Science.gov

Sample records for 4-10 times higher

  1. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  2. Higher Education Budgets and the Global Recession: Tracking Varied National Responses and Their Consequences. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of the global recession, how have national governments viewed the role of higher education in their evolving strategies for economic recovery? Demand for higher education generally goes up during economic downturns. Which nations have proactively protected funding for their universities and colleges to help maintain access, to help…

  3. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  4. Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159985.html Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans Post-traumatic ... 20, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders are six times more likely among American ...

  5. Strategies for Hard Times in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desfosses, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Planning and management strategies used in the private sector have practical applications for higher education in a period of systemic and organizational stress. Promising strategies include organizational delayering; employee empowerment; boundless thinking, problem-solving teams; accelerated processes; quality management and improvement; and…

  6. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  7. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  8. Representing 30 Years of Higher Education Change: UK Universities and the "Times Higher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Sharon; Cribb, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the "Times Higher" provides a powerful tool for understanding the changing character of UK higher education (HE) and can usefully be seen as representative, and in some ways constitutive, of that changing character. Drawing on an analysis of a sample of stories from the "Times Higher," it documents the changing policy…

  9. Representing 30 Years of Higher Education Change: UK Universities and the "Times Higher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Sharon; Cribb, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the "Times Higher" provides a powerful tool for understanding the changing character of UK higher education (HE) and can usefully be seen as representative, and in some ways constitutive, of that changing character. Drawing on an analysis of a sample of stories from the "Times Higher," it documents the…

  10. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  11. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  12. Higher Education in Recessionary Times: A UK Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about a meeting on "Higher Education in Recessionary Times" on March 24, 2010, which was hosted by the Society for Higher Education Research Policy Network. Although the meeting did take place in the context of an expected General Election, and on budget day, there was a general sense on the day that whoever won the Election (or…

  13. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This investigation…

  14. 18 CFR 4.10 - Valuation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Valuation data. 4.10 Section 4.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Valuation data. (a) Notification of Commission. In every case arising under section 23(a) of the...

  15. 18 CFR 4.10 - Valuation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Valuation data. 4.10 Section 4.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Valuation data. (a) Notification of Commission. In every case arising under section 23(a) of the...

  16. 18 CFR 4.10 - Valuation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Valuation data. 4.10 Section 4.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Valuation data. (a) Notification of Commission. In every case arising under section 23(a) of the...

  17. 18 CFR 4.10 - Valuation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Valuation data. 4.10 Section 4.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Valuation data. (a) Notification of Commission. In every case arising under section 23(a) of the...

  18. 18 CFR 4.10 - Valuation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation data. 4.10 Section 4.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION...

  19. 9 CFR 4.10 - Summary action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Summary action. 4.10 Section 4.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules...

  20. 9 CFR 4.10 - Summary action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary action. 4.10 Section 4.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules...

  1. 9 CFR 4.10 - Summary action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Summary action. 4.10 Section 4.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules...

  2. 9 CFR 4.10 - Summary action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Summary action. 4.10 Section 4.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules...

  3. 9 CFR 4.10 - Summary action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Summary action. 4.10 Section 4.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules...

  4. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  5. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  6. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  7. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  8. Full-Time Students? Term-Time Employment among Higher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    A good deal of research has focused on part-time employment among full-time students in higher education. However, little attention has been paid to the way in which these patterns may reflect societally specific processes rather than universal trends. This paper examines ways in which the higher education system itself can influence variation in…

  9. Late-time acceleration in higher dimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Pahwa, Isha; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Seshadri, T.R. E-mail: debajyoti.choudhury@gmail.com

    2011-09-01

    We investigate late time acceleration of the universe in higher dimensional cosmology. The content in the universe is assumed to exert pressure which is different in the normal and extra dimensions. Cosmologically viable solutions are found to exist for simple forms of the equation of state. The parameters of the model are fixed by comparing the predictions with supernovae data. While observations stipulate that the matter exerts almost vanishing pressure in the normal dimensions, we assume that, in the extra dimensions, the equation of state is of the form P∝ρ{sup 1−γ}. For appropriate choice of parameters, a late time acceleration in the universe occurs with q{sub 0} and z{sub tr} being approximately -0.46 and 0.76 respectively.

  10. Synthesis of 4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazaisowurtzitane (TEX) Using Heteropolyacids as Efficient and Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Yadollah; Azizkhani, Vahid

    2012-07-01

    4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazaisowurtzitane (TEX) is well known as an efficient explosive compound. It is usually prepared via nitration of a precursor with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid. However, there are many difficulties with the use of old methods, such as strong acidic and thermal conditions, which cause product decomposition, low yields, hazardous wastes, and product separation difficulties. In this article, the use of an efficient catalytic and mild reaction conditions for TEX synthesis is reported for the first time. It has been well documented that heteropolyacids (HPAs) are efficient green catalysts for use as a nitric acid activator. This strategy provided milder and higher yield conditions for nitration reactions. In addition, the reactions can be reasonably run at lower temperatures in a short time.

  11. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  12. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  13. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  14. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  15. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  16. California's "Gold Standard" for Higher Education Falls Upon Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    Few documents in higher education have enjoyed the influence or longevity of the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the 1960 law that transformed the state's public colleges and served as a blueprint for public systems across the country. Even today, almost 50 years after it was written, the master plan retains a mythic status in…

  17. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  18. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an…

  19. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  20. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  1. Time for Action to Bolster Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in America had its origins in New England more than 350 years ago. Since then, America's colleges and universities have been the incubators of great ideas, birthplaces of great inventions, and testing grounds of great individuals. For generations of New Englanders, a college education has provided the opportunity to fully embrace…

  2. Creating Time: Students, Technologies and Temporal Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The nature of time has been considered in some depth within philosophy and social theory, while theoreticians have also explored interrelationships between temporality, artefacts and social process. However, the notion of time in mainstream educational theory and research has arguably been regarded as fixed, naturalised, undifferentiated…

  3. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  4. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarssen, Ben G. K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

    2000-04-01

    The relative abundances of three higher-plant-derived biomarkers, retene, cadalene and ip-iHMN, have been measured in marine sedimentary rocks from the northwest margin of Australia. It is thought that each biomarker represents input from a different plant type. The distributions of these three compounds form a fingerprint, representing higher plant input (HPF). Variations in HPF in Oxfordian sediments were nearly identical in all three locations, with retene becoming very abundant relative to the other two compounds with decreasing age of the sediment. This finding strongly suggests that the composition of terrestrial input during deposition largely determines HPF and that the possible effects of diagenesis and catagenesis on the distribution of the three biomarkers are relatively unimportant. The marked increase in the abundance of retene relative to that of cadalene during the Oxfordian is interpreted to reflect an increase in the contribution of plants that produced precursors for retene, i.e., conifers, brought about by a significant change in climate. This was exemplified by measuring the distributions of retene and cadalene, expressed in the higher plant parameter (HPP) for a suite of sediments from the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, covering the complete Jurassic period. The HPP profile displays three major cycles, each covering a period of at least 10 million years. This profile not only compared well with published palaeoclimate data, but also showed a remarkable similarity with second order cycles in the global sea level curve, thus strongly supporting the proposal that variations in HPF and HPP are indications of changes in palaeoclimate. The relation with global sea level further suggests that global factors, e.g., the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, may play a major role in determining the observed variations in the distributions of these higher-plant-derived biomarkers.

  5. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  6. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but "blocking out time" and "time shifting" suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  7. State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of higher education in state budgets. It empirically models and tests the balance wheel hypothesis in a robust framework. The balance wheel model posits that in good economic times, higher education is an attractive area for states to fund and tends to be funded at a higher rate than other state budget categories.…

  8. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  9. Changing Times of Feminism and Higher Education: From Community to Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dorothy; Richter, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher…

  10. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  11. The Legal Rights of Tenured and Part-Time Faculty Members in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Sherie P.

    A review of faculty-related court decisions in the areas of status, compensation, and unit determination points out legal rights of part-time and full-time faculty in higher education. These rights have been tested and defined by many court cases. Litigation has occurred about the difference between part-time and full-time faculty. In regard to…

  12. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  13. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  14. Higher Education Students in Part-Time Work in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses students taking part-time work whilst studying higher education (HE). It suggests that cross-national trends can be observed in the purposes, types, benefits, negative aspects and outcomes of part-time work by HE students. The paper reviews literature on HE students working part-time in the UK and the US, and UNESCO studies…

  15. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  16. Part-time Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Scott L.; Hoyt, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to inform researchers of those predictive factors of job satisfaction previously identified for part-time faculty in higher education. They used the information gathered to help develop a survey instrument that was administered to 700 part-time faculty at their own institution. The results of the study,…

  17. Preparation and Support for Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education: Case Studies of Departmental Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred, Comp.; Thompson, Sheila, Comp.

    This publication presents 14 departmental case studies of the preparation and support provided to part-time teachers in Scottish institutions of higher education. The case studies are grouped in four sections according to the category of part-time staff involved: practicing professionals (professional teaching assistants, lawyers, artists, and…

  18. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  19. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  20. 4.10 Current Trends and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.10 Current Trends and Future Developments' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  1. 4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]dodecane Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimowski, Paweł; Gołofit, Tomasz

    2013-07-01

    4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]dodecane (TEX) was obtained by nitrolysis of 1,4-diformyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxypiperazine reaction using a mixture of fuming nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. The optimal process temperature was 54-56°C. The yield of the synthesis depends inter alia on the rate the reactants are introduced into the reaction medium and on the time of conditioning of the reaction mixture. A maximal yield of ca. 40% was achieved at the reactant addition time of 2 h and conditioning time of 2 h. None of the other nitrating mixtures examined proved superior to the conventional nitrating mixture. The product was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques and the results are reported.

  2. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626

  3. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  5. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  6. Iterative generation of higher-order nets in polynomial time using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Mukhopadhyay, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for constructing and training a class of higher-order perceptrons for classification problems. The method uses linear programming models to construct and train the net. Its polynomial time complexity is proven and computational results are provided for several well-known problems. In all cases, very small nets were created compared to those reported in other computational studies.

  7. Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

  8. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  9. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the top 200…

  10. A time-saving method for higher plant tests in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Andersohn, Cornelia; Fuchs, Maike; Seyed-Mansouri, Regina; Fleischmann, Susanne; Wilke, Berndt-Michael

    2002-01-01

    For higher plant tests in hydroculture we developed a method to unify the usually separately performed germination and growth testing. This method renders unnecessary the time-consuming and laborious installation of the germinated plants into the growth system. PMID:11931464

  11. Institutional View of Part-Time Faculty Management in Higher Education Institutes in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhifeng; Jiang, Xiulan; Li, Hongbo

    2007-01-01

    Part-time faculty has become an important labor force in Chinese colleges and universities. The number of them has risen rapidly and its structure varies in different types of higher education institutes (HEIs), which results from integration of the social motivation and the inner motivation of schools' reform. From the institutional point of…

  12. American Higher Education in 1975 and 1976: The Academy's Response to Continuing Kondratieff Recession as Reported in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, John B.; And Others

    Articles on American higher education that appeared in 1975 and 1976 in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London) are analyzed in connection with two statements about American society and its economy. These statements are Joseph A. Schumpeter's 1939 analysis of business cycles, and James B. Shuman's and Davis Rosenau's 1972 description of…

  13. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  14. Time-domain multimode dispersion measurement in a higher-order-mode fiber

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E. V.; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We present a new multimode dispersion measurement technique based on the time-of-flight method. The modal delay and group velocity dispersion of all excited modes in a few-mode fiber can be measured simultaneously by a tunable pulsed laser and a high speed sampling oscilloscope. A newly designed higher-order-mode fiber with large anomalous dispersion in the LP02 mode has been characterized using this method, and experimental results are in good agreement with the designed dispersion values. The demonstrated technique is significantly simpler to implement than the existing frequency-domain or interferometry-based methods. PMID:22297348

  15. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  16. Discrete sliding mode control for robust tracking of higher order delay time systems with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.

  17. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.

  18. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  19. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  20. Numerical time dependent sheet cavitation simulations using a higher order panel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoninggans, H. J.

    1994-03-01

    This thesis deals with sheet cavitation. The investigation is aimed at profile design with respect to cavitation control. At present it is possible to predict the shape of cavities on an arbitrary two-dimensional profile in stationary flows. To compute the flow around an arbitrary profile, a higher order three-dimensional panel method program has been developed. The main algorithm used in this program is based on a special case of Green's theorem, called 'de Morino formulation'. This computer program (flow program) can calculate the potential on the body and the velocities at the surface of the body or in the flow field. A theoretical method is developed for time simulation of unsteady sheet cavitation. Numerical simulations of the flow around profiles and of cavitation have been carried out. The numerical results of the panel methods have been compared with other calculations of the two-dimensional flow around profiles and of three-dimensional flow around a sphere and a wing. Simulations of the growth of sheet cavitation on a foil have also been carried out. The conclusion is that higher order panel methods are more accurate than the zero order methods. Further refinement of the Kutta condition is required, however.

  1. Fission Multiplicity Detection with Temporal Gamma-Neutron Discrimination from Higher-Order Time Correlation Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.

    2002-11-12

    The current practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile materials using neutrons is dominated by the {sup 3}He detector. This has been the case since the mid 1980s when Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) was replaced with thermal well counters and neutron multiplicity counting (NMC). The thermal well counters detect neutrons by neutron capture in the {sup 3}He detector subsequent to moderation. The process of detection requires from 30 to 60 {micro}s. As will be explained in Section 3.3 the rate of detecting correlated neutrons (signal) from the same fission are independent of this time but the rate of accidental correlations (noise) are proportional to this time. The well counters are at a distinct disadvantage when there is a large source of uncorrelated neutrons present from ({alpha}, n) reactions for example. Plastic scintillating detectors, as were used in FMD, require only about 20 ns to detect neutrons from fission. One thousandth as many accidental coincidences are therefore accumulated. The major problem with the use of fast-plastic scintillation detectors, however, is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable in these detectors. For this thesis, a new technique was developed to use higher-order time correlation statistics to distinguish combinations of neutron and gamma ray detections in fast-plastic scintillation detectors. A system of analysis to describe these correlations was developed based on simple physical principles. Other sources of correlations from non-fission events are identified and integrated into the analysis developed for fission events. A number of ratios and metric are identified to determine physical properties of the source from the correlations. It is possible to determine both the quantity being measured and detection efficiency from these ratios from a single measurement without a separate calibration. To account for detector dead-time, an alternative analytical technique

  2. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  3. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  4. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  5. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Caflisch, R.E.; Rosin, M.S.; Ricketson, L.F.

    2013-06-01

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler–Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt{sup 1/2})] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler–Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. This method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  6. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  7. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    DOE PAGES

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if andmore » only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.« less

  8. Deep Upper Mantle Anisotropy from SKS Splitting Delay Times and Higher Mode Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Beghein, C.; Davis, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The splitting of SKS waves is widely used to study mantle anisotropy and to get insight on Earth's dynamic interior. However, while SKS splitting is an unambiguous signature of anisotropy, it cannot be used directly to infer the depth distribution of the anisotropy because the dealy times between the two polarization directions result from integrated measurements along quasi-vertical paths between the core-mantle boundary and the surface. SKS splitting data are generally interpreted in terms of olivine lattice preferred orientation in the uppermost 250 km of the mantle. There is, nevertheless, growing evidence from regional studies that the splitting may contain significant contributions from greater depths. In addition, SKS delay times are strongly under predicted by tomographic models of azimuthal anisotropy derived from fundamentqal mode surface waves. These models typically display anisotropy only in the 250 km of the mantle because fundamental mode surface wave data have little sensitivity to structure below that depth. For example, we calculated predictions of SKS splitting using the global azimuthal anisotropy model of Debayle et al. (2005), and found a global delay times distributon with a median of 0.4 s, compared to 1.1 s for the global station-averaged SKS splitting database compiled by Becker et al. (2012). This discrepancy may indicate that seismic anisotropy is present at greater depths. In this work, we analyzed a new global 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy (Yuan and Beghein, 2013) that was obtained from the inversion of higher modes surface wave phase velocity data with unprecedented sensitivity to the top 1000 km of the mantle. While this model is comparable to previous models in the uppermost mantle, it also displays anisotropy amplitudes of about 1% below 250 km depth and a complex 3-D pattern of fast axes directions down to 800 km depth. The predicted SKS delay times calculated using this new model have a median of 0.75 s, which is in much

  9. Renewing Quality Assurance at a Time of Turbulence: An Attempt to Reenergise Quality in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    The renewal of quality assurance in Australian higher education comes at a time when the higher education sectors in Australia and around the world are experiencing a number of key challenges. These include: ongoing decline in public funding of universities; the massification of higher education and demand for it during global recession;…

  10. What Is Going on in Higher Education? Is It Time for a Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Judith Dozier

    1992-01-01

    The president of the Association for the Study of Higher Education identifies four powerful forces causing disarray and turbulence in higher education: (1) increasing gender equality, (2) increasing globalism, (3) increasing multiculturalism, and (4) expanding technology. It is concluded that higher education needs to gather its forces, shift its…

  11. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  12. Troubled Times for American Higher Education: The 1990s and Beyond. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark; And Others

    This volume looks at the future of American higher education in 13 essays most of which were originally speeches to gatherings around the United States and the globe. The first series of essays in Part I looks at possible "contours" of the future and what choices should be made by higher education to advance the quality of future performance. One…

  13. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment…

  14. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  15. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 1--A Quantitative Data Analysis of 2003/04 HESA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of the Strand 1 element of the Universities UK project to examine part-time students and part-time study within the United Kingdom. The aim of Strand 1 of this project is to set out, as far as possible, factual information about students studying part-time and following programmes of study leading to higher education…

  16. Use of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education: Numbers and Impact. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ross

    Colleges and universities of all kinds rely on part-time faculty to teach students from the freshman year through graduate studies, although they are more likely to teach lower division students. Overall, 43% of postsecondary instructional faculty work part-time, while full-time tenure track positions are held by about 18% of faculty members.…

  17. The Impact of Part-Time Faculty on Student Retention: A Case Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Curtis V.

    2010-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in community colleges over the last forty years regarding the impact of increased use of part-time faculty (PTF) on student learning. It has been argued that part-time faculty fail to provide the same level of teaching quality as full-time faculty (FTF). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of…

  18. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-06-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  19. The Challenge and Promise of Catholic Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Catholic colleges and universities face significant challenges in the present context of American higher education. Yet, there are opportunities to be found in the midst of this crisis when one carefully examines the intersections between the Catholic mission and objectives of an institution and current culture and academia. A return to the…

  20. Catching the Window of Opportunity: Being on Time for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempner, Ken; Kinnick, Mary

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 2100 high school students indicates a "window of opportunity" opens for individuals entering higher education immediately after high school. Students delaying college entry are less likely to attain a bachelor's degree. The finding is critical for students without characteristics to mediate the disadvantage of stopping out.…

  1. Challenges to Christian Higher Education at a Time of Increasing Emphasis on Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, both Christian and non-Christian higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced a rapidly changing external environment that is becoming more performance-driven, particularly in relation to faculty research. Academics working in Australian Christian HEIs often feel pressure to keep pace with their counterparts in non-Christian…

  2. Rural Education: A Field of Study Whose Time Has Come in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.; Kale, Karen E.

    Although professional educators and public school decision makers have attempted to respond to increased educational demands and a broader spectrum of students, the education of rural youth is a neglected area both in higher education and in educational legislation. The record indicates that policy decisions and the resulting legislation have…

  3. Retention and Attrition of Students in Higher Education: Challenges in Modern Times to What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Marguerite; Macallister, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Retention and attrition rates in higher education have long been a focus of research. This paper presents findings of a single case study, undertaken in a School of Education, which identify important strategies that have led to attrition of five to eight per cent, compared with 18 per cent cross the education sector in Australia (Department of…

  4. The Effective Academic: A Handbook for Enhanced Academic Practice. The Times Higher Education Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketteridge, Steve, Ed.; Marshall, Stephanie, Ed.; Fry, Heather, Ed.

    This handbook provides guidance about controlling and directing an academic career by suggesting systematic approaches to key areas of responsibility and activity. It explores management and leadership in higher education, developing and promoting research and teaching, and coping with the changing university environment. The chapters of part 1,…

  5. Examining a Higher Education Funding Formula in a Time of Shifting Currents: Kentucky's Benchmark Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew; Frost, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Keeling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Although datasets such as the Integrated Postsecondary Data System are available as inputs to higher education funding formulas, these datasets can be unreliable, incomplete, or unresponsive to criteria identified by state education officials. State formulas do not always match the state's economic and human capital goals. This article analyzes…

  6. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  7. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  8. First integrals for time-dependent higher-order Riccati equations by nonholonomic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Partha; Ghose Choudhury, A.; Khanra, Barun

    2011-08-01

    We exploit the notion of nonholonomic transformations to deduce a time-dependent first integral for a (generalized) second-order nonautonomous Riccati differential equation. It is further shown that the method can also be used to compute the first integrals of a particular class of third-order time-dependent ordinary differential equations and is therefore quite robust.

  9. The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Higher Education Students' Academic Attainment and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Term-time employment among Britain's undergraduates is a growing phenomenon but it has received scant attention from government and policy makers. Although there are numerous studies on the subject, few have explored the impact of term-time employment on students' actual attainment and those that have are limited. This article attempts to fill…

  10. Do Diligent Students Perform Better? Complex Relations between Student and Course Characteristics, Study Time, and Academic Performance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; Broeckmans, Jan; Doumen, Sarah; Groenen, Anne; Molenberghs, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Research has reported equivocal results regarding the relationship between study time investment and academic performance in higher education. In the setting of the active, assignment-based teaching approach at Hasselt University (Belgium), the present study aimed (a) to further clarify the role of study time in academic performance, while taking…

  11. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda. PMID:20382673

  12. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda.

  13. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel on park roads and designated routes. 4.10 Section 4.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes....

  14. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel on park roads and designated routes. 4.10 Section 4.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes....

  15. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel on park roads and designated routes. 4.10 Section 4.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes....

  16. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  17. Higher Dimensional Clayton–Oakes Models for Multivariate Failure Time Data

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Clayton–Oakes bivariate failure time model is extended to dimensions m > 2 in a manner that allows unspecified marginal survivor functions for all dimensions less than m. Special cases that allow unspecified marginal survivor functions of dimension q with q < m, while making some provisions for dependencies of dimension greater than q, are also described. PMID:27738350

  18. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  19. Preparation and Support of Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines research on preparation and support of part-time faculty, analyzing four areas of support: institutional policies and practices, formal preparation programs, monitoring and evaluation systems, and formal and informal support measures in academic departments. Key processes and problems in each area are discussed, examining issues that must…

  20. Transformation or Decline? Using Tough Times to Create Higher-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley

    2011-01-01

    Instead of doing less with less during these fiscally challenging times, school districts can seize the moment to usher in school transformation that will leave the schools, families, and communities better off. They could follow the lead of districts such as Baltimore City, Syracuse, and Charlotte-Mecklenburg to think outside traditional cost…

  1. Lyapunov-type inequality for a higher order dynamic equation on time scales.

    PubMed

    Sun, Taixiang; Xi, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a Lyapunov-type inequality for the following dynamic equation [Formula: see text]on some time scale T under the anti-periodic boundary conditions [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], p is the quotient of two odd positive integers and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]. PMID:27652044

  2. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  3. Impact of the Headscarf Ban Policy on the Identity Development of Part-Time Unveilers in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Austin, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of the Turkish higher education headscarf ban policy on the plural self-identities (i.e., as Turkish citizens, as Muslims, and as females) of part-time unveilers, female students who cover their hair in their private life but who remove the headscarf (or conceal it to appear unveiled) while at a Turkish…

  4. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  5. Modern U-Pb chronometry of meteorites: advancing to higher time resolution reveals new problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J.; Zartman, R.E.; Chen, J.-H.; Gopel, C.; Neymark, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the factors that influence the accuracy of lead (Pb)-isotopic ages of meteorites, and may possibly be responsible for inconsistencies between Pb-isotopic and extinct nuclide timescales of the early Solar System: instrumental mass fractionation and other possible analytical sources of error, presence of more than one component of non-radiogenic Pb, migration of ancient radiogenic Pb by diffusion and other mechanisms, possible heterogeneity of the isotopic composition of uranium (U), uncertainties in the decay constants of uranium isotopes, possible presence of "freshly synthesized" actinides with short half-life (e.g. 234U) in the early Solar System, possible initial disequilibrium in the uranium decay chains, and potential fractionation of radiogenic Pb isotopes and U isotopes caused by alpha-recoil and subsequent laboratory treatment. We review the use of 232Th/238U values to assist in making accurate interpretations of the U-Pb ages of meteorite components. We discuss recently published U-Pb dates of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their apparent disagreement with the extinct nuclide dates, in the context of capability and common pitfalls in modern meteorite chronology. Finally, we discuss the requirements of meteorites that are intended to be used as the reference points in building a consistent time scale of the early Solar System, based on the combined use of the U-Pb system and extinct nuclide chronometers.

  6. Higher dimensional analysis shows reduced dynamism of time-varying network connectivity in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robyn L; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of functional connectivity between brain networks is a fixture of resting state fMRI research. Until very recently most of this work proceeded from an assumption of stationarity in resting state network connectivity. In the last few years however, interest in moving beyond this simplifying assumption has grown considerably. Applying group temporal independent component analysis (tICA) to a set of time-varying functional network connectivity (FNC) matrices derived from a large multi-site fMRI dataset (N=314; 163 healthy, 151 schizophrenia patients), we obtain a set of five basic correlation patterns (component spatial maps (SMs)) from which observed FNCs can be expressed as mutually independent linear combinations, i.e., the coefficient on each SM in the linear combination is maximally independent of the others. We study dynamic properties of network connectivity as they are reflected in this five-dimensional space, and report stark differences in connectivity dynamics between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We also find that the most important global differences in FNC dynamism between patient and control groups are replicated when the same dynamical analysis is performed on sets of correlation patterns obtained from either PCA or spatial ICA, giving us additional confidence in the results.

  7. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  8. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  9. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  10. 44 CFR 4.10 - How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 4.10 Section 4.10 Emergency Management and... Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process provides a...

  11. 44 CFR 4.10 - How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 4.10 Section 4.10 Emergency Management and... Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process provides a...

  12. 44 CFR 4.10 - How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 4.10 Section 4.10 Emergency Management and... Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process provides a...

  13. 44 CFR 4.10 - How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 4.10 Section 4.10 Emergency Management and... Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process provides a...

  14. 29 CFR 4.10 - Substantial variance proceedings under section 4(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act. 4.10 Section 4.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE... under section 4(c) of the Act. (a) Statutory provision. Under section 4(c) of the Act, and under corresponding wage determinations made as provided in section 2(a)(1) and (2) of the Act, contractors...

  15. 15 CFR 4.10 - Appeals from initial determinations or untimely delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals from initial determinations or untimely delays. 4.10 Section 4.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... under this subpart (as described in § 4.7(b)), the requester may file a written appeal or an...

  16. Is the general conclusion justified that higher applicable field strength results in shorter analysis time with organic solvents in CE?

    PubMed

    Téllez, Adolfo; Kenndler, Ernst

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a widespread opinion in CE with organic solvents for the background electrolyte is critically questioned, namely that in general a shorter analysis time can be achieved due to the higher field strength applicable compared with aqueous electrolyte systems. This view, common in the literature, is based on the supposition that the conductance in organic solvents is lower than in water. Indeed in many organic solvents with higher viscosity than water lower ion mobility is observed, and higher fields can be applied in these cases. However, in this paper the problem is sharper defined and treated two-fold: (i) in all solvents conditions are such that either the same electric power is generated, or (ii) the same temperature increase is taken into account. It was shown that for the same electric power the field strength in the organic solvent can be changed to a less extent than the ionic mobility changes. As a result, the migration velocity of the analytes is lower and the analysis time is longer in most organic solvents compared with water; acetonitrile (MeCN) is an exception (in this solvent the mobilities are higher than in water). The more stringent treatment of the problem takes an equal temperature increase due to Joule heating into account rather than equal electric power. The temperature increase in the capillary depends on the thermal conductivity of the solvent, which is only about one-third of that of water for organic liquids. The consequence is that in none of the organic solvent systems a shorter analysis time can be achieved compared with water (given that the experimental conditions are comparable, e.g. zero EOF). The theoretical predictions were confirmed by measurements with water, methanol, propylenecarbonate, and MeCN as solvents.

  17. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  18. Less Time to Study, Less Well Prepared for Work, yet Satisfied with Higher Education: A UK Perspective on Links between Higher Education and the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Arthur, Lore

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores graduates' views on the relationship between higher education and employment. It draws on a major European study involving graduates five years after graduation and highlights similarities and differences between UK graduates' experiences and their European counterparts. Specifically, we address questions raised in the study…

  19. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  20. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  1. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  2. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  3. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  4. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  5. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  6. Time in Bed is Associated with Decreased Physical Activity and Higher BMI in Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Fava, Joseph L; Subak, Leslee L; Stone, Katie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Demos, Kathryn; O'Brien, Erin; Cairns, Alyssa; Wing, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with obesity risk. Despite calls to incorporate strategies to enhance sleep within the context of behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment, little is known regarding the association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) among individuals presenting for BWL. Moreover, most research has focused on eating pathways linking sleep and BMI, and have not explored how sleep may impact engagement in physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in a sample of women seeking treatment for weight loss, there was an association between reported time in bed (TIB), higher BMI, lower physical activity, and less favorable dietary composition. Prior to randomization, 318 women completed measures of TIB, eating, and activity; weight and height were measured. Findings demonstrated that report of '6 hours or less' TIB/night was associated with higher BMI and lower reported physical activity compared to the referent (>7 to ≤ 8 hours/night). It was not associated with the number of reported calories consumed each day or with the percent of calories consumed from fat, carbohydrates or protein. Better understanding the role of sleep within the context of BWL treatment in women seems warranted.

  7. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  8. Pattern formations in miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Moubissi, Alain B.; Porsezian, K.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, we investigate the structure and dynamics of miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates confined within a time-independent anisotropic parabolic trap potential. In the zero-temperature mean-field approximation leading to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, we show that these equations can be mapped onto the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system up to a first-order of accuracy. Paying particular attention to two-species mixtures and looking forward deriving a panel of miscellaneous excitations to the above equations, we analyze the singularity structure of the system by means of Weiss et al.'s [J. Weiss, M. Tabor, and G. Carnevale, J. Math. Phys. 24, 522 (1983); 25, 13 (1984).] methodology and provide its general Lax representation. As a result, we unearth a typical spectrum of localized and periodic coherent patterns while depicting elastic and nonelastic interactions among such structures alongside the splitting and resonance phenomena occurring during their motion.

  9. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  10. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  11. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unreasonable damage to the surface of a park road or route. (3) Operating a motor vehicle on a route or area... THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on park roads, in parking areas and on routes and...

  12. The Campus in Hard Times. New York's Higher Education Crisis. How It Happened. How It Can Be Resolved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Henry D.

    How did the New York State system of colleges and universities arrive at the brink of fiscal disaster? What is a possible new perception of higher education financing for New York? The radical shift in enrollment from independent to government-sponsored campuses, and the steep escalation in tax-levy burden for higher education resulted in the New…

  13. Design of potent linear alpha-melanotropin 4-10 analogues modified in positions 5 and 10.

    PubMed

    Al-Obeidi, F; Hruby, V J; Castrucci, A M; Hadley, M E

    1989-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a linear tridecapeptide (Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2) that has diverse physiological functions in addition to its reversible darkening of amphibian skins by stimulating melanosome dispersion within melanophores. On the basis of theoretical and experimental results from our laboratory and others, we have designed a group of 1-13, 4-13, and especially 4-10 analogues related to the superpotent analogue [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH in which the Glu5 has been replaced with Asp5, and the Gly10 has been replaced with Lys10 and other basic amino acid residues in the 4-10 analogues, and in which Gly10 and Lys11 were interchanged in the longer peptide analogues. In the 1-13 and 4-13 series the Lys10, Gly11 analogues generally retained superpotency for the D-Phe7-containing analogues. Most interestingly, synthesis of Ac-[Nle4,Xxx5,Yyy7,Zzz10]alpha-MSH4-10-NH2 analogues where Xxx = Asp or Glu, Yyy = Phe or D-Phe, and Zzz = basic amino acids (Lys, Orn, alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (Dab), and alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (Dpr] provided melanotropins with potencies up to 10 times that of the native hormone in stimulating frog (Rana pipiens) skin darkening and 8-50 times more potent than alpha-MSH in stimulating lizard (Anolis carolinensis) skin melanophores in vitro. To our knowledge, Ac-[Nle4,Asp5,D-Phe7,Dab10]alpha-MSH4-10-NH2, the most potent analogue, is the most potent melanotropin obtained thus far for the Anolis assay system. These results provide new insights into the structural and conformational requirements for biological potency of alpha-MSH and the differential structural and conformational requirements of alpha-MSH and its analogues at two different types of pigment cell receptors. PMID:2535874

  14. Measuring the rotation periods of 4-10 Myr T-Tauri stars in the Orion OB1 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanveer Karim, Md; Stassun, Keivan; Briceno, Cesar; Vivas, Kathy; Raetz, Stefanie; Calvet, Nuria; Mateu, Cecilia; Downes, Juan Jose; Hernandez, Jesus; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tachihara, Kengo; Chini, Rolf; YETI

    2016-01-01

    Most existing studies of young stellar populations have focused on the youngest (< 2-3 Myr) T-Tauri stars, which are usually associated with their natal gas and hence easier to identify. In contrast, older T-Tauri stars (~ 4-10 Myr), being more difficult to find, have been less studied, even though they hold key insight to understanding evolution of lower-mass (0.1-2 M⊙) stars and of protoplanetary discs. We present a study of photometric variability of 1974 confirmed 4-10 Myr old T-Tauri stars in the Orion OB1 association using optical time-series from three different surveys: the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía-Quest Equatorial Survey Team (CIDA-QUEST), the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) and from a Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) campaign. We investigated stellar rotation periods according to the type of stars (Classical or Weak-lined T-Tauri stars) and their locations, to look for population-wide trends. We detected 563 periodic variables and 1411 non-periodic variables by investigating the light curves of these stars. We find that ~ 30% of Weak-line T-Tauri stars (WTTS) and ~ 20% of Classical T-Tauri stars (CTTS) are periodic. Though we did not find any noticeable difference in rotation period between CTTS and WTTS, our study does show a change in the overall rotation periods of stars 4-10 Myr old, consistent with predictions of angular momentum evolution models, an important constraint for theoretical models for an age range for which no similar data existed.

  15. 70. Photocopy of 4' 10 x 3'10 Propeller, U.S. Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Photocopy of 4' 10 x 3'10 Propeller, U.S. Coast Guard 133 Ft. Tender. Columbian Bronze Corporation, Freeport, Long Island, New York, Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-4400-4, dated July 1953. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Educational Family Background and the Realisation of Educational Career Intentions: Participation of German Upper Secondary Graduates in Higher Education over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Felix; Steininger, Hanna-Marei

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the impact of social origin on the realisation of educational intentions at the time of becoming eligible for higher education in Germany. In general, we find high persistence of intentions and actual attendance of higher education. However, effects of parental education on the changes of educational intentions…

  17. A Call to Action on New England's Innovation Economy: Will Business and Higher Education Answer This Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, William

    2003-01-01

    Mass Insight Corp, a public policy and communications firm that organizes public-private initiatives to support economic growth in Massachusetts, recently issued a new report, titled "An Economy at Risk," making the case for a Massachusetts economic development strategy organized around higher education and science and technology. Massachusetts,…

  18. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  19. Breaking the Mold: New Approaches for Higher Education in Tough Economic Times. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human capital is the key to economic development. Without highly-skilled workers, states and territories cannot attract the productive businesses they need. That makes higher education a key element of any governor's growth strategy. But many public colleges and universities are struggling to produce more graduates. Overall graduation rates often…

  20. Quality after the Cuts? Higher Education Practitioners' Accounts of Systemic Challenges to Teaching Quality in Times of "Austerity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Anna; Iqani, Mehita

    2015-01-01

    What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching staff perceive their teaching practices? What impact are funding cuts, increases in student fees and the concomitant increased workloads having on faculty morale? How might this influence "quality cultures" in teaching…

  1. Australian Higher Education Leaders in Times of Change: The Role of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Bell, Sharon; Coates, Hamish; Grebennikov, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses responses provided by 31 Pro Vice-Chancellors (PVCs) and Deputy Vice-Chancellors (DVCs) who were part of a larger study of more than 500 higher education leaders in roles ranging from DVC to head of programme in 20 Australian universities. Using both quantitative and qualitative data the paper gives an insider's perspective on…

  2. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  3. Applying the Modality Principle to Real-Time Feedback and the Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Effectively presenting complex material is a crucial component of instructional design within simulation-based training (SBT) environments. One approach to facilitate the acquisition of higher-order knowledge is to embed instructional strategies within the systems themselves. Currently, however, there are few established guidelines to inform…

  4. A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women's Higher Education, 1945-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on three narratives that affected American women's participation in higher education during the first twenty years after World War II. In hindsight, the educators of the 1950s and early 1960s may seem gratuitously meek and self-effacing. In comparison to later efforts, their activism can appear unnecessarily limited and too…

  5. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  6. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  7. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  8. Full-Time Employed Students as University Consumers--Consequences and Triggers of Marketisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mägi, Eve; Jaakson, Krista; Aidla, Anne; Kirss, Laura; Reino, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a qualitative study of student employment patterns among students who both study and work full-time. In the study, 17 employed bachelor students at state-commissioned study places in three Estonian universities, 12 lecturers from the same universities, and 13 employers supervising those full-time students, were interviewed.…

  9. Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times. Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education Annual Conference (2nd, Seattle, Washington, October 13-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education 1981 conference are summarized. Authors and the summarized papers are as follows: "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The University Perspective" (George M. Beckmann); "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The Community College Perspective" (Don A. Morgan); "Report from China"…

  10. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  11. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  12. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  13. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  14. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  15. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  16. Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm): Sample classification, description and inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A particle by particle binocular microscopic examination of all of the Apollo 15 4-10 mm fines samples is reported. These particles are classified according to their macroscopic lithologic features in order to provide a basis for sample allocations and future study. The relatively large size of these particles renders them too vaulable to permit treatment along with the other bulk fines, yet they are too small (and numerous) to practically receive full individual descriptive treatment as given the larger rock samples. This examination, classification and description of subgroups represents a compromise treatment. In most cases and for many types of investigation the individual particles should be large enough to permit the application of more than one type of analysis.

  17. Semisynthesis of Esters of Fraxinellone C4/10-Oxime and Their Pesticidal Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Shaochen; Ma, Jingchun; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2016-07-13

    A total of 20 esters of fraxinellone C4/10-oxime were synthesized and determined by melting points, optical rotation, infrared spectra, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and high-resolution mass spectrometry spectra. Two steric configurations of compounds 7i and 8i were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, their pesticidal activities were assessed on two typical lepidopteran pests, Mythimna separata Walker and Plutella xylostella Linnaeus. Generally, all compounds exhibited less potent oral toxicity than toosendanin against third-instar larvae of P. xylostella. However, all compounds showed the growth inhibitory property against early third-instar larvae of M. separata. Notably, compounds 7m, 8b, 8k, 9, and 11 displayed more potent pesticidal activity than toosendanin. This demonstrated that introducing the C-4 carbonyl or oxime group on fraxinellone resulted in more promising derivatives than those bearing a C-10 carbonyl or oxime substituent.

  18. Geant4.10 simulation of geometric model for metaphase chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.; Bakhtiyari, E.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a geometric model of metaphase chromosome is explained. The model is constructed according to the packing ratio and dimension of the structure from nucleosome up to chromosome. A B-DNA base pair is used to construct 200 base pairs of nucleosomes. Each chromatin fiber loop, which is the unit of repeat, has 49,200 bp. This geometry is entered in Geant4.10 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit and can be extended to the whole metaphase chromosomes and any application in which a DNA geometrical model is needed. The chromosome base pairs, chromosome length, and relative length of chromosomes are calculated. The calculated relative length is compared to the relative length of human chromosomes.

  19. Progress integrating ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology with accessory mineral geochemistry: towards better accuracy and higher precision time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly common that hand samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks contain zircon with dates that span between zero and >100 ka. This recognition comes from the increased application of U-series geochronology on young volcanic rocks and the increased precision to better than 0.1% on single zircons by the U-Pb ID-TIMS method. It has thus become more difficult to interpret such complicated datasets in terms of ashbed eruption or magma emplacement, which are critical constraints for geochronologic applications ranging from biotic evolution and the stratigraphic record to magmatic and metamorphic processes in orogenic belts. It is important, therefore, to develop methods that aid in interpreting which minerals, if any, date the targeted process. One promising tactic is to better integrate accessory mineral geochemistry with high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology. These dual constraints can 1) identify cogenetic populations of minerals, and 2) record magmatic or metamorphic fluid evolution through time. Goal (1) has been widely sought with in situ geochronology and geochemical analysis but is limited by low-precision dates. Recent work has attempted to bridge this gap by retrieving the typically discarded elution from ion exchange chemistry that precedes ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and analyzing it by ICP-MS (U-Pb TIMS-TEA). The result integrates geochemistry and high-precision geochronology from the exact same volume of material. The limitation of this method is the relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to in situ techniques, and thus averages potentially complicated trace element profiles through single minerals or mineral fragments. In continued work, we test the effect of this on zircon by beginning with CL imaging to reveal internal zonation and growth histories. This is followed by in situ LA-ICPMS trace element transects of imaged grains to reveal internal geochemical zonation. The same grains are then removed from grain-mount, fragmented, and

  20. Wise Moves in Hard Times: Creating & Managing Resilient Colleges & Universities. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David W.; Fretwell, E. K., Jr.

    Based on data gathered on-site at 13 colleges and universities, this volume offers an in-depth analysis of how colleges and universities have been affected by hard times, how they have risen to the challenges, and what their responses mean to the public and its support for higher education. Part 1 describes the study itself in detail and reports…

  1. Building on Strengths in a Time of Retrenchment: Developing an M.Ed. in Higher Education--Student Affairs Emphasis to Train Christian Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jason; Haseltine, Jeffrey; Williams, Carol

    2007-01-01

    To gain approval of a new master's degree in difficult financial times, the authors applied strategies that are applicable at other institutions. Using existing internal resources to build on the university's mission was key in developing a new M.Ed. in Higher Education--Student Affairs Emphasis at Abilene Christian University. Creativity and…

  2. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin E-mail: tdereli@ku.edu.tr

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  3. Speaking rate, voice-onset time, and quantity: the search for higher-order invariants for two Icelandic speech cues.

    PubMed

    Pind, J

    1995-04-01

    The temporal structure of speech has been shown to be highly variable. Speaking rate, stress, and other factors influence the duration of individual speech sounds. The highly elastic nature of speech would seem to pose a problem for the listener, especially with respect to the perception of temporal speech cues such as voice-onset time (VOT) and quantity: How does the listener disentangle those temporal changes which are linguistically significant from those which are extrinsic to the linguistic message? This paper reports data on the behavior of two Icelandic speech cues at different speaking rates. The results show that manipulations of rate have the effect of slightly blurring the distinction between unaspirated and aspirated stops. Despite great changes in the absolute durations of vowels and consonants, the two categories of syllables--V:C and VC:--are nonetheless kept totally distinct. In two perceptual experiments, it is shown that while the ratio of vowel to rhyme duration is the primary cue to quantity and remains invariant at different rates, no such ratio can be defined for VOT. These results imply that quantity is the only one of these two speech cues that is self-normalizing for rate. Models of rate-dependent speech processing need to address this difference.

  4. The Solar Flare 4: 10 keV X-ray Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The 4-10 keV solar flare spectrum includes highly excited lines of stripped Ca, Fe, and Ni ions as well as a continuum steeply falling with energy. Groups of lines at approximately 7 keV and approximately 8 keV, observed during flares by the broad-band RHESSI spectrometer and called here the Fe-line and Fe/Ni-line features, are formed mostly of Fe lines but with Ni lines contributing to the approximately 8 keV feature. Possible temperature indicators of these line features are discussed - the peak or centroid energies of the Fe-line feature, the line ratio of the Fe-line to the Fe/Ni-line features, and the equivalent width of the Fe-line feature. The equivalent width is by far the most sensitive to temperature. However, results will be confused if, as is commonly believed, the abundance of Fe varies from flare to flare, even during the course of a single flare. With temperature determined from the thermal continuum, the Fe-line feature becomes a diagnostic of the Fe abundance in flare plasmas. These results are of interest for other hot plasmas in coronal ionization equilibrium such as stellar flare plasmas, hot gas in galaxies, and older supernova remnants.

  5. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.

  6. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  7. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion.

  8. Timing is everything: neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Dale, Corby L; Findlay, Anne M; Adcock, R Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Simpson, Gregory V; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is

  9. Timing is everything: Neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Corby L.; Findlay, Anne M.; Adcock, R. Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L.; Simpson, Gregory V.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is

  10. Time Is Money...and the Enemy of College Completion: Transform American Higher Education to Boost Completion and Reduce Costs. Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Stan Jones' testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training. In his testimony, he talks about a new American majority of students that is emerging on campuses, especially at community colleges. These students must delicately balance long hours at jobs they must…

  11. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  12. Higher Education or Higher Skilling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Steven

    1974-01-01

    Higher education may return to education for a minority, an unlikely course; concentrate on higher skilling, the road we are on today; or restore general education, the most attractive possibility, which can be implemented by restoring basic education in literacy, history, human biology, and language. (JH)

  13. Imitation, social facilitation, and the effects of ACTH 4-10 on rats' bar-pressing behavior.

    PubMed

    Henning, J M; Zentall, T R

    1981-03-01

    The effects of ACTH 4-10 on rats' imitation learning was examined during the acquisition and extinction of a bar-press response for water reinforcement. Rats were exposed to either a bar-pressing conspecific (OB), an experimentally naive conspecific (ON), or an empty box (OE) during bar-press acquisition. In a factorial design, each rat was then exposed to one of the same three conditions during extinction. An 80 mcg dose of ACTH 4-10 was administered to half of the rats in each group prior to observation. Performance differences during acquisition were generally small, but significant performance differences during extinction were found. Social facilitation was indicated by the finding that rats extinguished in the presence of a conspecific exhibited significantly greater resistance to extinction than rats extinguished in the presence of an empty box. An imitation effect was also found. Rats that observed a bar-pressing conspecific during both acquisition and extinction (group OB-OB) showed significantly greater resistance top extinction than did groups OB-ON, CB-OE, or OE-OE. There were no significant effects of the hormone, however, relative to saline controls. PMID:6263117

  14. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  15. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  16. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  17. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  18. Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek

    Factors that distinguish the United States higher education system and its performance are considered, with attention to new developments, propsects for change, undergraduate education, and professional schools (especially law, business, and medicine). The way universities change the methods and content of their teaching in response to new…

  19. Providing Higher Education in Post-Modern Times: What Do University Mission Statements Tell Us about What They Believe and Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jennifer; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are critical to the delivery of education for all in any nation state. What they believe and what they do are critical components to creating societal impact. But what they believe and do is not always clear. Using a derivative of SWIFT (Structured Word Identification and Frequency Totals), the authors examined…

  20. Understanding the Changing Faculty Workforce in Higher Education: A Comparison of Full-Time Non-Tenure Track and Tenure Line Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly; Cisneros, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Non-tenure track faculty are a growing majority in American higher education, but research examining their work lives is limited. Moreover, the theoretical frameworks commonly used by scholars have been critiqued for reliance on ideologically charged assumptions. Using a conceptual model developed from Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job…

  1. Technology, Time and Transition in Higher Education--Two Different Realities of Everyday "Facebook" Use in the First Year of University in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Within the range of websites and apps that are part of first-year undergraduates' digital environments, the social network site "Facebook" is perhaps the most popular and prominent. As such, the ubiquitous nature of "Facebook" in the higher education landscape has drawn much attention from scholars. Drawing on data from a…

  2. Assessing the Impact of a Statewide STEM Investment on K-12, Higher Education, and Business/Community STEM Awareness over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.; Walten, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite monetary and educational investments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) being at record high levels, little attention has been devoted to generating a common understanding of STEM. In addition, working with business, K-12 schools, and/or institutions of higher education to establish a grassroots effort to help…

  3. Expression of Listeria monocytogenes key virulence genes during growth in liquid medium, on rocket and melon at 4, 10 and 30 °C.

    PubMed

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Molfeta, Christina; Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of key virulence genes, during growth of a Listeria monocytogenes isolate in liquid medium, on melon and rocket at different temperatures and time. For that purpose, BHI broth, rocket and melon were inoculated at 7.0-7.5 log CFU mL(-1) or g(-1)and stored at 4, 10 and 30 °C. Sampling took place upon inoculation and after 0.5, 6 and 24 h of incubation. The RNA was stabilized and the expression of hly, plcA, plcB, sigB, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672 and lmo2470 was assessed by RT-qPCR. The results obtained were summarized into two observations; the first one referring to the interactive effect of incubation temperature and type of substrate and the second one to the effect of time on gene expression. Regarding the latter, nearly all genes were regulated upon inoculation and exhibited differential expression in the subsequent sampling times indicating the existence of additional regulatory mechanisms yet to be explored.

  4. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p < 0.05). A significant correlation for jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p < 0.05), although none existed for jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.01) when compared to the 2-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the 1-legged repeated rebound jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump.

  5. The Use of Quantile Regression to Forecast Higher Than Expected Respiratory Deaths in a Daily Time Series: A Study of New York City Data 1987-2000

    PubMed Central

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal / temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept. PMID:24147122

  6. The use of quantile regression to forecast higher than expected respiratory deaths in a daily time series: a study of New York City data 1987-2000.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal/temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept.

  7. Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4-10.5 microns) - Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Roush, Ted; Witteborn, Fred; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane; Stoker, Carol; Toon, Owen B.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of the Martian thermal emission in the 5.4-10.5 micron region are reported. Emission features at 7.8 and 9.7 microns are attributed to surface silicates, and an emission feature at 6.1 micron is attributed to a molecular water component of the surface material. An absorption band at 8.7 micron and a possible one at 9.8 microns is attributed to sulfate or bisulfate anions probably located at a distorted crystalline site, and an absorption band at 6.7 microns is attributed to carbonate or bicarbonate anions located in a distorted crystalline site. Spectral simulations indicate that the sulfate- and carbonate-bearing minerals are contained in the same particles of airborne dust as the dominant silicate minerals, that the dust optical depth is about 0.6 at a reference wavelength of 0.3 micron over the area of the observed spots, and that sulfates and carbonates constitute 10-15 percent and 1-3 percent by volume of the airborne dust, respectively.

  8. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours. PMID:26440946

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in type 1 diabetes incidence in Western Australia from 1991 to 2010: increased risk at higher latitudes and over time.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen J; Haynes, Aveni; Jacoby, Peter; Pereira, Gavin; Miller, Laura J; Bower, Carol; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal variation in childhood incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Western Australia׳s 36 Health Districts from 1991 to 2010. There was a strong latitudinal gradient of 3.5% (95% CI, 0.2-7.2) increased risk of T1DM per degree south of the Equator, as averaged across the range 15-35° south. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of vitamin D deficiency at higher latitudes. In addition there was a 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6) average increase in T1DM incidence per year. These effects could not be explained by population density, socioeconomic status, remoteness or ethnicity.

  10. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-10-06

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours.

  11. Numerical approximation of higher-order time-fractional telegraph equation by using a combination of a geometric approach and method of line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.

  12. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  13. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Studies in Mossy Maze Polypore, Cerrena unicolor (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Qi; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    With its ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases, white-rot basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor, a medicinal mushroom, has great potential in biotechnology. Elucidation of the expression profiles of genes encoding ligninolytic enzymes are important for increasing their production. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool to study transcriptional regulation of genes of interest. To ensure accuracy and reliability of qPCR analysis of C. unicolor, expression levels of seven candidate reference genes were studied at different growth phases, under various induction conditions, and with a range of carbon/nitrogen ratios and carbon and nitrogen sources. The stability of the genes were analyzed with five statistical approaches, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder. Our results indicated that the selection of reference genes varied with sample sets. A combination of four reference genes (Cyt-c, ATP6, TEF1, and β-tubulin) were recommended for normalizing gene expression at different growth phases. GAPDH and Cyt-c were the appropriate reference genes under different induction conditions. ATP6 and TEF1 were most stable in fermentation media with various carbon/nitrogen ratios. In the fermentation media with various carbon or nitrogen sources, 18S rRNA and GAPDH were the references of choice. The present study represents the first validation analysis of reference genes in C. unicolor and serves as a foundation for its qPCR analysis. PMID:27279538

  14. Multidimensional profiling of CSF1R screening hits and inhibitors: assessing cellular activity, target residence time, and selectivity in a higher throughput way.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Joost C M; Sünnen, Cecile M; van Doornmalen, Antoon M; de Rouw, Nikki; Oubrie, Arthur; Azevedo, Rita; Ziebell, Michael; Nickbarg, Elliott; Karstens, Willem-Jan; Ruygrok, Simone

    2011-10-01

    Over the past years, improvements in high-throughput screening (HTS) technology and compound libraries have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amounts of good-quality screening hits, and there is a growing need for follow-on hit profiling assays with medium throughput to further triage hits. Here the authors present such assays for the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R, Fms), including tests for cellular activity and a homogeneous assay to measure affinity for inactive CSF1R. They also present a high-throughput assay to measure target residence time, which is based on competitive binding kinetics. To better fit k(off) rates, they present a modified mathematical model for competitive kinetics. In all assays, they profiled eight reference inhibitors (imatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, tandutinib, dasatinib, GW2580, Ki20227, and J&J's pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one). Using the known biochemical selectivities of these inhibitors, which can be quantified using metrics such as the selectivity entropy, the authors have determined which assay readout best predicts hit selectivity. Their profiling shows surprisingly that imatinib has a preference for the active form of CSF1R and that Ki20227 has an unusually slow target dissociation rate. This confirms that follow-on hit profiling is essential to ensure that the best hits are selected for lead optimization.

  15. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  16. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  17. Leadership in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amey, Marilyn J.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when seasoned higher-education leaders are retiring and the challenges facing prospective administrators seem daunting, how do those in positions of authority or aspiring to those roles construct a meaningful and manageable identity as leaders? Where do they look for support and inspiration? How do they learn to lead? The author…

  18. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  19. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  20. Higher Education in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

  1. A unique in vivo assessment of 4-[10B]borono-L-phenylalanine in tumour tissues for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant melanomas using positron emission tomography and 4-borono-2-[18F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Shiono, M; Kubota, K; Yoshino, K; Hatazawa, J; Ido, T; Honda, C; Ichihashi, M; Mishima, Y

    1992-09-01

    A unique in vivo approach to assessing the concentrations of 4-[10B]borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA), a melanoma targeting compound for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), was investigated using L-BPA labelled with positron-emitting 18F (half-life = 110 min), i.e., 4-[10B]borono-2-[18F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine (L-[18F]FBPA). High melanoma uptake of L-[18F]FBPA was reduced slightly by competition with L-BPA in the two animal models of the murine B16 melanoma and the melanotic Greene's melanoma No. 179 in hamsters. In mice given L-[18F]FBPA and L-BPA, the concentrations of 10B in B16 estimated from 18F radioactivity were lower than those measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Lower estimated values were dependent on the time after injection and on the loading dose of L-BPA. The estimated 10B concentrations for Green's melanomas were comparable to the measured values. Positron emission tomography (PET) using L-[18F]FBPA allowed Greene's melanomas to be clearly visualized. In conclusion, when L-[18F]FBPA is used as a probe for L-BPA in BNCT of malignant melanomas, the melanoma can be localized and the 10B concentrations in tissues can be assessed in vivo using 18F radioactivity by PET.

  2. Combination of a higher-tier flow-through system and population modeling to assess the effects of time-variable exposure of isoproturon on the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Weber, Denis; Schaefer, Dieter; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Hammel, Klaus; Preuss, Thomas G; Ratte, Hans Toni

    2012-04-01

    A flow-through system was developed to investigate the effects of time-variable exposure of pesticides on algae. A recently developed algae population model was used for simulations supported and verified by laboratory experiments. Flow-through studies with Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under time-variable exposure to isoproturon were performed, in which the exposure patterns were based on the results of FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) model calculations for typical exposure situations via runoff or drain flow. Different types of pulsed exposure events were realized, including a whole range of repeated pulsed and steep peaks as well as periods of constant exposure. Both species recovered quickly in terms of growth from short-term exposure and according to substance dissipation from the system. Even at a peak 10 times the maximum predicted environmental concentration of isoproturon, only transient effects occurred on algae populations. No modified sensitivity or reduced growth was observed after repeated exposure. Model predictions of algal growth in the flow-through tests agreed well with the experimental data. The experimental boundary conditions and the physiological properties of the algae were used as the only model input. No calibration or parameter fitting was necessary. The combination of the flow-through experiments with the algae population model was revealed to be a powerful tool for the assessment of pulsed exposure on algae. It allowed investigating the growth reduction and recovery potential of algae after complex exposure, which is not possible with standard laboratory experiments alone. The results of the combined approach confirm the beneficial use of population models as supporting tools in higher-tier risk assessments of pesticides.

  3. The Increase in Phosphorylation Levels of Serine Residues of Protein HSP70 during Holding Time at 17°C Is Concomitant with a Higher Cryotolerance of Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h–30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in pSer (from 100.0±1.8 arbitrary units in HT 3 h to 150.2±5.1 arbitrary units in HT 24 h) of HSP70 and, to a lesser extent, in protein kinases GSK3 and total TRK and in the cell-cycle regulatory protein CDC2/CDK1. In the case of HSP70, this increase was confirmed through immunoprecipation analyses. Principal component and multiple regression analyses indicated that a component explaining a percentage of variance higher than 50% in sperm cryotolerance was significantly correlated with pSer levels in HSP70. In addition, from all the parameters evaluated before freeze-thawing, only pSer levels in HSP70 resulted to be able to predict sperm cryotolerance. In conclusion, our results suggest that boar spermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance. PMID:24603527

  4. Small copper-doped silicon clusters CuSin (n = 4-10) and their anions: structures, thermochemistry, and electron affinities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Jucai

    2015-06-01

    The structures and energies of copper-doped small silicon clusters CuSi n (n = 4-10) and their anions were investigated systematically using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-DK//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), G4//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), and the B3LYP/6-311+G* basis set. The performance of the methods used for the prediction of energetic and thermodynamic properties was evaluated. Comparing experimental [Xu et al. (2012) J Chem Phys 136:104308] and theoretical calculations, it was concluded that the CCSD(T) results are very accurate and exhibit the best performance; the mean absolute deviation from experimental data was 0.043 eV. The excellent agreement of vertical detachment energy (VDE) between experimental results and CCSD(T) calculations indicates that the ground state structures of CuSi n (-) (n = 4-10) presented in this paper are reliable. For CuSi10, assigning 2.90±0.08 eV to the experimental adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) and 3.90±0.08 eV to the VDE is more reasonable than to 3.46±0.08 eV and 3.62±0.08 eV, respectively, based on the CCSD(T) calculations and the previous photoelectron spectrum of CuSi10 (-) (Xu et al., op. cit.). The AEAs of CuSi n (n = 4-10), excluding CuSi7, are in excellent agreement with experimental data, showing that the ground state structures of CuSi n (n = 4-6, 8-10) reported in this paper are reliable. CuSi10 is suggested to be the smallest endohedral ground state structure. However, adding an additional electron to CuSi10 pulls out the Cu atom from the center location, forming an exohedral ground state structure of CuSi10 (-). The charge transfer and dissociation energy of Cu from CuSi n and their anions determined to examine the nature of bonding and their relative stabilities. PMID:26003428

  5. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes introduced as a post-aging contaminant during storage of low-salt Cheddar cheese at 4, 10, and 21°C.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Grieder, J A; McMahon, D J; Nummer, B A

    2011-09-01

    Traditional aged Cheddar cheese does not support Listeria monocytogenes growth and, in fact, gradual inactivation of the organism occurs during storage due to intrinsic characteristics of Cheddar cheese, such as presence of starter cultures, salt content, and acidity. However, consuming high-salt (sodium) levels is a health concern and the dairy industry is responding by creating reduced-salt cheeses. The microbiological stability of low-salt cheese has not been well documented. This study examined the survival of L. monocytogenes in low-salt compared with regular-salt Cheddar cheese at 2 pH levels stored at 4, 10, and 21°C. Cheddar cheeses were formulated at 0.7% and 1.8% NaCl (wt/wt) with both low and high pH and aged for 10 wk, resulting in 4 treatments: 0.7% NaCl and pH 5.1 (low salt and low pH); 0.7% NaCl and pH 5.5 (low salt and high pH); 1.8% NaCl and pH 5.8 (standard salt and high pH); and 1.8% NaCl and pH 5.3 (standard salt and low pH). Each treatment was comminuted and inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at a target level of 3.5 log cfu/g, then divided and incubated at 4, 10, and 21°C. Survival or growth of L. monocytogenes was monitored for up to 90, 90, and 30 d, respectively. Listeria monocytogenes decreased by 0.14 to 1.48 log cfu/g in all treatments. At the end of incubation at a given temperature, no significant difference existed in L. monocytogenes survival between the low and standard salt treatments at either low or high pH. Listeria monocytogenes counts decreased gradually regardless of a continuous increase in pH (end pH of 5.3 to 6.9) of low-salt treatments at all study temperatures. This study demonstrated that post-aging inoculation of L. monocytogenes into low-salt (0.7%, wt/wt) Cheddar cheeses at an initial pH of 5.1 to 5.5 does not support growth at 4, 10, and 21°C up to 90, 90, and 30 d, respectively. As none of the treatments demonstrated more than a 1.5 log reduction in L. monocytogenes counts, the need for good

  6. Small copper-doped silicon clusters CuSin (n = 4-10) and their anions: structures, thermochemistry, and electron affinities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Jucai

    2015-06-01

    The structures and energies of copper-doped small silicon clusters CuSi n (n = 4-10) and their anions were investigated systematically using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-DK//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), G4//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), and the B3LYP/6-311+G* basis set. The performance of the methods used for the prediction of energetic and thermodynamic properties was evaluated. Comparing experimental [Xu et al. (2012) J Chem Phys 136:104308] and theoretical calculations, it was concluded that the CCSD(T) results are very accurate and exhibit the best performance; the mean absolute deviation from experimental data was 0.043 eV. The excellent agreement of vertical detachment energy (VDE) between experimental results and CCSD(T) calculations indicates that the ground state structures of CuSi n (-) (n = 4-10) presented in this paper are reliable. For CuSi10, assigning 2.90±0.08 eV to the experimental adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) and 3.90±0.08 eV to the VDE is more reasonable than to 3.46±0.08 eV and 3.62±0.08 eV, respectively, based on the CCSD(T) calculations and the previous photoelectron spectrum of CuSi10 (-) (Xu et al., op. cit.). The AEAs of CuSi n (n = 4-10), excluding CuSi7, are in excellent agreement with experimental data, showing that the ground state structures of CuSi n (n = 4-6, 8-10) reported in this paper are reliable. CuSi10 is suggested to be the smallest endohedral ground state structure. However, adding an additional electron to CuSi10 pulls out the Cu atom from the center location, forming an exohedral ground state structure of CuSi10 (-). The charge transfer and dissociation energy of Cu from CuSi n and their anions determined to examine the nature of bonding and their relative stabilities.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure determination and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hranjec, Marijana; Pavlović, Gordana; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes the synthesis of novel 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydro-[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazoles as hydrochloride salts 4a-n and 5b which were prepared in the reaction of cyclocondensation between 2-guanidinobenzimidazole and versatile heteroaromatic aldehydes. Structures of all prepared compounds have been studied by using 1H and 13C NMR, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The crystal and molecular structure of 4f was determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystals. The molecule of 2-amino-4-(4'-methylphenyl)-4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazole hydrochloride 4f (C 16H 16N 5+·Cl -) exists in the solid state in one of the possible tautomeric forms, being protonated at the one of the nitrogen atoms of the 1,4-dihydrotriazine ring. The molecule is highly delocalized within the 4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazole moiety with the highest deviation from the plane for the methine carbon atom and the protonated nitrogen atom of the 1,4-dihydrotriazine ring. The cations are joined via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into R22(8) centrosymmetric dimers. Cation dimers are further connected with Cl - ions via N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into 2D chains spreading along the b axis. The obtained single-crystal X-ray structure determination unequivocally confirms tautomeric form of the compound present in the solid-state and can represent tantative pattern for other prepared compounds. All prepared compounds were tested on their antiproliferative activity in vitro on several human cancer cell lines. Compound 4m was the most active one (IC 50 ≈ 20 μM), while compounds 4d, 4f, 4k, 4l4m showed moderate, but non-selective, antiproliferative activity with IC 50 25-60 μM.

  8. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  14. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  15. Ab initio global optimization of the structures of Si{sub n}H, n=4-10, using parallel genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Ona, Ofelia; Facelli, Julio C.; Bazterra, Victor E.; Caputo, Maria C.; Ferraro, Marta B.

    2005-11-15

    The results of ab initio global optimizations of the structures of Si{sub n}H, n=4-10, atomic clusters using a parallel genetic algorithm are presented. Driving the global search with the parallel implementation of the genetic algorithm are presented and using the density functional theory as implemented in the Carr-Parinello molecular dynamics code to calculate atomic cluster energies and perform the local optimization of their structures, we have been able to demonstrate that it is possible to perform global optimizations of the structure of atomic clusters using ab initio methods. The results show that this approach is able to find many structures that were not previously reported in the literature. Moreover, in most cases the new structures have considerable lower energies than those previously known. The results clearly demonstrate that these calculations are now possible and in spite of their larger computational demands provide more reliable results.

  16. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  17. Reflections on "Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Felix

    1974-01-01

    The elitist, professional, and philosophical elements of higher education are reflected upon with stress on the differences between higher education and higher learning, where education is concerned with giving wider groups a share in a broad image of man, and learning is concerned with increasing specialization. (JH)

  18. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  19. Precision Rosenbluth Measurement of the Proton Elastic Electromagnetic Form Factors and Their Ratio at Q2=2.64, 3.20, and 4.10 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Qattan, Issam A.

    2005-12-01

    Due to the inconsistency in the results of the mupGEp/GMp ratio of the proton, as extracted from the Rosenbluth and recoil polarization techniques, high precision measurements of the e-p elastic scattering cross sections were made at Q2 = 2.64, 3.20, and 4.10 GeV2. Protons were detected, in contrast to previous measurements where the scattered electrons were detected, which dramatically decreased-dependent systematic uncertainties and corrections. A single spectrometer measured the scattered protons of interest while simultaneous measurements at Q2 = 0.5 GeV2 were carried out using another spectrometer which served as a luminosity monitor in order to remove any uncertainties due to beam charge and target density fluctuations. The absolute uncertainty in the measured cross sections is ~3% for both spectrometers and with relative uncertainties, random and slope, below 1% for the higher Q2 protons, and below 1% random and 6% slope for the monitor spectrometer. The extracted electric and magnetic form factors were determined to 4%-7% for GEp and 1.5% for GMp. The ratio mupGEp/GMp was determined to 4%-7% and showed mupGEp/GMp ~ 1.0. The results of this work are in agreement with the previous Rosenbluth data and inconsistent with high-Q2 recoil polarization results, implying a systematic difference between the two techniques.

  20. A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Das, P J; Avila, F; Thwaits, B K; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-02-01

    Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Macrocyclic Polyether N,N'-Diallyl-7,16-diaza-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-dibenzo-18-crown-6.

    PubMed

    Toeri, Julius; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this study an efficient and direct production procedure for a macrocyclic polyether N,N'-diallyl-7,16-diaza-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-dibenzo-18-crown-6 from the reaction of catechol and N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)prop-2-en-1-amine in n-butanol in the presence of a strong base is reported. The synthesis involves a two-step addition of sodium hydroxide to enhance the cyclization process, and at the end of the reaction, the reaction mixture is neutralized and the solvent replaced with water in-situ through distillation to afford a relatively pure precipitate that is easily recrystallized from acetone. The yield of the macrocycle was 36%-45% and could be scaled-up to one-mole quantities. The structure and purity of this compound was verified on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, ¹H-, (13)C-NMR, 2D-NMR, mass spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The white crystalline compound has a sharp melting point of 124 °C and a crystallization temperature of 81.4 °C determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Our motivation behind the synthesis of the bibracchial lariat azacrown polyether ligand was to examine its possible applications in ion-selective polymer-supported materials. PMID:26840284

  2. A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Das, P J; Avila, F; Thwaits, B K; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-02-01

    Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals. PMID:26547799

  3. Differential Cross Sections for the H + D2 → HD(v' = 3, j' = 4-10) + D Reaction above the Conical Intersection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Sneha, Mahima; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C; Zare, Richard N

    2015-12-17

    We report rovibrationally selected differential cross sections (DCSs) of the benchmark reaction H + D2 → HD(v' = 3, j' = 4-10) + D at a collision energy of 3.26 eV, which exceeds the conical intersection of the H3 potential energy surface at 2.74 eV. We use the PHOTOLOC technique in which a fluorine excimer laser at 157.64 nm photodissociates hydrogen bromide (HBr) molecules to generate fast H atoms and the HD product is detected in a state-specific manner by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. Fully converged quantum wave packet calculations were performed for this reaction at this high collision energy without inclusion of the geometric phase (GP) effect, which takes into account coupling to the first excited state of the H3 potential energy surface. Multimodal structures can be observed in most of the DCSs up to j' = 10, which is predicted by theory and also well-reproduced by experiment. The theoretically calculated DCSs are in good overall agreement with the experimental measurements, which indicates that the GP effect is not large enough that its existence can be verified experimentally at this collision energy.

  4. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  5. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  6. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  7. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  8. Higher Education in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    For the past 7 years, the State Council of Higher Education has published a report of selected characteristics and degree programs for Virginia's state-supported colleges and universities. By combining data from independent institutions with information collected from the state-supported colleges, a more comprehensive picture of higher education…

  9. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  10. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  11. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  12. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  14. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  15. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  16. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  17. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  18. "I Don't Make out How Important It Is or Anything": Identity and Identity Formation by Part-Time Higher Education Students in an English Further Education College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers in England have recently, in common with other Anglophone countries, encouraged the provision of higher education within vocational Further Education Colleges. Policy documents have emphasised the potential contribution of college-based students to widening participation: yet the same students contribute in turn to the difficulties of…

  19. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  20. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  1. International Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.

    1988-01-01

    One in a series of bibliographies of articles in international higher education journals lists items on a variety of administrative, financial, faculty, student, curricular, and related issues. Articles on specific geographic regions are categorized separately. (MSE)

  2. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  3. Comparative Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    The comparative higher education course offered at the State University of New York at Buffalo is briefly described, and a course schedule is presented, including required and recommended readings for each topic. The course is intended to provide a broad cross-cultural perspective and considers the growth and development of universities in Europe,…

  4. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

  6. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  7. European Higher Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal-Grilo, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    In his paper, the author--an academic and former Minister of Education for Portugal--traces the origins of the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and its follow-up studies leading to the Prague Conference of Higher Education Ministers in May 2001. He summarises the outcomes of the Prague Conference, and draws conclusions on the crucial role of…

  8. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  9. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  10. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  11. Urban Higher Education Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, James Gilbert

    This is a descriptive and evaluative study of 8 consortia formed by urban institutions of higher education confronted with common problems of minority student recruitment, training of teachers for inner-city schools, and the need for academic expertise to help solve their economic and social problems. Findings show that consortia weaknesses stem…

  12. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  13. Workstations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

  14. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  15. Higher Education in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.…

  16. Black at Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of…

  17. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  18. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  19. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  20. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  1. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  2. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  3. Contracting and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The potential gains in efficiency of three types of contracts in college administration are contrasted. Contract types include explicit contracts in the budgeting process between the state and higher education institutions; institutional contracting for inputs; and interinstitutional contracting. The tradeoff between production cost savings and…

  4. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  5. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  6. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  7. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  8. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  9. Curriculum in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Four articles on higher education curriculum are presented. In "The Articulate Curriculum" an approach to curriculum description is presented that is designed to have minimal ambiguity concerning the intention, content, and processes of the curriculum and that will lead to questioning several discrete factors in the curriculum planning process. It…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  11. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  12. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  13. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  14. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

  15. Higher harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-01-01

    Higher harmonic-generation, including second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation, leaves no energy deposition to the interacted matters due to its virtual-level transition characteristic, providing a truly non-invasive modality and is ideal for in vivo imaging of live specimens without any preparation. Second harmonic generation microscopy provides images on stacked membranes and arranged proteins with organized nano-structures due to the bio-photonic crystalline effect. Third harmonic generation microscopy provides general cellular or subcellular interface imaging due to optical inhomogeneity. Due to their virtual-transition nature, no saturation or bleaching in the generated signal is expected. With no energy release, continuous viewing without compromising sample viability can thus be achieved. Combined with its nonlinearity, higher harmonic generation microscopy provides sub-micron three-dimensional sectioning capability and millimeter penetration in live samples without using fluorescence and exogenous markers, offering morphological, structural, functional, and cellular information of biomedical specimens without modifying their natural biological and optical environments.

  16. OZONE REACTION WITH N-ALDEHYDES (N=4-10), BENZALDEHYDE, ETHANOL, ISOPROPANOL, AND N-PROPANOL ADSORBED ON A DUAL-BED GRAPHITIZED CARBON/CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVE ADSORBENT CARTRIDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n = 4 - 10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon/carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some samp...

  17. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  18. More on the catalysis of internal conversion in chlorophyll a by an adjacent carotenoid in light-harvesting complex (Chl a/ b LHCII) of higher plants: time-resolved triplet-minus-singlet spectra of detergent-perturbed complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, K. Razi; Jávorfi, Tamás; Melø, T. B.; Garab, Gyözö

    1998-12-01

    Wavelength-selective photo-excitation of samples containing a detergent and LHCII (the main light-harvesting complex pertaining to photosystem II of green plants) is used for recording time-resolved triplet-minus-singlet (TmS) difference spectra, with a view to probing interactions between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b), and between Chl a and lutein (Lut). Once the detergent concentration ( CD) exceeds a threshold, C©, the TmS spectrum becomes sensitive to λ⊗, the wavelength of excitation, and to t, the delay between excitation and observation. Each increment in CD brings about a diminution in the efficiency of a†→ x† transfer (triplet-triplet transfer from Chl a to Lut) and a rise in both the triplet formation yield and the fluorescence yield of Chl a. What is more, b*→ a* transfer (singlet-singlet transfer from Chl b to Chl a) slackens to such an extent that Chl b*→Chl b† intersystem crossing, negligible when CD is below C©, begins to vie with transfer, for the deactivation of Chl b* (in the foregoing an asterisk/dagger denotes singlet/triplet excitation). The reduction in the efficiencies of the two transfers is easily understood by: (i) invoking the Kühlbrandt-Wang-Fujiyoshi model of LHCII, which posits each Chl b in contact with a Chl a and each Chl a in contact with a Lut, and (ii) assuming that the detergent severs contact between adjacent chromophores. That a growth in the triplet yield of Chl a* accompanies the detergent-induced decrease in the efficiency of a†→ x† transfer becomes intelligible if one assumes, further, that internal conversion in Chla* is faster than that in overlineChla * , where under or over lining betokens the presence or absence of a carotenoid neighbour. When CD is close to C©, most Chl a molecules are adjacent to a Lut, internal conversion dominates, and the overall triplet yield is low. As CD is gradually raised the Chla → overlineChla transformation sets in, causing concomitant drops in

  19. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program. Task, OU 1-03 and OU 4-10 Track 2 investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Trippet, W.A. II; Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  20. Policy Dimensions of Analytics in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Rodney J.

    2012-01-01

    The current higher education landscape is replete with demands for improving accountability, increasing efficiency, and controlling costs. At the same time, information technologies make it easier to collect and analyze information to measure outcomes or to assist in decision making. Consequently, there is a higher demand for better information…

  1. Widening Access in Higher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariwo, Michael Tonderai

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in Zimbabwe is undergoing changes mainly because of the rapid expansion that started in 1999. The current situation is that higher education is going through a series of crises due to the fact that government subventions are diminishing in real terms as a result of the decline in economic growth, yet at the same time, student…

  2. Sustaining Strategic Transitions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2013-01-01

    David Ward, Interim Chancellor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 2011 to 2013, and Chancellor from 1993 to 2000, describes the changes coming to higher education. He reports that the second half of the twentieth century was a time of great creativity in the kinds of public policies that were put into place for higher education in the…

  3. How External Misfortunes Shaped Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The essay makes an attempt to trace the influences that external political and socioeconomic factors like World Wars I, II and Great Depression had on higher education in the U.S. Higher education - autonomous and self - contained system - proved to be one of the center points of main societal developments, at the same time being significantly…

  4. Reinventing Higher Education: The Promise of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildavsky, Ben, Ed.; Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Carey, Kevin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The inspiration for this timely book is the pressing need for fresh ideas and innovations in U.S. higher education. At the heart of the volume is the realization that higher education must evolve in fundamental ways if it is to respond to changing professional, economic, and technological circumstances, and if it is to successfully reach and…

  5. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  6. Texas Higher Education in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    The status of higher education in Texas is examined in this major report of changes in higher education over the past decade. Information on enrollment, cost, financial aid, job opportunities, and facilities in higher education institutions is given for private higher education, professional higher education, community colleges, and state colleges…

  7. Teaching and Scholarship: Adapting American Higher Education to Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, William T.

    1994-01-01

    The balance between college teaching and faculty scholarship is examined in the context of growing economic concern over the education of an internationally competitive workforce. "Aggregative scholarship," the effort to integrate and interpret highly specialized research findings for interconnections and trends, for both specialists and…

  8. Decision Time: The Dilemma for Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, A. Thomas; Boone, Larry W.

    1990-01-01

    Changing well-established organizational decision-making processes is difficult but must be undertaken to regain and retain institutional viability. Research on decision making and the rational model used in business offer insights and options for changing the college and university decision process to increase organizational effectiveness. (MSE)

  9. Tax Reform 1975: Issues Facing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot

    Voluntary support has been a major factor in the financing of American higher education since colonial times. Yet several recent proposals intended as tax reform measures threaten to reduce voluntary donations at a time when the nation's postsecondary institutions are in the throes of financial distress. The income tax proposals that would have an…

  10. Dispersed Web Content Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Anne; Gerber, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions often have large, complex websites, necessitated by the many services, divisions, and areas involved in campus operations. The fall 2008 enrollment at Utah Valley University (UVU), for example, was 26,696 students in over 50 different degree areas. UVU also has 1,455 full-time staff and another 3,285 part-time staff.…

  11. 16 CFR 4.10 - Nonpublic material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national security... to Commission or court protective or in camera orders as appropriate. See §§ 1.18(b) and 3.45. Prior... an appropriate protective or in camera order. All other material obtained by the Commission may...

  12. 16 CFR 4.10 - Nonpublic material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... customers in which there is a proprietary or highly competitive interest. (3) Interagency or intra-agency... intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source; (v) Would disclose techniques...

  13. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extremities, the back or abdominal wall, the eyes or ears, or the cardiovascular, digestive, or other system, or psyche are affected, evaluations are based upon lack of usefulness, of these parts or systems... evaluations is the ability of the body as a whole, or of the psyche, or of a system or organ of the body...

  14. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extremities, the back or abdominal wall, the eyes or ears, or the cardiovascular, digestive, or other system, or psyche are affected, evaluations are based upon lack of usefulness, of these parts or systems... evaluations is the ability of the body as a whole, or of the psyche, or of a system or organ of the body...

  15. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extremities, the back or abdominal wall, the eyes or ears, or the cardiovascular, digestive, or other system, or psyche are affected, evaluations are based upon lack of usefulness, of these parts or systems... evaluations is the ability of the body as a whole, or of the psyche, or of a system or organ of the body...

  16. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extremities, the back or abdominal wall, the eyes or ears, or the cardiovascular, digestive, or other system, or psyche are affected, evaluations are based upon lack of usefulness, of these parts or systems... evaluations is the ability of the body as a whole, or of the psyche, or of a system or organ of the body...

  17. 16 CFR 4.10 - Nonpublic material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source; (v) Would disclose techniques and... section 10 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, any officer or employee of the Commission who shall...

  18. 16 CFR 4.10 - Nonpublic material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source; (v) Would disclose techniques and... section 10 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, any officer or employee of the Commission who shall...

  19. 16 CFR 4.10 - Nonpublic material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source; (v) Would disclose techniques and... section 10 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, any officer or employee of the Commission who shall...

  20. State Intervention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.; Bowen, Frank M.

    State intervention in higher education is discussed, and state and federal regulations that affect higher education are discussed and contrasted. The structures and procedures by which states intervene in higher education are outlined, and the issue of institutional autonomy is considered. Policy areas through which the state can affect higher…

  1. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  2. Capital Formation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

    The need for new capital in higher education and major areas where the interests of the business and higher education communities are aligned are considered. Higher education is a major employer and makes a large contribution to the gross national product. Human capital has become the accepted term for referring to the contribution of education,…

  3. Higher Education Finance Manual 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.; Mertins, Paul J.

    The Higher Education Finance Manual (HEFM) is intended to serve as a guide to higher education planners and managers in their understanding and use of institutional finance data. It addresses higher education finance data from the layman's perspective. The document includes definitions of accounting terms and descriptions of generally accepted…

  4. Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Brad; And Others

    This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie) describes the…

  5. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  6. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  7. People Who Study Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The study of higher education can seem extraordinarily complex because what counts as knowledge is contestable and the higher education research community is, like Hemingway's Paris, a moveable feast. A lack of epistemological precision and field uncertainty is partly due to the fact that those who study higher education tend to work in higher…

  8. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Jonathan D.; Barnett, Lynn

    Trends and projections for higher education are identified. Increased public concern about the purposes and standards of higher education has followed the publication of four major publications about higher education in the United States. Changing demographics are projected for 1983-1993, including fewer 18- to 22-year-olds, decreased full-time…

  9. History of Higher Education, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

  10. Investigation of the NACA 4-(5)(08)-03 and NACA 4-(10)(08)-03 Two-Blade Propellers at Forward Mach Numbers to 0.725 to Determine the Effects of Camber and Compressibility on Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, James B

    1951-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(5)(08)-03 and NACA 4-(10)(08)-03 blade designs were made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.70 to determine the effect of camber and compressibility on propeller characteristics. Results previously reported for similar tests of a two-blade propeller having the NACA 4-(3)(08)-03 blade design are included for comparison.

  11. Quantization of higher spin fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

    2009-11-15

    In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

  12. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  13. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Occasional Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Two papers on the funding formula of the Alabama Commission for Higher Education are presented. The first paper, by John F. Porter, Jr., "The Origins and Evolutions of the Funding Formula Model Utilized by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, 1973-82," presents the historical antecedents for the existing formula elements and notes…

  14. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    This is the first of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. For a flat 2-connection, we define the 2-holonomy of surface knots of arbitrary genus and determine its covariance properties under 1-gauge transformation and change of base data.

  15. [Epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Kuroda, Takeshi; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Itaya, Kazuhiro; Ishigaki, Seiichiro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2013-02-01

    Acquired higher brain dysfunction is for the most part due to cerebral vascular disease, but epilepsy may also be a cause. In this study with five patients, we discuss the advantages of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for persistent higher brain dysfunction. The patients showed chronic amnesia or acute aphasia, with associated symptoms like personality change. All five cases affected automatism or convulsive attack, though only after the emergence of higher brain dysfunction and administration of AEDs. There were underlying diseases like cerebral arteriovenous malformation in four cases, but the other patient had none. Electroencephalogram and single photon emission computed tomography revealed one case of aphasia epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction. These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of AEDs for persistent higher brain dysfunction, and we must differentiate epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction from dementia or cerebral vascular disease. PMID:23399676

  16. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  17. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  18. An Open Future for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Patrick; Scanlon, Eileen; Clow, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Education, and in particular higher education, has seen rapid change as learning institutions have had to adapt to the opportunities provided by the Internet to move more of their teaching online and to become more flexible in how they operate. It might be tempting to think that such a period of change would lead to a time of consolidation and…

  19. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  20. Towards Sustainable Internationalisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Roumiana; Beck, Kumari; Waterstone, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This article engages with the question: what does the internationalisation of higher education in times of globalisation sustain and what should it sustain? We first consider, through literature on globalisation and Stier's ("Glob Soc Educ" 2(1):1-28, 2004) work, limitations of currently prevalent perspectives on…

  1. Higher Education in India: A Geographical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bala, Reena

    2016-01-01

    In the light on the ancient times, there were prominent universities of Nalanda, Takhashila, Vallabhi and Vikramshila which attract the scholars from all over the world in the field of higher education. The first three modern universities were established at Bombay (now Mumbai), Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Madras (now Chennai) in 1857 on the…

  2. The NEA 1992 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rebecca L., Ed.

    This publication presents 1992 higher education and National Education Association (NEA) facts and statistics, updating what appeared in earlier editions and including for the first time tables from three recent studies on faculty. The book arranges information in four sections. The first, "The Academy: A Statistical Profile," covers higher…

  3. The NEA 1993 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rebecca L., Ed.

    This 1993 Almanac of the National Education Association for the higher education sector offers, for the first time, faculty salary data, as well as a review of the year, a listing of resources, and analysis of policy developments. The faculty salary report analyzes the current state of academic salaries by rank and type of institution, and places…

  4. Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation projects are unique to each institution and yet are expensive, time consuming, and result in change across the institution. Five Midwest public and private 4-year higher education institutions were studied to determine the impact of five specific key factors on the overall success of the ERP…

  5. The Demand for Higher Education in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, I.; Nonneman, W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates determinants behind the spectacular higher education enrollment growth in Belgium since 1953, using a demand model that integrates consumption and investment aspects and empirically tests time-series data specifications between 1953 and 1992. Income and foregone earnings are driving enrollments. Income, opportunity costs, and the wage…

  6. Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The real cost of higher education per full-time equivalent student has grown substantially over the last 75 years, and the rapid rise since the early 1980s is a cause of considerable public concern. Opinion surveys consistently find that how much one has to pay for a college education is a serious national issue. In his July 1996 congressional…

  7. American Higher Education: A History. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The roots of controversy surrounding higher education in the US extend deep into the past. This original, incisive history goes far in offering a needed sense of perspective on current debates over such issues as access, costs, academic quality, social equity, and curricula. Eminently readable and always lively, this timely historical account is…

  8. New Labour and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper, the first part of an edited version of a Keynote Presentation delivered at the AUA Annual Conference, Queen's University Belfast, on April 11, 2006, describes the fate of UK higher education during the course of the last parliament and identifies New Labour's two successive and contradictory higher education policies. The author…

  9. The Higher Education Research Archipelago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

  10. The Economy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The macroeconomic trends shaping the United States economy and the effects of those trends on higher education are considered. Warning institutions of higher education about possible problems in the economy will place them in a better position to react if necessary. The economic environment is discussed in terms of productivity (goods and services…

  11. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

  12. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  13. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed 1998 and early 1999 court decisions related to disability discrimination in higher education. This period witnessed major developments in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education. A major focus was on whether persons whose impairments are ameliorated by treatment are individuals with disabilities covered by…

  14. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    Unfortunately the story of Asian Americans and higher education is not one of unqualified success. This paper attempts to overview the historical significance and present the problems of Asian Americans in higher education. The first problem is the lack of oral and writing skills among Asian Americans. Part of this problem is cultural, referring…

  15. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  16. Funding Higher Education: Student Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Selena; Harvey, Lee

    This report documents the results of a survey of 1,139 students at the University of Central England (UCE) in Birmingham in regard to their financial circumstances and their views on the funding of higher education. The report also examines the advantages and disadvantages of six specific higher education funding proposals put forth in recent…

  17. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  18. History of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  19. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  20. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

  1. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  2. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  3. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truax, Anne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An article and three responses on sexual harassment in higher education are presented: "Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: What We've Learned" (Anne Truax); "Who Is Responsible for Sexual Harassment?" (Barbara G. Taylor); "The Feminist-Unionist Dilemma" (Sherna Berger Gluck); and "Sexual Harassment and Academic Power" (Loralee MacPike). (MLW)

  4. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  5. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  6. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  7. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  8. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  9. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  10. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  11. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  12. Empowering Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina

    This book focuses on enabling and empowering women in higher education, and it draws both on research and experience with women-centered teaching and learning practices and professional development and training of women staff. The first section of the book concentrates on women students in higher education. Chapters include: "Women Students and…

  13. THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

  14. Higher Education in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Frederick, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    New York State higher education policy and finance are discussed in four articles. In "Higher Education and Public Policy in New York," Frederick S. Lane considers the state's institutions, policymakers and politics, financing of colleges, enrollment patterns, links to economic development, and the changing educational environment. Paul T.…

  15. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  16. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  17. The Higher Learning in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the state of public higher education in the United States focuses on government financing of higher education, the high costs of both government and good education, and student attitudes toward their education. A new general education curriculum design at the University of Chicago (Illinois), designed to alleviate some of these…

  18. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  19. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

  20. Higher Education Funding in Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine perceptions of state legislators regarding funding of public higher education in the State of Missouri. To this end, I sought to determine how Missouri legislators perceive the purpose of higher education and the role the state government should play in funding it. The concept that higher…

  1. Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    In "Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education," Henry C. Eyring, a junior majoring in Economics at Brigham Young University-Idaho, argues that one way that the U.S. can compete globally in college attainment is to decrease cost-per-graduate. He explains how many stakeholders in higher education stand to benefit from unexploited…

  2. Assessment Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, M. J.; And Others

    This report reviews assessment issues from a British perspective with particular regard to the implications that the National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Framework will have for assessment in higher education. It considers assessment in relation to the various purposes of higher education and puts forward a number of practical suggestions for…

  3. Higher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.; Dietrich, Greta L.; Phillips, Gabriele; McCormack, Kevin A.

    This report provides a review of higher education systems in selected developed countries and compares higher education in the United States and other countries. The report draws on data from the Indicators of National Education Systems Project of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic…

  4. Strategy Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions educate those who are the most talented and best able to secure the future for the next generation. This study examines an efficient strategy process in higher education and emphasises the importance of sufficient dialogue during the process. The study describes the strategy process of the Turku University of Applied…

  5. Higher Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, R. A.

    There are two sectors of higher education in the Netherlands: the universities covered by the University Education Act and the vocationally-oriented colleges covered by the Further Education Act. Following a summary of the main elements of secondary education, higher or tertiary education is defined. Thirteen universities and non-university…

  6. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  7. Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butson, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

  8. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  9. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This is the second of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. We provide a definition of trace over a crossed module to yield surface knot invariants upon application to 2-holonomies. We show further that the properties of the trace are best described using the theory quandle crossed modules.

  10. Photochemistry of tricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undeca-4,10-dien-8-ones: an efficient general route to substituted linear triquinanes from 2-methoxyphenols. Total synthesis of (+/-)-Delta(9(12))-capnellene.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Day-Shin; Chou, Yu-Yu; Tung, Yen-Shih; Liao, Chun-Chen

    2010-03-01

    An efficient and short entry to polyfunctionalized linear triquinanes from 2-methoxyphenols is described by utilizing the following chemistry. The Diels-Alder reactions of masked o-benzoquinones, derived from 2-methoxyphenols, with cyclopentadiene afford tricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undeca-4,10-dien-8-ones. Photochemical oxa-di-pi-methane (ODPM) rearrangements and 1,3-acyl shifts of the Diels-Alder adducts are investigated. The ODPM-rearranged products are further converted to linear triquinanes by using an O-stannyl ketyl fragmentation. Application of this efficient strategy to the total synthesis of (+/-)-Delta(9(12))-capnellene was accomplished from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol in nine steps with 20 % overall yield.

  11. Higher order equations of motion and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmerzahl, Claus; Rademaker, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Standard fundamental equations of motion for point particles are of second order in the time derivative. Here we are exploring the consequences of fundamental equations of motion with an additional small even higher order term to the standard formulation. This is related to two issues: (i) higher order equations of motion will have influence on the definition of the structure of possible interactions and in particular of the gravitational interaction, and (ii) such equations of motion provide a framework to test the validity of Newton’s second law which is the basis for the definition of forces but which assumes from the very beginning that the fundamental equations of motion are of second order. We will show that starting with our generalized equations of motions it is possible to introduce the space-time metric describing the gravitational interaction by means of a standard gauge principle. Another main result within our model of even higher order derivatives is that for slowly varying and smooth fields the higher order derivatives either lead to runaway solutions or induces a zitterbewegung. We confront this higher order scheme with experimental data.

  12. Thatcherism and British Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattock, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the influence of Britain's prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, on higher education looks at the relationship between the administrator's 10 years in office and the fiscal, educational, and public policy issues currently under debate. (MSE)

  13. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  14. Solving higher curvature gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2016-10-01

    Solving field equations in the context of higher curvature gravity theories is a formidable task. However, in many situations, e.g., in the context of f( R) theories, the higher curvature gravity action can be written as an Einstein-Hilbert action plus a scalar field action. We show that not only the action but the field equations derived from the action are also equivalent, provided the spacetime is regular. We also demonstrate that such an equivalence continues to hold even when the gravitational field equations are projected on a lower-dimensional hypersurface. We have further addressed explicit examples in which the solutions for Einstein-Hilbert and a scalar field system lead to solutions of the equivalent higher curvature theory. The same, but on the lower-dimensional hypersurface, has been illustrated in the reverse order as well. We conclude with a brief discussion on this technique of solving higher curvature field equations.

  15. Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayeghn, Desta

    1982-01-01

    Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

  16. Shear dynamics in higher dimensional FLRW cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Isha; Nandan, Hemwati; Goswami, Umananda Dev

    2015-12-01

    We study the shear dynamics of higher dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering a non-perfect fluid which exerts different pressure in the normal and extra dimensions. We generalise the definition of shear tensor for higher dimensional spacetime and prove it to be consistent with the evolution equation for shear tensor obtained from the Ricci identities. The shear tensor however vanishes for the case of usual FLRW metric in four dimensions. The evolution of shear tensor for higher dimensional FLRW cosmology is investigated numerically. The role of extra dimensions and other parameters involved in shear dynamics is discussed in detail. We find that with increase in anisotropy parameter, time of decay of shear increases while with increase in number of extra dimensions, shear tends to decay early.

  17. What Is College for? The Public Purpose of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe, Ed.; Lewis, Harry, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    At a time when higher education attendance has never felt more mandatory for career success and economic growth, the distinguished contributors to this provocative collection ask readers to consider the civic mission of higher education as equally vital to the nation's well-being. Should higher education serve a greater public interest? In what…

  18. Higher Education Accounting Manual. Utah Coordinating Council of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Coordinating Council of Higher Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognition of a critical need for accurate and detailed information to refine the process of budgeting funds for higher education in Utah led to the preparation of this accounting manual for universities and colleges in the state. The manual presents guidelines for the uniform accounting and reporting of financial and statistical data, and is…

  19. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  20. Higher education and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Egerton, Muriel

    2002-12-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between social engagement, particularly civic engagement, and education. It is well known that more highly educated people are more likely to engage in voluntary work in formalized settings. It has been difficult to disentangle the effect of higher education from that of family origin and occupational socialization. This paper examines the effects of tertiary education on the social and civic engagement of young people, using the British Household Panel Study. The social and civic activity of young people is observed in their late teens, before entering the labour market or tertiary education, and compared with that of the same young people in their early 20s, after completing tertiary education courses or gaining labour market experience. It was found that the social and civic engagement of young people who would enter higher education was higher in their late teens than that of their peers who did not enter. However, higher education had a small additional effect on civic engagement, for both young and mature students. The children of professionals were the social grouping most likely to be involved in civic activities. The relationship of higher education, professional occupations and family socialization is discussed.

  1. Holographic projection with higher image quality.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weidong; Gu, Huarong; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2016-08-22

    The spatial resolution limited by the size of the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the holographic projection can hardly be increased, and speckle noise always appears to induce the degradation of image quality. In this paper, the holographic projection with higher image quality is presented. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is 2 times of that of the existing holographic projection, and speckles are suppressed well at the same time. Finally, the effectiveness of the holographic projection is verified in experiments. PMID:27557197

  2. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  3. Species differences in the pharmacokinetics of KW-7158 [(2S)-(+)-3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5,5,10-trioxo-4,10-dihydrothieno[3,2-c][1]benzothiepin-9-yl)propanamide]: formation of hydrolyzed metabolite in human and animals.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Kodaira, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ushiki, Junko; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2012-07-01

    Species differences in the pharmacokinetics of KW-7158 [(2S)-(+)-3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5,5,10-trioxo-4,10-dihydrothieno[3,2-c][1]benzothiepin-9-yl)propanamide] were studied in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The exposure ratio of hydrolyzed metabolite (M2, primary metabolite in human plasma)/KW-7158 was higher than the ratio of thiophen-to-furan converted metabolite (M1)/KW-7158 in human subjects after oral administration, but the mouse, rat and dog studies gave opposite results. M2 was produced in the highest amount by the 9000g supernatant of small intestine, followed by that of liver and kidney in human subjects. After correction for protein contents, the results obtained suggested that the small intestine plays a major role in the metabolism to M2 for the first pass effect after oral administration of KW-7158. The formation of M2 was independent of the presence of NADPH and was inhibited by various esterase inhibitors. These observations suggested that the predominant enzymes or isozymes involved in the formation of M2 are esterases, which differ between humans and animals. Such differences may be one of the reasons for the species differences in the pharmacokinetics of KW-7158 between humans and animals.

  4. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  5. Social Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric; Jackson, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past half century, scholars in a variety of fields have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between higher education and social stratification. We review this literature, highlighting complementarities and inconsistencies. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We situate our review of the…

  6. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Zari

    This literature survey examines trends in higher education requiring a broad base of support from the changing institutions and the people who have to respond to, plan for, and manage the changes. Trends are identified in the areas of enrollment, financial aid, curricula, faculty, financial status, and assessment. Trends affecting enrollment…

  7. Gender Matters in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Alex; Tattersall, Andy; Goody, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research in higher education has treated student bodies as homogeneous groups with a consequent neglect of any consideration of gender differences. To test the validity of such research a questionnaire was administered to 255 psychology students. The results showed some important differences in responses between the genders. In…

  8. Student Influence and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juola, Arvo E.

    Since 1965, student views and feelings have influenced great changes in higher education, sometimes to the detriment of long-term interests in academic institutions and colleges. One conspicuous recent trend is the desire of college students for more influence, impact, or power. Other prevalent attitudes may be characterized as a desire to be…

  9. Faculty Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for retaining or firing a highly qualified faculty in higher education in many cases are vague and unclear. This situation is neither a comfortable, nor a healthy, both for the faculty and the administration. Stakeholders have enough reason to blame each other in the absence of transparent mechanism. This paper proposes a transparent…

  10. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    1980-01-01

    Problems that Asian Americans face in higher education include poor communications skills; stress resulting from family and community pressure to achieve; and universities' reluctance to hire Asian American staff, recruit and provide financial support for Asian American students, and provide relevant curriculum. Various programs have begun to…

  11. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  12. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  13. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  14. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  15. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  16. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  17. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  18. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  19. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

  20. Diversity in Washington Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Improving the participation and performance of African American, Latino, American Indian, and Asian American students, faculty and staff in Washington state's higher education system represents a pivotal element of the statewide strategic master plan. This report includes current statistics and trend data for student enrollment, retention, and…

  1. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  2. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  3. New Hierarchies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Dorothea

    1982-01-01

    Implications of a gradual change in the "pecking order" within higher education in the course of the 1970s are discussed. This change cuts across the traditional university/nonuniversity distinctions, and illustrates the growing vulnerability of certain types and disciplines of university education. Focus is on graduate employability. (MSE)

  4. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  5. Higher Education Space: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

  6. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  7. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  8. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  9. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

  10. On Education: The Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas G.

    1980-01-01

    Higher education is described as a name for the highest formation of soul and mind, and the highest goal of education is "wisdom." Practical wisdom and theoretical wisdom are seen as exemplified at their peak in the comprehension of the genuine statesman and the genuine philosopher. (MLW)

  11. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  12. Danger: Work on Higher Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.

    The Assessment Policy Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has directed the NAEP staff to focus the 1985-86 Assessments of Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Computer Competence on the higher-order skills. Each Learning Area Committee worked independently developing three-dimensional models. These defined what could…

  13. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  14. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  15. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  16. Benefit Plans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

    Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement (including…

  17. History of Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

  18. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  19. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

  20. Customer Service in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sines, Robert G., Jr.; Duckworth, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that colleges and universities need to understand the importance of customer service in student retention, particularly in a competitive marketplace. Customer service concepts that work in the private sector are seen as useful in higher education, and a model is proposed. (MSE)

  1. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  2. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  3. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  4. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  5. Higher Education & the Consumer Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knefelcamp, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Higher education is capable of responding constructively to social change, diversification of the student body, and student learning needs. It can do this by integrating itself into the community; focusing on the classroom, not the campus, as the center of learning; and adapting to new roles and structures as needed. (MSE)

  6. Class Struggle in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Dan; Leiblum, Mishy

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has undergone a process similar to that in the national polity: a one-sided struggle by those with power to shape the institution to be more market driven, more focused on what will generate (non-state) revenues, more dominated by top administrators, and less concerned about the working class and people of color. This…

  7. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  8. Higher Education in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdahl, Robert O., Ed.

    The wide-ranging impact of social, political and economic forces on higher education and their specific consequences for faculty, students, and administrators is addressed within the broad context of autonomy and accountability. The book is organized around several themes. The first section discusses such basic issues as: the historical…

  9. Higher Education: A Critical Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    Current concepts of critical thinking need to be reconstrued into the much broader concept of "critical being" and applied to higher education. Under this construct, critical persons (students) become more than just critical thinkers; they engage critically with the world and with themselves; they not only reflect critically on knowledge, but also…

  10. Evaluating Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bruce A.; Hashimoto, Masanori; Fleisher, Belton M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors develop an original measure of learning in higher education, based on grades in subsequent courses. Using this measure of learning, they show that student evaluations are positively related to current grades but unrelated to learning once current grades are controlled. They offer evidence that the weak relationship between learning and…

  11. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  12. Instructional Designers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Tami Marie

    2012-01-01

    Research about the preparation and competencies of instructional designers in higher education has not been addressed. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore individuals in this context by focusing on their employment and academic backgrounds, as well as their responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations as reported by their…

  13. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  14. Higher Education: Building Connecticut's Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisa, Cynthia L.; Placzek, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    The Connecticut Departments of Labor (DOL) and Higher Education (DHE), working in close collaboration with the University of Connecticut, Connecticut State University, Connecticut Community Colleges and Charter Oak State College, present this comprehensive report on employment outcomes for graduates of the State's public college system. This…

  15. Extremal higher spin black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.

  16. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    , this has triggered a significant amount of activity in this general area. Among other things, the constraints that are implied by the higher-spin symmetries were analysed (see the paper by Maldacena and Zhiboedov in this issue [9]), and a fairly concrete proposal for how higher-spin theories are related to string theory was made (see the paper by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma and Yin in this issue [10]). Furthermore, a lower dimensional version of the conjecture was put forward by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar [11] that was subsequently also checked in some detail. These dualities hold the promise of offering insights into the inner workings of the AdS/CFT correspondence since they are complex enough to capture the essence of the duality, while at the same time being sufficiently simple in order to allow for a detailed analysis. Moreover, the methods specifically developed in higher-spin theory may be useful for understanding a general mechanism underlying holography, both in higher-spin models and beyond (see the paper by Vasiliev in this issue [12]). Another fascinating aspect of these higher-spin theories lies in the fact that the higher-spin symmetries mix generically fields of different spin, and in particular, the spin-2 metric and higher-spin excitations are related to one another by gauge transformations. As a result, higher-spin theories require a modification of the standard framework of Riemannian geometry since the usual diffeomorphism-invariant tensors are not gauge invariant any longer. In particular, higher-spin theories may therefore open the way towards understanding fundamental concepts of space-time geometry; for example, they may well have key lessons in store for how string theory resolves space-time singularities. In this issue we have collected together a number of review papers, summarizing the aforementioned recent developments, as well as research papers indicating current directions of interest in the study of higher-spin gauge theories. We hope that it

  17. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  18. The minimal power spectrum: Higher order contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    It has been an accepted belief for some time that gravity induces a minimal tail P(k) approximately k(exp 4) in the power spectrum as k approaches 0 for distributions with no initial power on large scales. In a recent numerical experiment with initial power confined to a restricted range in k, Shandarin and Melott (1990) found a k approaches 0 tail that at early stages of evolution behaves as k(exp 4) and grows with time as a(exp 4)(t), where a(t) is the cosmological expansion factor, and at late times depends on scale as k(exp 3) and grows with time as a(exp 2)(t). I compute analytically several contributions to the power spectrum of higher order than those included in earlier work, and I apply the results to the particular case of initial power restricted to a finite range of k. As expected, in the perturbative regime P(k) approximately a(exp 4)k(exp 4) from the first correction to linear perturbation theory is the dominant term as k approaches 0. Numerical investigations show that the higher order contributions go as k(exp 4) also. However, perturbation theory alone cannot tell whether the P approximately a(exp 2)k(exp 3) result is 'nonperturbative' or a numerical artifact.

  19. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.

  20. Abelian duality at higher genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Chris

    2014-07-01

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  1. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  2. Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocun, Marta; Lysy, Martin; Walsh, Tim; Meinhold, Jieh; Proksch, Tania; Meinhold, Waiman; Anderson, Caleb; Proksch, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A method is presented for calibrating the higher eigenmodes (resonant modes) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers that can be performed prior to any tip-sample interaction. The method leverages recent efforts in accurately calibrating the first eigenmode by providing the higher-mode stiffness as a ratio to the first mode stiffness. A one-time calibration routine must be performed for every cantilever type to determine a power-law relationship between stiffness and frequency, which is then stored for future use on similar cantilevers. Then, future calibrations only require a measurement of the ratio of resonant frequencies and the stiffness of the first mode. This method is verified through stiffness measurements using three independent approaches: interferometric measurement, AC approach-curve calibration, and finite element analysis simulation. Power-law values for calibrating higher-mode stiffnesses are reported for several cantilever models. Once the higher-mode stiffnesses are known, the amplitude of each mode can also be calibrated from the thermal spectrum by application of the equipartition theorem. PMID:27475563

  3. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071

  4. Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocun, Marta; Lysy, Martin; Walsh, Tim; Meinhold, Jieh; Proksch, Tania; Meinhold, Waiman; Anderson, Caleb; Proksch, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A method is presented for calibrating the higher eigenmodes (resonant modes) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers that can be performed prior to any tip-sample interaction. The method leverages recent efforts in accurately calibrating the first eigenmode by providing the higher-mode stiffness as a ratio to the first mode stiffness. A one-time calibration routine must be performed for every cantilever type to determine a power-law relationship between stiffness and frequency, which is then stored for future use on similar cantilevers. Then, future calibrations only require a measurement of the ratio of resonant frequencies and the stiffness of the first mode. This method is verified through stiffness measurements using three independent approaches: interferometric measurement, AC approach-curve calibration, and finite element analysis simulation. Power-law values for calibrating higher-mode stiffnesses are reported for several cantilever models. Once the higher-mode stiffnesses are known, the amplitude of each mode can also be calibrated from the thermal spectrum by application of the equipartition theorem.

  5. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a Novel Adenosine Receptor Antagonist with A2A-Mediated Neuroprotective Effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A2A adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A2A AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A2A AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A2A ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A2A AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A2A AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A2A AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22860174

  6. Microdiaphragm resonating biosensors in higher frequency modes.

    PubMed

    Olfatnia, M; Xu, T; Miao, J M; Ong, L S

    2011-12-01

    Influences of different vibration modes of microdiaphragm resonating biosensors on their detecting capability are investigated in this paper. In order to study the mass sensing capability of the sensor, gold layers with different thicknesses are deposited on the sensor's surface. The frequency shift due to this mass deposition in different frequency modes is measured. An increase in the sensitivity and the quality factor (Q-factor) is found with the increase in the vibration mode number of the sensor. The experimental results demonstrate that the mass sensitivity and quality factor of the device are 4.08 Hz/ng and 241.80 at the ninth mode. These are 2.76 and 10.26 times higher than the mass sensitivity and the Q-factor of the device at the first mode. The observations lead to this conclusion that the sensitivity of microdiaphragm resonating biosensors can be increased by working in higher modes without changing their physical parameters.

  7. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.

    1990-04-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  8. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1991-02-01

    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  9. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  10. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  11. The regular state in higher order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Trachilis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    We consider the higher-order gravity theory derived from the quadratic Lagrangian R + 𝜖R2 in vacuum as a first-order (ADM-type) system with constraints, and build time developments of solutions of an initial value formulation of the theory. We show that all such solutions, if analytic, contain the right number of free functions to qualify as general solutions of the theory. We further show that any regular analytic solution which satisfies the constraints and the evolution equations can be given in the form of an asymptotic formal power series expansion.

  12. Personal Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parzen, Maurine

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, in Ontario, RPN's have had the option to return to school to obtain their BScN degree in three years of full time study instead of four years. Many of these students are mature and come with prior family and financial responsibilities that add extra challenges to their learning experience. Questioning their choice of investment in…

  13. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  14. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  15. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena. PMID:26403987

  16. Plastid transformation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Maliga, Pal

    2004-01-01

    Plastids of higher plants are semi-autonomous organelles with a small, highly polyploid genome and their own transcription-translation machinery. This review provides an overview of the technology for the genetic modification of the plastid genome including: vectors, marker genes and gene design, the use of gene knockouts and over-expression to probe plastid function and the application of site-specific recombinases for excision of target DNA. Examples for applications in basic science include the study of plastid gene transcription, mRNA editing, photosynthesis and evolution. Examples for biotechnological applications are incorporation of transgenes in the plastid genome for containment and high-level expression of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Plastid transformation is routine only in tobacco. Progress in implementing the technology in other crops is discussed.

  17. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition

  18. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition

  19. The Press and California Higher Education. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, William

    This study examined the media coverage of California higher education in the popular press in four of the state's major dailies. In particular the study examined the roles that the San Francisco Chronicle, the Sacramento Bee, the Los Angeles Times, and the San Jose Mercury News play in fostering the public debate about higher education. All the…

  20. Remediation in Virginia Higher Education. A SCHEV Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia examined the status of remediation in higher education in the state using a population of first-time college students who graduated from a high school in Virginia, attended a Virginia college, and took at least one remedial course at a community college or private college. Over the last 5 years,…

  1. Planning and Funding of Higher Education in Nigeria: The Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinyemi, Samuel; Bassey, Ofem Igot

    2012-01-01

    Higher education remains the pivot of national development in Nigeria. This is because the stock of highly-educated individuals produced by higher education institutions plays an important role in the innovation and the sustainable development of any society. However, over time, these institutions have experienced increase in enrolments and yet…

  2. The Peace Corps and Higher Education: Finally the Envisioned Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kevin F. F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of structural and contextual changes underway suggests that now that the Peace Corps has begun its second half-century, it may be the opportune time for a broader and deeper strategic partnership with higher education along the lines that the Peace Corps founders' envisioned. That partnership would involve higher education playing an…

  3. Fall Enrollment in Higher Education 1975. Institutional Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, George H.

    The data result from a survey of Opening Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, 1975. The five tabulations list enrollment data by sex of student, full- or part-time attendance status, and level of study for each of 3055 institutional units, with state subtotals. Total enrollment in institutions of higher education increased by almost a million, to…

  4. Higher Education and Lifelong Learners: International Perspectives on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Slowey, Maria, Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on higher education and lifelong learners. The following papers are included: "Traditions and New Directions in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Non-Traditional Students and Lifelong Learners" (Hans G. Schuetze, Maria Slowey); "Austria: The Enduring Myth of the Full-Time Student: An Exploration of the…

  5. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  6. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the time series data produced annually since 2001 under the title "Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK." It offers a unique overview of provision at publicly-funded higher education institutions in the UK. All charts and tables in the report are now also available to download from the Universities UK website.…

  7. Are National Higher Education Policies Adequate for the Next Decade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The period since the election in May 2010 has seen a number of very far-reaching reforms enacted in the higher education system in the UK, and especially England. These have been driven in large measure by the economic situation, but also by the aim to introduce a more market-based approach into the sector. At the same time, the higher education…

  8. Navigating Change: A Typology of Student Transition in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Student transition into higher education has increased in importance in recent times, with the growing trend in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development nations towards universal higher education provision and the concomitant widening of participation to include previously under-represented groups. However, "transition" as a…

  9. Measuring Inequalities in Higher Education: A Politics of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goastellec, Gaele

    2011-01-01

    At a time when rankings and the production of data on higher education systems multiply, this article questions the actors' configuration linked to the transformation of statistical indicators into frames used to read the inequalities of access to higher education. Who says what and with what results? Who is responsible for making social facts…

  10. International Higher Education's Scholar-Practitioners: Bridging Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitwieser, Bernhard, Ed.; Ogden, Anthony, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of the professional who bridges both research and practice has been largely overlooked and at times even disregarded by the academic and administrative structures that govern activity in higher education today. In international higher education, the number of students who now engage in mobility and exchange has expanded globally, along…

  11. A Defense of Higher Education and Its Civic Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The liberal arts and the civic mission of higher education are under attack in this time of economic crisis and political polarization. But we can proudly and forthrightly make the case for the civic mission of higher education. The purpose of the liberal arts is to prepare people for responsible citizenship, and the best forms of civic engagement…

  12. Non-Prescribed Higher Education: Where Does It Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet

    Some key findings from data analysis of student records and college surveys regarding non-prescribed higher education (NPHE) courses at further education (FE) colleges in England, many of which are not formally recognized as higher education, are as follows: (1) over half of enrolled students are over age 30 and enrolled part time; (2) there is no…

  13. Trees Without Fruit: The Problem with Research About Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1985-01-01

    "If the research in higher education ended, it would scarcely be missed." This is the time when excellent research and scholarship about higher learning and its institutions is needed, yet the study of this national resource is at a low ebb. The reasons for low appraisals of research are discussed. (MLW)

  14. Stop Misusing Higher Education-Specific Price Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Andrew; Robe, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the price of things over time, it is necessary to use a price index to adjust for inflation. The Higher Education Price Index (HEPI) and the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA) were designed to more accurately account for the spending patterns of colleges and universities. However, there are some methodological problems…

  15. The History of Student Governance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Walter P.

    2010-01-01

    Student governance has existed as an integral part of higher education since the time of the first college in Colonial America. Through a detailed history of each phase of student self-governance--from the earliest literary societies to the present-day student government associations--the struggles of students in higher education to acquire and…

  16. An overview of American higher education.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sandy; Kurose, Charles; McPherson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions. The authors also cite evidence on broad measures of college persistence and outcomes, including low completion rates at community and for-profit colleges, the increasing need for remedial education for poorly prepared high school students, and a growing gap between the earnings of those with a bachelor's degree and those with less education. They disagree with critics who say that investments in higher education, particularly for students at the margin, no longer pay off. A sustained investment in effective education at all levels is vital to the nation's future, they argue. But they caution that the American public no longer seems willing to pay more for

  17. An overview of American higher education.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sandy; Kurose, Charles; McPherson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions. The authors also cite evidence on broad measures of college persistence and outcomes, including low completion rates at community and for-profit colleges, the increasing need for remedial education for poorly prepared high school students, and a growing gap between the earnings of those with a bachelor's degree and those with less education. They disagree with critics who say that investments in higher education, particularly for students at the margin, no longer pay off. A sustained investment in effective education at all levels is vital to the nation's future, they argue. But they caution that the American public no longer seems willing to pay more for

  18. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  19. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  20. Solar time, legal time, time in use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    The International Conference held in 1884 at Washington defined a universal time as the mean solar time at the Greenwich meridian (GMT). Now, the Universal Time, version UT1, is strictly defined as proportional to the angle of rotation of the Earth in space. In this evolution, the departure of UT1 from GMT does not exceed one or two seconds. This is quite negligible when compared with the departure between the solar time and the legal time of citizens, which may exceed two hours without raising protests.