism. Isolated perfused hydronephrotic kidneys (removed after 3 or 10 d of ureter obstruction) responded to bradykinin stimulation with a markedly enhanced release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2. Reversal (3 or 10 d) of the ureter obstruction resulted in a reduction in the vasoactive peptide-induced release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 from the perfused hydronephrotic kidney. However, postobstruction reversal of prostaglandin production by the agonist-stimulated perfused kidney was not reflected in the cortical microsomal cyclooxygenase activity, which is greatly enhanced during ureter obstruction and does not decrease after removal of the obstruction. Histological analysis of the renal cortex in rabbits with ureteral obstruction revealed a proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and the presence of mononuclear cells; removal of the obstruction did not result in a disappearance of cortical fibroblasts but did result in a decrease of monocytes. The critical involvement of mononuclear cells in the exaggerated arachidonate metabolism that occurs during hydronephrosis was exhibited by the demonstration that: (a) only the perfused hydronephrotic rabbit kidney responded to administration of endotoxin with a sustained release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2; (b) the contralateral rabbit kidney, which is devoid of mononuclear cells, did not respond to endotoxin; and (c) the hydronephrotic cat kidney, which exhibits a fibroblast proliferation with a low number of mononuclear cells, did not respond to endotoxin. Thus, proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and the presence of mononuclear cells appear to be involved in the exaggerated prostaglandin and thromboxane production underlying hydronephrosis. The increase in microsomal cyclooxygenase activity is apparently most closely correlated with the increased fibroblastic activation

  5. Dexamethasone-mediated changes in adipose triacylglycerol metabolism are exaggerated, not diminished, in the absence of a functional GR dimerization domain.

    PubMed

    Roohk, Donald J; Mascharak, Smita; Khambatta, Cyrus; Leung, Ho; Hellerstein, Marc; Harris, Charles

    2013-04-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) has multiple effector mechanisms, including dimerization-mediated transactivation of target genes via DNA binding and transcriptional repression mediated by protein-protein interactions. Much attention has been focused on developing selective GR modulators that would dissociate adverse effects from therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects. The GR(dim/dim) mouse has a mutation in the dimerization domain of GR and has been shown to have attenuated transactivation with intact repression. To understand the role of GR dimerization-dependent targets in multiple tissues, we measured metabolic fluxes through several disease-relevant GC target pathways using heavy water labeling and mass spectrometry in wild-type and GR(dim/dim) mice administered the potent GC dexamethasone (DEX). Absolute triglyceride synthesis was increased in both wild-type and GR(dim/dim) mice by DEX in the inguinal and epididymal fat depots. GR(dim/dim) mice showed an exaggerated response to DEX in both depots. De novo lipogenesis was also greatly increased in both depots in response to DEX in GR(dim/dim), but not wild-type mice. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of DEX on bone and skin collagen synthesis rates was greater in wild-type compared with GR(dim/dim) mice. Wild-type mice were more sensitive to DEX-dependent decreases in insulin sensitivity than GR(dim/dim) mice. Wild-type and GR(dim/dim) mice were equally sensitive to DEX-dependent decreases in muscle protein synthesis. Chronic elevation of GCs in GR(dim/dim) mice results in severe runting and lethality. In conclusion, some metabolic effects of GC treatment are exaggerated in adipose tissue of GR(dim/dim) mice, suggesting that selective GR modulators based on dissociating GR transactivation from repression should be evaluated carefully.

  6. Atomic scale oxidation of a complex system: O2/alpha-SiC(0001)-( 3 x 3).

    PubMed

    Amy, F; Enriquez, H; Soukiassian, P; Storino, P F; Chabal, Y J; Mayne, A J; Dujardin, G; Hwu, Y K; Brylinski, C

    2001-05-07

    The atomic scale oxidation of the alpha-SiC(0001)-(3 x 3) surface is investigated by atom-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy, core level synchrotron radiation based photoemission spectroscopy, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The results reveal that the initial oxidation takes place through the relaxation of lower layers, away from the surface dangling bond, in sharp contrast to silicon oxidation.

  7. DHA Improves Cognition and Prevents Dysfunction of Entorhinal Cortex Neurons in 3xTg-AD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Dany; Julien, Carl; Tremblay, Cyntia; Calon, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Defects in neuronal activity of the entorhinal cortex (EC) are suspected to underlie the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been described, the effects of DHA on the physiology of EC neurons remain unexplored in animal models of AD. Here, we show that DHA consumption improved object recognition (↑12%), preventing deficits observed in old 3xTg-AD mice (↓12%). Moreover, 3xTg-AD mice displayed seizure-like akinetic episodes, not detected in NonTg littermates and partly prevented by DHA (↓50%). Patch-clamp recording revealed that 3xTg-AD EC neurons displayed (i) loss of cell capacitance (CC), suggesting reduced membrane surface area; (ii) increase of firing rate versus injected current (F-I) curve associated with modified action potentials, and (iii) overactivation of glutamatergic synapses, without changes in synaptophysin levels. DHA consumption increased CC (↑12%) and decreased F-I slopes (↓21%), thereby preventing the opposite alterations observed in 3xTg-AD mice. Our results indicate that cognitive performance and basic physiology of EC neurons depend on DHA intake in a mouse model of AD. PMID:21383850

  8. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  9. Efficient Tailoring of Upconversion Selectivity by Engineering Local Structure of Lanthanides in Na(x)REF(3+x) Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Sun, Ling-Dong; Wang, Ye-Fu; Ke, Jun; Si, Rui; Xiao, Jia-Wen; Lyu, Guang-Ming; Shi, Shuo; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2015-05-27

    Efficient tailoring of upconversion emissions in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals is of great significance for extended optical applications. Here, we present a facile and highly effective method to tailor the upconversion selectivity by engineering the local structure of lanthanides in Na(x)REF(3+x) nanocrystals. The local structure engineering was achieved through precisely tuning the composition of nanocrystals, with different [Na]/[RE] ([F]/[RE]) ratio. It was found that the lattice parameter as well as the coordination number and local symmetry of lanthanides changed with the composition. A significant difference in the red to green emission ratio, which varied from 1.9 to 71 and 1.6 to 116, was observed for Na(x)YF(3+x):Yb,Er and Na(x)GdF(3+x):Yb,Er nanocrystals, respectively. Moreover, the local structure-dependent upconversion selectivity has been verified for Na(x)YF(3+x):Yb,Tm nanocrystals. In addition, the local structure induced upconversion emission from Er(3+) enhanced 9 times, and the CaF2 shell grown epitaxially over the nanocrystals further promoted the red emission by 450 times, which makes it superior as biomarkers for in vivo bioimaging. These exciting findings in the local structure-dependent upconversion selectivity not only offer a general approach to tailoring lanthanide related upconversion emissions but also benefit multicolor displays and imaging.

  10. Occupational Survey Report, AFSC 2A3X1, A-10/F-15/U-2 Avonics Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    specific data – Did not evaluate electronics principles section of STS • STS is generally supported by survey data – Seven STS items were unsupported... electronics principles section of STS for possible references 27 2A3X1 Percent Members Performing Unit Learning Objective Prof Code

  11. Thermo-Elastic and Lattice Dynamical Properties of Pd3X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) Alloys: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surucu, G.; Colakoglu, K.; Ciftci, Y. O.; Ozisik, H. B.; Deligoz, E.

    2015-12-01

    Using the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) based on density functional theory, we have reported the structural, mechanical, electronic, and lattice dynamical properties of the intermetallic compounds Pd3X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) with D024 and the L12 structures. The elastic constants were predicted using the stress-finite strain technique. We performed numerical estimations of the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio anisotropy factor, G/ B ratio, and hardness. Our studies have showed that all Pd3X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) with D024 and the L12 structures are mechanically stable and relatively hard materials with low compressibility, and they could be considered as ductile systems. Also, the phonon dispersion curves and total and partial density of states were calculated and discussed for Pd3X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf). We finally estimated some thermodynamic properties such as entropy, free energy, and heat capacity at the temperature range 0-1000 K. The calculated phonon frequencies of Pd3X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of the studied compounds. For the first time, we have performed the numerical estimation of lattice dynamical properties for the compounds and still awaits experimental confirmation. The obtained ground state properties are in good agreement with those of experimental and theoretical studies.

  12. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Bi2Te3-xSex topological insulator alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Y.; Chiang, Y. F.; Chong, C. W.; Deng, Z. X.; Chen, Y. C.; Huang, J. C. A.; Cheng, C.-M.; Pi, T.-W.; Tsuei, K.-D.; Li, Z.; Qiu, H.

    2016-02-01

    We report a systematic study on the structural and electronic properties of Bi2Te3-xSex topological insulator alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A mixing ratio of Bi2Se3 to Bi2Te3 was controlled by varying the Bi:Te:Se flux ratio. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the high crystalline quality for the as-grown Bi2Te3-xSex films. Substitution of Te by Se is also revealed from both analyses. The surfaces of the films exhibit terrace-like quintuple layers and their size of the characteristic triangular terraces decreases monotonically with increasing Se content. However, the triangular terrace structure gradually recovers as the Se content further increases. Most importantly, the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results provide evidence of single-Dirac-cone like surface states in which Bi2Te3-xSex with Se/Te-substitution leads to tunable surface states. Our results demonstrate that by fine-tuned MBE growth conditions, Bi2Te3-xSex thin film alloys with tunable topological surface states can be obtained, providing an excellent platform for exploring the novel device applications based on this compound.

  13. Boson localization and universality in YBa2Cu(3-x)M(x)O(7-delta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallio, A.; Apaja, V.; Poykko, S.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a two component mixture of charged fermions on neutralizing background with all sign combinations and arbitrarily small mass ratios. In the two impurity limit for the heavier component we show that the pair forms a bound state for all charge combinations. In the lowest order approximation we derive a closed form expression Veff(r) for the binding potential which has short-range repulsion followed by attraction. In the classical limit, when the mass of embedded particles is large m2 much greater than m, we can calculate from Veff(r) also the cohesive energy E and the bond length R of a metallic crystal such as lithium. The lowest order result is R = 3.1 A, E = -0.9 eV, not entirely different from the experimental result for lithium metal. The same interaction for two holes on a parabolic band with m2 greater than m gives the quantum mechanical bound state which one may interpret as a boson or local pair in the case of high-Te and heavy fermion superconductors. We also show that for compounds of the type YBa2Cu(3 - x)M(x)O(7 - delta) one can understand most of the experimental results for the superconducting and normal states with a single temperature dependent boson breaking function f(T) for each impurity content x governing the decay of bosons into pairing fermions. In the normal state f(T) turns out to be a linear, universal function, independent of the impurity content I and the oxygen content delta. We predict with universality a depression in Tc(x) with slight down bending in agreement with experiment. As a natural consequence of the model the bosons become localized slightly above Tc due to the Wigner crystallization, enhanced with lattice local field minima. The holes remain delocalized with a linearly increasing concentration in the normal state, thus explaining the rising Hall density. The boson localization temperature T(sub BL) shows up as a minimum in the Hall density R(sub ab)(exp -1). We also give explanation for very recently observed

  14. [Oxygen transfer efficiency of four kinds substrates applied in artificial aeration vertical-flow wetland].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ji-Zheng; Li, Wen-Chao; Ke, Fan; Wang, Lei; Li, Xue-Juan

    2009-02-15

    In subsurface flow constructed wetlands, artificial aeration plays an important role in enhancing the ability of pollutant removal. Oxygenation capacity of four substrates, limestone, vesuvianite, 500 grade ceramisite and high-strength ceramisite, are tested under three kinds of gas volume [0.19, 0.38, 0.76 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1)] in artificial aeration vertical-flow wetland. When the gas volume is 0.19 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1), the results demonstrate that the oxygen utilization of 500 grade ceramisite and high-strength ceramisite are highest as 14.39% and 14.21%, and the oxygen utilization of limestone and vesuvianite are 11.68% and 13.11% respectively. With the increase of aeration intensity, oxygen transfer efficiency parameter KLa rises accordingly. However, the oxygen utilization of vesuvianite and two other kinds of ceramisite decreases with the increase of aeration intensity. The oxygen utilization of vesuvianite, 500 grad ceramisite and high-strength ceramisite are lower as 7.67%, 10.46% and 10.77% respectively when the aeration intensity is 0.76 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1). On the contrary, the oxygen utilization of limestone get its maximum value of 14.04% as the aeration intensity is 0.38 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1).

  15. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast.

    This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  17. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  18. YBa sub 2 Cu sub (3-x) Co sub x O sub y : A substrate material for YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. ); Cermignani, W.; Taylor, J.A. . Coll. of Ceramics)

    1992-04-01

    The physical properties of the ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub (3-x)}Co{sub x}O{sub y} have been investigated in order to evaluate its usefulness as a substrate material for YBCO superconductors. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub (3-x)}Co{sub x}O{sub y} has been found to be thermally and chemically compatible with 123 and displays adequate electrical properties for a substrate material. A material with the nominal composition of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2.2}Co{sub 0.8}O{sub 7} was investigated, extensively. The mechanical properties of this material were found to be poor, e.g., tensile strength was only 60 MPa. A semiconductor-like behavior was observed with a room-temperature resistivity of 70 m{Omega}.cm and a resistivity equal to 4 {times} 10{sup 6} m{Omega}.cm at 77 K.

  19. Growth and Faraday rotation characteristics of Tb3-xNdxGa5O12 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiangYong; Yang, Lei; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Jun; Hong, Jiaqi; Wang, Yaqi; Shi, Chunjun; Zhang, Peixiong; Zhang, Lianhan; Hang, Yin

    2015-09-01

    Tb3-xNdxGa5O12 single crystal with dimension of Φ22 mm × 28 mm and a good optical quality was grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray powder diffraction was carried out and lattice parameters were calculated, which showed that the single crystal belongs to cubic crystal system. The transmission spectrum in the wavelength range of 450-1500 nm, which indicated the crystal has low absorption coefficient at 900-1450 nm. The Verdet constants of Tb3-xNdxGa5O12 at 532, 633 and 1064 nm wavelengths calculated by the extinction method are 225, 145 and 41 radm-1 T-1, respectively, which are larger than that of commercial TGG (Tb3Ga5O12) reported. The magneto-optical figures of merit of the crystal calculated is 3162°/dB at 1064 nm, and the extinction ratio is larger than that of commercial TGG.

  20. Giant Faraday rotation in Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe5O12 epitaxial garnet films.

    PubMed

    Chandra Sekhar, M; Singh, Mahi R; Basu, Shantanu; Pinnepalli, Sai

    2012-04-23

    Thin films of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) with x = 0.7 and 0.8 compositions were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition. We investigated the effects of processing parameters used to fabricate these films by measuring various physical properties such as X-ray diffraction, transmittance, magnetization and Faraday rotation. In this study, we propose a phase diagram which provides a suitable window for the deposition of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) epitaxial films. We have also observed a giant Faraday rotation of 1-1.10 degree/µm in our optimized films. The measured Faraday rotation value is 1.6 and 50 times larger than that of CeYIG and YIG respectively. A theoretical model has been proposed for Faraday rotation based on density matrix method and an excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found.

  1. Preliminary Report on Oak Ridge National Laboratory Testing of Drake/ACSS/MA2/E3X

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; King, Daniel J.; Herron, Andrew N.; Davis, Cody; Temple, Bill; Baker, Gord; Li, Zhi; Starke, Michael R.; Ollis, T. Ben

    2016-01-01

    A key to industry acceptance of a new technology is extensive validation in field trials. The Powerline Conductor Accelerated Test facility (PCAT) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is specifically designed to evaluate the performance and reliability of a new conductor technology under real world conditions. The facility is set up to capture large amounts of data during testing. General Cable used the ORNL PCAT facility to validate the performance of TransPowr with E3X Technology a standard overhead conductor with an inorganic high emissivity, low absorptivity surface coating. Extensive testing has demonstrated a significant improvement in conductor performance across a wide range of operating temperatures, indicating that E3X Technology can provide a reduction in temperature, a reduction in sag, and an increase in ampacity when applied to the surface of any overhead conductor. This report provides initial results of that testing.

  2. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  3. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  4. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corrective measures taken are also described.

  5. Morphological and magnetic study of CaMnO{sub 3-x} oxides obtained from different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gil de Muro, Izaskun; Insausti, Maite; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo . E-mail: qiproapt@lg.ehu.es

    2005-03-15

    The CaMnO{sub 3-x} (x=0 and 0.02) mixed oxide was synthesised from both thermal treatment of a metallo-organic precursor and ceramic method. The morphology of the different products is clearly different. The samples exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering with T{sub N} near to 120K and a weak ferromagnetic component above T{sub N}. This is slightly stronger in the phase prepared by the ceramic route.

  6. 3xTg-AD Mice Exhibit an Activated Central Stress Axis during Early-Stage Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Simmons, Tracy A.; Sugg, Andrew; Ural, Eren; Stewart, James A.; Beals, James L.; Wei, Qiang; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis occurs in response to the organism’s innate need for homeostasis. The glucocorticoids (GCs) that are released into the circulation upon acute activation of the HPA axis perform stress-adaptive functions and provide negative feedback to turn off the HPA axis, but can be detrimental when in excess. Long-term activation of the HPA axis (such as with chronic stress) enhances susceptibility to neuronal dysfunction and death, and increases vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known how components of the HPA axis, upstream of GCs, impact vulnerability to AD. This study examined basal gene expression of stress-related molecules in brains of 3xTg-AD mice during early-stage pathology. Basal glucocorticoid levels and mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH) in several stress- and emotionality-related brain regions were measured in 3–4-month-old 3xTg-AD mice. Despite normal glucocorticoid levels, young 3xTg-AD mice exhibit an activated central HPA axis, with altered mRNA levels of MR and GR in the hippocampus, GR and CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, GR and CRH in the central nucleus of the amygdala, and CRH in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This HPA axis activation is present during early-stage neuropathology when 3xTg-AD mice show mild behavioral changes, suggesting an ongoing neuroendocrine regulation that precedes the onset of severe AD-like pathology and behavioral deficits. PMID:22976078

  7. Multiband nodeless superconductivity near the charge-density-wave quantum critical point in ZrTe3-x Se x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Cui; Lan-Po, He; Xiao-Chen, Hong; Xiang-De, Zhu; Cedomir, Petrovic; Shi-Yan, Li

    2016-07-01

    It was found that selenium doping can suppress the charge-density-wave (CDW) order and induce bulk superconductivity in ZrTe3. The observed superconducting dome suggests the existence of a CDW quantum critical point (QCP) in ZrTe3-x Se x near x ≈ 0.04. To elucidate the superconducting state near the CDW QCP, we measure the thermal conductivity of two ZrTe3-x Se x single crystals (x = 0.044 and 0.051) down to 80 mK. For both samples, the residual linear term κ 0/T at zero field is negligible, which is a clear evidence for nodeless superconducting gap. Furthermore, the field dependence of κ 0/T manifests a multigap behavior. These results demonstrate multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in ZrTe3-x Se x , which indicates conventional superconductivity despite of the existence of a CDW QCP. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB821402 and 2015CB921401), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91421101, 11422429, and 11204312), the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning, China, and STCSM of China (Grant No. 15XD1500200). Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DESC00112704.

  8. Alzheimer therapy with an antibody against N-terminal Abeta 4-X and pyroglutamate Abeta 3-X

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, Gregory; Borgers, Henning; Richard, Bernhard C.; Brauß, Andreas; Meißner, Julius; Weggen, Sascha; Pena, Vladimir; Pillot, Thierry; Davies, Sarah L.; Bakrania, Preeti; Matthews, David; Brownlees, Janet; Bouter, Yvonne; Bayer, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Full-length Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40, N-truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 and Aβ4-42 are major variants in the Alzheimer brain. Aβ4-42 has not been considered as a therapeutic target yet. We demonstrate that the antibody NT4X and its Fab fragment reacting with both the free N-terminus of Aβ4-x and pyroglutamate Aβ3-X mitigated neuron loss in Tg4-42 mice expressing Aβ4-42 and completely rescued spatial reference memory deficits after passive immunization. NT4X and its Fab fragment also rescued working memory deficits in wild type mice induced by intraventricular injection of Aβ4-42. NT4X reduced pyroglutamate Aβ3-x, Aβx-40 and Thioflavin-S positive plaque load after passive immunization of 5XFAD mice. Aβ1-x and Aβx-42 plaque deposits were unchanged. Importantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that passive immunization using the antibody NT4X is therapeutically beneficial in Alzheimer mouse models showing that N-truncated Aβ starting with position four in addition to pyroglutamate Aβ3-x is a relevant target to fight Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26626428

  9. Optimal Shape Design of Mail-Slot Nacelle on N3-X Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    System studies show that a N3-X hybrid wing-body aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion system using a mail-slot inlet/nozzle nacelle can meet the environmental and performance goals for N+3 generation transports (three generations beyond the current air transport technology level) set by NASA's Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. In this study, a Navier-Stokes flow simulation of N3-X on hybrid unstructured meshes was conducted, including the mail-slot propulsor. The geometry of the mail-slot propulsor was generated by a CAD (Computer-Aided Design)-free shape parameterization. A novel body force model generation approach was suggested for a more realistic and efficient simulation of the flow turning, pressure rise and loss effects of the fan blades and the inlet-fan interactions. Flow simulation results of the N3-X demonstrates the validity of the present approach. An optimal Shape design of the mail-slot nacelle surface was conducted to reduce strength of shock waves and flow separations on the cowl surface.

  10. Fabrication of Bi2Te3-x Se x nanowires with tunable chemical compositions and enhanced thermoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Peng, Nan; Zhou, Chongjian; Bai, Yu; Tang, Shuang; Ma, Dayan; Ma, Fei; Xu, Kewei

    2017-02-24

    Uniform Bi2Te3-x Se x nanowires (NWs) with tunable components are synthesized by a modified solution method free of any template, and inter-diffusion mechanism is proposed for the growth and transformation of ternary nanowires. Spark plasma sintering is adopted to fabricate the pellets of Bi2Te3-x Se x NWs and thermoelectric transport properties are measured. As compared to Bi2Te3 pellets, Se doping results in lowered electrical conductivity because of the reduced carrier concentration, both the Seebeck coefficient and the power factor are enhanced substantially. The Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 pellet exhibits the highest power factor at room temperature as a result of optimized carrier concentration (4.37 × 10(19) cm(-3)) and mobility (60.22 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). As compared to Bi2Te3, the thermal conductivity of Bi2Te3-x Se x is lowered owing to the enhanced phonon scattering by dopants and grain boundaries. As a result, the ZT value at 300 K is substantially improved from 0.045 of Bi2Te3 to 0.42 of Bi2Te2.7Se0.3. It is suggested that Se doping is an effective way to enhance the thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3 based materials.

  11. Fabrication of Bi2Te3-x Se x nanowires with tunable chemical compositions and enhanced thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuai; Peng, Nan; Zhou, Chongjian; Bai, Yu; Tang, Shuang; Ma, Dayan; Ma, Fei; Xu, Kewei

    2017-02-01

    Uniform Bi2Te3-x Se x nanowires (NWs) with tunable components are synthesized by a modified solution method free of any template, and inter-diffusion mechanism is proposed for the growth and transformation of ternary nanowires. Spark plasma sintering is adopted to fabricate the pellets of Bi2Te3-x Se x NWs and thermoelectric transport properties are measured. As compared to Bi2Te3 pellets, Se doping results in lowered electrical conductivity because of the reduced carrier concentration, both the Seebeck coefficient and the power factor are enhanced substantially. The Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 pellet exhibits the highest power factor at room temperature as a result of optimized carrier concentration (4.37 × 1019 cm-3) and mobility (60.22 cm2 V-1 s-1). As compared to Bi2Te3, the thermal conductivity of Bi2Te3-x Se x is lowered owing to the enhanced phonon scattering by dopants and grain boundaries. As a result, the ZT value at 300 K is substantially improved from 0.045 of Bi2Te3 to 0.42 of Bi2Te2.7Se0.3. It is suggested that Se doping is an effective way to enhance the thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3 based materials.

  12. Persistence of behaviours in the Forced Swim Test in 3xTg-AD mice at advanced stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2014-07-01

    Forced Swimming Test (FST) models behavioural despair in animals by loss of motivation to respond or the refusal to escape. The present study characterizes the behavioural responses of 12-month-old male 3xTg-AD mice in FST as compared to age-matched no-transgenic (NTg) mice. Paradoxical results were consistently found from what would be expected from their BPSD (Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia)-like profile. The comprehensive analysis of the ethogram shown in the FST considered the intervals of the test (0-2 and 2-6min), all the elicited behavioural responses (immobility, swimming and climbing) and their features (total duration, frequency of episodes and mean duration). Both genotypes showed equal number of swimming episodes and climbing attempts during the first interval, that resulted in high swimming times, short climbing and scarce immobility. Thereafter, the NTg mice showed a behavioural shift over time and the immobility response showed up. In contrast, all the measures consistently evidenced that 3xTg-AD persisted with the previous behavioural pattern. Genotype differences consisted in less number of episodes of immobility and swimming, and a low immobility time in favour of swimming. No differences were found in 'climbing' attempts. The behavioural response observed is discussed as a lack of ability of 3xTg-AD mice to shift behaviour over time that may result of poorest cognitive flexibility and copying with stress strategies more than behavioural despair per se.

  13. Alzheimer therapy with an antibody against N-terminal Abeta 4-X and pyroglutamate Abeta 3-X.

    PubMed

    Antonios, Gregory; Borgers, Henning; Richard, Bernhard C; Brauß, Andreas; Meißner, Julius; Weggen, Sascha; Pena, Vladimir; Pillot, Thierry; Davies, Sarah L; Bakrania, Preeti; Matthews, David; Brownlees, Janet; Bouter, Yvonne; Bayer, Thomas A

    2015-12-02

    Full-length Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40, N-truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 and Aβ4-42 are major variants in the Alzheimer brain. Aβ4-42 has not been considered as a therapeutic target yet. We demonstrate that the antibody NT4X and its Fab fragment reacting with both the free N-terminus of Aβ4-x and pyroglutamate Aβ3-X mitigated neuron loss in Tg4-42 mice expressing Aβ4-42 and completely rescued spatial reference memory deficits after passive immunization. NT4X and its Fab fragment also rescued working memory deficits in wild type mice induced by intraventricular injection of Aβ4-42. NT4X reduced pyroglutamate Aβ3-x, Aβx-40 and Thioflavin-S positive plaque load after passive immunization of 5XFAD mice. Aβ1-x and Aβx-42 plaque deposits were unchanged. Importantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that passive immunization using the antibody NT4X is therapeutically beneficial in Alzheimer mouse models showing that N-truncated Aβ starting with position four in addition to pyroglutamate Aβ3-x is a relevant target to fight Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  15. Homozygosity for a novel adenosine deaminase (ADA) nonsense mutation (Q3>X) in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

    SciTech Connect

    Santisteban, I.; Arrendondo-Vega, F.X.; Kelly, S. |

    1994-09-01

    A Somali girl was diagnosed with ADA-deficient SCID at 7 mo; she responded well to PEG-ADA replacement and is now 3.3 yr old. ADA mRNA was undetectable (Northern) in her cultured T cells, but was present in T cells of her parents and two sibs. All PCR-amplified exon 1 genomic clones from the patient had a C>T transition at bp 7 relative to the start of translation, replacing Gln at codon 3 (AGA) with a termination codon (TGA, Q3>X). Patient cDNA (prepared by RT-PCR with a 5{prime} primer that covered codons 1-7) had a previously described polymorphism, K80>R, but was otherwise normal, indicating that no other coding mutations were present. A predicted new genomic BfaI restriction site was used to establish her homozygosity for Q3>X and to analyze genotypes of family members. We also analyzed the segregation of a variable Alu polyA-associated TAAA repeat (AluVpA) situated 5{prime} of the ADA gene. Three different AluVpA alleles were found, one of which was only present in the father and was not associated with his Q3>X allele. Because the father`s RBCs had only {approximately}15% of normal ADA activity, we analyzed his ADA cDNA. We found a G>A transition at bp 425 that substitutes Gln for Arg142, a solvent-accessible residue, and eliminates a BsmAI site in exon 5. ADA activity of the R142>Q in vitro translation product was 20-25% of wild type ADA translation product, suggesting that R142>Q is a new {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency mutation. As expected, Q3>X mRNA did not yield a detectable in vitro translation product. We conclude that the patient`s father is a compound heterozygote carrying the ADA Q3>X/R142>Q genotype. {open_quote}Partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency unassociated with immunodeficiency is relatively common in individuals of African descent. The present findings and previous observations suggest that {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency may have had an evolutionary advantage.

  16. PlanHab: Hypoxia counteracts the erythropoietin suppression, but seems to exaggerate the plasma volume reduction induced by 3 weeks of bed rest.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kölegård, Roger; Choukèr, Alexander; Strewe, Claudia; Eiken, Ola

    2016-04-01

    The study examined the distinct and synergistic effects of hypoxia and bed rest on the erythropoietin (EPO) concentration and relative changes in plasma volume (PV). Eleven healthy male lowlanders underwent three 21-day confinement periods, in a counterbalanced order: (1) normoxic bed rest (NBR; PIO2: 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg); (2) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; PIO2: 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg, ambient simulated altitude of ~4000 m); and (3) hypoxic ambulation (HAMB; PIO2: 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Blood samples were collected before, during (days 2, 5, 14, and 21) and 2 days after each confinement to determineEPOconcentration. Qualitative differences inPVchanges were also estimated by changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration along with concomitant changes in plasma renin concentration.NBRcaused an initial reduction inEPOby ~39% (P = 0.04). By contrast,HBRenhancedEPO(P = 0.001), but the increase was less than that induced byHAMB(P < 0.01). All three confinements caused a significant reduction inPV(P < 0.05), with a substantially greater drop inHBRthan in the other conditions (P < 0.001). Thus, present results suggest that hypoxia prevents theEPOsuppression, whereas it seems to exaggerate thePVreduction induced by bed rest.

  17. Verticality perception during off-vertical axis rotation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, R A A; Van Gisbergen, J A M; Medendorp, W P

    2007-05-01

    During prolonged rotation about a tilted yaw axis, often referred to as off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), a percept of being translated along a conical path slowly emerges as the sense of rotation subsides. Recently, we found that these perceptual changes are consistent with a canal-otolith interaction model that attributes the illusory translation percept to improper interpretation of the ambiguous otolith signals. The model further predicts that the illusory translation percept must be accompanied by slowly worsening tilt underestimates. Here, we tested this prediction in six subjects by measuring the time course of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) during OVAR stimulation at three different tilt-rotation speed combinations, in complete darkness. Throughout the 2-min run, at each left-ear-down and right-ear-down position, the subject indicated whether a briefly flashed line deviated clockwise or counterclockwise from vertical to determine the SVV with an adaptive staircase procedure. Typically, SVV errors indicating tilt underestimation were already present at rotation onset and then increased exponentially to an asymptotic value, reached at about 60 s after rotation onset. The initial error in the SVV was highly correlated to the response error in a static tilt control experiment. The subsequent increase in error depended on both rotation speed and OVAR tilt angle, in a manner predicted by the canal-otolith interaction model. We conclude that verticality misjudgments during OVAR reflect a dynamic component linked to canal-otolith interaction, superimposed on a tilt-related component that is also expressed under stationary conditions.

  18. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  19. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  20. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  1. Comparison of GT3X accelerometer and Yamax pedometer steps/day in a free-living sample of overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare steps/day detected by the YAMAX SW-200 pedometer versus the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer in free-living adults. Daily YAMAX and GT3X steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (78% female; age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; BMI = 31.0 +/-...

  2. Simultaneous Synthesis of WO3-x Quantum Dots and Bundle-Like Nanowires Using a One-Pot Template-Free Solvothermal Strategy and Their Versatile Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yuanhong; Chen, Tao; Liu, Mengli; Niu, Fushuang; Wei, Shuang; Liu, Jingquan

    2017-04-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x ), a new alternative to conventional semiconductor material, has attracted numerous attentions owning to its widespread potential applications. Various methods have been reported for the synthesis of WO3-x nanostructures such as nanowires or nanodots. However, templates or surfactants are often required for the synthesis, which significantly complicate the process and hinder the broad applications. Herein, one-pot template/surfactant-free solvothermal method is proposed to synthesize the WO3-x nanostructures including fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) and bundle-like nanowires simultaneously. The as-prepared WO3-x QDs can be well dispersed in aqueous medium, exhibit excellent photoluminescent properties, and show an average size of 3.25 ± 0.25 nm as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the diameter of the WO3-x nanowires is found to be about 27.5 nm as manifested by the scanning electron microscope images. The generation mechanism for these two WO3-x nanostructures are systematically studied and proposed. The WO3-x QDs have been successfully applied in efficient fluorescent staining and specific ferric ion detection. Moreover, the WO3-x nanowires can be utilized as effective dielectric materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.

  3. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  4. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  5. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Submarine Rocket (ASROC): Ship -launched rocket used in ASW.  RIM-174 SM6: Advanced version of a ship -launched SM2 missile capable of over-the...Operational planners strive to fmd ways to load missiles on Vertical Latmch System (VLS) ships to meet mission requit·ements in theit· AI·ea of...Responsibility (AOR). Requirements are variable: there are missions requiting specific types of missiles; each ship may have distinct capability or capacity to

  6. Vertical Gun Test Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    phosphate (TBP) as a chemical agent simulant in a maximum of six vertical gun experiments to be conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and... phosphate . Using either of Ka-Bandprocess, with 2 these two substances would not achieve the test objectives of realistically simulating the threat. In...resources, geology and soils , hazardous materials and hazardous waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics and environmental justice

  7. Mated vertical ground vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the prediction and design of loads, pogo controls, and flutter criteria under various payloads and operational missions. The MVGVT boost and launch program evolution, test configurations, and their suspensions are described. Test results are compared with predicted analytical results.

  8. Bimanual-vertical hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay C; Cohen, Matthew L; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

  9. A Rutile Chevron Modulation in Delafossite-Like Ga3-xIn3TixO9+x/2.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Karl; Boullay, Philippe; Malo, Sylvie; Caignaert, Vincent; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2016-05-02

    The structure solution of the modulated, delafossite-related, orthorhombic Ga3-xIn3TixO9+x/2 for x = 1.5 is reported here in conjunction with a model describing the modulation as a function of x for the entire system. Previously reported structures in the related A3-xIn3TixO9+x/2 (A = Al, Cr, or Fe) systems use X-ray diffraction to determine that the anion lattice is the source of modulation. Neutron diffraction, with its enhanced sensitivity to light atoms, offers a route to solving the modulation and is used here, in combination with precession electron diffraction tomography (PEDT), to solve the structure of Ga1.5In3Ti1.5O9.75. We construct a model that describes the anion modulation through the formation of rutile chevrons as a function of x. This model accommodates the orthorhombic phase (1.5 ≤ x ≤ 2.1) in the Ga3-xIn3TixO9+x/2 system, which transitions to a biphasic mixture (2.2 ≤ x ≤ 2.3) with a monoclinic, delafossite-related phase (2.4 ≤ x ≤ 2.5). The optical band gaps of this system are determined, and are stable at ∼3.4 eV before a ∼0.4 eV decrease between x = 1.9 and 2.0. After this decrease, stability resumes at ∼3.0 eV. Resistance to oxidation and reduction is also presented.

  10. PAK Inactivation Impairs Social Recognition in 3xTg-AD Mice without Increasing Brain Deposition of Tau and Aβ

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Dany; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Tremblay, Cyntia; Bennett, David A.; Guitton, Matthieu J.; De Koninck, Yves; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Defects in p21-activated kinase (PAK) are suspected to play a role in cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysfunction in PAK leads to cofilin activation, drebrin displacement from its actin-binding site, actin depolymerization/severing, and, ultimately, defects in spine dynamics and cognitive impairment in mice. To determine the role of PAK in AD, we first quantified PAK by immunoblotting in homogenates from the parietal neocortex of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), or AD (n = 12). A loss of total PAK, detected in the cortex of AD patients (−39% versus controls), was correlated with cognitive impairment (r2 = 0.148, p = 0.027) and deposition of total and phosphorylated tau (r2 = 0.235 and r2 = 0.206, respectively), but not with Aβ42 (r2 = 0.056). Accordingly, we found a decrease of total PAK in the cortex of 12- and 20-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, an animal model of AD-like Aβ and tau neuropathologies. To determine whether PAK dysfunction aggravates AD phenotype, 3xTg-AD mice were crossed with dominant-negative PAK mice. PAK inactivation led to obliteration of social recognition in old 3xTg-AD mice, which was associated with a decrease in cortical drebrin (−25%), but without enhancement of Aβ/tau pathology or any clear electrophysiological signature. Overall, our data suggest that PAK decrease is a consequence of AD neuropathology and that therapeutic activation of PAK may exert symptomatic benefits on high brain function. PMID:23804095

  11. Improved thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3-xSex alloys by melt spinning and resistance pressing sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xinzhi; Fan, Xi'an; Rong, Zhenzhou; Yang, Fan; Gan, Zhanghua; Li, Guangqiang

    2014-03-01

    Starting from bismuth, tellurium and selenium chunks, n-type Bi2Te3-xSex (x ⩽ 0.3) alloys were obtained by melt spinning (MS) combined with a resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process. The phases, microstructures and compositions of the samples were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy during each step in the preparation process, respectively. The influences of Se doping, MS and RPS processes on the thermoelectric (TE) properties of Bi2Te3-xSex alloys were investigated in detail. The Bi2Te3-xSex powders could be well compacted by the RPS process and the relative densities of the bulks prepared by RPS were all higher than 96%. The partially oriented lamellar structure could be observed at some regions of the samples prepared by RPS, and the monolayer thickness of the lamellar structure in the MS-RPS samples was smaller than that in the smelting-RPS sample. The MS process was confirmed as an excellent method to obtain fine microstructures and low lattice thermal conductivity for the TE materials. All evidence about electrical and thermal transport properties suggested that suitably increasing the Se content could effectively improve the ZT value. The maximum ZT value of 0.84 was obtained for the Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 prepared by MS-RPS at 423 K. As opposed to the conventional hot pressing and spark plasma sintering, the RPS method introduced here is more suitable for practical industrial application due to its cost saving and high efficiency.

  12. Effect of synthesis route on the structure of Nd 3- xBa 3+ xCu 6O 14-2 δ ( x=0,1) system: a neutron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, N. S.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Umarji, A. M.; Yelon, W. B.; Malik, S. K.

    2002-04-01

    Structural studies on Nd 3- xBa 3+ xCu 6O 14-2 δ with 0≤ x≤1 were carried out by Rietveld refinement procedure using neutron diffraction data. The composition x=1 was prepared both by the solid-state method and the nitrate-decomposition method. Quantitative multiphase analysis coupled with variation in the method of synthesis has shown conclusively that Nd did substitute for Ba even in a stoichiometric composition NdBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ, irrespective of the method of synthesis. The fractional atomic substitution of Nd at the Ba site has been determined to be about 15%. The composition x=0, synthesised by the nitrate-decomposition method, has been found to be tetragonal with the space group P4/ mmm. Nd has been found to substitute for Ba according to Nd(Ba 0.75Nd 0.25) 2Cu 3O 7- δ and no random distribution of cations has been found along the c-direction. The observed tetragonality has been attributed to the additional oxygen taken into the basal (001) plane due to the substitution of trivalent Nd at the divalent Ba site.

  13. Combustion Synthesis of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-x and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-x Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhong, zhimin

    2005-01-01

    Nanopowders of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO(3-x) (SSC) and La0.6Sr0.4CoO(3-x) (LSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, were synthesized by a solution-combustion method using metal nitrates and glycine as fuel. Development of crystalline phases in the as-synthesized powders after heat treatments at various temperatures was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Perovskite phase in LSC formed more readily than in SSC. Single phase perovskites were obtained after heat treatment of the combustion synthesized LSC and SSC powders at 1000 and 1200 C, respectively. The as-synthesized powders had an average particle size of 12 nm as determined from x-ray line broadening analysis using the Scherrer equation. Average grain size of the powders increased with increase in calcination temperature. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Exaggerated Claims About Earthquake Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Alan L.; Ebel, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The perennial promise of successful earthquake prediction captures the imagination of a public hungry for certainty in an uncertain world. Yet, given the lack of any reliable method of predicting earthquakes [e.g., Geller, 1997; Kagan and Jackson, 1996; Evans, 1997], seismologists regularly have to explain news stories of a supposedly successful earthquake prediction when it is far from clear just how successful that prediction actually was. When journalists and public relations offices report the latest `great discovery' regarding the prediction of earthquakes, seismologists are left with the much less glamorous task of explaining to the public the gap between the claimed success and the sober reality that there is no scientifically proven method of predicting earthquakes.

  15. Vertical separation of the two beams

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.

    1985-10-01

    The author discusses the problem of design of insertion points on the SSC, and in particular keeping the length necessary for them under control. Here he considers the possibility of having vertically separated beams, without a vertical dispersion suppressor.

  16. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  17. Metformin exaggerates phenylephrine-induced AMPK phosphorylation independent of CaMKKβ and attenuates contractile response in endothelium-denuded rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Pyla, Rajkumar; Osman, Islam; Pichavaram, Prahalathan; Hansen, Paul; Segar, Lakshman

    2014-11-15

    Metformin, a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug, has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Its beneficial effect toward improved vasodilation results from its ability to activate AMPK and enhance nitric oxide formation in the endothelium. To date, metformin regulation of AMPK has not been fully studied in intact arterial smooth muscle, especially during contraction evoked by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. In the present study, ex vivo incubation of endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings with 3mM metformin for 2h resulted in significant accumulation of metformin (∼ 600 pmoles/mg tissue), as revealed by LC-MS/MS MRM analysis. However, metformin did not show significant increase in AMPK phosphorylation under these conditions. Exposure of aortic rings to a GPCR agonist (e.g., phenylephrine) resulted in enhanced AMPK phosphorylation by ∼ 2.5-fold. Importantly, in metformin-treated aortic rings, phenylephrine challenge showed an exaggerated increase in AMPK phosphorylation by ∼ 9.7-fold, which was associated with an increase in AMP/ATP ratio. Pretreatment with compound C (AMPK inhibitor) prevented AMPK phosphorylation induced by phenylephrine alone and also that induced by phenylephrine after metformin treatment. However, pretreatment with STO-609 (CaMKKβ inhibitor) diminished AMPK phosphorylation induced by phenylephrine alone but not that induced by phenylephrine after metformin treatment. Furthermore, attenuation of phenylephrine-induced contraction (observed after metformin treatment) was prevented by AMPK inhibition but not by CaMKKβ inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that, upon endothelial damage in the vessel wall, metformin uptake by the underlying vascular smooth muscle would accentuate AMPK phosphorylation by GPCR agonists independent of CaMKKβ to promote vasorelaxation.

  18. Extracellular vesicles-mediated transfer of miR-208a/b exaggerate hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in cardiomyocytes by reducing QKI expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yuan, Yuxiang; Yang, Pirong; Li, Xia

    2017-03-10

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular vesicles (EVs)-mediated transfer of miR-208a/b can exacerbate apoptosis of cardiomyocytes (CMs) induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury by reducing the expression of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI). EVs were isolated from culture medium of hypoxic H9c2 cells (EVs-H). In in vitro H9c2 cell model, the EVs-H could be taken up by normoxic CMs and exacerbated cell apoptosis induced by H/R injury. In addition, miR-208a and miR-208b were enriched in EVs-H. Suppression of miR-208a and miR-208b loading significantly suppressed the detrimental effect of EVs-H on H/R injury in H9c2 cells. Inhibition of endogenous miR-208a and miR-208b restored QKI5 and QKI6 after H/R treatment. Dual-luciferase assay confirmed direct bindings between miR-208a/b and QKI 3'UTR. Functionally, QKI5 overexpression significantly suppressed H/R-induced CM apoptosis and suppressed the enhancing effect of EVs-H on CM apoptosis. Therefore, we infer that EVs-mediated transfer of miR-208a/b can exaggerate H/R injury in CMs by reducing QKI expression. This represents a previously unrecognized pathway of H/R injury in CMs.

  19. Exaggerated vasomotor response to ANG II in rats with fetal programming of hypertension associated with exposure to a low-protein diet during gestation.

    PubMed

    Yzydorczyk, C; Gobeil, F; Cambonie, G; Lahaie, I; Lê, N L O; Samarani, S; Ahmad, A; Lavoie, J C; Oligny, L L; Pladys, P; Hardy, P; Nuyt, A M

    2006-10-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of elevated blood pressure associated with altered intrauterine milieu. The current studies were undertaken to verify whether vascular response to ANG II is increased in adult offspring of low-protein fed dams (LP) compared with control (CTRL) and if so, to examine underlying mechanism(s). ANG II-induced contraction of carotid rings was increased in LP (E(max), the maximum asymptote of the curve, relative to maximal response to KCl 80 mM: 230 +/- 3% LP vs. 201 +/- 2% CTRL, P < 0.05). In both groups, contraction to ANG II was mediated solely by AT1R. Responses to thromboxane A2 analog U-46619 and to KCl 80 mM under step increases in tension were similar between groups. Endothelium depletion enhanced contraction to ANG II in both groups, more so in LP. Blockade of endothelin formation had no effect on response to ANG II, and ANG-(1-7) did not elicit vasomotor response in either group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) analog Tempol normalized LP without modifying CTRL response to ANG II. Basal levels of superoxide (aortic segments, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and fluorescent dye hydroethidine) were higher in LP. ANG II further increased superoxide production in LP only, and this was inhibited by coincubation with diphenylene iodonium or apocynin (inhibitor of NADPH oxidase complex). AT1R expression in carotid arteries was increased in LP, whereas SOD expression was unchanged. In conclusion, vasoconstriction to ANG II is exaggerated in this model of developmental programming of hypertension, secondary to enhanced vascular production of superoxide anion by NADPH oxidase with concomitant increase of AT1R expression.

  20. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  1. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  2. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  3. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  4. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  5. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of Co1- x- y Ni x+ y Sb3- x Sn x materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Sheng-Nan; Zhu, Tie-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Bing; Gu, Yi-Jie; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2012-03-01

    Co1- x- y Nix+ y Sb3- x Sn x polycrystals were fabricated by vacuum melting combined with hot-press sintering. The effect of alloying on the thermoelectric properties of unfilled skutterudite Co1- x Ni x Sb3- x Sn x was investigated. A leap of electrical conductivity from the Co0.93Ni0.07Sb2.93Sn0.07 sample to the Co0.88Ni0.12Sb2.88Sn0.12 sample occurs during the measurement of electrical conductivity, indicating the adjustment of band structure by proper alloying. The results show that alloying enhances the power factor of the materials. On the basis of alloying, the thermoelectric properties of Co0.88Ni0.12Sb2.88Sn0.12 are improved by Ni-doping. The thermal conductivities of Ni-doping samples have no reduction, but their power factors have obvious enhancement. The power factor of Co0.81Ni0.19Sb2.88Sn0.12 reaches 3.0 mW·m-1·K-2 by Ni doping. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit reaches 0.55 at 773 K for the unfilled Co0.81Ni0.19 Sb2.88Sn0.12.

  6. Modulated CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx film for efficient perovskite solar cells exceeding 18.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yongguang; Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; He, Xin; Dong, Jia; Jia, Jinbiao; Guo, Panfeng; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Huang, Yunfang

    2017-03-17

    The organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite layer is a crucial factor for the high performance perovskite solar cell (PSC). We introduce CH3NH3Br in the precursor solution to prepare CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx hybrid perovskite, and an uniform perovskite layer with improved crystallinity and apparent grain contour is obtained, resulting in the significant improvement of photovoltaic performance of PSCs. The effects of CH3NH3Br on the perovskite morphology, crystallinity, absorption property, charge carrier dynamics and device characteristics are discussed, and the improvement of open circuit voltage of the device depended on Br doping is confirmed. Based on above, the device based on CH3NH3PbI2.86Br0.14 exhibits a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.02%. This study represents an efficient method for high-performance perovskite solar cell by modulating CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx film.

  7. Positron Annihilation Study of Ternary Sb2Te3-x Se x for Its Tuning Electrical and Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenwen; Yang, Dongwang; Bi, Peng; He, Chunqing; Liu, Fengming; Shi, Jing; Ding, Yi; Wang, Ziyu; Xiong, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Atomic scale point defects play important roles in tuning the carrier concentration and ultimately influencing electrical and thermal properties. Herein, we fabricated the ternary Sb2Te3-x Se x alloys to study the intimate relationship of internal point defects and thermoelectric performance. The Se substitution of Te atoms in the Sb2Te3 lattice decreased the electrical conductivity from 2.2 × 105 S/m to 6.4 × 104 S/m owing to the reduced holes concentration. The declined point defects, including antisite defects and vacancies in materials, gave rise to the decrease in carrier concentration. The Seebeck coefficient of the ternary Sb2Te3-x Se x exhibited an increase with doping of Se atoms. Simultaneously, the thermal conductivity behaved a fallihg trend as well as increasing Se content. As a result, the ZT value reached the maximum from the corresponding Sb2Te2.9Se0.1 pellet. Positron annihilation measurement revealed that the average positron lifetime showed a monotonic decrease with Se addition, demonstrating the reduced point defects, which was in agreement with the thermoelectric performance.

  8. Fe3-xCuxO4 as highly active heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts toward elemental mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Zhang, Anchao; Wu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Su, Sheng; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    A series of novel spinel Fe3-xCuxO4 (03-xCuxO4 catalysts in Fenton-like solution is stable and Hg0 removal efficiency remain above 90% after 3 cycles. The active hydroxyl radical (OH) generated during heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions was confirmed through electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique. The Hg0 removal mechanism has been discussed based on the experimental and analytical results.

  9. Syntheses and structure of hydrothermally prepared CsNiX{sub 3} (X=Cl, Br, I)

    SciTech Connect

    Raw, Adam D.; Ibers, James A.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2012-08-15

    During reinvestigation of the hydrothermal synthesis reported earlier of the compound cesium nickel phosphide, 'CsNiP', we arrived at a new route to the synthesis of the cesium nickel halide compounds CsNiX{sub 3} (X=Cl, Br, I). The method has also been shown to extend to cobalt and iron compounds. Single crystals of these compounds were synthesized in phosphoric acid in sealed autoclaves. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compounds crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mmc in the BaNiO{sub 3} structure type. The synthetic method and the resultant crystallographic details for CsNiCl{sub 3} are essentially identical with those reported earlier for the synthesis and structure of 'CsNiP'. - Graphical abstract: The CsNiX{sub 3} (X=Cl, Br, I) structure. Cesium is blue, nickel is in dark green polyhedra, halide is brown. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A hydrothermal approach to single crystal growth of cesium transition-metal halides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reexamination of 'CsNiP' to determine its composition as CsNiCl{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray single-crystal structures of CsNiBr{sub 3} and CsNiI{sub 3}.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preserve Working Memory in the 3xTg-AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Jiri; Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Rodrigez-Arellano, Jose Julio; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2016-01-25

    The transplantation of stem cells may have a therapeutic effect on the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the lateral ventricle of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) at the age of eight months. We evaluated spatial reference and working memory after MSC treatment and the possible underlying mechanisms, such as the influence of transplanted MSCs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the expression levels of a 56 kDa oligomer of amyloid β (Aβ*56), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate transporters (Glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) in the entorhinal and prefrontal cortices and the hippocampus. At 14 months of age we observed the preservation of working memory in MSC-treated 3xTg-AD mice, suggesting that such preservation might be due to the protective effect of MSCs on GS levels and the considerable downregulation of Aβ*56 levels in the entorhinal cortex. These changes were observed six months after transplantation, accompanied by clusters of proliferating cells in the SVZ. Since the grafted cells did not survive for the whole experimental period, it is likely that the observed effects could have been transiently more pronounced at earlier time points than at six months after cell application.

  11. Analysis of vertical interconnection measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, F. A.

    The paper examines the predominance of the effects that measurement points, geometries, and alignment have on the interpretation of measured values of contact resistance of vertical interconnections in multilayer electronic packages. It is concluded that: (1) four-terminal measurements for contact resistance are misleading; (2) measured values are mostly a function of structural geometry; (3) simulation in two dimensions and subsequent synthesis is a good predictor in three-dimensional simulations; (4) the dual-contact site is a good alignment aid and contact-resistance indicator; and (5) the measured resistance value should only be used as a reference, and not as an indicator of good or bad.

  12. ?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Michael

    Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

  13. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  14. Mutations in DDX3X Are a Common Cause of Unexplained Intellectual Disability with Gender-Specific Effects on Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Snijders Blok, Lot; Madsen, Erik; Juusola, Jane; Gilissen, Christian; Baralle, Diana; Reijnders, Margot R F; Venselaar, Hanka; Helsmoortel, Céline; Cho, Megan T; Hoischen, Alexander; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Koemans, Tom S; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn; Eichler, Evan E; Romano, Corrado; Van Esch, Hilde; Stumpel, Connie; Vreeburg, Maaike; Smeets, Eric; Oberndorff, Karin; van Bon, Bregje W M; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Haan, Eric; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Loeys, Bart L; Van Dijck, Anke; Innes, A Micheil; Racher, Hilary; Vermeer, Sascha; Di Donato, Nataliya; Rump, Andreas; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Parker, Michael J; Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A; Fryer, Alan; Ross, Alison; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Kini, Usha; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Chandler, Kate; Male, Alison; Dijkstra, Sybe; Schieving, Jolanda; Giltay, Jacques; van Gassen, Koen L I; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Tan, Perciliz L; Pediaditakis, Igor; Haas, Stefan A; Retterer, Kyle; Reed, Patrick; Monaghan, Kristin G; Haverfield, Eden; Natowicz, Marvin; Myers, Angela; Kruer, Michael C; Stein, Quinn; Strauss, Kevin A; Brigatti, Karlla W; Keating, Katherine; Burton, Barbara K; Kim, Katherine H; Charrow, Joel; Norman, Jennifer; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Kline, Antonie D; Kimball, Amy; Zackai, Elaine; Harr, Margaret; Fox, Joyce; McLaughlin, Julie; Lindstrom, Kristin; Haude, Katrina M; van Roozendaal, Kees; Brunner, Han; Chung, Wendy K; Kooy, R Frank; Pfundt, Rolph; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mehta, Sarju G; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2015-08-06

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1%-3% of humans with a gender bias toward males. Previous studies have identified mutations in more than 100 genes on the X chromosome in males with ID, but there is less evidence for de novo mutations on the X chromosome causing ID in females. In this study we present 35 unique deleterious de novo mutations in DDX3X identified by whole exome sequencing in 38 females with ID and various other features including hypotonia, movement disorders, behavior problems, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and epilepsy. Based on our findings, mutations in DDX3X are one of the more common causes of ID, accounting for 1%-3% of unexplained ID in females. Although no de novo DDX3X mutations were identified in males, we present three families with segregating missense mutations in DDX3X, suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. In these families, all males with the DDX3X variant had ID, whereas carrier females were unaffected. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms accounting for the differences in disease transmission and phenotype between affected females and affected males with DDX3X missense variants, we used canonical Wnt defects in zebrafish as a surrogate measure of DDX3X function in vivo. We demonstrate a consistent loss-of-function effect of all tested de novo mutations on the Wnt pathway, and we further show a differential effect by gender. The differential activity possibly reflects a dose-dependent effect of DDX3X expression in the context of functional mosaic females versus one-copy males, which reflects the complex biological nature of DDX3X mutations.

  15. Mutations in DDX3X Are a Common Cause of Unexplained Intellectual Disability with Gender-Specific Effects on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Snijders Blok, Lot; Madsen, Erik; Juusola, Jane; Gilissen, Christian; Baralle, Diana; Reijnders, Margot R.F.; Venselaar, Hanka; Helsmoortel, Céline; Cho, Megan T.; Hoischen, Alexander; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Koemans, Tom S.; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn; Eichler, Evan E.; Romano, Corrado; Van Esch, Hilde; Stumpel, Connie; Vreeburg, Maaike; Smeets, Eric; Oberndorff, Karin; van Bon, Bregje W.M.; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Haan, Eric; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Loeys, Bart L.; Van Dijck, Anke; Innes, A. Micheil; Racher, Hilary; Vermeer, Sascha; Di Donato, Nataliya; Rump, Andreas; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Parker, Michael J.; Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A.; Fryer, Alan; Ross, Alison; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Kini, Usha; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Chandler, Kate; Male, Alison; Dijkstra, Sybe; Schieving, Jolanda; Giltay, Jacques; van Gassen, Koen L.I.; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Tan, Perciliz L.; Pediaditakis, Igor; Haas, Stefan A.; Retterer, Kyle; Reed, Patrick; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Haverfield, Eden; Natowicz, Marvin; Myers, Angela; Kruer, Michael C.; Stein, Quinn; Strauss, Kevin A.; Brigatti, Karlla W.; Keating, Katherine; Burton, Barbara K.; Kim, Katherine H.; Charrow, Joel; Norman, Jennifer; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Kline, Antonie D.; Kimball, Amy; Zackai, Elaine; Harr, Margaret; Fox, Joyce; McLaughlin, Julie; Lindstrom, Kristin; Haude, Katrina M.; van Roozendaal, Kees; Brunner, Han; Chung, Wendy K.; Kooy, R. Frank; Pfundt, Rolph; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mehta, Sarju G.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1%–3% of humans with a gender bias toward males. Previous studies have identified mutations in more than 100 genes on the X chromosome in males with ID, but there is less evidence for de novo mutations on the X chromosome causing ID in females. In this study we present 35 unique deleterious de novo mutations in DDX3X identified by whole exome sequencing in 38 females with ID and various other features including hypotonia, movement disorders, behavior problems, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and epilepsy. Based on our findings, mutations in DDX3X are one of the more common causes of ID, accounting for 1%–3% of unexplained ID in females. Although no de novo DDX3X mutations were identified in males, we present three families with segregating missense mutations in DDX3X, suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. In these families, all males with the DDX3X variant had ID, whereas carrier females were unaffected. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms accounting for the differences in disease transmission and phenotype between affected females and affected males with DDX3X missense variants, we used canonical Wnt defects in zebrafish as a surrogate measure of DDX3X function in vivo. We demonstrate a consistent loss-of-function effect of all tested de novo mutations on the Wnt pathway, and we further show a differential effect by gender. The differential activity possibly reflects a dose-dependent effect of DDX3X expression in the context of functional mosaic females versus one-copy males, which reflects the complex biological nature of DDX3X mutations. PMID:26235985

  16. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  17. Origin and location of electrons and protons during the formation of intermetalloid clusters [Sm@Ga(3-x)H(3-2x)Bi(10+x)](3-) (x = 0, 1).

    PubMed

    Weinert, Bastian; Müller, Fabian; Harms, Klaus; Clérac, Rodolphe; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2014-10-27

    Reaction of [GaBi3](2-) with [Sm(C5Me4H)3] yielded the first protonated ternary intermetalloid clusters [Sm@Ga(3-x)H(3-2x)Bi(10+x)](3-) (1; x = 0,1). The presence of the Ga-H bonds and the transfer of electrons and protons during the formation of 1 were elucidated by a combination of experimental and quantum chemical methods, thereby rationalizing the role of the solvent ethane-1,2-diamine as a Brønsted acid. As an organic by-product, we observed the previously unknown octamethylfulvene (2) upon C-C coupling of (C5Me4H)(-).

  18. Curie-Weiss behavior of Y1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0 and 0.03)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Rajesh K.; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.; Bharathi, A.; Kaurav, N.; Okram, G. S.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of bivalent cation Sr-doping on magnetic properties in multiferroic YMnO3 manganites was systemically studied by DC magnetic measurements. Both of the reported samples were prepared by solid-state reaction method with composition Y1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.00 and 0.03). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the compounds are synthesized in hexagonal crystal structure with space group P63cm (JCPDS: 25-1079) and slight increase in the lattice parameter is observed with strontium doping. The magnetisation versus temperature curve shows no clear anomaly near the antiferromagnetic transition temperature (TN), however from the magnetic measurements at 1000Oe a slight increase in the magnetisation is clearly witnessed with increasing Stront ium content to the Y-site.

  19. An ab initio approach on superconducting properties of Mo3X(X = Si,Ga,Ge) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhashree, G.; Sankar, S.; Krithiga, R.

    2015-06-01

    Self-consistent first principles calculations on type II weakly coupled superconducting Mo3X(X = Si,Ga,Ge) compounds of A15 phase are performed to understand their fundamental characteristics of the electronic, thermal and superconducting properties. The bulk modulus (B), Debye temperature (θD), density of states (DOS) (N(EF)), electron-phonon coupling constant (λ), superconducting transition temperature (Tc), and electronic specific heat coefficient (γ) have been computed in terms of the electronic structure results, obtained by using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method. It is observed that all the three materials have their electronic properties dominated by d-orbital at Fermi energy. Thermal and superconducting properties calculated here are found to corroborate well with the experimental results of literature.

  20. Strain-mediated magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial LuxFe3-xO4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Jin, C.; Zheng, D. X.; Bai, H. L.

    2015-10-01

    Strain mediated structure, magnetic, and transport properties of spinel ferrites were investigated by growing epitaxial LuxFe3-xO4 (LFO, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.26 ) films on SrTiO3 and MgO substrates with in-plane compressive and tensile strains, respectively. The lattice parameter of LFO films decreases on SrTiO3 substrates, while increases on MgO substrates with the increasing Lu content. The LFO films on SrTiO3 substrates exhibit larger saturation magnetization and smaller exchange bias and coercive field. Phase shift of anisotropic magnetoresistance is also observed in the LFO films on SrTiO3 substrates. In addition, the nonmagnetic Lu3+ ions in spinel ferrites enhance the spin canting, which further increases the exchange bias and coercive field and strengthens the four-fold symmetry of anisotropic magnetoresistance and the two-fold symmetry of planar Hall effect.

  1. Electrical and magnetic properties modification in heavy ion irradiated nanograin NixCo(3-x)O4 films

    SciTech Connect

    Mccloy, John S.; Jiang, Weilin; Bennett, Wendy D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; Parmar, Narendra S.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2015-09-10

    Reactively sputtered NixCo(3-x)O4 films (x = 1.5, 1.0, and 0.75) were grown and subsequently irradiated with 5.5 MeV Si+ ions to investigate effects of lattice-site and charge state distribution. Films were characterized before and after irradiation by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, electric resistivity measurements, and temperature-dependent AC and DC magnetometry. Results indicate that ion irradiation induces oxygen loss, partial reduction of nickel, and an increase in both low temperature ferrimagnetism and room temperature conductivity. Frequency dependent AC magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a spin-glass like transition at low temperature which moves to higher temperature after irradiation. Significance of the charge transfer for magnetism and conduction in a mixed spinel with Co2+, Co3+, Ni2+, and Ni3+ in tetrahedral and octahedral sites is discussed.

  2. Disentangling the Mn moments on different sublattices in the half-metallic ferrimagnet Mn3?xCoxGa

    SciTech Connect

    Klaer, P.; Jenkins, C.A.; Alijani, V.; Winterlik, J.; Balke, B.; Felser, C.; Elmers, H.J.

    2011-05-03

    Ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga compounds have been investigated by magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption (XMCD). Compounds with x > 0.5 crystallize in the CuHg{sub 2}Ti structure. A tetragonal distortion of the cubic structure occurs for x {le} 0.5. For the cubic phase, magnetometry reveals a linearly increasing magnetization of 2x Bohr magnetons per formula unit obeying the generalized Slater-Pauling rule. XMCD confirms the ferrimagnetic character with Mn atoms occupying two different sublattices with antiparallel spin orientation and different degrees of spin localization and identifies the region 0.6 < x {le} 0.8 as most promising for a high spin polarization at the Fermi level. Individual Mn moments on inequivalent sites are compared to theoretical predictions.

  3. Assessment of Biasi and Columbia University CHF correlations with GE 3x3 rod bundle experiment. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF), at which a sudden degradation of heat transfer occurs without corresponding decrease in heat generation, is one of the limiting parameters for safe operation of nuclear reactors. Reactor operation beyond the CHF causes a rapid rise in fuel cladding temperature and thus should be avoided to maintain the fuel element integrity. Reactor power limits are therefore set so that a prescribed safety margin below the CHF is maintained. Two CHF correlations are evaluated for reactor core thermal hydraulic analysis: the Biasi correlation and the Columbia University correlation. The BODYFIT-2PE computer code is used for this assessment. The CHF predicted by the BODYFIT-2PE using the two correlations is compared with GE 3x3 rod bundle CHF experiment.

  4. Low Thermal Conductivity and High Thermoelectric Performance in In4Se3- x with Phase-Separated Indium Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Pankaj Kumar; Park, Hwanjoo; Hwang, Junphil; Kim, Woochul

    2017-03-01

    We report the thermoelectric properties of undoped hot-pressed In4Se3- x ( x = 0.05). Stoichiometric imbalance due to selenium deficiency in In4Se3 was found to create a secondary phase of elemental indium in the host material. Heat treatment drove grain growth and increased the indium solubility in In4Se3. Indium-rich domains at grain surfaces/boundaries in untreated samples were found to redistribute inside the grains and their junctions after heat treatment. Due to enhanced phonon scattering by secondary phase of indium, very low values of thermal conductivity were observed for all samples, leading to a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit ( zT) of 1.13 at 723 K along the hot-pressing direction for the heat-treated sample.

  5. Volttron version 3.x

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-10-06

    VOLTTRON™ is an agent execution platform providing services to its agents that allow them to easily communicate with physical devices and other resources. VOLTTRON™ delivers an innovative distributed control and sensing software platform that supports modern control strategies, including agent-based and transaction-based controls. It enables mobile and stationary software agents to perform information gathering, processing, and control actions. VOLTTRON™ can independently manage a wide range of applications, such as HVAC systems, electric vehicles, distributed energy or entire building loads, leading to improved operational efficiency.

  6. Maximizing the photo catalytic and photo response properties of multimodal plasmonic Ag/WO(3-x) heterostructure nanorods by variation of the Ag size.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; Paul, Sumana; De, S K

    2015-11-21

    High quality nearly monodisperse colloidal WO3-x nanorods with an aspect ratio ∼18 were synthesized using the thermal decomposition technique. The effects of a capping agent and an activating agent on the nanorod aspect ratio have been studied. Excess carrier concentration due to large oxygen vacancy and smaller width of the nanorods compared to the Bohr exciton radius gives rise to an increase of the band gap. Shape anisotropy in nanorods results in two plasmonic absorbance bands at about 890 nm and 5900 nm corresponding to short axis and long axis plasmon modes. The short axis mode reveals an excellent plasmonic sensitivity of ∼345 nm per refractive index. A plasmonic photocatalysis process based on WO3-x nanorods has been developed to synthesize Ag/WO3-x heterostructures consisting of multiple Ag dots with ∼2 nm size, randomly decorated on the surface of the WO3-x nanorods. Long time irradiation leads to an increase in the size (5 nm) of Ag nanocrystals concomitant with decrease in the number of Ag nanocrystals attached per WO3-x nanorod. Plasmonic photocatalysis followed by thermal annealing produces only one Ag nanocrystal of size ∼10 nm on each WO3-x nanorod. Red shifting and broadening of plasmon bands of Ag nanocrystals and WO3-x nanorods confirm the formation of heterostructures between the metal and semiconductor. Detailed transmission electron micrograph analysis indicates the epitaxial growth of Ag nanocrystals onto WO3-x nanorods. A high photocurrent gain of about 4000 is observed for Ag (10 nm)/WO3-x heterostructures. The photodegradation rate for Rhodamine-B and methylene blue is maximum for Ag (10 nm)/WO3-x heterostructures due to efficient electron transfer from WO3-x nanorods to Ag nanocrystals. Metal plasmon-semiconductor exciton coupling, prominent plasmon absorbance of metal nanoparticles, and formation of an epitaxial interface are found to be the important factors to achieve the maximum photocatalytic activity and fabrication of a

  7. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  8. Making Tracks on Mars (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been making tracks on Mars for seven months now, well beyond its original 90-day mission. The rover traveled more than 3 kilometers (2 miles) to reach the 'Columbia Hills' pictured here. In this 360-degree view of the rolling martian terrain, its wheel tracks can be seen approaching from the northwest (right side of image).

    Spirit's navigation camera took the images that make up this mosaic on sols 210 and 213 (Aug. 5 and Aug. 8, 2004). The rover is now conducting scientific studies of the local geology on the 'Clovis' outcrop of the 'West Spur' region of the 'Columbia Hills.' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction. Scientists plan for Spirit to take a color panoramic image from this location.

  9. Spin-glass behaviors in carrier polarity controlled Fe3-xTixO4 semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Tabata, H.

    2015-08-01

    Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe3-xTixO4 thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl2O4 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6-0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe3-xTixO4 films (x = 0.6-0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.

  10. Neophobia, NQO1 and SIRT1 as premorbid and prodromal indicators of AD in 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Parrado-Fernández, Cristina; Alvarez-Montón, Ismael; Frontiñán-Rubio, Javier; Durán-Prado, Mario; Peinado, Juan Ramón; Johansson, Björn; Alcaín, Francisco Javier; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2014-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress seems to be a key factor underlying natural processes of aging, but also to occur prior to neuropathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. The present work studied the temporal variation of three key antioxidant enzymes in cortex and hippocampus during the development of behavioral and cognitive symptoms in 3xTg-AD mice, and as compared to age-matched controls. At 2 months of age, when no intraneuronal Aβ immunoreactivity has been reported, increased neophobia shown as a delayed and reduced rearing, evidenced the onset of BPSD-like symptoms at premorbid stages of disease. In these animals, NQO1 was found increased in both the hippocampus (800%) and cortex (400%) and progressively diminished at older ages. SOD1 was increased in the hippocampus at 4 months of age, when neuronal Aβ accumulation has been established. These hippocampal increases of antioxidants before the prodromal emergence of cognitive symptoms support their role as defense mechanisms. SIRT1 levels showed opposite age-dependent changes in cortex (increase) and hippocampus (decrease) relative to controls. Prodromal cognitive deficits emerged at 6 months of age, concomitantly to cortical overexpression of SIRT1 but down-regulation of NQO1 and SIRT1 in the hippocampus, suggesting inadequate antioxidative protection to prevent or delay the subjacent neuronal damage. The present data further support the link between oxidative status and the anxious profile. Their crosstalk may underline AD-pathological mechanisms that may lead to deranged physiology and selective neuronal degeneration. It also points out increased neophobia and high expression of NQO1 among the first indicators of disease in the 3xTg-AD mice.

  11. Thermoelectric properties of n-Bi2Te3 - x - y Se x S y solid solutions under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobeinikov, I. V.; Luk'yanova, L. N.; Vorontsov, G. V.; Shchennikov, V. V.; Kutasov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    The thermoelectric properties of n-Bi2Te3 - x - y Se x S y solid solutions with atomic substitutions in the tellurium sublattice ( x = 0.27, 0.3, y = 0, and x = y = 0.09) have been studied under a pressure to 8 GPa. It has been found that the Seebeck coefficient and the resistance decrease with increasing P, and power factor χ increases in all compositions and becomes maximal at pressures of 2-4 GPa. It has been shown that the power factor χ, which is proportional to the product of the effective mass of the density of states m/m m/m 0 and the charge carrier mobility μ0 in the form ( m/m 0)3/2μ0, increases with increasing pressure mainly due to the increase in the mobility and also depends on the solid solution composition. In the composition with substitution Te → Se + S ( x = y = 0.09), the peculiarity of the dependence of m/m 0 on P in the pressure range corresponding to maximal values of the power factor can be explained by the existence of an electronic topological transition. The increase in the power factor under pressure in n-type Bi2Te3 - x - y Se x S y solid solutions combined with similar data for p-type Bi2 - x Sb x Te3 solid solutions obtained earlier, including the estimations of possible changes in the thermal conductivity with increasing pressure, give grounds to design thermoelements with improved value of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit, which can be 50-70% at pressures of 2-4 GPa.

  12. Importance of cross-correlated relaxation in the spectra of simple organofluorine compounds: Spectral complexity of A3B3X spin systems compared to ABX spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Lawrence B.; Malloy, Thomas B.; Nunes, Megan M.; Zaibaq, Nicholas G.

    2012-09-01

    In a continuation of our initial investigation of the complex 13C and 19F spectra exhibited by two simple organofluorine compounds, additional organofluorine compounds expected to exhibit a wide range of spectral complexity were studied. Spectral simulations are critical for analyzing the more complex spin systems, in particular, A3B3X and A6B3X. Cross-correlated relaxation is commonly observed; examples of 13Csbnd 19F cross-correlated relaxation are shown with the signals for each nucleus exhibiting unequal relaxation rates. Higher order effects are particularly noticeable in the spectra of perfluoro-t-butyl alcohol because of a large 4JFF value in the (13CF3)(12CF3)212COH isotopomer. The many additional transitions in an A3B3X spin system compared to an ABX spin system result in much more complex 19F (A3 and B3) and 13C (X) spectra, even though only three types of nuclei are involved in each spin system. The corresponding protio compounds typically constitute a much simpler A3M3X spin system because the long-range nJHH coupling (n ⩾ 4) is much smaller than the corresponding long-range nJFF coupling. Spectra previously published for ethane-1-13C (A3B3X) and hexafluoroethane-1-13C (A3M3X) are notable exceptions and are discussed.

  13. DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked is an immunogenic target of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koshio, Jun; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Koichiro; Saida, Yu; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Shoji, Satoshi; Igarashi, Natsue; Miura, Satoru; Okajima, Masaaki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Narita, Ichiei

    2013-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that most solid malignancies consist of heterogeneous tumor cells and that a relatively small subpopulation, which shares biological features with stem cells, survives through potentially lethal stresses such as chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Since the survival of this subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSC) plays a critical role in recurrence, it must be eradicated in order to cure cancer. We previously reported that vaccination with CD133(+) murine melanoma cells exhibiting biological CSC features induced CSC-specific effector T cells. These were capable of eradicating CD133(+) tumor cells in vivo, thereby curing the parental tumor. In the current study, we indicated that DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked (DDX3X) is an immunogenic protein preferentially expressed in CD133(+) tumor cells. Vaccination with DDX3X primed specific T cells, resulting in protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. The DDX3X-primed CD4(+) T cells produced CD133(+) tumor-specific IFNγ and IL-17 and mediated potent antitumor therapeutic efficacy. DDX3X is expressed in various human cancer cells, including lung, colon, and breast cancer cells. These results suggest that anti-DDX3X immunotherapy is a promising treatment option in efforts to eradicate CSC in the clinical setting.

  14. Highly reproducible, efficient hysteresis-less CH3NH3PbI3-xClx planar hybrid solar cells without requiring heat-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    CH3NH3PbI3-xClx(MAPbI3-xClx) mixed halide perovskite powder with uniform composition was synthesized via simple solution chemistry, which demonstrates highly reproducible, efficient planar type MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite solar cells. Pure MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite powder was synthesized by reacting a 3 : 1 molar ratio of MAI : PbCl2 powder mixture in isopropanol (IPA) solution for 30 min at 60 °C with subsequent repeated centrifugation and washing in IPA. IPA functions as both the reaction medium for the formation of MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide and a selective remover of unreacted MAI and MACl byproducts. Accordingly, we could deposit a pinhole-free dense MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite film on a TiO2/FTO substrate through a simple one step spin-coating of pure MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite powder in DMF solution with HI additive, without further long heat-treatment processes. The deposited MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite film revealed uniform composition throughout the entire area, and the ratio of Cl to I + Cl and I + Cl to Pb was constant at ~0.03 and ~1/3, respectively. On the other hand, the conventional MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite film prepared by the long heat-treatment process had non-uniform composition because the ratio of Cl to I + Cl fluctuated greatly from 0 to 7.2. The average efficiency of planar type MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite solar cells was 18.65% +/- 0.30% and the champion cell had 1.11 V Voc, 22.1 mA cm-2Jsc, 77% F.F., and 18.9% η for forward scan conditions and 1.11 V Voc, 22.1 mA cm-2Jsc, 78% F.F., and 19.1% η for reverse scan conditions. Although the thickness of the MAPbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite layer varied from ~500 nm to ~900 nm, the efficiency was within the range of 18.3%-19.0%.CH3NH3PbI3-xClx(MAPbI3-xClx) mixed halide perovskite powder with uniform composition was synthesized via simple solution chemistry, which demonstrates highly reproducible, efficient planar type MAPbI3-x

  15. Maximizing the photo catalytic and photo response properties of multimodal plasmonic Ag/WO3-x heterostructure nanorods by variation of the Ag size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; Paul, Sumana; de, S. K.

    2015-10-01

    High quality nearly monodisperse colloidal WO3-x nanorods with an aspect ratio ~18 were synthesized using the thermal decomposition technique. The effects of a capping agent and an activating agent on the nanorod aspect ratio have been studied. Excess carrier concentration due to large oxygen vacancy and smaller width of the nanorods compared to the Bohr exciton radius gives rise to an increase of the band gap. Shape anisotropy in nanorods results in two plasmonic absorbance bands at about 890 nm and 5900 nm corresponding to short axis and long axis plasmon modes. The short axis mode reveals an excellent plasmonic sensitivity of ~345 nm per refractive index. A plasmonic photocatalysis process based on WO3-x nanorods has been developed to synthesize Ag/WO3-x heterostructures consisting of multiple Ag dots with ~2 nm size, randomly decorated on the surface of the WO3-x nanorods. Long time irradiation leads to an increase in the size (5 nm) of Ag nanocrystals concomitant with decrease in the number of Ag nanocrystals attached per WO3-x nanorod. Plasmonic photocatalysis followed by thermal annealing produces only one Ag nanocrystal of size ~10 nm on each WO3-x nanorod. Red shifting and broadening of plasmon bands of Ag nanocrystals and WO3-x nanorods confirm the formation of heterostructures between the metal and semiconductor. Detailed transmission electron micrograph analysis indicates the epitaxial growth of Ag nanocrystals onto WO3-x nanorods. A high photocurrent gain of about 4000 is observed for Ag (10 nm)/WO3-x heterostructures. The photodegradation rate for Rhodamine-B and methylene blue is maximum for Ag (10 nm)/WO3-x heterostructures due to efficient electron transfer from WO3-x nanorods to Ag nanocrystals. Metal plasmon-semiconductor exciton coupling, prominent plasmon absorbance of metal nanoparticles, and formation of an epitaxial interface are found to be the important factors to achieve the maximum photocatalytic activity and fabrication of a high speed

  16. Sensitivity of Mission Energy Consumption to Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Design Assumptions on the N3-X Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael T.; Chu, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors it was shown that the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system, was able to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project goal for N+3 generation aircraft of at least a 60% reduction in total energy consumption as compared to the best in class current generation aircraft. This previous study combined technology assumptions that represented the highest anticipated values that could be matured to technology readiness level (TRL) 4-6 by 2030. This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of the total mission energy consumption to reductions in each key technology assumption. Of the parameters examined, the mission total energy consumption was most sensitive to changes to total pressure loss in the propulsor inlet. The baseline inlet internal pressure loss is assumed to be an optimistic 0.5%. An inlet pressure loss of 3% increases the total energy consumption 9%. However changes to reduce inlet pressure loss can result in additional distortion to the fan which can reduce fan efficiency or vice versa. It is very important that the inlet and fan be analyzed and optimized as a single unit. The turboshaft hot section is assumed to be made of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with a 3000 F maximum material temperature. Reducing the maximum material temperature to 2700 F increases the mission energy consumption by only 1.5%. Thus achieving a 3000 F temperature in CMCs is important but not central to achieving the energy consumption objective of the N3-X/TeDP. A key parameter in the efficiency of superconducting motors and generators is the size of the superconducting filaments in the stator. The size of the superconducting filaments in the baseline model is assumed to be 10 microns. A 40 micron filament, which represents current technology, results in a 200% increase in AC losses in the motor and generator stators. This analysis shows that for a system with 40

  17. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  18. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement. PMID:28293135

  19. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  20. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  1. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönke, Johannes; Fried, Eliot

    2017-02-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement.

  2. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  3. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  4. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  5. Prolonged running, not fluoxetine treatment, increases neurogenesis, but does not alter neuropathology, in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Michael W; Potter, Michelle C; Bayer, Thomas A; van Praag, Henriette; Lucassen, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in adult neurogenesis have been documented in the original 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), notably occurring at the same age when spatial memory deficits and amyloid plaque pathology appeared. As this suggested reduced neurogenesis was associated with behavioral deficits, we tested whether activity and pharmacological stimulation could prevent memory deficits and modify neurogenesis and/or neuropathology in the 3xTg model backcrossed to the C57Bl/6 strain. We chronically administered the antidepressant fluoxetine to one group of mice, allowed access to a running wheel in another, and combined both treatments in a third cohort. All treatments lasted for 11 months. The female 3xTg mice failed to exhibit any deficits in spatial learning and memory as measured in the Morris water maze, indicating that when backcrossed to the C57Bl/6 strain, the 3xTg mice lost the behavioral phenotype that was present in the original 3xTg mouse maintained on a hybrid background. Despite this, the backcrossed 3xTg mice expressed prominent intraneuronal amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in the cortex and amygdala, with lower levels in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. In the combined cohort, fluoxetine treatment interfered with exercise and reduced the total distance run. The extent of Aβ neuropathology, the tau accumulations, or BDNF levels, were not altered by prolonged exercise. Thus, neuropathology was present but not paralleled by spatial memory deficits in the backcrossed 3xTg mouse model of AD. Prolonged exercise for 11 months did improve the long-term survival of newborn neurons generated during middle-age, whereas fluoxetine had no effect. We further review and discuss the relevant literature in this respect.

  6. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  7. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  8. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  9. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  10. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  11. Teaching Students the Verticality of Technical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates making technical writing courses more vertical in structure by including an extensive study of at least one specific form of technical documentation. Examines how students can gain experience in the vertical process by designing, writing, testing, and producing user manuals for on-campus cooperative education clients. Lists the benefits…

  12. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  13. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-06-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  14. Vertical Files in Midlands Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, John G.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews survey responses from 127 nonmedical academic libraries in Nebraska, Iowa, and Kansas regarding their vertical files (e.g., acquisitions, weeding, size, nature, collection management, frequency of use, maintenance of statistics, types of users, circulation, and security), reporting that 109 had vertical files, with most emphasizing topics…

  15. Vertical Hegelianism and Beyond: Digital Cinema Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Roger B.

    Cinema as an art and communication form is entering its second century of development. Sergei Eisenstein conceived of editing in horizontal and vertical terms. He saw vertical editing patterns primarily as the synchronization of simultaneous image and sound elements, particularly music, no create cinematic meaning by means of the relationship…

  16. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice.

    PubMed

    Knight, Elysse M; Brown, Timothy M; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C M; Waters, Elizabeth J; Allan, Stuart M; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4-10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  17. Structural and Electronic properties of β- In2 X 3 (X = O, S, Se, Te) using ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, S. V.; Marsillac, S.; Mangale, N. S.; Gade, V.

    2011-03-01

    Several III-VI body-centered tetragonal layered compounds belonging to space group I 4 1 /amd have been a subject of interest recently because of their potential applications in high efficiency and environmentally friendly copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) solar cells and molecules. Here we have studied the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of four compounds β - In 2 X3 (X = O, S, Se, Te), in this space group. Using first principles computations, we have fully determined the lattice constants a and c, as well as 10 internal parameters that define this unique structure of primitive unit cells of 40 atoms. For β - In 2 S3 our computed values are found to be consistent with experimental measurements. The bulk modulus B, local electronic density of states (LDOS), total density of states (DOS), and band gap Ef of these phases have been investigated. Supported by Ohio Supercomputing Center, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Wright Center for PVIC, National Science Foundation, DARPA.

  18. Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Formamidinium Lead Halide Perovskite FAPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) Colloidal Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Levchuk, Ievgen; Osvet, Andres; Tang, Xiaofeng; Brandl, Marco; Perea, José Darío; Hoegl, Florian; Matt, Gebhard J; Hock, Rainer; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Brabec, Christoph J

    2017-04-11

    In the past few years, hybrid organic-inorganic and all-inorganic metal halide perovskite nanocrystals have become one of the most interesting materials for optoelectronic applications. Here, we report a facile and rapid room temperature synthesis of 15-25 nm formamidinium CH(NH2)2PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or mixed Cl/Br and Br/I) colloidal nanocrystals by ligand-assisted reprecipitation (LARP). The cubic and platelet-like nanocrystals with their emission in the range of 415-740 nm, full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 20-44 nm, and radiative lifetimes of 5-166 ns enable band gap tuning by halide composition as well as by their thickness tailoring; they have a high photoluminescence quantum yield (up to 85%), colloidal and thermodynamic stability. Combined with surface modification that prevents degradation by water, this nanocrystalline material is an ideal candidate for optoelectronic devices and applications. In addition, optoelectronic measurements verify that the photodetector based on FAPbI3 nanocrystals paves the way for perovskite quantum dot photovoltaics.

  19. First-Principles Structure Prediction of Dual Cation Ammine Borohydrides: LiMg(BH4)3(NH3)x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kışlak, Yusuf; Tekin, Adem

    On-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications continues to be one of the most technically challenging barriers to the widespread commercialization of hydrogen-fueled vehicles. In addition, hydrogen storage is also required for off-board purposes such as stationary power generation and hydrogen delivery and refueling infrastructure. After decades of extensive exploration, research into hydrogen storage materials based on metal borohydrides has become a highly active and exciting area owing to the high theoretical hydrogen capacities of these materials. However, they are thermodynamically too stable and therefore a very high temperature is required for their decomposition. This temperature can be lowered to the tolerable levels by the addition of ammonia and the resulting material is called as Ammine Metal Borohydrides (AMBs). In this study, we aim to search the ground state crystal structures of LiMg(BH4)3(NH3)x [1] with x = 2, 3, 4 using CrystAl Structure Prediction via Simulated Annealing (CASPESA) method. This approach was successfully located the experimentally determined structure of LiMg(BH4)3(NH3)2 [1] and other interesting local minima. For x = 3 and 4 cases, our methodology also resulted new crystal phases.

  20. Influence of nickel on the electronic structure and magnetic properties in Gd7Pd3-xNix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talik, E.; Guzik, A.; Oboz, M.; Kusz, J.; Zajdel, P.; Zubko, M.

    2016-04-01

    With increasing amount of nickel in the Gd7Pd3-xNix series, the unit cell volume decreases due to difference between atomic radius of Pd and Ni but the type of crystal structure is preserved. The paper presents X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer, Transmission Electron Microscopy, AC and DC magnetic susceptibility and magnetocaloric examinations of the series. The Ni substitution into Pd position causes the decrease in the Curie temperature. Moreover, the dispersion observed in the AC-susceptibility at different frequencies vanishes at the Curie point. Just below the ordering temperature, a Hopkinson peak is observed. Complex processes depending on frequency and magnetic field occur in the transition region. The magnetization phenomena are very sensitive to the applied DC magnetic field and even very weak fields producing thermomagnetic hysteresis. A reorientation process around 150 K exists in all compounds and it is connected with increasing interactions at low temperatures. After nickel substitution, the relative cooling power (RCP) is greater in comparison to the parent compound.

  1. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Schreyeck, S; Brunner, K; Kirchner, A; Bass, U; Grauer, S; Schumacher, C; Gould, C; Karczewski, G; Geurts, J; Molenkamp, L W

    2016-04-13

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x = 0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only ≈ 75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  2. Monolayer assembly of ferrimagnetic Co(x)Fe(3-x)O4 nanocubes for magnetic recording.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liheng; Jubert, Pierre-Olivier; Berman, David; Imaino, Wayne; Nelson, Alshakim; Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Sun, Shouheng

    2014-06-11

    We report a facile synthesis of monodisperse ferrimagnetic Co(x)Fe(3-x)O4 nanocubes (NCs) through thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 and Co(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) in the presence of oleic acid and sodium oleate. The sizes of the NCs are tuned from 10 to 60 nm, and their composition is optimized at x = 0.6 to show strong ferrimagnetism with the 20 nm Co0.6Fe2.4O4 NCs showing a room temperature Hc of 1930 Oe. The ferrimagnetic NCs are self-assembled at the water-air interface into a large-area (in square centimeter) monolayer array with a high packing density and (100) texture. The 20 nm NC array can be recorded at linear densities ranging from 254 to 31 kfci (thousand flux changes per inch). The work demonstrates the great potential of solution-phase synthesis and self-assembly of magnetic array for magnetic recording applications.

  3. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyeck, S.; Brunner, K.; Kirchner, A.; Bass, U.; Grauer, S.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Karczewski, G.; Geurts, J.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2016-04-01

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x  =  0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only  ≈75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  4. Electronic structure and optical properties of LiXH3 and XLiH3 (X = Be, B or C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San, Xiao-Jiao; He, Zhi; Ma, Yan-Ming; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bing-Bing; Zou, Guang-Tian

    2008-06-01

    The equilibrium lattice constant, the cohesive energy and the electronic properties of light metal hydrides Li XH3and XLiH3 (X = Be, B or C) with perovskite lattice structures have been investigated by using the pseudopotential plane-wave method. Large energy gap of LiBeH3 indicates that it is insulating, but other investigated hydrides are metallic. The pressure-induced metallization of LiBeH3 is found at about 120 GPa, which is attributed to the increase of Be-p electrons with pressure. The electronegativity of the p electrons of X atom is responsible for the metallicity of the investigated Li XH3 hydrides, but the electronegativity of the s electrons of X atom plays an important role in the metallicity of the investigated XLiH3 hydrides. In order to deeply understand the investigated hydrides, their optical properties have also been investigated. The optical absorption of either LiBeH3 or BeLiH3 has a strong peak at about 5eV, showing that their optical responses are qualitatively similar. It is also found that the optical responses of other investigated hydrides are stronger than those of LiBeH3 and BeLiH3 in lower energy ranges, especially in the case of CLiH3.

  5. Structure, Magnetic, and Electrical Properties of Heusler-Type Fe3- x Co x Si Ferromagnetic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M. Manivel; Kamat, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of substitution of Co for Fe on structure, magnetic, and electrical resistivity of Heusler-type Fe3- x Co x Si (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) alloys was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic, and electrical transport measurements. The results revealed that these alloys consist of ordered DO3 phase and some L21 phase up to x ≤ 0.5. However, for x > 0.5, the alloys consisted of L21 ordered phase and B2 disordered phase. The magnetization value was close to that predicted from Slater-Pauling rule for x ≥ 0.5 alloys. The Curie temperature increased from 832 K (559 °C) for x = 0 (Fe3Si) alloy to 1016 K (743 °C) for x = 1 (Fe2CoSi) alloy. Electrical transport studies revealed the presence of half-metallic behavior at low temperatures in x ≥ 0.5 alloys. No half-metallic behavior was observed for x = 0 and 0.25 alloys; however, a high resistivity with ferromagnetism was observed in these alloys, which is desirable for ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor spintronic devices.

  6. Ultra-wide to mid-wide angle 3X zoom and focus adjustable lens design for industrial video endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongmin

    2012-11-01

    Optical zoom lens design for industrial video endoscope faces tremendous challenges in stringent compactness requirement in both diameter and rigid length dimensions, as well as harsh environmental requirements such as high working temperature. Industrial video endoscope with optical zoom capability is increasingly demanded by market yet nowadays no such product has been commercialized. Once it succeeds, it will provide huge benefits to customers in improvement of remote visual inspection work quality and productivity. A 3X continuous optical zoom lens design with short focal length is presented in this paper. It is capable to change Field of View from ultra-wide angle as 120degrees to mid-wide angle as 40degrees. Focus distance change is from infinity to as close as 5mm. The whole lens train has a maximum diameter of 3.0mm, and overall length of 8.7mm, which makes it practical to be integrated into a 6mm industrial video endoscope. Image quality in terms of contrast and resolution exceeds today's existing commercial 6mm industrial video endoscopes. The design has also considered cost and product ruggedness requests.

  7. Reference and working memory deficits in the 3xTg-AD mouse between 2 and 15-months of age: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Leanne M; Brown, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Impairments in working memory (WM) can predict the shift from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the rate at which AD progresses with age. The 3xTg-AD mouse model develops both Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the neuro-pathological hallmarks of AD, by 6 months of age, but no research has investigated the age-related changes in WM in these mice. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested male and female 3xTg-AD and wildtype control (B6129SF2/J) mice between 2 and 15 months of age for reference and working memory errors in the 8-arm radial maze. The 3xTg-AD mice had deficits in both working and reference memory across the ages tested, rather than showing the predicted age-related memory deficits. Male 3xTg-AD mice showed more working and reference memory errors than females, but there were no sex differences in wildtype control mice. These results indicate that the 3xTg-AD mouse replicates the impairments in WM found in patients with AD. However, these mice show memory deficits as early as two months of age, suggesting that the genes underlying reference and working memory in these mice cause deficits from an early age. The finding that males were affected more than females suggests that more attention should be paid to sex differences in transgenic AD mice.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline Ca(3-x)Cu(x)Co4O9 (0 < or = x < or = 0.32) for power generation.

    PubMed

    Nam, S W; Lim, Y S; Choi, S M; Seo, W S; Park, K

    2011-02-01

    We successfully synthesized nano-sized Ca(3-x)Cu(x)Co4O9 (0 < or = x < or = 0.32) powders by solution combustion process. Plate-like grains and porous structure were observed in the sintered Ca(3-x)Cu(x)Co4O9 ceramics. The sintered Ca(3-x)Cu(x)Co4O9 showed a monoclinic symmetry. The electrical conductivity of the Ca(3-x)Cu(x)Co4O9 increased with increasing temperature, indicative of a semiconducting behavior. The added Cu led to a significant increase in the electrical conductivity. The Seebeck coefficient of the Cu-added Ca(3-x)Cu(x)Co4O9 was much higher than that of the Cu-free Ca3Co4O9. The highest power factor (9.99 x 10(-4) Wm(-1)K-2) was obtained for Ca2.76Cu0.24Co4O9 at 800 degrees C.

  9. Electronic structure and magnetism of Fe_3-xV_xX (X = Si, Ga and Al) alloys by the KKR-CPA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, A.; Tobola, J.; Kaprzyk, S.

    1997-03-01

    We present highly accurate, first principles, charge- and spin-selfconsistent electronic structures of the Heusler-type disordered alloys Fe_3-xV_xX for three metalloids. By assuming V to substitute randomly at the Fe(B) site, specific calculations are reported for x = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75, the end compounds Fe_3X and Fe_2VX, and the limiting single impurity cases. KKR-CPA methodology, generalized to treat multi-component complex alloys, was used to treat disorder effects within the LSD framework. We delineate clearly how the electronic states and magnetic moments at various sites in Fe_3-xV_xX evolve as a function of x and metalloid valence. The total magnetic moment in Fe_3-xV_xSi is found to decrease non-linearly, and the Fe(B) moment to increase with increasing x, in sharp contrast to expectations of the `local environment' model. We discuss the type, spin, and number of carriers in Fe_3-xV_xX relevant for various transport phenomena. Hyperfine fields and spherical spin form factors at various sites were computed for all alloys. Theoretical predictions are compared with available measurements as far as possible, and some areas where further experiments should prove interesting are noted. Work supported by the DOE.

  10. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  11. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  12. Structure of the DBL3x domain of pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA complexed with chondroitin sulfate A

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.; Gittis, A.G.; Nguyen, P.; Gowda, D.C.; Miller, L.H.; Garboczi, D.N.

    2008-09-19

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta via the VAR2CSA protein, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 family, leading to life-threatening malaria in pregnant women with severe effects on their fetuses and newborns. Here we describe the structure of the CSA binding DBL3x domain, a Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of VAR2CSA. By forming a complex of DBL3x with CSA oligosaccharides and determining its structure, we have identified the CSA binding site to be a cluster of conserved positively charged residues on subdomain 2 and subdomain 3. Mutation or chemical modification of lysine residues at the site markedly diminished CSA binding to DBL3x. The location of the CSA binding site is an important step forward in the molecular understanding of pregnancy-associated malaria and offers a new target for vaccine development.

  13. Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of low-x Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3-x}S{sub 3} Series

    SciTech Connect

    Iona, Ch.; Kyratsi, Th.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-21

    Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-xS{sub x} solid solutions, with low x values, were synthesized from melt. The solid solutions were studied in terms of phase purity using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) in order to find the maximum x value for the preservation of the single Bi2Se3-type phase. The lattice parameters were estimated and showed the reduced unit cell with the S incorporation in the lattice. SEM images confirmed the plate-like morphology of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-xS{sub x} single-phase members. The thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity) as well as IR reflectivity were also studied on members with x<0.4 that were found to form single phase Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-xS{sub x} solid solutions.

  14. Substrate patterning with NiOx nanoparticles and hot-wire chemical vapour deposition of WO3x and carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houweling, Z. S.

    2011-10-01

    The first part of the thesis treats the formation of nickel catalyst nanoparticles. First, a patterning technique using colloids is employed to create ordered distributions of monodisperse nanoparticles. Second, nickel films are thermally dewetted, which produces mobile species that self-arrange in non-ordered distributions of polydisperse particles. Third, the mobility of the nickel species is successfully reduced by the addition of air during the dewetting and the use of a special anchoring layer. Thus, non-ordered distributions of self-arranged monodisperse nickel oxide nanoparticles (82±10 nm x 16±2 nm) are made. Studies on nickel thickness, dewetting time and dewetting temperature are conducted. With these particle templates, graphitic carbon nanotubes are synthesised using catalytic hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD), demonstrating the high-temperature processability of the nanoparticles. The second part of this thesis treats the non-catalytic HWCVD of tungsten oxides (WO3-x). Resistively heated tungsten filaments exposed to an air flow at subatmospheric pressures, produce tungsten oxide vapour species, which are collected on substrates and are subsequently characterised. First, a complete study on the process conditions is conducted, whereby the effects of filament radiation, filament temperature, process gas pressure and substrate temperature, are investigated. The thus controlled growth of nanogranular smooth amorphous and crystalline WO3-x thin films is presented for the first time. Partially crystalline smooth hydrous WO3-x thin films consisting of 20 nm grains can be deposited at very high rates. The synthesis of ultrafine powders with particle sizes of about 7 nm and very high specific surface areas of 121.7±0.4 m2·g-1 at ultrahigh deposition rates of 36 µm·min-1, is presented. Using substrate heating to 600°C or more, while using air pressures of 3·10-5 mbar to 0.1 mbar, leads to pronounced crystal structures, from nanowires, to

  15. One-step, solution-processed formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI(3-x)Cl(x)) for mesoscopic perovskite-polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Siliu; Pang, Shuping; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Padture, Nitin P; Hu, Hao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhu, Huimin; Zhang, Lixue; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Guanglei

    2014-09-28

    Formamidinium (FA) lead triiodide perovskite with chlorine addition (NH2CH=NH2PbI(3-x)Clx) is employed as a light harvester in mesoscopic solar cells for the first time. It is demonstrated that a phase-pure FAPbI(3-x)Clx perovskite layer can be synthesized using a one-step solution-process at 140 °C, and the resultant solar cells deliver a maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which is the most efficient formamidinium-lead-halide perovskite mesoscopic solar cell employing a polymer hole-transporting layer. The effects of the thermal annealing temperature on the quality/morphology of the perovskite layer and the solar cells performance are discussed. The advantages offered by the one-step solution-processing method and the reduced bandgap make FAPbI(3-x)Clx perovskites an attractive choice for future hybrid photovoltaics.

  16. Nanoclusters of MoO3-x embedded in an Al2O3 matrix engineered for customizable mesoscale resistivity and high dielectric strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, William M.; Brodie, Alan D.; Mane, Anil U.; Sun, Fuge; Kidwingira, Françoise; McCord, Mark A.; Bevis, Christopher F.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2013-06-01

    We have synthesized a material consisting of conducting metal oxide (MoO3-x) nanoclusters embedded in a high-dielectric-strength insulator (Al2O3) matrix. The resistivity of this material can be customized by varying the concentration of the MoO3-x nanoclusters. The Al2O3 protects the MoO3-x from stoichiometry change, thus conserving the number of carriers and maintaining a high dielectric strength. This composite material is grown by atomic layer deposition, a thin film deposition technique suitable for coating 3D structures. We applied these atomic layer deposition composite films to our 3D electron-optical micro electrical mechanical systems devices and greatly improved their performance.

  17. Atomistic study on the site preference and lattice vibration of Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 (T=Al and Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Hu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Shen, Jiang; Qian, Ping; Chen, Nan-Xian

    2015-04-01

    The effects of the Y substitution for Gd on the structural stability and the site preference of intermetallics Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 (T=Al and Ge) are studied by using a series of interatomic pair potentials. The calculated results show Y can stabilize Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 with the tetragonal structure, and Y substitute for Gd with a strong preference for the 2b sites. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, the total and partial phonon densities of states are evaluated for the Gd3-xYxCo29T4B10 compounds with the tetragonal structure. A qualitative analysis is carried out with the relevant potentials for the vibrational modes, which makes it possible to predict some properties related to lattice vibration.

  18. DDX3X promotes the biogenesis of a subset of miRNAs and the potential roles they played in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luqing; Mao, Yitao; Zhao, Yuelong; He, Yanong

    2016-01-01

    DDX3X, located on the X-chromosome, belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family and acts as a key RNA-binding protein to exert its regulatory functions in various biological processes. In this paper, knock-down the expression of DDX3X can affect a subset of miRNA expression levels, especially for miR-1, miR-141, miR-145, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-34a. Through adopting the immunoprecipitation (IP), RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), dual luciferase reporter assays, we illustrate that DDX3X could interact with Drosha/DGCR8 complex, elevate the processing activity of Drosha/DGCR8 complex on pri-miRNAs, and increase mature miRNA expression levels. For the studies of potential roles and biological functions of DDX3X-dependent miRNAs and their downstream target genes in multiple cancers, we use the primary data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and several miRNA target prediction databases, to systematically analyze the expression levels of DDX3X-dependent miRNAs in almost 14 kinds of cancers versus normal tissues, and the essential biological functions for their putative downstream target genes. All these findings will provide us novel insights and directions for thoroughly exploring the regulatory mechanisms of miRNA biogenesis, and shed light on effectively searching the clinical significances and biological roles of DDX3X-dependent miRNAs and their target genes in cancer development. PMID:27586307

  19. Exaggerated glucagon-like peptide 1 response is important for improved β-cell function and glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jacobsen, Siv H; Worm, Dorte; Hansen, Dorte L; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Naver, Lars; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J

    2013-09-01

    β-Cell function improves in patients with type 2 diabetes in response to an oral glucose stimulus after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This has been linked to the exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), but causality has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of GLP-1 in improving β-cell function and glucose tolerance and regulating glucagon release after RYGB using exendin(9-39) (Ex-9), a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-specific antagonist. Nine patients with type 2 diabetes were examined before and 1 week and 3 months after surgery. Each visit consisted of two experimental days, allowing a meal test with randomized infusion of saline or Ex-9. After RYGB, glucose tolerance improved, β-cell glucose sensitivity (β-GS) doubled, the GLP-1 response greatly increased, and glucagon secretion was augmented. GLP-1R blockade did not affect β-cell function or meal-induced glucagon release before the operation but did impair glucose tolerance. After RYGB, β-GS decreased to preoperative levels, glucagon secretion increased, and glucose tolerance was impaired by Ex-9 infusion. Thus, the exaggerated effect of GLP-1 after RYGB is of major importance for the improvement in β-cell function, control of glucagon release, and glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Sonic Anemometer Vertical Wind Speed Measurement Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochendorfer, J.; Horst, T. W.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Meyers, T. P.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy covariance studies, errors in the measured vertical wind speed cause errors of a similar magnitude in the vertical fluxes of energy and mass. Several recent studies on the accuracy of sonic anemometer measurements indicate that non-orthogonal sonic anemometers used in eddy covariance studies underestimate the vertical wind speed. It has been suggested that this underestimation is caused by flow distortion from the interference of the structure of the anemometer itself on the flow. When oriented ideally with respect to the horizontal wind direction, orthogonal sonic anemometers that measure the vertical wind speed with a single vertically-oriented acoustic path may measure the vertical wind speed more accurately in typical surface-layer conditions. For non-orthogonal sonic anemometers, Horst et al. (2014) proposed that transducer shadowing may be a dominant factor in sonic flow distortion. As the ratio of sonic transducer diameter to path length and the zenith angle of the three transducer paths decrease, the effects of transducer shadowing on measurements of vertical velocity will decrease. An overview of this research and some of the methods available to correct historical data will be presented.

  1. Preparation of poly(acrylic)/SiO2/EuL3 x 2H2O, hybrid thin films from monodispersed colloidal silica.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Shih-Yu; Yang, Chang-Chung

    2010-08-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO2/EuL3 x 2H2O hybrid thin films were prepared from various acrylic monomers (MMA and EDMA/TMPTA), lanthanide metal complexes (EuL3 x 2H2O, L = pyridine carboxylic acid), and monodispersed colloidal silica with a coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MSMA). It is a combination of the sol-gel reaction, thermal polymerization, and spin coating. The silica content in the hybrid thin films is fixed at 20 wt%, and the EuL3 x 2H2O content is varied from 0.01 g to 0.07 g. FTIR and EA analysis confirms the chemical structure of the prepared EuL3 x 2H2O and poly(acrylic)/SiO2/EuL3 x 2H2O hybrid thin films. UV-Vis spectra and n&k analysis shows that the hybrid thin film has good transparency in visible light. The refractive index of hybrid thin films can be effectively controlled through the EuL3 x 2H2O content. The PL spectra shows that the strongest emission peak occurs at 615 nm and the emission intensity increases to the peak maximum at an EuL3 x 2H2O content of 0.05 g. Both TGA and PL analysis show that the prepared hybrid thin films from the crosslinked acrylic polymer moiety have much better film uniformity, thermal stability, and fluorescence properties. The TEM diagram shows that the MSMA/SiO2/EuL3 x 2H2O particles with a size 15-20 nm are well dispersed in the reaction solution. The SEM diagram shows that the particle distribution in the prepared hybrid thin films is uniform and no phase separation is observed. Finally, AFM analysis indicates that the prepared hybrid thin films have an excellent surface planarity.

  2. SU(6) superset of SU(3) x SU(2) and SU(8) superset of SU(4) x SU(2) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Salcedo, L. L.

    2011-04-15

    Tables of scalar factors are presented for 63 x 63 and 120 x 63 in SU(8) superset of SU(4) x SU(2), and for 35 x 35 and 56 x 35 in SU(6) superset of SU(3) x SU(2). Related tables for SU(4) superset of SU(3) x U(1) and SU(3) superset of SU(2) x U(1) are also provided so that the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients can be completely reconstructed. These are suitable to study meson-meson and baryon-meson interactions within a spin-flavor symmetric scheme.

  3. Investigation of pressure-induced magnetic transitions in CoxFe3-xO4 spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subías, G.; Cuartero, V.; García, J.; Blasco, J.; Lafuerza, S.; Pascarelli, S.; Mathon, O.; Strohm, C.; Nagai, K.; Mito, M.; Garbarino, G.

    2013-03-01

    Room temperature Fe and Co K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction, and magnetization measurements were carried out to investigate the stability of the ferrimagnetic ground state in CoxFe3-xO4 (x=0, 1, 1.5, and 2) ferrites under pressure up to about 30 GPa using diamond anvil cells. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe K-edge is observed to decrease continuously up to the highest reached pressure by ˜50% in Fe3O4 (at 25 GPa) and by ˜70% in Co1.5Fe1.5O4 (at 16 GPa) and Co2FeO4 (at 21 GPa). In CoFe2O4, the suppression by ˜80% of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroic signal occurs simultaneously at both Fe and Co K-edges between 24 and 27 GPa. However, a continuous decrease of the dichroic signal with pressure is only observed at the Co K-edge, whereas the Fe K-edge dichroic intensity drops drastically. The synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction measurements indicate the occurrence of structural phase transitions at critical pressures in coincidence with the suppression of ferrimagnetism. In CoFe2O4, bulk magnetization measurements up to 26 GPa confirm the disappearance of ferrimagnetism and indicate an almost linear dependence of the magnetization with the magnetic field in the high pressure phase. We thus conclude that high-pressure CoFe2O4 is either paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic.

  4. Experimentally induced diabetes worsens neuropathology, but not learning and memory, in middle aged 3xTg mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Park, Emi; Ozment, Bria N; Griffith, Chelsea M; Zhang, Haiying; Patrylo, Peter R; Rose, Gregory M

    2017-03-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia in the elderly. The cause of the disease is still unknown, but amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are thought to play a role. However, transgenic mouse models expressing these neuropathological features do not show severe or consistent cognitive impairments. There is accumulating evidence that diabetes increases the risk for developing AD. We tested the hypothesis that experimentally induced diabetes would exacerbate cognitive symptoms in a mouse model of AD. Diabetes was induced in 12-month old 3xTg mice using streptozotocin (STZ; 90mg/kg, i.p., on two successive days). Hyperglycemia was verified by sampling blood glucose levels. Three months after injection (at 15 months of age), the mice were behaviorally tested in the Morris water maze and contextual fear conditioning. Subsequently, the hippocampal region was examined using immunohistochemistry (6E10 antibody for amyloid) and immunoblotting (AT8 antibody for phosphorylated tau). No differences were found in learning or memory between the vehicle-treated control and STZ-treated groups. A significant increase in the number of amyloid-positive plaques was observed in the subiculum of STZ-treated mice; very few plaques were seen in other hippocampal regions in either group. No differences in AT8 load were observed. These results reinforce that amyloid plaques, per se, are not sufficient to cause memory impairments. Further, while diabetes can enhance this aspect of brain pathology, the combination of disrupted glucose metabolism and the transgenes is still not sufficient to cause the severe cognitive impairments associated with clinical AD.

  5. Stueckelberg mechanisms for tensor multiplets and compactification on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2011-04-15

    We present Stueckelberg mechanisms for tensor multiplets coupled to supergravity in four dimensions (4D), six dimensions (6D), and three dimensions (3D). For N=1 supergravity in 4D, our field content is (e{sub {mu}}{sup m},{psi}{sub {mu}}), (B{sub {mu}{nu},{chi}},{phi}) and (A{sub {mu},{lambda}}), respectively, for the supergravity, tensor, and vector multiplets. In our Stueckelberg mechanism, the Abelian vector field A{sub {mu}} is absorbed into the longitudinal component of the tensor B{sub {mu}{nu}}, which becomes massive. The field strength F=dA of A is replaced by F{identical_to}F+mB, where m is a coupling constant with the dimension of mass. In 6D, we utilize the so-called dual version for N=2 supergravity, in order to avoid the obstruction caused by the Chern-Simons term F and A in the B-field strength G. Instead of the F and A-term in G, the 6D Lagrangian has a peculiar topological and cubic interaction term proportional to m{sup -1}F and F and F. In 3D, we also show that a similar mechanism works for N=1 supergravity. Interestingly, the basic structure is parallel to the 4D case, except that the originally nonpropagating field B starts propagating, after absorbing the A-field. We also show a possible compactification of 6D theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}.

  6. Communication: Probing the entrance channels of the X + CH{sub 4}{yields} HX + CH{sub 3} (X = F, Cl, Br, I) reactions via photodetachment of X{sup -}-CH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Min; Feng Yuan; Du Yikui; Zhu Qihe; Zheng Weijun; Czako, Gabor; Bowman, Joel M.

    2011-05-21

    The entrance channel potentials of the prototypical polyatomic reaction family X + CH{sub 4}{yields} HX + CH{sub 3} (X = F, Cl, Br, I) are investigated using anion photoelectron spectroscopy and high-level ab initio electronic structure computations. The pre-reactive van der Waals (vdW) wells of these reactions are probed for X = Cl, Br, I by photodetachment spectra of the corresponding X{sup -}-CH{sub 4} anion complex. For F-CH{sub 4}, a spin-orbit splitting ({approx}1310 cm{sup -1}) much larger than that of the F atom (404 cm{sup -1}) was observed, in good agreement with theory. This showed that in the case of the F-CH{sub 4} system the vertical transition from the anion ground state to the neutral potentials accesses a region between the vdW valley and transition state of the early-barrier F + CH{sub 4} reaction. The doublet splittings observed in the other halogen complexes are close to the isolated atomic spin-orbit splittings, also in agreement with theory.

  7. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  8. Effects of vertical rotation on Arabidopsis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Various gross morphological end points of Arabidopsis development are examined in an attempt to separate the effects of growth on the horizontal clinostat into a component caused by rotation alone and another component caused by the altered position with respect to the direction of the g-vector. In a series of tests which involved comparisons between vertical stationary plants, vertical rotated plants, and plants rotated on clinostats, certain characters were consistently influenced by vertical rotation alone. The characters for which this effect was statistically significant were petiole length and leaf blade width.

  9. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollrock, R.H.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported consisted of the fabrication and whirl testing of a vertical axis wind turbine. Problems are reported in blade fabrication and balancing. It is planned to provide speed control with a water agitator. (LEW)

  11. Vertical stratification in arthropod spatial distribution research.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity within individual host trees is often overlooked in surveys of phytophagous arthropod abundance and distribution. The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui is controlled by the predator Rhyzobius lophanthae to a greater degree on leaves at 75-cm height than on leaves at ground level within its host tree Cycas micronesica. The direct influence of elevation on the predator indirectly generates vertical heterogeneity of the scale insect. Arthropod sampling schemes that fail to include all strata within the vertical profile of the host tree species may generate misleading outcomes. Results indicate that sub-meter increments can reveal significant differences in vertical distribution of phytophagous insects, and that inclusion of observations on other organisms that interact with the target arthropod may illuminate determinants of vertical heterogeneity.

  12. Vertical Water Vapor Distribution at Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Phoenix SSI camera data along with radiative transfer modeling are used to retrieve the vertical water vapor profile. Preliminary results indicate that water vapor is often confined near the surface.

  13. Geometry independence of three-string vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    The geometry independence of three-string vertices in both HIKKO's and Witten's string field theories is examined. A careful regularization shows that the anomaly which has been reported by Morris and Mañes vanishes.

  14. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Lodde, P.F.

    1980-07-01

    The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

  15. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  16. Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays Mark A. Livingston∗ Adam Lederer Virtual Reality...dimensional Graphics and Realism—Virtual Reality Keywords: augmented reality , head-mounted display, vergence 1 INTRODUCTION Many augmented reality (AR

  17. First-principle investigations on structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of ScX3(X = Ir,Pd,Pt and Rh) under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao; Qi, Santao; Song, Hongquan; Zhang, Chuanhui; Shen, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of ScX3(X = Ir,Pd,Pt and Rh) intermetallic compound are investigated using pseudopotential method based on density functional theory (DFT) under pressure. In this work, the calculated lattice constant and bulk modulus are in accordance with experimental values at zero temperature and zero pressure. The bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G) and Young’s modulus (E) for ScX3(X = Ir,Pd,Pt and Rh) increase with the increasing external pressure. It is noted that Ir3Sc of investigated compound has the largest B, G and E. The results of B/G and ν have the same change trend, but Au presents an irregular change for ScX3(X = Ir,Pd,Pt and Rh). The density of states for ScX3(X = Ir,Pd,Pt and Rh) are investigated at 0, 30 and 50 GPa. In addition, the thermodynamic properties as a function of temperature at different pressure are also studied.

  18. Room-temperature and gram-scale synthesis of CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals with 50-85% photoluminescence quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Wei, Song; Yang, Yanchun; Kang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Lan; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2016-05-26

    All inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) with 50-85% photoluminescence quantum yields and tunable emission in the range of 440-682 nm have been successfully synthesized at room temperature in open air. This facile strategy enables us to prepare gram-scale CsPbBr3 NCs with a PLQY approaching 80%.

  19. Fluorescence and DNA-binding spectral studies of neodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Nd(bpy)2Cl(3)xOH2].

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2010-02-01

    The interaction of [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)], where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, with DNA has been studied by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] showed absorption decreasing in charge transfer band with increasing of DNA. The binding constant, K(b) has been determined by absorption measurement and found to be (1.5+/-0.1)x10(5)M(-1). The fluorescent of [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] has been investigated in detail. The interaction was also studied by fluorescence quenching technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that DNA had the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) complex at 327 nm. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant K(b) and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant K(SV) have been determined. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. Characterization of bonding mode has been studied. The results suggested that the major interaction mode between [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] and DNA was groove binding.

  20. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  1. Luminescence properties of a novel promising red phosphor Na3Gd2-x(BO3)3:xEu3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tengyue; Ren, Qiang; Wu, Xiulan; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Baoxing; Huo, Zhezhe

    2016-11-01

    The novel red-emitting Na3Gd2-x(BO3)3:xEu3+ phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state method. Under near ultraviolet excitation, the phosphors exhibit dominant emission peak at 614 nm and generate bright red light, which is attributed to the electric-dipole transition 5D0→7F2. The optimal doping amount of Eu3+ in Na3Gd2-x(BO3)3:xEu3+ phosphors is x=0.3 for the maximum emission. The exchange interaction between Eu3+ ions is identified to be the main mechanism in the concentration quenching process. The CIE color coordinates of the Na3Gd2-x(BO3)3:xEu3+ phosphors (x=0.650, y=0.350) are close to the NTSC standard values of red. With a relatively high quantum efficiency of 35.2%, Na3Gd2-x(BO3)3:xEu3+ red-emitting phosphor is probably a promising candidate for near ultraviolet-based white LEDs application.

  2. Structural and electrical investigation of (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)1- x superionic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, Ihor; Neimet, Yuriy; Cserháti, Csaba; Kökényesi, Sándor; Kazakevičius, Edvardas; Šalkus, Tomas; Kežionis, Algimantas; Orliukas, Antanas

    2012-02-01

    Structural studies of (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)1- x chalcogenide superionic glasses in the compositional range x = 0.3-0.9 were performed by scanning electron microscopy. Temperature and compositional dependences of transmission coefficient, electrical conductivity, and activation energy were investigated

  3. Effect of reducing Lu3+ content on the fabrication and scintillation properties of non-stoichiometric Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuping; Mares, Jiri A.; Babin, Vladimir; Hu, Chen; Kou, Huamin; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Pan, Yubai; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce optical ceramics (Lu3-xAG:Ce, x = 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.%, respectively) with Lu3+ compositions ranging from 1 to 4 at.% below stoichiometry content were fabricated by solid state reaction method and further optimized by an air-annealing process. The effect of Lu3+ deficiency on the optical, luminescence and scintillation properties of such a non-stoichiometric Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce ceramics was investigated. Significant influence in the material densification was found leading to strong changes in the transparency, radioluminescence (RL) and scintillation response of these ceramics. Within the range of 1-4 at.% Lu3+ deficiency, LuAl antisite defects were suppressed effectively and the Lu3-xAG:Ce ceramics displayed an extremely high RL intensity which reaches ∼4 times higher than that of the latest commercial LuAG:Ce single crystals while its transparency deteriorated. The microstructure, presence of foreign phases and charge traps acting in scintillation mechanism were also characterized by means of SEM, back scattered electron imaging and thermoluminescence techniques, respectively.

  4. Dimers or trimers? A characterization of the halogen bonded complexes of CF3X (X = I or Br) with dimethyl ether and acetone in cryosolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beuckeleer, Liene I.; Herrebout, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    Acetone molecules dissolved in liquid krypton are inclined to self-associate into dimers. This behavior affects its use as a prototype Lewis base in studies of weak intermolecular interactions. In this study infrared spectra of mixed solutions of dimethyl ether and CF3X and of acetone and CF3X (with X = I or Br) dissolved in liquid argon and liquid krypton are recorded at constant temperature. The dataset for dimethyl ether is used to validate a numerical method based on least-squares fitting of a model including contributions of both monomers and a heterodimer with 1:1 stoichiometry. The resulting monomer and dimer spectra show excellent agreement with previous studies found in literature. The analysis of the dataset for acetone requires an extension of the model with contributions for the acetone homodimer and for (acetone)2·CF3X and acetone·(CF3X)2 trimers. The results show that many signals for acetone·CF3I and (acetone)2·CF3I are observed, while only a few bands due to acetone·(CF3I)2 occur. The use of numerical approaches adjusted to the specificities of a mixture of two compounds allows to reliably resolve overlapping spectra of monomers and heterocomplexes and characterizing heterocomplex features that could not be deduced using earlier methods. To support the assignments made, ab initio calculations predicting geometries, relative stabilities and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the species envisaged are performed.

  5. Improved thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3-xSex bulk materials produced by the preparation of high-pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin; Jia, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Yiping; Sun, Hairui; Zhang, Yuewen; Sun, Bing; Liu, Binwu; Ma, Hongan

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Se doping content on the improvement in thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3-xSex bulk materials produced by high-pressure role. The Bi2Te3-xSex bulk materials can be successfully synthesized within 30 min due to high-pressure role, which significantly shortened the synthesis time. The typical textures of the reaction products exhibit abundant cracked crystal planes and special layer structures with increasing Se content, which can coordinate electrical and thermal transport in the Bi2Te3-xSex samples to achieve an optimal thermoelectric performance. As a result, a Bi2Te2.73Se0.27 bulk material obtained a maximum ZT value of 1.03 at 344 K. These results suggest that the low Se doping content with high-pressure can improve the figure of merit of Bi2Te3-xSex materials.

  6. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  7. Mass spectrum of the 1-butene-3-yne-2-yl radical (i-C4H3; X2A')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Gu, Xibin; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2006-03-01

    The crossed molecular beams method has been applied to produce the 1-butene-3-yne-2-yl radical, i-C4H3(X2A') under single collision conditions via the reaction of dicarbon molecules with ethylene. We recorded time-of-flight spectra of the radical at the center-of-mass angle (28.0°) of the parent ion (m/z = 51; C4H3+) and of the fragments at m/z = 50 (C4H2+), m/z = 49 (C4H+), m/z = 48 (C4+), m/z = 39 (C3H3+), m/z = 38 (C3H2+), m/z = 37 (C3H+), and m/z = 36 (C3+). This yielded relative intensity ratios of I(m/z = 51):I(m/z = 50):I(m/z = 49):I(m/z = 48):I(m/z = 39):I(m/z = 38):I(m/z = 37):I(m/z = 36) = 0.47 +/- 0.01:0.94 +/- 0.01:1.0:0.07 +/- 0.02:0.31 +/- 0.01:0.23 +/- 0.02:0.24 +/- 0.01:0.12 +/- 0.01 at 70 eV electron impact energy. Upper limits at mass-to-charge ratios between 27 and m/z = 24 and m/z = 14-12 were derived to be 0.02 +/- 0.01. Note that the intensity of the 13C isotopic peak of the 1-butene-3-yne-2-yl radical at m/z = 52 (13C12C3H3+) is about 0.04 +/- 0.01 relative to m/z = 51. Employing linear scaling methods, the absolute electron impact ionization cross section of the 1-butene-3-yne-2-yl radical was computed to be 7.8 +/- 1.6 × 10-16 cm2. These data can be employed to monitor the 1-butene-3-yne-2-yl radical in oxygen-poor combustion flames and in the framework of prospective explorations of planetary atmospheres (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto) and of their moons (Titan, Triton, Oberon) in situ via matrix interval arithmetic assisted mass spectrometry.

  8. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of cobalt-substituted ferrite (Co xFe 3-xO 4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calero-DdelC, Victoria L.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Cobalt-substituted ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized with a narrow size distribution using reverse micelles formed in the system water/AOT/isooctane. Fe:Co ratios of 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1 were used in the synthesis, obtaining cobalt-substituted ferrites (Co xFe 3-xO 4) and some indication of γ-Fe 3O 4 when 4:1 and 5:1 Fe:Co ratios were used. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) verified the presence of cobalt in all samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed bands at ˜560 and ˜400 cm -1, characteristic of the metal-oxygen bond in ferrites. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the number median diameter of the particles was ˜3 nm with a geometric deviation of ˜0.2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the inverse spinel structure typical of ferrites with a lattice parameter of a=8.388 Å for Co 0.61Fe 0.39O 4, which is near that of CoFe 2O 4 ( a=8.394 Å). Magnetic properties were determined using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Coercivities higher than 8 kOe were observed at 5 K, whereas at 300 K the particles showed superparamagnetic behavior. The anisotropy constant was determined based on the Debye model for a magnetic dipole in an oscillating field and an expression relating χ' and the temperature of the in-phase susceptibility peak. Anisotropy constant values in the order of ˜10 6 erg/cm 3 were determined using the Debye model, whereas anisotropy constants in the order of ˜10 7 erg/cm 3 were calculated assuming Ωτ=1 at the temperature peak of the in-phase component of the susceptibility curve as commonly done in the literature. Our analysis demonstrates that the assumption Ωτ=1 at the temperature peak of χ' is rigorously incorrect.

  9. A crossed molecular beams study on the formation and energetics of the resonantly stabilized free i-C4H3(X2A‧) radical and its isotopomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xibin; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Fangtong; Mebel, Alexander M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2007-06-01

    The chemical dynamics of the formation of the i-C 4H 3(X 2A') radical together with its partially deuterated isotopomers were investigated in eight crossed molecular beams experiments of dicarbon molecules in their XΣg+ electronic ground and in first excited a 3Π u state with (partially deuterated) ethylene at collision energies between 12.1 and 40.9 kJ mol -1. The center-of-mass angular distributions suggest that the reaction dynamics on the singlet and triplet surfaces are indirect and involve butatriene reaction intermediates. In case of the C 2/C 2H 4 reaction, the 'symmetric' singlet butatriene intermediate would lead solely to a symmetric center-of-mass angular distribution; however, in combination with isotopically labeled reactants, we deduced that triplet butatriene intermediates excited to B/C like rotations likely account for the observed asymmetries in the center-of-mass angular distributions at higher collision energies. The translational energy distributions are also indicative of the involvement of both the triplet and singlet surfaces which lead both to the i-C 4H 3(X 2A') radicals through lose (singlet) and tight (triplet) exit transitions states. Also, our experiments helped to determine the enthalpy of formation of the i-C 4H 3(X 2A') radical to be about 504 ± 10 kJ mol -1 in good agreement with previous computational studies suggesting 498-499 kJ mol -1. The explicit identification of the resonance-stabilized i-C 4H 3(X 2A') radical proposes that the reaction of dicarbon with ethylene can lead to formation of i-C 4H 3(X 2A') in combustion flames; the n-C 4H 3(X 2A') isomer is not formed in this reaction. This conclusion correlates nicely with Hansen's et al. flame experiments at the advanced light source observing only the i-C 4H 3(X 2A') radical in hydrocarbon flames.

  10. Interventions for dissociated vertical deviation

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Wang, Xue; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “strabismus” describes misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may deviate inward, outward, upward, or downward. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a well-recognized type of upward drifting of one or both eyes, which can occur in children or adults. DVD often develops in the context of infantile- or childhood-onset horizontal strabismus, either esotropia (inward-turning) or exotropia (outward-turning). For some individuals, DVD remains controlled and can only be detected during clinical testing. For others, DVD becomes spontaneously “manifest” and the eye drifts up of its own accord. Spontaneously manifest DVD can be difficult to control and often causes psychosocial concerns. Traditionally, DVD has been thought to be asymptomatic, although some individuals have double vision. More recently it has been suggested that individuals with DVD may also suffer from eyestrain. Treatment for DVD may be sought either due to psychosocial concerns or because of these symptoms. The standard treatment for DVD is a surgical procedure; non-surgical treatments are offered less commonly. Although there are many studies evaluating different management options for the correction of DVD, a lack of clarity remains regarding which treatments are most effective. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of various surgical and non-surgical interventions in randomized controlled trials of participants with DVD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), PubMed (1948 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 3

  11. Precipitation of ALn(CO3),xH2O and Dy2(CO3),xH2O compounds from aqueous solutions for A=Li,Na,K,Cs,NH4+ and =La,Nd,Eu,Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippini, Violaine; Vercouter, Thomas; Chaussé, Annie; Vitorge, Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Double carbonates of lanthanide ( Ln) and alkaline or ammonium ( A) ions, noted ALn(CO3)2,xH2O, were precipitated from concentrated A2CO3 aqueous solutions at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Twelve hydrated compounds out of the twenty targeted ones have been obtained: Li(Nd or Eu)(CO3)2, NaLa(CO3)2, KNd(CO3)2,xH2O, Cs(La or Nd)(CO3)2, NH4(Nd, Eu or Dy)(CO3)2, Dy2(CO3)3 from concentrated A2CO3 solutions and Na(Nd, Eu or Dy)(CO3)2 from concentrated AHCO3 solutions. Although the trivalent lanthanide ions are often considered as analogs in solution, differences in their precipitation behaviour was observed, which is believed to have a kinetic origin in relation to the small differences in their ionic radii. The solid compounds were characterised by elemental analyses, thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The powder diffraction patterns of nine solids were fitted using the tetragonal P4/mmm Laüe class: LiNd(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(12.16±0.02) A˚, c=(9.21±0.02) A˚, LiEu(CO3)2,3H2O: a=(12.201±0.007) A˚, c=(9.23±0.01) A˚, KNd(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(13.28±0.04) A˚, c=(10.00±0.04) A˚, CsLa(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(10.82±0.02) A˚, c=(8.18±0.02) A˚, CsNd(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(10.81±0.07) A˚, c=(8.16±0.07) A˚ for NaLn(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(11.10+1.75r) A˚ and c=(8.60+1.13r) A˚, where r is the ionic radius of for a coordination number of 8 ( r=1.16 A˚, r=1.12 A˚, r=1.07 A˚ and r=1.03 A˚). It is proposed that all the NaLn(CO3)2,xH2O compounds are of very similar structure, as evidenced by their XRD patterns and by the linear variations of the lattice parameters with r. The small differences in the lattice parameters can induce large modification of the precipitation pathways. Conversely, structural changes were evidenced within the A+ series for ANd(CO3)2,xH2O. Dy2(CO3)3,xH2O was also obtained as a by-product. Its lattice parameters are in good agreement with Eu2(CO3)3,3H2O ones.

  12. Marble-burying is enhanced in 3xTg-AD mice, can be reversed by risperidone and it is modulable by handling.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; López-Pousa, Secundino; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    Translational research on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is relevant to the study the neuropsychiatric symptoms that strongly affect the quality of life of the human Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and caregivers, frequently leading to early institutionalization. Among the ethological behavioural tests for rodents, marble burying is considered to model the spectrum of anxiety, psychotic and obsessive-compulsive like symptoms. The present work was aimed to study the behavioural interactions of 12 month-old male 3xTg-AD mice with small objects using the marble-burying test, as compared to the response elicited in age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) mice. The distinction of the classical 'number of buried marbles' but also those left 'intact' and those 'changed' of position of marbles or partially buried (the transitional level of interaction) provided new insights into the modelling of BPSD-like alterations in this AD model. The analysis revealed genotype differences in the behavioural patterns and predominant behaviors. In the NTg mice, predominance was shown in the 'changed or partially buried', while interactions with marble were enhanced in 3xTg-AD mice resulting in an increase of marble burying. Besides, genotype-dependent meaningful correlations were found, with the marble test pattern of 3xTg-AD mice being directly related to neophobia in the corner tests. In both genotypes, the increase of burying was reversed by chronic treatment with risperidone (1mg/kg, s.c.). In 3xTg-AD mice, the repetitive handling of animals during the treatment also exerted modulatory effects. These distinct patterns further characterize the modelling of BPSD-like symptoms in the 3xTg-AD mice, and provide another behavioural tool to assess the benefits of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies, as well as the potential action of risk factors for AD, in this animal model.

  13. Tunable Br-doping CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx thin films for efficient planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nannan; Shi, Chengwu; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhengguo; Ma, Chengfeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the relationship of the Br contents in precursor solutions of the CH3NH3Br/CH3NH3I mixture and in the resulting CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx thin films was systemically explored and the tunable Br-doping CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx thin films were successfully obtained by the sequential deposition methods. The influence of CH3NH3Br content in the methylammonium halide mixture solutions on the chemical composition, optical absorption, crystal phase and morphology of CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx thin films and the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells were investigated. The result revealed that the Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx thin films linearly increased with the increase of Br contents in the methylammonium halide mixture solutions. The planar perovskite solar cell based on the high crystallinity and less grain boundary CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx thin films using the methylammonium halide mixture solutions with the molar ratio of CH3NH3Br/CH3NH3I = 10/90 achieved a best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.88% with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.03 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 20.62 mA cm-2 and a fill factor (FF) of 0.70 and an average PCE of 14.21 ± 0.67% with Voc of 1.02 ± 0.02 V, Jsc of 20.67 ± 0.15 mA cm-2 and FF of 0.67 ± 0.05.

  14. Impairments in spatial representations and rhythmic coordination of place cells in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mably, Alexandra J; Gereke, Brian J; Jones, Dylan T; Colgin, Laura Lee

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and highly progressive neurodegenerative disease. Clinically, patients with AD display impairments in episodic and spatial memory. However, the underlying neuronal dysfunctions that result in these impairments remain poorly understood. The hippocampus is crucial for spatial and episodic memory, and thus we tested the hypothesis that abnormal neuronal representations of space in the hippocampus contribute to memory deficits in AD. To test this hypothesis, we recorded spikes from place cells in hippocampal subfield CA1, together with corresponding rhythmic activity in local field potentials, in the 3xTg AD mouse model. We observed disturbances in place cell firing patterns, many of which were consistent with place cell disturbances reported in other rodent models of AD. We found place cell representations of space to be unstable in 3xTg mice compared to control mice. Furthermore, coordination of place cell firing by hippocampal rhythms was disrupted in 3xTg mice. Specifically, a smaller proportion of place cells from 3xTg mice were significantly phase-locked to theta and slow gamma rhythms, and the theta and slow gamma phases at which spikes occurred were also altered. Remarkably, these disturbances were observed at an age before detectable Aβ pathology had developed. Consistencies between these findings in 3xTg mice and previous findings from other AD models suggest that disturbances in place cell firing and hippocampal rhythms are related to AD rather than reflecting peculiarities inherent to a particular transgenic model. Thus, disturbed rhythmic organization of place cell activity may contribute to unstable spatial representations, and related spatial memory deficits, in AD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. W2X and W3X-L: Cost-Effective Approximations to W2 and W4 with kJ mol(-1) Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Radom, Leo

    2015-05-12

    We have formulated the W2X and W3X-L protocols as cost-effective alternatives to W2 and W3/W4, respectively, and to supplement our previously developed set of W1X and W3X procedures. The W2X procedure provides an accurate approximation to the all-electron scalar-relativistic CCSD(T)/CBS energy, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.6 kJ mol(-1) from benchmark energies provided by the CCSD(T) component in the W4 protocol. Such a performance is comparable to that of W2w (0.5 kJ mol(-1)) but comes at a significantly lower cost. Comparison of computational requirements shows that W2X should be applicable to systems that can be treated by the W1w method. Thus, W2X provides an accurate means for the treatment of medium-sized systems such as naphthalene. For the calculation of post-CCSD(T) effects, we propose a slight modification to the method used in our previously devised W3X procedure. Our new W3-type protocol (W3X-L) combines this new post-CCSD(T) treatment with our new W2X procedure. It has an MAD from benchmark values of 0.8 kJ mol(-1) for the W4-11 set, which is comparable to that for the computationally more demanding W3.2 method (0.6 kJ mol(-1)). However, the use of the even relatively modest post-CCSD(T) calculations in W3X-L still represents a computational bottleneck, and this currently restricts its application to systems up to the size of benzene with our current computing resources.

  16. The CAV program for numerical evaluation of laminar natural convection heat transfer in vertical rectangular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Milos H.; Nowak, Edwin S.

    1993-12-01

    To analyze the laminar natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow distribution in vertical rectangular cavities with or without inner partitions, the personal computer finite difference program entitled CAV is used. The CAV program was tested successfully for slender cavities with aspect ratios as high as R = H/ L = 90 and for the Grashof numbers, based on the cavity height, up to GrH = 3 x10 9. To make the CAV program useful for a number of applications, various types of boundary conditions can also be imposed on the program calculations. Presented are program applications dealing with the 2-D numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer in very slender window cavities with and without small inner partitions and recommendations are made for window design.

  17. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... coupler (or simulated coupler) having only frictional vertical force resistance at the mating interface... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  18. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  19. The Genetics Panel of the NAS BEAR I Committee (1956): epistolary evidence suggests self-interest may have prompted an exaggeration of radiation risks that led to the adoption of the LNT cancer risk assessment model.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends a series of historical papers which demonstrated that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model for cancer risk assessment was founded on ideological-based scientific deceptions by key radiation genetics leaders. Based on an assessment of recently uncovered personal correspondence, it is shown that some members of the United States (US) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I (BEAR I) Genetics Panel were motivated by self-interest to exaggerate risks to promote their science and personal/professional agenda. Such activities have profound implications for public policy and may have had a significant impact on the adoption of the LNT model for cancer risk assessment.

  20. A theoretical study of perovskite CsXCl3 (X=Pb, Cd) within first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Bahaa M.; Elias, Badal H.

    2017-04-01

    The structural, elastic, electronic, optical acoustic and thermodynamic properties of the cubic perovskite CsPbCl3 and CsCdCl3 unit cell, were studied using an ultra-soft pseudopotential plane wave, the Trouiller-Martins-Functional was utilized to perform these calculations. The study was implemented within both the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) scheme proposed by van Leeuwen-Baerends which is the same as the Perdew-Wang 92 functional have been carried out to preform our calculations. As for the Local Density Approximation (LDA) the Teter-Pade parametrization (4/93) was implemented which is the same as Perdew-Wang that in its turn reproduces the Ceperley-Alder-Functional. The computed GGA/LDA-lattice parameter for both CsCdCl3 and CsPbCl3 is in an exquisite agreement with the experimental and theoretical results. The energy band structure shows that CsCdCl3 is Γ-R indirect band gap insulator, while CsPbCl3 is an insulator with a direct band gap Γ-Γ separating the valence bands from the conduction bands, which shows metallic nature after pressure 30 GPa. A hybridization exists between Pb-p states and Cl-p states for CsPbCl3, and Cd-p states and Cs-p states for the CsCdCl3 in the valence bonding region. Optimization of both cell shape (geometry) volume were investigated as pressure of 0-20 GPa and 0-40 GPa for the CsCdCl3 and CsPbCl3 respectively. The Pressure dependence of cubic perovskite elastic constants, Young modulus, bulk and shear moduli, Lame's constants, elastic anisotropy factor, elastic wave velocities, phonon dispersion, Debye temperature and the density of states of CsXCl3 (X=Pb, Cd) were theoretically calculated and compared with the other available theoretical results. The above elastic constants reveal the fact that both compounds are stable and show nature of ductility. For the optical properties, both the static refractive index and dielectric

  1. Vertical orbital dystopia--surgical correction.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A

    1981-02-01

    The surgical correction of vertical malpositions of the human eye has been made relatively safe and reliable by recent surgical techniques. The authors define this condition as vertical orbital dystopia and review the etiology of this deformity in 38 recent consecutive cases that were surgically treated at the Craniofacial Anomalies Center of The University of Virginia. Some new and useful tests are described that are of value to the plastic surgeon in analysis of the facial deformity and in planning the appropriate surgical procedure to correct the vertical dystopia of one or both eyes. Several cases are illustrated that describe the principal surgical methods of moving the eye up or down without loss of vision. The vertical eye shifts in this series have been in the range of 2 to 3 mm to over 22 mm. No loss of vision was produced by these corrections. The most common difficulties and complications of orbital dystopia corrections are described. The implications of this type of surgery in terms of visual physiology are suggested. The authors conclude that surgical correction of vertical orbital dystopias is possible, safe, and rewarding to the patients. However, they advise that the correction is best performed in young children and by a specially trained team of plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and ophthalmologists.

  2. Thermal Impacts of Vertical Greenery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safikhani, Tabassom; Abdullah, Aminatuzuhariah Megat; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Baharvand, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    - Using vertical greenery systems to reduce heat transmission is becoming more common in modern architecture. Vertical greenery systems are divided into two main categories; green facades and living walls. This study aims to examine the thermal performance of vertical greenery systems in hot and humid climates. An experimental procedure was used to measure indoor temperature and humidity. These parameters were also measured for the gap between the vertical greenery systems and wall surfaces. Three boxes were used as small-scale rooms. Two boxes were provided with either a living wall or a green facade and one box did not have any greenery (benchmark). Blue Trumpet Vine was used in the vertical greenery systems. The data were recorded over the course of three sunny days in April 2013. An analyses of the results showed that the living wall and green facade reduced indoor temperature up to 4.0 °C and 3.0 °C, respectively. The living wall and green facade also reduced cavity temperatures by 8.0 °C and 6.5 °C, respectively.

  3. Reconstructing the vertical profile of humidity on the basis of the vertical profile of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazlova, T. I.

    1974-01-01

    The vertical profile of humidity in the atmosphere is developed on the basis of the vertical profile of temperature using an empirical formula linking changes in humidity with changes in temperature and altitude. The atmosphere is divided into three layers by altitude, since the condition for the formation of humidity varies with altitude.

  4. Hydraulic induced instability on a vertical service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosmans, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The case history contained provides insight toward the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of a vertical pump. It clearly demonstrates the need for measurements on the rotor at or near the impeller area. The results are reported of an analysis on a service water pump. This pump is typical of the water pumps used throughout the power generation industry. Although little is known of the mechanical behavior of vertical pumps because of difficulty in modeling the rotor system, recent developments in the application of submersible proximity transducers have made possible the measurement of pump dynamics under operating conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the proper selection and installation of vibration-monitoring transducers as well as to measure the effects of imbalance, misalignment, and hydraulics on the performance and reliability of vertical pumps. In addition, the cause of shaft failures on this pump was to be determined.

  5. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling.

    PubMed

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A

    2009-05-01

    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  6. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  7. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the importance of vertical transport for large array configurations. Quadrant-hole analysis is employed to gain a better understanding of the vertical energy transport at the top of the VAWT arrays. The results show a striking similarity between the flows in the VAWT arrays and the adjustment region of canopies. Namely, an increase in ejections and sweeps and decrease in inward and outward interactions occur inside the turbine array. Ejections are the strongest contributor, which is in agreement with the literature on evolving and sparse canopy flows. The influence of the turbine array size on the power output of the downstream turbines is examined by comparing a streamwise row of four single turbines with square arrays of nine turbine pairs. The results suggest that a new boundary layer forms on top of the larger turbine arrays as the flow adjusts to the new roughness length. This increases the turbulent energy transport over the whole planform area of the turbine array. By contrast, for the four single turbines, the vertical energy transport due to turbulent fluctuations is only increased in the near wake of the turbines. These findings add to the knowledge of energy transport in turbine arrays and therefore the optimization of the turbine spacing in wind farms.

  8. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  9. Sediment Vertical Flux in Unsteady Sheet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Jenkins, J. T.; Liu, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    In models for sediment suspension, two different boundary conditions have been employed at the sediment bed. Either the sediment concentration is given or the vertical flux of sediment is specified. The specification of the latter is usually called the pick-up function. Recently, several developments towards a better understanding of the sediment bed boundary condition have been reported. Nielson et al (Coastal Engineering 2002, 45, p61-68) have indicated a better performance using the sediment vertical flux as the bed boundary condition in comparisons with experimental data. Also, Drake and Calantoni (Journal of Geophysical Research 2001, 106, C9, p19859-19868) have suggested that in the nearshore environment with its various unsteady flow conditions, the appropriate sediment boundary conditions of a large-scale morphology model must consider both the magnitude the free stream velocity and the acceleration of the flow. In this research, a small-scale sheet flow model based on the two-phase theory is implemented to further study these issues. Averaged two-phase continuum equations are presented for concentrated flows of sediment that are driven by strong, fully developed, unsteady turbulent shear flows over a mobile bed. The particle inter-granular stress is modeled using collisional granular flow theory and a two-equation closure for the fluid turbulence is adopted. In the context of the two-phase theory, sediment is transported through the sediment vertical velocity. Using the fully developed sediment phase continuity equation, it can be shown that the vertical velocity of the sediment must vanish when the flow reaches a steady state. In other words, in fully developed conditions, it is the unsteadiness of the flow that induces the vertical motion of the sediment and that changes the sediment concentration profile. Therefore, implementing a boundary condition based on sediment vertical flux is consistent with both the two-phase theory and with the observation

  10. Photochemistry and vertical mixing. [in Uranus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Romani, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-based observations relevant to the question of photochemistry and vertical mixing are discussed. Phytolysis of methane, the only known photochemically active volatile in the Uranian atmosphere, produces heavier hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which are ethane, acetylene, and the polyacetylenes. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, these hydrocarbon products condense at the low temperatures prevalent in the middle atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Voyager notion that the atmosphere of Uranus is remarkable clear, it is found that the aerosols are widely and extensively distributed. Despite its photodestruction, methane remains stable in the Uranian atmosphere. The vertical mixing on Uranus is found to be the least efficient of any of the planetary atmospheres.

  11. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  12. Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in glass microchannels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony A; Hosoi, A E; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2009-01-08

    Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic devices is investigated through simulation and through direct experimental verification using a confocal microscope and a novel form of stroboscopic imaging. Optimization for microfluidic cytometry of biological cells is examined. By combining multiple crossing junctions, it is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates.

  13. Concepts for generating optimum vertical flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms for generating optimum vertical profiles are derived and examined. These algorithms form the basis for the design of onboard flight management concepts. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff weight, and range-to-destination are presented. Further considerations for mechanizing two different onboard methods of computing near-optimum flight profiles are then outlined. Finally, the results are summarized, and recommendations are made for further work. Technical details of optimum trajectory design, steering requirements for following these trajectories, and off-line computer programs for testing the concepts are included.

  14. Vertical high-precision Michelson wavemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A.; de Urquijo, J.; Mendoza, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and tested a traveling, Michelson-type vertical wavemeter for the wavelength measurement of tunable continuous-wave lasers in the visible part of the spectrum. The interferometer has two movable corner cubes, suspending vertically from a driving setup resembling Atwood's machine. To reduce the fraction-of-fringe error, a vernier-type coincidence circuit was used. Although simple, this wavemeter has a relative precision of 3.2 parts in 109 for an overall fringe count of about 7×106.

  15. Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

  16. Vertical Vergence Adaptation Produces an Objective Vertical Deviation That Changes With Head Tilt

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L.; Ramey, Nicholas A.; Adyanthaya, Rohit S.; Ying, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To document the cyclovertical ocular motor mechanism used for vertical fusion in healthy subjects, and to explore whether vertical vergence training in healthy individuals can produce objectively confirmed vertical deviations that change with head tilt, revealing a basic mechanism that can produce a pattern of misalignment in an otherwise normal ocular motor system that is similar to superior oblique muscle paresis (SOP). Methods. Seven subjects with normal orthoptic examinations were adapted to vertical image disparities using our tilting haploscopic eye-tracking apparatus presenting concentric circle targets without torsional cues. Static eye positions were recorded with head straight and when tilted 45 degrees to the left and right, during both binocular and monocular viewing. Results. Vertical fusional vergence was accompanied by a cycloversion, with the downward-moving eye intorting and the upward-moving eye extorting, implicating primary involvement of the oblique extraocular muscles. After adaptation to the slowly increasing vertical target separation, all subjects developed a temporary vertical deviation in the straight ahead position that increased with head tilt to one side and decreased with head tilt to the other side. Conclusions. These results not only show that head-tilt–dependent changes in vertical deviation are not necessarily pathognomonic for SOP, but also, and more importantly, suggest mechanisms that can mimic SOP and suggest a possible role for vertical vergence training in reducing deviations and thus the amount of head tilt required for fusion. Ultimately, vertical vergence training may provide an adjunct or alternative to extraocular muscle surgery in selected cases. PMID:23572100

  17. Efficiency enhancement of the MAPbI3-xClx-based perovskite solar cell by a two-step annealing procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Wang, Minqiang; Ding, Lei; Deng, Jianping; Yao, Xi

    2016-02-01

    The development of a novel two-step annealing method has contributed to the significantly improved performance of the MAPbI3-xClx based perovskite solar cell (PSC). By utilizing a two-step annealing method, we obtained a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.72% with a current density (J sc) of 18.35 mA cm-2, an open circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.90 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.71. Noticeably, the two-step annealed device shows no hysteresis and exhibits a PCE which is approximately 1.2 times greater than that of the one-step annealed device. The improvement in device efficiency is ascribed to the reduced series resistance, increased parallel resistance, better surface coverage, lower leakage current and stronger crystallization of the MAPbI3-xClx perovskite layer.

  18. Se Vacancy Effect on the Thermoelectric Performance of Pb-Doped In4Pb0.01Se3-x Polycrystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharafi, Rashed; Zhan, Heng; Shaheen, Nusrat; Lu, Xu; Wang, Guoyu; Sun, Xiaonan; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Indium selenides have been considered as highly efficient thermoelectric materials due to their excellent electrical and thermal properties. Herein, we report the effect of Se vacancy on the thermoelectric performance of Pb-doped In4Pb0.01Se3-x polycrystalline (x = 0, 0.03, 0.07, and 0.1) synthesized by solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering. The obtained products are characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Owing to the increase of Se vacancy in Pb-doped compounds, the electrical resistivity is reduced by increasing carrier concentration along with the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity. Ultimately, the In4Pb0.01Se3-x (x = 0.07) exhibits a high ZT value of 0.95 at 690 K.

  19. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn3+xNi1-xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn3+xNi1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn3+xNi1-xN from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  20. Redox properties of mixed lutetium/yttrium nitride clusterfullerenes: endohedral Lu(x)Y(3-x)N@C80(I) (x = 0-3) compounds.

    PubMed

    Tarábek, Ján; Yang, Shangfeng; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-05-11

    The redox behavior of mixed lutetium/yttrium nitride clusterfullerenes of the series Lu(x)Y(3-x)N@C(80)(I(h), x = 0-3) is studied for the first time by means of cyclic voltammetry, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, square-wave voltammetry, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroelectrochemistry. A reversible single-electron-transfer process, which does not result in an EPR signal, is detected during the anodic oxidation sweep of cyclic voltammetry experiments performed at different temperatures (296 and 360 K). The cathodic reduction sweep reveals a rather complex response for all the four clusterfullerenes--with up to three irreversible reduction steps. By correlating the results of fast-scan and square-wave voltammetry and combining them with simulations of the voltammograms, we are able to propose a reduction mechanism for the Lu(x)Y(3-x)N@C(80)(I) (x = 0-3) fullerenes.

  1. Cationic distributions in the binary oxide spinels M xCo 3- xO 4 (MMg,Cu,Zn,Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhov, K.; Konstantinov, P.

    1997-02-01

    Results from a neutron diffraction investigation of the structure of solid-state spinel solutions M xCo 3- xO 4 (MCu,Mg,Zn, Ni) obtained by thermal decomposition of hydroxide nitrate precursors are presented. In the case of Cu xCo 3- xO 4 as statistical distribution of Cu 2+ among tetrahedral and octahedral sites is established, which explains the absence of macroscopic Jahn-Teller distortion of the lattice. The site preference seems to be the major factor determining the cation arrangement in all the other cobalities. The Mg and Ni ions manifest their known preference to enter the octahedral sites and the Zn ions their preference to the tetarhedral sites. The variation of the interatomic distances with composition is consistent with the cationic distributions found.

  2. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub (3-x)}Co{sub x}O{sub y}: A substrate material for YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B.; Cermignani, W.; Taylor, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The physical properties of the ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub (3-x)}Co{sub x}O{sub y} have been investigated in order to evaluate its usefulness as a substrate material for YBCO superconductors. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub (3-x)}Co{sub x}O{sub y} has been found to be thermally and chemically compatible with 123 and displays adequate electrical properties for a substrate material. A material with the nominal composition of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2.2}Co{sub 0.8}O{sub 7} was investigated, extensively. The mechanical properties of this material were found to be poor, e.g., tensile strength was only 60 MPa. A semiconductor-like behavior was observed with a room-temperature resistivity of 70 m{Omega}.cm and a resistivity equal to 4 {times} 10{sup 6} m{Omega}.cm at 77 K.

  3. Structure and lattice dynamics of solid solutions (1 - x)BiFeO3- xANbO3 ( A = K, Na)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teslenko, P. Yu.; Razumnaya, A. G.; Ponomarenko, V. O.; Rudskaya, A. G.; Nazarenko, A. V.; Anokhin, A. S.; Avramenko, M. V.; Levshov, D. I.; Kupriyanov, M. F.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2014-09-01

    The structures and the dynamic characteristics of the lattices of two compositions of solid solutions of multiferroic BiFeO3 with ferroelectric KNbO3 and antiferroelctric NaNbO3, namely, (1 - x)BiFeO3- xKNbO3 and (1 - x)BiFeO3- xNaNbO3, have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. For these systems with x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, the symmetry and unit cell parameters at room temperature have been determined. An analysis of the vibrational spectra has revealed sequences of rotational distortions with variations in the concentrations of components.

  4. Atomiclike ionization and fragmentation of a series of CH3-X (X: H, F, Cl, Br, I, and CN) by an intense femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Michinori; Murakami, Masanao; Yatsuhashi, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Nobuaki

    2007-09-14

    Methane derivatives of CH(3)-X (X: H, F, Cl, Br, I, and CN) were ionized and fragmented by an intense femtosecond laser with a 40 fs pulse at 0.8 microm in intensities of 10(13)-10(15) W cm(-2). The curves of the ionization yields of CH(3)-X versus laser intensities have been found to be fitted with an atomic ionization theory (the theory of Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev) that has been established to reproduce experimental results well for rare gas atoms. The saturation intensities have been reproduced within a factor of 1.6 of the calculated ones. For molecules with low ionization potentials such as amines, another atomic ionization theory (the theory of Ammosov, Delone, and Krainov) reproduced the saturation intensities. The atomiclike ionization behavior of molecules indicates that the fragmentation occurs after the ionization. The fragmentation mechanisms after the ionization of some molecular ions are discussed.

  5. Atomiclike ionization and fragmentation of a series of CH3-X (X: H, F, Cl, Br, I, and CN) by an intense femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Michinori; Murakami, Masanao; Yatsuhashi, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Nobuaki

    2007-09-01

    Methane derivatives of CH3-X (X: H, F, Cl, Br, I, and CN) were ionized and fragmented by an intense femtosecond laser with a 40fs pulse at 0.8μm in intensities of 1013-1015Wcm-2. The curves of the ionization yields of CH3-X versus laser intensities have been found to be fitted with an atomic ionization theory (the theory of Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev) that has been established to reproduce experimental results well for rare gas atoms. The saturation intensities have been reproduced within a factor of 1.6 of the calculated ones. For molecules with low ionization potentials such as amines, another atomic ionization theory (the theory of Ammosov, Delone, and Krainov) reproduced the saturation intensities. The atomiclike ionization behavior of molecules indicates that the fragmentation occurs after the ionization. The fragmentation mechanisms after the ionization of some molecular ions are discussed.

  6. Intranasal insulin restores insulin signaling, increases synaptic proteins, and reduces Aβ level and microglia activation in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxing; Zhao, Yang; Dai, Chun-Ling; Liang, Zhihou; Run, Xiaoqin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Decreased brain insulin signaling has been found recently in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intranasal administration of insulin, which delivers the drug directly into the brain, improves memory and cognition in both animal studies and small clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we treated 9-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, a commonly used mouse model of AD, with daily intranasal administration of insulin for seven days and then studied brain abnormalities of the mice biochemically and immunohistochemically. We found that intranasal insulin restored insulin signaling, increased the levels of synaptic proteins, and reduced Aβ40 level and microglia activation in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice. However, this treatment did not affect the levels of glucose transporters and O-GlcNAcylation or tau phosphorylation. Our findings provide a mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin treatment and support continuous clinical trials of intranasal insulin for the treatment of AD.

  7. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of oxygen deficient fluorite derivative Ga3-xIn5+xSn2O16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhame, S. D.; Zhou, T.; Guilmeau, E.; Kinemuchi, Y.; Delorme, F.; Raveau, B.

    2010-11-01

    Exploring the possibility to obtain n-type oxide thermoelectrics, the transparent conducting oxide Ga3-xIn5+xSn2O16 (0.3<x<1.6) has been investigated taking into consideration its structural relationships with In2O3 and its much lower indium content, more promising for applications. The absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient decreases almost linearly with x, whereas improvement in the power factor is obtained by increasing the indium content. The figure of merit ZT value reaches about 0.28 at 1000 K for x =0.6. The observed results are explained taking into account the peculiarities of the oxygen-deficient fluorite structure.

  8. Mapping and control of atomic force on Si(1 1 1)square root(3) x square root(3)-Ag surface using noncontact atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Morita, S; Sugawara, Y

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrated the possibility of measuring the three-dimensional force-related map with true atomic resolution between an Si tip and Si(1 1 1)square root(3) x square root(3)-Ag sample surface by measuring the tip-sample distance dependence of noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) image, i.e. atomically resolved atomic force spectroscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of controlling the interaction force between the atom on the tip apex and a sample atom of Si(1 1 1)square root(3) x square root(3)-Ag surface on an atomic scale by placing an Ag atom on the Si tip apex instead of Si atom.

  9. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Wang, Cong; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen

    2016-01-25

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  10. Whole body exposure to 2.4 GHz WIFI signals: effects on cognitive impairment in adult triple transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD).

    PubMed

    Banaceur, Sana; Banasr, Sihem; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the effects of long-term exposure to WIFI type radiofrequency (RF) signals (2.40 GHz), two hours per day during one month at a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 1.60 W/kg. The effects of RF exposure were studied on wildtype mice and triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. Mice were divided into four groups: two sham groups (WT, TG; n=7) and two exposed groups (WTS, TGS; n=7). The cognitive interference task used in this study was designed from an analogous human cognitive interference task including the Flex field activity system test, the two-compartment box test and the Barnes maze test. Our data demonstrate for the first time that RF improves cognitive behavior of 3xTg-AD mice. We conclude that RF exposure may represent an effective memory-enhancing approach in Alzheimer's disease.

  11. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  12. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the navigable channel under the span will be marked by a range of two green lights when the vertical lift...

  13. Widespread deficits in adult neurogenesis precede plaque and tangle formation in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Laura K; Aumont, Anne; Julien, Carl; Vadnais, Alexandra; Calon, Frédéric; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects cognitive modalities that are known to be regulated by adult neurogenesis, such as hippocampal- and olfactory-dependent learning and memory. However, the relationship between AD-associated pathologies and alterations in adult neurogenesis has remained contentious. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of adult neurogenesis in the triple transgenic (3xTg) mouse model of AD, a unique model that generates both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the hallmark pathologies of AD. In both neurogenic niches of the brain, the hippocampal dentate gyrus and forebrain subventricular zone, we found that 3xTg mice had decreased numbers of (i) proliferating cells, (ii) early lineage neural progenitors, and (iii) neuroblasts at middle age (11months old) and old age (18months old). These decreases correlated with major reductions in the addition of new neurons to the respective target areas, the dentate granule cell layer and olfactory bulb. Within the subventricular zone niche, cytological alterations were observed that included a selective loss of subependymal cells and the development of large lipid droplets within the ependyma of 3xTg mice, indicative of metabolic changes. Temporally, there was a marked acceleration of age-related decreases in 3xTg mice, which affected multiple stages of neurogenesis and was clearly apparent prior to the development of amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles. Our findings indicate that AD-associated mutations suppress neurogenesis early during disease development. This suggests that deficits in adult neurogenesis may mediate premature cognitive decline in AD.

  14. Stereological investigation of the CA1 pyramidal cell layer in untreated and lithium-treated 3xTg-AD and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Catanozi, Sergio; West, Mark J; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2017-01-01

    Pyramidal neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region is a very early hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Lithium might be a therapeutic strategy for AD due to its neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. This study used modern stereological techniques to investigate possible CA1 pyramidal neuron loss in 11-month-old triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice, and also the effects of therapeutic and subtherapeutic lithium doses on the number and density of CA1 pyramidal neurons and volume of CA1 pyramidal layer in 3xTg-AD and wild-type mice treated from 3 to 11 months of age. 3xTg-AD mice displayed CA1 pyramidal layer atrophy that is likely due to reduced neuronal volume because of the absence of neuronal loss. Both lithium treatments of 3xTg-AD mice, which already expressed AD-like pathology, had no effect on CA1 atrophy. However, lithium treatment of wild-type mice, at low (subtherapeutic) doses, induced a significant increase in total CA1 pyramidal neuron number that led to a significant increase in total CA1 pyramidal layer volume. The lithium-induced increase in CA1 neuron number is highly consistent with previous evidence that adult neurogenesis can be exogenously induced in the CA1 pyramidal layer with impact on total CA1 neuron number, thus raising the possibility of the chronic use of low-dose lithium as a strategy to help compensate for neuronal loss in CA1 and perhaps other typically non-neurogenic brain regions in various neurological diseases. With regard to AD, low-dose lithium intervention must be initiated as early as possible in the course of neuropathology for beneficial effects to occur.

  15. A non-transgenic mouse model (icv-STZ mouse) of Alzheimer's disease: similarities to and differences from the transgenic model (3xTg-AD mouse).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxing; Liang, Zhihou; Blanchard, Julie; Dai, Chun-Ling; Sun, Shenggang; Lee, Moon H; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be divided into sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). Most AD cases are sporadic and result from multiple etiologic factors, including environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors, whereas FAD is caused by mutations in the presenilins or amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) genes. A commonly used animal model for AD is the 3xTg-AD transgenic mouse model, which harbors mutated presenilin 1, APP, and tau genes and thus represents a model of FAD. There is an unmet need in the field to characterize animal models representing different AD mechanisms, so that potential drugs for SAD can be evaluated preclinically in these animal models. A mouse model generated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozocin (STZ), the icv-STZ mouse, shows many aspects of SAD. In this study, we compared the non-cognitive and cognitive behaviors as well as biochemical and immunohistochemical alterations between the icv-STZ mouse and the 3xTg-AD mouse. We found that both mouse models showed increased exploratory activity as well as impaired learning and spatial memory. Both models also demonstrated neuroinflammation, altered synaptic proteins and insulin/IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) signaling, and increased hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain. The most prominent brain abnormality in the icv-STZ mouse was neuroinflammation, and in the 3xTg-AD mouse it was elevation of hyperphosphorylated tau. These observations demonstrate the behavioral and neuropathological similarities and differences between the icv-STZ mouse and the 3xTg-AD mouse models and will help guide future studies using these two mouse models for the development of AD drugs.

  16. Deficits in odor-guided behaviors in the transgenic 3xTg-AD female mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Coronas-Sámano, G; Portillo, W; Beltrán Campos, V; Medina-Aguirre, G I; Paredes, R G; Diaz-Cintra, S

    2014-07-14

    Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) is characterized by a number of alterations including those in cognition and olfaction. An early symptom of AD is decreased olfactory ability, which may affect odor-guided behaviors. To test this possibility we evaluated alterations in sexual incentive motivation, sexual olfactory preference, sexual olfactory discrimination, nursing-relevant olfactory preference and olfactory discrimination in female mice. We tested 3xTg-AD (a triple transgenic model, which is a "knock in" of PS1M146V, APPSwe, and tauP300L) and wild type (WT) female mice when receptive (estrous) and non-receptive (anestrous). Subjects were divided into three groups of different ages: (1) 4-5 months, (2) 10-11 months, and (3) 16-18 months. In the sexual incentive motivation task, the receptive 3xTg-AD females showed no preference for a sexually active male at any age studied, in contrast to the WT females. In the sexual olfactory preference test, the receptive WT females were able to identify sexually active male secretions at all ages, but the oldest (16-18 months old) 3xTg-AD females could not. In addition, the oldest 3xTg-AD females showed no preference for nursing-relevant odors in dam secretions and were unable to discriminate between cinnamon and strawberry odors, indicating olfactory alterations. Thus, the present study suggests that the olfactory deficits in this mouse model are associated with changes in sexual incentive motivation and discrimination of food-related odors.

  17. Layer-by-layer growth of CH₃NH₃PbI(3-x)Clx for highly efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Dai, Liming

    2015-02-01

    A layer-by-layer approach is developed to prepare uniform and compact CH₃NH₃PbI(3-x)Clx perovskite films for perovskite solar cells with a high efficiency up to 15.12% and an improved stability. Moreover, a record high efficiency of 12.25% is achieved for these flexible perovskite solar cells. This study represents an important step forward in developing high-performance and stable perovskite solar cells.

  18. Loss of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons in the 3xTg-AD mice and protection by an anti-amyloid β antibody fragment

    PubMed Central

    Esquerda-Canals, Gisela; Marti, Joaquim; Rivera-Hernández, Geovanny; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Villegas, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of scFv-h3D6 has recently been shown in the 3xTg-AD mice. A clear effect on amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers and certain apolipoproteins in the brain was found, but no effect was seen in the cerebellum. Here, cellular vulnerability of the 3xTg-AD cerebellum is described for the first time, together with its protection by scFv-h3D6. Neuron depletion in the DCN was regionally variable and followed a mediolateral axis of involvement that was greatest in the fastigial nucleus, lesser in the interpositus and negligible in the dentate nucleus. A sole and low intraperitoneal dose of scFv-h3D6 protected 3xTg-AD DCN neurons from death. Further studies might provide interesting information about both the potential of scFv-h3D6 as a therapeutic agent and the role of the cerebellum in AD. PMID:23884149

  19. Short-term modern life-like stress exacerbates Aβ-pathology and synapse loss in 3xTg-AD mice

    PubMed Central

    Baglietto-Vargas, David; Chen, Yuncai; Suh, Dongjin; Ager, Rahasson R.; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Mederios, Rodrigo; Myczek, Kristoffer; Green, Kim N.; Baram, Tallie Z.; LaFerla, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that impairs memory and other cognitive functions in the elderly. The social and financial impacts of AD are overwhelming and are escalating exponentially as a result of population aging. Therefore, identifying AD-related risk factors and the development of more efficacious therapeutic approaches are critical to cure this neurological disorder. Current epidemiological evidence indicates that life experiences, including chronic stress, are a risk for AD. However, it is unknown if short-term stress, lasting for hours, influences the onset or progression of AD. Here, we determined the effect of short-term, multi-modal ‘modern life-like’ stress on AD pathogenesis and synaptic plasticity in mice bearing three AD mutations (the 3xTg-AD mouse model). We found that combined emotional and physical stress lasting 5 h severely impaired memory in wild-type mice and tended to impact it in already low-performing 3xTg-AD mice. This stress reduced the number of synapse-bearing dendritic spines in 3xTg-AD mice and increased Aβ levels by augmenting AβPP processing. Thus, short-term stress simulating modern-life conditions may exacerbate cognitive deficits in preclinical AD by accelerating amyloid pathology and reducing synapse numbers. PMID:26077803

  20. Long-term exposure to ELF-MF ameliorates cognitive deficits and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation in 3xTg AD mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Lai, Jinsheng; Wan, Baoquan; Liu, Xingfa; Zhang, Yemao; Zhang, Jiangong; Sun, Dongsheng; Ruan, Guoran; Liu, Enjie; Liu, Gong-Ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-03-01

    Although numerous studies have reported the influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure on human health, its effects on cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have remained under debate. Moreover, the influence of ELF-MF on hyperphosphorylated tau, which is one of the most common pathological hallmarks of AD, has not been reported to date. Therefore, transgenic mice (3xTg) were used in the present study. 3xTg mice, which express an APP/PS1 mutation combined with a tau (P301L) mutation and that develop cognitive deficits at 6 months of age, were subjected to ELF-MF (50Hz, 500μT) exposure or sham exposure daily for 3 months. We discovered that ELF-MF exposure ameliorated cognitive deficits and increased synaptic proteins in 3xTg mice. The protective effects of ELF-MF exposure may have also been caused by the inhibition of apoptosis and/or decreased oxidative stress levels that were observed in the hippocampus tissues of treated mice. Furthermore, tau hyperphosphorylation was decreased in vivo because of ELF-MF exposure, and this decrease was induced by the inhibition of GSK3β and CDK5 activities and activation of PP2Ac. We are the first to report that exposure to ELF-MF can attenuate tau phosphorylation. These findings suggest that ELF-MF exposure could act as a valid therapeutic strategy for ameliorating cognitive deficits and attenuating tau hyperphosphorylation in AD.

  1. β-Secretase 1’s Targeting Reduces Hyperphosphorilated Tau, Implying Autophagy Actors in 3xTg-AD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piedrahita, Diego; Castro-Alvarez, John Fredy; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Villegas-Lanau, Andres; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Gallego-Gomez, Juan Carlos; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2016-01-01

    β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) initiates APP cleavage, which has been reported to be an inducer of tau pathology by altering proteasome functions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the exact relationship between BACE1 and PHF (Paired Helical Filaments) formation is not clear. In this study, we confirm that BACE1 and Hsc70 are upregulated in the brains of AD patients, and we demonstrate that both proteins show enhanced expression in lipid rafts from AD-affected triple transgenic mouse brains. BACE1 targeting increased Hsc70 levels in the membrane and cytoplasm fractions and downregulated Hsp90 and CHIP in the nucleus in the hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice. However, these observations occurred in a proteasome-independent manner in vitro. The BACE1miR-induced reduction of soluble hyperphosphorylated tau was associated with a decrease in MAPK activity. However, the BACE1 RNAi-mediated reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau was only blocked by 3-MA (3-methyladenine) in vitro, and it resulted in the increase of Hsc70 and LAMP2 in lipid rafts from hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice, and upregulation of survival and homeostasis signaling. In summary, our findings suggest that BACE1 silencing neuroprotects reducing soluble hyperphosphorylated tau, modulating certain autophagy-related proteins in aged 3xTg-AD mice. PMID:26778963

  2. xF 3(x,Q 2) Structure Function and Gross-Llewellyn Smith Sum Rule with Nuclear Effect and Higher Twist Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, N. M.; Mukharjee, A.; Das, M. K.; Sarma, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of the xF3(x,Q2) structure function and Gross-Llewellyn Smith(GLS) sum rule taking into account the nuclear effects and higher twist correction. This analysis is based on the results presented in [N.M. Nath, et al, Indian J. Phys. 90 (2016) 117]. The corrections due to nuclear effects predicted in several earlier analysis are incorporated to our results of xF3(x,Q2) structure function and GLS sum rule for free nucleon, corrected upto next-next-to-leading order (NNLO) perturbative order and calculate the nuclear structure function as well as sum rule for nuclei. In addition, by means of a simple model we have extracted the higher twist contributions to the non-singlet structure function xF3(x,Q2) and GLS sum rule in NNLO perturbative orders and then incorporated them to our results. Our NNLO results along with nuclear effect and higher twist corrections are observed to be compatible with corresponding experimental data and other phenomenological analysis. Support from DAE-BRNS, India, as Major Research Project under Sanction No. 2012/37P/36/BRNS/2018 dated 24 Nov. 2012

  3. Excited configurations of hydrogen in the BaTiO3 -xHx perovskite lattice associated with hydrogen exchange and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, T. U.; Koda, A.; Shimomura, K.; Higemoto, W.; Matsuzaki, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kageyama, H.

    2017-01-01

    Excited configurations of hydrogen in the oxyhydride BaTiO3 -xHx (x =0.1 -0.5 ), which are considered to be involved in its hydrogen transport and exchange processes, were investigated by positive muon spin relaxation spectroscopy using muonium (Mu) as a pseudoisotope of hydrogen. Muons implanted into the BaTiO3 -xHx perovskite lattice were mainly found in two qualitatively different metastable states. One was assigned to a highly mobile interstitial protonic state, which is commonly observed in perovskite oxides. The other was found to form an entangled two spin-1/2 system with the nuclear spin of an H- ion at the anion site. The structure of the (H,Mu) complex agrees well with that of a neutralized center containing two H- ions at a doubly charged oxygen vacancy, which was predicted to form in the SrTiO3 -δ perovskite lattice by a computational study [Y. Iwazaki et al., APL Mater. 2, 012103 (2014), 10.1063/1.4854355]. Above 100 K, interstitial Mu+ diffusion and retrapping to a deep defect were observed, which could be a rate-limiting step of macroscopic Mu/H transport in the BaTiO3 -xHx lattice.

  4. Transition between the 1 x 1 and ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment

    SciTech Connect

    Munkholm, A.; Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2000-01-12

    Out-of-plane structures of the GaN(0001) surface in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) environment have been determined using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. The authors measured 11{bar 2}{ell} crystal truncation rod intensities at a variety of temperatures and ammonia partial pressures on both sides of the 1 x 1 to ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface phase transition. The out-of-plane structure of the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase appears to be nearly independent of temperature below the transition, while the structure of the 1 x 1 phase changes increase rapidly as the phase transition is approached from above. A model for the structure of the 1 x 1 phase with a partially-occupied top Ga layer agrees well with the data. The observed temperature dependence is consistent with a simple model of the equilibrium between the vapor phase and the surface coverage of Ga and N. In addition, the authors present results on the kinetics of reconstruction domain coarsening following a quench into the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase field.

  5. Standardized Herbal Formula PM012 Decreases Cognitive Impairment and Promotes Neurogenesis in the 3xTg AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-Suck; An, Yong Ho; Lim, Su-Jin; Choi, Won; Yu, A Ram; Kim, Jin Su; Kang, Manho; Cho, Seunghun; Shim, Insop; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease for which there is currently no effective treatment. This study investigated whether treatment with the herbal formula PM012 would improve the cognitive function and the pathological features of AD in 3xTg-AD mice. The cognitive function of 3xTg-AD mice was assessed using the Morris water maze test and positron-emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-2 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([F-18] FDG) neuroimaging. The levels of the amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits in the hippocampus were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neurogenesis was assessed by quantitative labeling with the DNA marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and the newborn neuron marker doublecortin (DCX). PM012 treatment significantly ameliorated memory deficit in AD mice, as shown by shortened escape latencies and increased time spent in the target zone during probe tests. In addition, PM012 significantly decreased Aβ deposits, up-regulated the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased neurogenesis, and improved brain glucose metabolism in the 3xTg-AD mice. These results suggest that PM012 could be a promising treatment for AD.

  6. Dietary zinc supplementation of 3xTg-AD mice increases BDNF levels and prevents cognitive deficits as well as mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, C; Masciopinto, F; Silvestri, E; Viscovo, A Del; Lattanzio, R; Sorda, R La; Ciavardelli, D; Goglia, F; Piantelli, M; Canzoniero, L M T; Sensi, S L

    2010-10-28

    The overall effect of brain zinc (Zn(2+)) in the progression and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still not completely understood. Although an excess of Zn(2+) can exacerbate the pathological features of AD, a deficit of Zn(2+) intake has also been shown to increase the volume of amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary Zn(2+) supplementation (30 p.p.m.) in a transgenic mouse model of AD, the 3xTg-AD, that expresses both β amyloid (Aβ)- and tau-dependent pathology. We found that Zn(2+) supplementation greatly delays hippocampal-dependent memory deficits and strongly reduces both Aβ and tau pathology in the hippocampus. We also evaluated signs of mitochondrial dysfunction and found that Zn(2+) supplementation prevents the age-dependent respiratory deficits we observed in untreated 3xTg-AD mice. Finally, we found that Zn(2+) supplementation greatly increases the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of treated 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data support the idea that controlling the brain Zn(2+) homeostasis may be beneficial in the treatment of AD.

  7. CH3NH3PbI3-xClx under Different Fabrication Strategies: Electronic Structures and Energy-Level Alignment with an Organic Hole Transport Material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongbin; Wu, Chen; Hu, Yun; Li, Jitao; Shen, Pengfei; Wang, Qi; Liao, Liangsheng; Liu, Lijia; Duhm, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    We report a photoelectron spectroscopy study on the electronic structure of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx thin films fabricated by physical evaporation from CH3NH3I and PbCl2 precursors, including (1) simultaneously evaporation and (2) sequential evaporation. The results are compared with CH3NH3PbI3-xClx made using conventional solution chemistry (i.e., spin-coating). Depending on the fabrication method, CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films show different chemical constituents in the near-surface region, leading to disparities in their energetic levels. The chemical identities of the surface species are revealed by an in situ study on the sequentially evaporated film. Moreover, air-exposure treatment also greatly alters the energetic levels of the film. Using hole transport layer of N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB) as a model system, we find that the energy-level alignment with the spin-coated film after air exposure is most suitable for efficient hole transport.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescence of novel green-emitting phosphor Y{sub 1-x}BO{sub 3}:xTb{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuhua . E-mail: wyh@lzu.edu.cn; Wu Chunfang; Zhang Jiachi

    2006-08-10

    Y{sub 1-x}BO{sub 3}:xTb{sup 3+} phosphors were first synthesized by hydrothermal reaction, and the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The results show that single phase is obtained with Tb concentration up to 0.28 and all the samples exhibit flake-like morphology. The sample was determined to be vaterite-type orthoborate and the boron is both four-coordinated (chief) and three-coordinated (few). The Y{sub 1-x}BO{sub 3}:xTb{sup 3+} phosphors showed intense green emission at 550 nm and the intensity of the emission increases with Tb{sup 3+} substitution up to 0.22 and then decreases for higher Tb{sup 3+} content. In the phosphors prepared by the hydrothermal method the concentration quenching is higher than in the phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction; the intensity of emission is stronger in the former than that of the latter. Y{sub 1-x}BO{sub 3}:xTb3{sup +} is a promising phosphor for plasma display panels and hydrargyrum-free lamps.

  9. Defect structure, phase separation, and electrical properties of nonstoichiometric tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba(0.5-x)TaO(3-x).

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xiaojun; Pan, Fengjuan; Cao, Jiang; Liang, Chaolun; Suchomel, Matthew R; Porcher, Florence; Allix, Mathieu

    2013-11-18

    New insight into the defect chemistry of the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) Ba(0.5-x)TaO(3-x) is established here, which is shown to adapt to a continuous and extensive range of both cationic and anionic defect stoichiometries. The highly nonstoichiometric TTB Ba(0.5-x)TaO(3-x) (x = 0.25-0.325) compositions are stabilized via the interpolation of Ba(2+) cations and (TaO)(3+) groups into pentagonal tunnels, forming distinct Ba chains and alternate Ta-O rows in the pentagonal tunnels along the c axis. The slightly nonstoichiometric Ba(0.5-x)TaO(3-x) (x = 0-0.1) compositions incorporate framework oxygen and tunnel cation deficiencies in the TTB structure. These two mechanisms result in phase separation within the 0.1< x < 0.25 nonstoichiometric range, resulting in two closely related (TaO)(3+)-containing and (TaO)(3+)-free TTB phases. The highly nonstoichiometric (TaO)(3+)-containing phase exhibits Ba(2+) cationic migration. The incorporation of (TaO)(3+) units into the pentagonal tunnel and the local relaxation of the octahedral framework around the (TaO)(3+) units are revealed by diffraction data analysis and are shown to affect the transport and polarization properties of these compositions.

  10. Superparticle and superstring in AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} Ramond--Ramond background in the light-cone gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2001-07-01

    We discuss superparticle and superstring dynamics in AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} supported by R--R 3-form background using light-cone gauge approach. Starting with the superalgebra psu(1,1|2)(circle plus)psu (1,1|2) representing the basic symmetry of this background we find the light-cone superparticle Hamiltonian. We determine the harmonic decomposition of light-cone superfield describing fluctuations of type IIB supergravity fields expanded near AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background and thus the corresponding Kaluza--Klein spectrum. We fix the fermionic and bosonic light-cone gauges in the covariant Green--Schwarz AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} superstring action and find the corresponding light-cone string Hamiltonian. We also obtain a realization of the generators of psu(1,1|2)(circle plus)psu (1,1|2) in terms of the superstring 2-d fields in the light-cone gauge.

  11. Crystal structure and physical properties of the novel ternary intermetallics URuSi 3- x and U 3Ru 2Si 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasturel, M.; Pikul, A. P.; Potel, M.; Roisnel, T.; Tougait, O.; Noël, H.; Kaczorowski, D.

    2010-08-01

    Two novel ternary intermediate phases, namely URuSi 3- x ( x=0.11) and U 3Ru 2Si 7 were found in the Si-rich part of the U -Ru -Si phase diagram. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements, carried out at room temperature, indicated that URuSi 3- x crystallizes in its own tetragonal type structure (space group P4/ nmm, no. 129; unit cell parameters: a=12.108(1) Å and c=9.810(1) Å), being a derivative of the BaNiSn 3-type structure. U 3Ru 2Si 7 adopts in turn a disordered orthorhombic La 3Co 2Sn 7-type structure (space group Cmmm, no. 65; unit cell parameters: a=4.063(1) Å, b=24.972(2) Å and c=4.072(1) Å). As revealed by magnetization, electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements, both compounds order magnetically at low temperatures. Namely URuSi 3- x is a ferromagnet with TC=45 K, and U 3Ru 2Si 7 shows ferrimagnetic behavior below TC=29 K.

  12. A Study of Inverted-Type Perovskite Solar Cells with Various Composition Ratios of (FAPbI3)1−x(MAPbBr3)x

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Tseng, Zong-Liang; Huang, Jun-Kai

    2016-01-01

    This work presents mixed (FAPbI3)1−x(MAPbBr3)x perovskite films with various composition ratios, x (x = 0–1), which are formed using the spin coating method. The structural, optical, and electronic behaviors of the mixed (FAPbI3)1−x(MAPbBr3)x perovskite films are discussed. A device with structure glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/mixed perovskite/C60/BCP/Ag was fabricated. The mixed perovskite film was an active light-harvesting layer. PEDOT:PSS was a hole transporting layer between the ITO and perovskite. Both C60 and bathocuproine (BCP) were electron transporting layers. MAPbBr3 was added to FAPbI3 with a composition ratio of x = 0.2, stabilizing the perovskite phase, which exhibited a uniform and dense morphology. The optimal device exhibited band matching with C60, resulting in a low series resistance (Rsh) and a high fill factor (FF). Therefore, the device with composition (FAPbI3)1−x(MAPbBr3)x and x = 0.2 exhibited outstanding performance.

  13. Exenatide promotes cognitive enhancement and positive brain metabolic changes in PS1-KI mice but has no effects in 3xTg-AD animals

    PubMed Central

    Bomba, M; Ciavardelli, D; Silvestri, E; Canzoniero, L MT; Lattanzio, R; Chiappini, P; Piantelli, M; Di Ilio, C; Consoli, A; Sensi, S L

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia. Insulin resistance is often associated with T2DM and can induce defective insulin signaling in the central nervous system as well as increase the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Glucagone like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone and, like GLP-1 analogs, stimulates insulin secretion and has been employed in the treatment of T2DM. GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs also enhance synaptic plasticity and counteract cognitive deficits in mouse models of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of long-term treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analog, in two animal models of neuronal dysfunction: the PS1-KI and 3xTg-AD mice. We found that exenatide promoted beneficial effects on short- and long-term memory performances in PS1-KI but not in 3xTg-AD animals. In PS1-KI mice, the drug increased brain lactate dehydrogenase activity leading to a net increase in lactate levels, while no effects were observed on mitochondrial respiration. On the contrary, exenatide had no effects on brain metabolism of 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data indicate that exenatide improves cognition in PS1-KI mice, an effect likely driven by increasing the brain anaerobic glycolysis rate. PMID:23640454

  14. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Henry, M. David; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.

    2016-04-05

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicontopography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  15. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  16. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  17. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations.

  18. Vertical motions in the equatorial middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A single station vertical velocity equation which considers ageostrophic and diabatic effects derived from the first law of thermodynamics and a generalized thermal wind relation is presented. An analysis and verification procedure which accounts for measurement and calculation errors as well as time and space continuity arguments and theoretical predictions are described. Vertical velocities are calculated at every kilometer between 25 and 60 km and for approximately every three hours for the above diurnal period at Kourou (French Guiana), Fort Sherman (Panama Canal Zone), Ascension Island, Antigua (British West Indies) and Natal (Brazil). The results, plotted as time series cross sections, suggest vertical motions ranging in magnitude from 1 or 2 cm/sec at 30 km to as much as 15 cm/sec at 60 km. Many of the general features of the results agree well with atmospheric tidal predictions but many particular features suggest that both smaller time scale gravity waves (periods less than 6 hours) and synoptic type waves (periods greater than 1 day) may be interacting significantly with the tidal fields. The results suggest that vertical motions can be calculated for the equatorial middle atmosphere and must be considered a significant part of the motion for time scales from 8 to 24 hours.

  19. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  20. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  1. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  2. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  3. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  4. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  5. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  6. Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-09-01

    Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature.

  7. A Vertical Approach to Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojak, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of mathematics standards, whether they are Common Core State Standards or other state standards, effective vertical mathematics teams offer an opportunity for teachers to grow professionally through shared experiences, for leadership to grow among the faculty, and for the school to change its perspective on the teaching and…

  8. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  9. The Vertical Limit of State Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 00 JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A... 1 - Chapter I: Territorial Sovereignty - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 -- Vertical Sovereignty

  10. Vertical Acoustic Arrays in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F.

    2002-12-01

    The R/P FLIP has made possible the deployments of vertical arrays to study sound propagation and ambient noise in the deep ocean in ways never before possible from existing research vessels. Long vertical arrays can be deployed without the flow noise contamination from platform motion, long a bane for making such studies. The vertical stability of FLIP combined with the deep mooring capability developed by Earl D. Bronson made it possible to deploy multi-element arrays beginning with a versatile 20 element array with variable spacing developed by Bill Whitney in Fred Spiess's group. The 20 element array consisted of bungee mounted hydrophones in metal cages at either uniform spacing or variable spacing to meet directivity or other requirements. It was assembled on station in the vertical and deployed to the desired depths for the elements. Gerald Morris at MPL conducted ambient noise studies using variable spacing of the elements to below the critical depth as well as in the water column above. Vic Anderson used it for his DIMUS processing system for detecting low level signals masked by ambient noise. As a 500 meter array, I used it for a series of CONTRACK (Continuous Tracking of signals at long range) experiments to resolve multipaths so they wouldn't interfere with one another. The VEKA vertical array developed by Rick Swenson of NORDA was deployed in very deep (below 3300 m) water by Dan Ramsdale of NORDA using the winch and double lay armored cable on FLIP, the same cable system for the MPL 20 element array. In my group Bruce Williams designed a rapidly deployable array to study vertical anisotropy of ambient noise as a function of range from near shore shipping via downslope conversion in a series of 48 hours FLIP stations 350, 1000 and 1500 miles from the Pacific coast. A short 120 element array, 1000 meters long, was built by John Hildebrands's group for a test of matched field processing and the SLICE experiment in acoustic tomography research of Peter

  11. Age-Dependent Modifications of AMPA Receptor Subunit Expression Levels and Related Cognitive Effects in 3xTg-AD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cantanelli, Pamela; Sperduti, Samantha; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina; Sensi, Stefano Luca

    2014-01-01

    GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q–R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1–4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.)] and old (12 m.o.a) Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT) mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for learning short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM) navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1–4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in

  12. The Vertical Structure of Diffuse Ionized Gas in Galactic Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnarao, Dhanesh; Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper provides the most sensitive velocity resolved observations of diffuse Hα, [S II] λ6716, and [N II] λ6584 emission in the Galaxy, tracing the warm (~8000K) ionized component of the interstellar medium. The vertical extent of this diffuse gas can directly impact the midplane pressure, influencing cold molecular clouds and star formation in the disk. Here, we analyze the vertical structure of the warm ionized medium around multiple spiral arm components of the Galaxy. Diffuse halo emission is isolated using longitude varying velocity channels guided by CO emission tracing cold molecular gas in the disk. We find exponential electron density squared (or emission measure) scale heights and analyze its behavior as a function of Galactocentric radius and the presence of cold molecular clouds and star forming regions in the disk. Statistical analysis of the behavior of [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα line ratios along some of these spiral arms disentangle the complex physical conditions of the warm ionized gas as a function of height and in-situ electron density. Some spiral arm sections, in particular the far Carina arm, have significantly larger (>3x) scale heights than previously studied arms that tend to increase as a function of Galactocentric radius.

  13. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  14. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat

  15. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  16. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  17. Extreme wave runup on a vertical cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Francesco; Dutykh, Denys; Dudley, John M.; Dias, FréDéRic

    2013-06-01

    Wave impact and runup onto vertical obstacles are among the most important phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher runups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in runup heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of extreme wave-coastal structure interaction.

  18. Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

  19. Congenital paralytic vertical talus. An anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Specht, E E

    1975-09-01

    Dissections of the feet of a three-month-old infant with paralytic congenital vertical talus secondary to lumbar myelomeningocele were compared with a dissection of a normal foot. The major differences appeared to be absence of the plantar intrinsic muscles and dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint. It is postulated that the pathological process begins as a failure of the intrinsic muscles to oppose the unbalanced, active dorsiflexion forces of the anterior crural muscles. This imbalance then allows disruption of the talonavicular joint, mechanically the least stable joint in the mid-part of the foot. All dorsiflexion forces acting on the ankle then become ineffective and plantar flexion forces serve only to pull the calcaneus and talus into equinus, causing a "vertical" talus. Treatment must be directed at reducing the talonavicular dislocation, correcting the equinus deformity of the hind part of the foot, and substituting for the undeveloped plantar intrinsic muscles.

  20. Vertical-Substrate MPCVD Epitaxial Nanodiamond Growth.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lu, Haiyu; Ishiwata, Hitoshi; Dahl, Jeremy; Carlson, Robert M K; Yan, Hao; Schreiner, Peter R; Vučković, Jelena; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas; Chu, Steven

    2017-03-08

    Color center-containing nanodiamonds have many applications in quantum technologies and biology. Diamondoids, molecular-sized diamonds have been used as seeds in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth. However, optimizing growth conditions to produce high crystal quality nanodiamonds with color centers requires varying growth conditions that often leads to ad-hoc and time-consuming, one-at-a-time testing of reaction conditions. In order to rapidly explore parameter space, we developed a microwave plasma CVD technique using a vertical, rather than horizontally oriented stage-substrate geometry. With this configuration, temperature, plasma density, and atomic hydrogen density vary continuously along the vertical axis of the substrate. This variation allowed rapid identification of growth parameters that yield single crystal diamonds down to 10 nm in size and 75 nm diameter optically active center silicon-vacancy (Si-V) nanoparticles. Furthermore, this method may provide a means of incorporating a wide variety of dopants in nanodiamonds without ion irradiation damage.

  1. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  2. Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.

    1999-09-16

    We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.

  3. Velocity Field in a Vertical Foam Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Kervil, Ronan; Nou, Soniraks; Cantat, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The drainage of vertical foam films governs their lifetime. For a foam film supported on a rectangular solid frame, when the interface presents a low resistance to shear, the drainage dynamics involves a complex flow pattern at the film scale, leading to a drainage time proportional to the frame width. Using an original velocimetry technique, based on fluorescent foam films and photobleaching, we measure the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity in a draining film, thus providing the first quantitative experimental evidence of this flow pattern. Upward velocities up to 10 cm /s are measured close to the lateral menisci, whereas a slower velocity field is obtained in the center of the film, with comparable downwards and horizontal components. Scaling laws are proposed for all characteristic velocities, coupling gravitational effects, and capillary suction.

  4. Laser drilling of vertical vias in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.D.; Gassman, R.A.; Keicher, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Any advance beyond the density of standard 2D Multichip Modules (MCM) will require a vertical interconnect technology that can produce reliable area array interconnection with small feature sizes. Laser drilled vertical vias have been controllably produced in standard silicon (Si) wafers down to 0.035mm (0.0014 inches) in diameter. Several laser systems and their system parameters have been explored to determine the optimum parametric set for repeatable vias in Si. The vias produced have exhibited clean smooth interior surfaces with an aspect ratio of up to 20:1 with little or no taper. All laser systems used, their system parameters, design modifications, theory of operation, and drilling results are discussed.

  5. Cephalometric estimation of vertical dimension of occlusion.

    PubMed

    Orthlieb, J D; Laurent, M; Laplanche, O

    2000-09-01

    The literature does not establish a single proven method for determining lower facial height, which is called the Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO), and the concept of a vertical comfort range is generally accepted. This study aimed to test the statistical significance of correlations of mandibular shape versus lower facial height in occlusion, using cephalometric measurements. Correlations for 505 consecutive healthy adults were calculated between angles that estimate the lower facial height and angles that estimate the mandibular shape. The mandibular angle (gonial) showed a higher coefficient of correlation (r = 0.691) than the inferior gonial angle. The dispersion remained large, i.e. r2 = 0.478. Cephalometric measurements, despite theirs imperfections, could help the practitioner to understand what the best course of treatment would be in order to obtain a lower facial height in occlusion showing a skeletal harmony with the mandibular shape.

  6. Experimental Studies in Helicopter Vertical Climb Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Data and analysis from an experimental program to measure vertical climb performance on an eight-foot model rotor are presented. The rotor testing was performed using a unique moving-model facility capable of accurately simulating the flow conditions during axial flight, and was conducted from July 9, 1992 to July 16, 1992 at the Dynamic Model Track, or 'Long Track,' just prior to its demolition in August of 1992. Data collected during this brief test program included force and moment time histories from a sting-mounted strain gauge balance, support carriage velocity, and rotor rpm pulses. In addition, limited video footage (of marginal use) was recorded from smoke flow studies for both simulated vertical climb and descent trajectories. Analytical comparisons with these data include a series of progressively more detailed calculations ranging from simple momentum theory, a prescribed wake method, and a free-wake prediction.

  7. Engineering high-performance vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.; Hou, H.Q.; Hietala, V.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The cw and high-speed performance of vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) are affected by both electrical and optical issues arising from the geometry and fabrication of these devices. Structures with low resistance semiconductor mirrors and Al-oxide confinement layers address these issues and have produced record performance including 50% power conversion efficiency and modulation bandwidths up to 20 GHz at small bias currents.

  8. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  9. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  10. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  11. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  12. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  13. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Cassini space mission will reach Saturn’s orbit and release the Huygens probe (descending via parachute) into Titan’s atmosphere. The Huygens ...is outside the official mission scope). This accomplishment will likely come from future missions post- Cassini / Huygens . The use of vertical lift...from HST) With the arrival of the Cassini / Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and Titan in 2004 -- and the anticipated science and outreach bonanza from this

  14. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia. PMID:26445526

  15. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej; Exner, Pavel

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of the Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale-invariant (or Fueloep-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  16. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties of two new layered cadmium iodates: Cd(IO{sub 3})X (X=Cl, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bing-Ping Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2014-11-15

    Systematic explorations of new compounds in the cadmium iodate system by hydrothermal reactions led to two layered iodates, namely, Cd(IO{sub 3})X (X=Cl, OH). Cd(IO{sub 3})Cl crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmca (No. 64) whereas Cd(IO{sub 3})(OH) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62). Cd(IO{sub 3})Cl displays a unique double layered structure composed of {sup 1}{sub ∞}[Cd−O{sub 3}Cl]{sub n} chains. Cadmium octahedrons form a 1D chain along the a-axis through edge sharing, and such chains are further interconnected via IO{sub 3} groups to form a special double layer on (020) plane. Cd(IO{sub 3})(OH) also exhibits a layered structure that is composed of cadmium cations, IO{sub 3} groups and hydroxyl ions. Within a layer, chains of CdO{sub 6} edge-shared octahedra are observed along the b-axis. And these chains are connected by IO{sub 3} groups into a layer parallel to the bc plane. Spectroscopic characterizations, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis for the reported two compounds are also presented. - Graphical abstract: Two new layered cadmium iodates Cd(IO{sub 3})X (X=Cl, OH) are reported. Cd(IO{sub 3})Cl features a unique double layered structure whereas Cd(IO{sub 3})(OH) displays an ordinary layered structure. - Highlights: • Two new layered cadmium iodates Cd(IO{sub 3})X (X=Cl, OH) are reported. • Cd(IO{sub 3})Cl features a unique double layered structure. • Cd(IO{sub 3})(OH) displays an ordinary layered structure. • The spectroscopic and thermal properties have been studied in detail.

  18. MAPbI3-xBrx mixed halide perovskites for fully printable mesoscopic solar cells with enhanced efficiency and less hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Kun; Li, Hao; Liu, Shuangshuang; Cui, Jin; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2016-04-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising alternatives to silicon-based cells due to their high photovoltaic performance and low cost. We report herein fully printable perovskite solar cells with a mesoporous TiO2/Al2O3/C architecture in combination with mixed-halide MAPbI3-xBrx perovskites. A maximum conversion efficiency of 13.49% can be achieved with an increased open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is higher than the MAPbI3-based devices. A reduced anomalous hysteresis in the J-V curve measurement has been demonstrated in perovskite solar cells based on MAPbI2.4Br0.6 perovskite, which is directly linked to the characteristically slow kinetics measured through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Hybrid lead-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising alternatives to silicon-based cells due to their high photovoltaic performance and low cost. We report herein fully printable perovskite solar cells with a mesoporous TiO2/Al2O3/C architecture in combination with mixed-halide MAPbI3-xBrx perovskites. A maximum conversion efficiency of 13.49% can be achieved with an increased open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is higher than the MAPbI3-based devices. A reduced anomalous hysteresis in the J-V curve measurement has been demonstrated in perovskite solar cells based on MAPbI2.4Br0.6 perovskite, which is directly linked to the characteristically slow kinetics measured through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Preparation process and XRD patterns of MAPbI3-xBrx films, photovoltaic performance and EIS analysis of different devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01043a

  19. Upregulation of miR-181 decreases c-Fos and SIRT-1 in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; LaFerla, Frank M; Kitazawa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a group of small RNAs that regulate diverse cellular processes including neuronal function. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of specific microRNAs is critically involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of these reports have focused on microRNAs implicated in alterations of amyloid-β and tau. However, studies exploring the relation between microRNAs dysregulation in AD and synaptic plasticity are scarce despite the well-known involvement of microRNAs in synaptic plasticity. Since impairments in synaptic plasticity and neuronal loss are two important features displayed in AD patients, it is feasible to hypothesize that alterations in plasticity-related microRNAs underlie AD progression. Here, levels of a small number of microRNAs implicated in normal neuronal function and/or plasticity were examined in an AD model. Twelve-month old 3xTg-AD mice with plaques and tangles presented a significant upregulation of miR-181 in the hippocampus compared to age-matched wild type mice. Increased miR-181 was not detected in pre-pathological 3xTg-AD mice. Analysis of predicted targets of miR-181 identified c-Fos and SIRT-1, proteins critically involved in memory formation. Both c-Fos and SIRT-1 levels were significantly decreased in the ventral hippocampus of twelve-month old 3xTg-AD mice. Overexpression of miR-181 in SH-SY5Y cells significantly decreased c-Fos and SIRT-1, strongly suggesting that miR-181 directly regulates the expression of these two proteins. These findings indicate a connection between miR-181 and proteins involve in synaptic plasticity and memory processing in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Our results suggest that microRNAs involved in synaptic plasticity might be an important factor that contributes to AD neuropathology.

  20. Effects of a dietary ketone ester on hippocampal glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates and amino acids in a 3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pawlosky, Robert J; Kemper, Martin F; Kashiwaya, Yoshihero; King, M Todd; Mattson, Mark P; Veech, Richard L

    2017-01-18

    In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months. At 16.5 months of age animals were euthanized and brains dissected. Analyses were carried out on the hippocampus and frontal cortex for glycolytic and TCA (Tricarboxylic Acid) cycle intermediates, amino acids, oxidized lipids and proteins, and enzymes. There were higher concentrations of D-β-hydroxybutyrate in the hippocampus of KE-fed mice where there were also higher concentrations of TCA cycle and glycolytic intermediates and the energy-linked biomarker, n-acetyl aspartate compared to controls. In the hippocampi of control-fed animals the free mitochondrial [NAD(+) ]/[NADH] ratio were highly oxidized, whereas, in KE-fed animals the mitochondria were reduced. Also, the levels of oxidized protein and lipids were lower and the energy of ATP hydrolysis was greater compared to controls. 3xTgAD mice maintained on a KE-supplemented diet had higher concentrations of glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites, a more reduced mitochondrial redox potential, and lower amounts of oxidized lipids and proteins in their hippocampi compared to controls. The KE offers a potential therapy to counter fundamental metabolic deficits common to patients and transgenic models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-09

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction.

  2. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  3. Vertical vorticity at a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of surface vorticity is developed as a necessary consequence of the discontinuity of flow at the fluid surface. The construct provides the proper boundary conditions for a vortex-dynamical description of surface waves. It is shown that the perturbed free surface in general possesses vertical vorticity, even when the underlying flow is irrotational and the fluid is ideal. This resolves a paradox pointed out by Umeki, who discovered irrotational surface waves with surface rotation in the horizontal plane. A dynamical equation for vertical vorticity at the free surface is derived and interpreted physically. The traditional idea that vortex lines terminate at fluid boundaries is shown to be unphysical and is amended to include surface vorticity. The extension of vertical surface vorticity into the bulk is connected with particular topological structures, such as plughole vortices, breaking waves, and Klein's Kaffeelöffel. This analysis generalizes boundary-layer vorticity theory to the free surface in the ideal limit. The analogy between surface vorticity on an ideal liquid and sheet currents at the surface of a superconductor is described. Work done as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University.

  4. Diffusion weighted vertical gradient and spin echo.

    PubMed

    Engström, Mathias; Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    In this work, diffusion weighting and parallel imaging is combined with a vertical gradient and spin echo data readout. This sequence was implemented and evaluated on healthy volunteers using a 1.5 and a 3 T whole-body MR system. As the vertical gradient and spin echo trajectory enables a higher k-space velocity in the phase-encoding direction than single-shot echo planar imaging, the geometrical distortions are reduced. When combined with parallel imaging such as generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, the geometric distortions are reduced even further, while also keeping the minimum echo time reasonably low. However, this combination of a diffusion preparation and multiple refocusing pulses during the vertical gradient and spin echo readout, generally violates the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to interferences between echo pathways. To suppress the stimulated echo pathway, refocusing pulses with a sharper slice profiles and an odd/even crusher variation scheme were implemented and evaluated. Being a single-shot acquisition technique, the reconstructed images are robust to rigid-body head motion and spatially varying brain motion, both of which are common sources of artifacts in diffusion MRI.

  5. Vertical tectonics at an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct observations of vertical movements of the earth's surface are now possible with space-based GPS networks, and have applications to resources, hazards and tectonics. Here we present data on vertical movements of the Earth's surface in New Zealand, computed from the processing of GPS data collected between 2000 and 2015 by 189 permanent GPS stations. We map the geographical variation in vertical rates and show how these variations are explicable within a tectonic framework of subduction, volcanic activity and slow slip earthquakes. Subsidence of >3 mm/yr is observed along southeastern North Island and is interpreted to be due to the locked segment of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Uplift of 1-3 mm/yr further north along the margin of the eastern North Island is interpreted as being due to the plate interface being unlocked and underplating of sediment on the subduction thrust. The Volcanic Plateau of the central North Island is being uplifted at about 1 mm/yr, which can be explained by basaltic melts being injected in the active mantle-wedge at a rate of ∼6 mm/yr. Within the Central Volcanic Region there is a 250 km2 area that subsided between 2005 and 2012 at a rate of up to 14 mm/yr. Time series from the stations located within and near the zone of subsidence show a strong link between subsidence, adjacent uplift and local earthquake swarms.

  6. Sunrise enhancement of equatorial vertical plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Zhang, Ruilong; Le, Huijun

    2016-04-01

    Sunrise enhancement in vertical plasma drift over equatorial regions is not discernible in the statistical picture compared with the significant enhancement during dusk hours. In this report, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag. Moreover, we will report the effects of the sunrise enhancement of vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere as indicated from the observations and model simulations. We thanks National Central University of Taiwan providing the ROCSAT-1 data. The Ap and F107 indices are obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/). This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065), the Chinese Academy of Sciences project (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41321003).

  7. Vertical variations of coral reef drag forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Shai; Niewerth, Stephan; Koll, Katinka; Shavit, Uri

    2016-05-01

    Modeling flow in a coral reef requires a closure model that links the local drag force to the local mean velocity. However, the spatial flow variations make it difficult to predict the distribution of the local drag. Here we report on vertical profiles of measured drag and velocity in a laboratory reef that was made of 81 Pocillopora Meandrina colony skeletons, densely arranged along a tilted flume. Two corals were CT-scanned, sliced horizontally, and printed using a 3-D printer. Drag was measured as a function of height above the bottom by connecting the slices to drag sensors. Profiles of velocity were measured in-between the coral branches and above the reef. Measured drag of whole colonies shows an excellent agreement with previous field and laboratory studies; however, these studies never showed how drag varies vertically. The vertical distribution of drag is reported as a function of flow rate and water level. When the water level is the same as the reef height, Reynolds stresses are negligible and the drag force per unit fluid mass is nearly constant. However, when the water depth is larger, Reynolds stress gradients become significant and drag increases with height. An excellent agreement was found between the drag calculated by a momentum budget and the measured drag of the individual printed slices. Finally, we propose a modified formulation of the drag coefficient that includes the normal dispersive stress term and results in reduced variations of the drag coefficient at the cost of introducing an additional coefficient.

  8. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/Carbon Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyu; Mo, Lulu; Zhu, Limin; Xie, Lingling

    2017-02-24

    Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon (x = 0.08, 0.14, 0.20, and 0.26) composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were prepared through partially substituting PO₄(3-) with Br(-), via a rheological phase reaction method. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical properties were evaluated by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). XRD results reveal that the Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon composites with solid solution phase are well crystallized and have the same monoclinic structure as the pristine Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/carbon composite. It is indicated by SEM images that the Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon composites possess large and irregular particles, with an increasing Br(-) content. Among the Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon composites, the Li₃V₂(PO₄)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite shows the highest initial discharge capacity of 178.33 mAh·g(-1) at the current rate of 30 mA·g(-1) in the voltage range of 4.8-3.0 V, and the discharge capacity of 139.66 mAh·g(-1) remains after 100 charge/discharge cycles. Even if operated at the current rate of 90 mA·g(-1), Li₃V₂(PO₄)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite still releases the initial discharge capacity of 156.57 mAh·g(-1), and the discharge capacity of 123.3 mAh·g(-1) can be maintained after the same number of cycles, which is beyond the discharge capacity and cycleability of the pristine Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/carbon composite. EIS results imply that the Li₃V₂(PO₄)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite demonstrates a decreased charge transfer resistance and preserves a good interfacial compatibility between solid electrode and electrolyte solution, compared with the pristine Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/carbon composite upon cycling.

  9. Ligand-assisted thickness tailoring of highly luminescent colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br and I) perovskite nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Levchuk, Ievgen; Herre, Patrick; Brandl, Marco; Osvet, Andres; Hock, Rainer; Peukert, Wolfgang; Schweizer, Peter; Spiecker, Erdmann; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Brabec, Christoph J

    2016-12-20

    Quantum size-confined CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br and I) perovskite nanoplatelets with remarkably high photoluminescence quantum yield (up to 90%) were synthesized by ligand-assisted re-precipitation. Thickness-tunability was realized by varying the oleylamine and oleic acid ligand ratio. This method allows tailoring the nanoplatelet thickness by adjusting the number of unit cell monolayers. Broadly tunable emission wavelengths (450-730 nm) are achieved via the pronounced quantum size effect without anion-halide mixing.

  10. Thermoelectric Properties and Hall Effect of Bi2Te3-xSex Polycrystalline Materials Prepared by a Hot Press Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Isamu; Watanave, Hiroshi; Ogisu, Takayasu; Tsukuda, Ryouma; Sato, Susumu

    1998-05-01

    Bi2Te3-xSex (0≦x<1) polycrystalline solids are prepared by a hot press method and their thermoelectric properties are studied. The samples show the maximum value of Z = 2.3×10-3 K-1 at x=0.22. The lattice thermal conductivity is smaller than that of a single crystal. The lattice constant and power factor decrease upon increasing the selenium substitution while thermal conductivity decreases for x values up to 0.33 and becomes constant for x values greater than 0.33.

  11. Influence of processing conditions on the thermoelectric properties of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05)

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, Ch.; Athanasopoulos, G. I.; Kyratsi, Th.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2012-06-26

    La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05) powders were prepared using the citrate-gel (Pechini) process. Pellets formed from these powders were sintered at various temperatures. All samples were characterized by means of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to investigate their structural and morphological properties. The electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermopower were measured in a wide range of temperatures (2-350K) in order to understand the influence of the different processing conditions on the thermoelectric properties of the compounds.

  12. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  13. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  14. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  15. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  16. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  17. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  18. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  19. First-principles analysis on role of spinel (111) phase boundaries in Li4+3xTi5O12 Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Minoru; Sumita, Masato; Ohno, Takahisa; Takada, Kazunori

    2016-08-17

    The practical anode material Li4+3xTi5O12 is known to undergo a two-phase separation into Li7Ti5O12 and Li4Ti5O12 during charging/discharging. This phase-separated Li4+3xTi5O12 exhibits electron conduction, although individual phases are expected to be insulators. To elucidate the role played by spinel (111) phase boundaries on these physical properties, first principles calculations were carried out using the GGA+U method. Two-phase Li7Ti5O12/Li4Ti5O12 models are found to exhibit metallic characteristics near their phase boundaries. These boundaries provide conduction paths not only for electrons, but also for Li ions. Judging from the formation energy of Li vacancies/interstitials, the phase boundaries preferentially uptake or release Li via in-plane conduction and then continuously shift in a direction perpendicular to the phase boundary planes. The continuous phase boundary shift leads to a constant electrode potential. A three-dimensional network of cubic {111} planes may contribute to smooth electrochemical reactions.

  20. Luminescence behavior of Li2 Sr1-3x/2 Eux SiO4 red phosphors for LED applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Lin, Liang-Wu; Liu, Guang-Yao; Liu, Xin-Gen; Wu, Ai-Jin; Huang, Shi-Ming

    2014-03-01

    Red-emitting Li(2)Sr(1-3x/2)Eux SiO4 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) phosphors were synthesized at 900 °C in air by a solid-state reaction. The synthesized phosphors were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) excitation (PLE) and PL spectra. The results from the PLE spectra suggest that the strong 394 nm excitation peak associated with the (5) L6 state of Eu(3+) ions is of significance for near ultraviolet pumped white light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting. It is also noted that the position of the charge transfer state of Eu(3+) ions shifts towards the higher energy side (blue shift) by increasing the content of Eu(3+) ions. The predominant emissions of Eu(3+) ions under 394 nm excitation are observed at 580, 593, 614, 656 and 708 nm, which are attributed to the (5) D0 → (7)FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), respectively. The PL results reveal that the optimal content of the red-emitting Li2 Sr(1-3x/2)Eux SiO4 phosphors is x = 0.475. Simulation of the white light excited by 394 nm near ultraviolet light has also been carried out for its potential white light-emitting diode applications.