Science.gov

Sample records for 4-5 atomic percent

  1. Median CBO Salary Rises by 4.5 Percent, Annual Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    An annual national survey of college and university salaries found chief business officers' salaries rose 4.5 percent in 1996-97, less than the previous year. Salaries of women and minority CBOs continued to gain equity with that of men. Rates of increase varied by institution type. Salary gains for all administrative job types were less than in…

  2. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  3. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  4. Thermal effects in equilibrium surface segregation in a copper/10-atomic-percent-aluminum alloy using Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1972-01-01

    Equilibrium surface segregation of aluminum in a copper-10-atomic-percent-aluminum single crystal alloy oriented in the /111/ direction was demonstrated by using Auger electron spectroscopy. This crystal was in the solid solution range of composition. Equilibrium surface segregation was verified by observing that the aluminum surface concentration varied reversibly with temperature in the range 550 to 850 K. These results were curve fitted to an expression for equilibrium grain boundary segregation and gave a retrieval energy of 5780 J/mole (1380 cal/mole) and a maximum frozen-in surface coverage three times the bulk layer concentration. Analyses concerning the relative merits of sputtering calibration and the effects of evaporation are also included.

  5. METALLURGICAL PROGRAMS: CALCULATION OF MASS FROM VOLUME, DENSITY OF MIXTURES, AND CONVERSION OF ATOMIC TO WEIGHT PERCENT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Metallurgical Programs include three simple programs which calculate solutions to problems common to metallurgical engineers and persons making metal castings. The first program calculates the mass of a binary ideal (alloy) given the weight fractions and densities of the pure components and the total volume. The second program calculates the densities of a binary ideal mixture. The third program converts the atomic percentages of a binary mixture to weight percentages. The programs use simple equations to assist the materials staff with routine calculations. The Metallurgical Programs are written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for interactive execution and have been implemented on an IBM PC-XT/AT operating MS-DOS 2.1 or higher with 256K bytes of memory. All instructions needed by the user appear as prompts as the software is used. Data is input using the keyboard only and output is via the monitor. The Metallurgical programs were written in 1987.

  6. Quantum and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of protonation and divalent ion binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2).

    PubMed

    Slochower, David R; Huwe, Peter J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A

    2013-07-18

    Molecular dynamics calculations have been used to determine the structure of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) at the quantum level and to quantify the propensity for PIP2 to bind two physiologically relevant divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). We performed a geometry optimization at the Hartree-Fock 6-31+G(d) level of theory in vacuum and with a polarized continuum dielectric to determine the conformation of the phospholipid headgroup in the presence of water and its partial charge distribution. The angle between the headgroup and the acyl chains is nearly perpendicular, suggesting that in the absence of other interactions the inositol ring would lie flat along the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. Next, we employed hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to investigate the protonation state of PIP2 and its interactions with magnesium or calcium. We test the hypothesis suggested by prior experiments that binding of magnesium to PIP2 is mediated by a water molecule that is absent when calcium binds. These results may explain the selective ability of calcium to induce the formation of PIP2 clusters and phase separation from other lipids.

  7. The effect of 0.1 atomic percent zirconium on the cyclic oxidation behavior of beta-NiAl for 300 hours at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The long time effect of 0.1 at percent Zr (0.2 wt percent Zr) on the cyclic oxidation behavior of hipped beta-NiAl was studied. Oxidation testing was performed in static air at 1200 C for up to 3000 one-hour exposure cycles. Specific weight change versus time data was modeled with the COSP computer program to analyze cyclic oxidation behavior. The Zr-free stoichiometric alloy oxidized and spalled randomly to bare metal between cycles at a rate high enough to deplete Al to a low enough level that oxidation breakaway took place as nonprotective NiO replaced the alpha-Al2O3/NiAl2O4 scale as the controlling oxide. The Zr minimized this severe type of spalling maintaining the protective alpha-Al2O3 scale even out to 3000 hours for the stoichiometric alloy with no significant Al depletion. A third beta-NiAl alloy containing 0.1 at percent Zr but with 10 percent less Al than the stoichiometric alloy was also tested and showed some depletion of Al, but the protective Al2O3/NiAl2O4 was still maintained to close to 2700 hours.

  8. The effect of 0.1 atomic percent zirconium on the cyclic oxidation behavior of beta-NiAl for 3000 hours at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    The long time effect of 0.1 at percent Zr (0.2 wt percent Zr) on the cyclic oxidation behavior of hipped beta-NiAl was studied. Oxidation testing was performed in static air at 1200 C for up to 3000 one-hour exposure cycles. Specific weight change versus time data was modeled with the COSP computer program to analyze cyclic oxidation behavior. The Zr-free stoichiometric alloy oxidized and spalled randomly to bare metal between cycles at a rate high enough to deplete Al to a low enough level that oxidation breakaway took place as nonprotective NiO replaced the alpha-Al203/NiAl204 scale as the controlling oxide. The Zr minimized this severe type of spalling maintaining the protective alpha-Al203 scale even out to 3000 hours for the stoichiometric alloy with no significant Al depletion. A third beta-NiAl alloy containing 0.1 at percent Zr but with 10 percent less Al than the stoichiometric alloy was also tested and showed some depletion of Al, but the protective Al203/NiAl204 was still maintained to close to 2700 hours.

  9. Dense Energetic Compounds of C, H, N, and O Atoms. III. 5-(4-Nitro-(1,2, 5)oxadiazolyl)-5H-(1,2,3)triazolo(4,5-c)(1,2,5)oxadiazole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-21

    1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-cI[ 1,2,5] oxadiazole by A. Gunasekaran and J. H. Boyer Published in Heteroatom Chem., 1993, accepted...Nitro-(1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3] triazolo[4,5-c] [1,2,5] oxadiazole Ananthakrishnan Gunasekaran and Joseph H. Boyer* Department of Chemistry...diaminoazofurazan 7 by treat- ment with sodium azide and underwent thermolysis to 5-[4-azido-(1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c](1,2,5] oxadiazole 5. The

  10. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  12. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  13. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  14. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  15. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  16. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  17. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  18. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  19. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  20. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  1. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  2. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Character endorsements. 4.5 Section 4.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... reputation in his community or in his circle of business or social acquaintances. Each letter or other...

  3. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... management of the United States or any of its agencies, if such vessel is manned wholly by members of...

  4. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  5. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  6. Pump-probe photoelectron velocity-map imaging of autoionizing singly excited 4s{sup 1}4p{sup 6}np{sup 1}(n=7,8) and doubly excited 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}5s{sup 1}6p{sup 1} resonances in atomic krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Benjamin; Haber, Louis H.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-10-15

    Pump-probe photoelectron velocity-map imaging, using 27-eV high-harmonic excitation and 786-nm ionization, is used to resolve overlapping autoionizing resonances in atomic krypton, obtaining two-photon photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) for singly and doubly excited states. Two features in the photoelectron spectrum are assigned to singly excited 4s{sup 1}4p{sup 6}np{sup 1} (n = 7,8) configurations and four features provide information about double excitation configurations. The anisotropy parameters for the singly excited 7p configuration are measured to be {beta}{sub 2} = 1.61 {+-} 0.06 and {beta}{sub 4} = 1.54 {+-} 0.16 while the 8p configuration gives {beta}{sub 2} = 1.23 {+-} 0.19 and {beta}{sub 4} = 0.60 {+-} 0.15. These anisotropies most likely represent the sum of overlapping PADs from states of singlet and triplet spin multiplicities. Of the four bands corresponding to ionization of doubly excited states, two are assigned to 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}5s{sup 1}6p{sup 1} configurations that are probed to different J-split ion states. The two remaining doubly excited states are attributed to a previously observed, but unassigned, resonance in the vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum. The PADs from each of the double excitation states are also influenced by overlap from neighboring states that are not completely spectrally resolved. The anisotropies of the observed double excitation states are reported, anticipating future theoretical and experimental work to separate the overlapping PADs into the state resolved PADs. The results can be used to test theories of excited state ionization.

  7. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  8. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  9. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.

    1998-05-04

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to 4.5 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigations successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen. These results are discussed in terms of future alloy development options.

  10. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  11. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Chung, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  12. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  13. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  14. Beyond Marbles: Percent Change and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Flannery

    2013-01-01

    In the author's eighth year of teaching, she hit a wall teaching percent change. Percent change is one of the few calculations taught in math classes that shows up regularly in the media, and one that she often does in her head to make sense of the world around her. Despite this, she had been teaching percent change using textbook problems about…

  15. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J.; Chung, H.M.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  16. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Platen, Mitja; Junius, Meike; Diederichsen, Ulf; Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Honigmann, Alf; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a minor component of total plasma membrane lipids, but it has a substantial role in the regulation of many cellular functions, including exo- and endocytosis. Recently, it was shown that PI(4,5)P2 and syntaxin 1, a SNARE protein that catalyzes regulated exocytosis, form domains in the plasma membrane that constitute recognition sites for vesicle docking. Also, calcium was shown to promote syntaxin 1 clustering in the plasma membrane, but the molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, using a combination of superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, FRET, and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ca2+ acts as a charge bridge that specifically and reversibly connects multiple syntaxin 1/PI(4,5)P2 complexes into larger mesoscale domains. This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca2+ concentrations is likely to be important for Ca2+-regulated secretion. PMID:26884341

  17. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district.... (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and duty stations support the bank and...

  18. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district.... (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and duty stations support the bank and...

  19. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district... Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, and Guam. (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and...

  20. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who are authorized to accept service of...

  1. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  2. Breathing 100 percent oxygen compared with 50 percent oxygen:50 percent nitrogen reduces altitude-induced venous gas emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    The study investigates effects of 40 zero-prebreathe decompressions of male subjects to 8.3-6.8 psia for 6 h while they were breathing 100 percent oxygen and performing moderate exercise. No decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms were observed. Severe venous gas emboli (VGE) were not detected at 8.3 psia, but were present during 10, 20, and 40 percent of the exposures at 7.8, 7.3, and 6.8 psia, respectively. Zero-prebreathe decompression while breathing 100 percent oxygen results in significantly lower VGE and DCS risk levels than while breathing a 50:50 mix. It is shown that 7.3 psia EVA pressure suits with 100 percent oxygen should be safer than 8.3 psia suits with a 50:50 mix.

  3. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  4. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  5. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  6. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  7. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY AND RELEASE OF INFORMATION, CONTRACTING OUTREACH PROGRAM, POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS FOR...

  8. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  9. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  10. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  11. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  12. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  13. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  14. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  15. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska...

  16. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska...

  17. 18 CFR 4.5 - Time for filing protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time for filing protest. 4.5 Section 4.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... to such reports. If no protest is filed within the time allowed, the Commission will issue such...

  18. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  19. Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A268 695 DTIC ELECTE AUG 3 0 1993 dI I Public . MILITARY MEDICINE, 158, 1:026, 1993 A Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements LT...are required to meet percent Introduction body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF...or 31-35.9% body fat (%BF), and with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Val- obese as 26 or 36%BF or greater for men and women, respec

  20. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  1. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager,...

  2. 43 CFR 3802.4-5 - Maintenance and public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-5 Maintenance and public safety. During all... otherwise identified to protect the public in accordance with applicable Federal and State laws...

  3. GBU4-5 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GBU-4 is a recently identified protein which was identified using SEREX technologies. GBU4-5 has a DEAD-box domain (like the CAGE protein), but until 2003 had not been described as eliciting an autoantibody response.

  4. Waterborne outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:-.

    PubMed

    Kozlica, Jennifer; Claudet, Amanda L; Solomon, Deborah; Dunn, John R; Carpenter, L Rand

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- is an emerging serotype, and little information regarding attribution or risk factors for infection has been documented. We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- infections in a rural community and identified the community's private water system as the source of infection. Five people were ill with gastroenteritis. Water testing identified Salmonella. Contamination of the unprotected spring from an environmental source was suspected.

  5. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  6. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2016-07-12

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  7. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2009-01-16

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  8. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  9. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  10. Understanding the O4,5 edge structure of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, M; Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Wall, M; Haire, D

    2007-12-12

    Using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, we examine the O{sub 4,5} (5d {yields} 5f) edge structure of the ground-state {alpha} phase of Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm metal. Results show that the dipole-allowed transitions are contained within the giant resonance and that the small pre-peak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O{sub 5} peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak. Lastly, we present for the first time the O{sub 4,5} EELS spectra for Np, Am, and Cm metal.

  11. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  12. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR SCIENCE, GRADES 4-5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAHAM, KATHRYN A.; AND OTHERS

    COURSE CONTENT, ACTIVITIES, AND REFERENCE INFORMATION FOR TEACHING SCIENCE IN GRADES 4, 5, AND 6 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS RELATE TO AN APPROACH TO TEACHING SCIENCE AND THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE SCIENCE PROGRAM. THE FIVE UNITS INCLUDED FOR GRADE 4 ARE (1) INSECTS AND SPIDERS, (2) LIVING THINGS OF SIMILAR AREAS, (3) THE…

  13. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. How I Love My 80 Percenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maturo, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Don't ever take your support staff for granted. By support staff, I mean the people in personnel, logistics, and finance; the ones who can make things happen with a phone call or a signature, or by the same token frustrate you to no end by their inaction; these are people you must depend on. I've spent a lot of time thinking about how to cultivate relationships with my support staff that work to the advantage of both of us. The most important thing that have learned working with people, any people--and I will tell you how I learned this in a minute--is there are some folks you just can't motivate, so forget it, don't try; others you certainly can with a little psychology and some effort; and the best of the bunch, what I call the 80 percenters, you don't need to motivate because they're already on the team and performing beautifully. The ones you can't change are rocks. Face up to it, and just kick them out of your way. I have a reputation with the people who don't want to perform or be part of the team. They don't come near me. If someone's a rock, I pick up on it right away, and I will walk around him or her to find someone better. The ones who can be motivated I take time to nurture. I consider them my projects. A lot of times these wannabes are people who want to help but don't know how. Listen, you can work with them. Lots of people in organizations have the mindset that all that matters are the regulations. God forbid if you ever work outside those regulations. They've got one foot on that regulation and they're holding it tight like a baby holds a blanket. What you're looking for is that first sign that their minds are opening. Usually you hear it in their vocabulary. What used to sound like "We can't do that ... the regulations won't allow it ... we have never done this before," well, suddenly that changes to "We have options ... let's take a look at the options ... let me research this and get back to you." The 80 percenters you want to nurture too, but

  15. 18-percent efficient terrestrial silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakers, A. W.; Green, M. A.; Jiqun, S.; Keller, E. M.; Wenham, S. R.; Godfrey, R. B.; Szpitalak, T.; Willison, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are described which operate at energy conversion efficiencies in excess of 18 percent under standard terrestrial test conditions (AM1.5, 100 mW/sq cm, 28 C). These are believed to be the most efficient silicon cells reported to date. The high efficiency is a result of the combination of high open-circuit voltage due to the careful attention paid to passivation of the top surface of the cell; high fill factors due to the high open-circuit voltage and low parasitic resistance losses; and high short-circuit current due to the use of shallow diffusions, a low grid coverage, and an optimized double-layer antireflection coating.

  16. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  17. Distribution and excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H B; Kato, S; Morales, N M; Tuey, D B

    1977-10-01

    The intestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of the major component of Firemaster BP-6,2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, has been studied in the male rat. This polybrominated biphenyl was readily absorbed from the intestine, initially distributed throughout the body, and eventually stored primarily in the adipose tissue, was not subject to appreciable metabolism, and was excreted almost exclusively in the feces and at a very slow rate. Approximately 90% of an oral dose was absorbed from the intestine, and extrapolation of the rate of excretion to infinity indicates that less than 10% of the total dose would ever be excreted.

  18. Degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1993-01-01

    Under secondary metabolic conditions the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium rapidly mineralizes 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The pathway for degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by purified lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). The multistep pathway involves cycles of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination reactions followed by quinone reduction reactions to yield the key intermediate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene, which is presumably ring cleaved. In the first step of the pathway, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol is oxidized to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone by either MnP or Lip. 2,5-Dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is then reduced to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone. The 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone is oxidized by MnP to generate 5-chloro-4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone. The orthoquinone is in turn reduced to 5-chloro-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. Finally, the 5-chlorotrihydroxybenzene undergoes another cycle of oxidative dechlorination and reduction reactions to generate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene. The latter is presumably ring cleaved, with subsequent degradation to CO2. In this pathway, the substrate is oxidatively dechlorinated by LiP or MnP in a reaction which produces a quinone. The quinone intermediate is recycled by a reduction reaction to regenerate an intermediate which is again a substrate for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination. This pathway apparently results in the removal of all three chlorine atoms before ring cleavage occurs. PMID:8328802

  19. Launchers and Improved Components for 4.5 in. Rockets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-02-09

    plotted from wind tunnel test data. P ART V An igniter was developed for use on the 4.5 inch rocket which may be inserted through the nozzle. It is...8217e. ca 8400 SM 2900 4150 411SZ 4800 500 Ifz. Provo straa 2800 3C 2640 39O 3760 4400 500 Prem aftr Feak istrs 000 gage ISMO 2000 I44 &440 W 0o tiLas ted

  20. Percent area coverage through image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  1. Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)

    SciTech Connect

    Brunke, Michael A.; Broxton, Patrick; Pelletier, Jon; Gochis, David; Hazenberg, Pieter; Lawrence, David M.; Leung, L. Ruby; Niu, Guo-Yue; Troch, Peter A.; Zeng, Xubin

    2016-05-01

    One of the recognized weaknesses of land surface models as used in weather and climate models is the assumption of constant soil thickness due to the lack of global estimates of bedrock depth. Using a 30 arcsecond global dataset for the thickness of relatively porous, unconsolidated sediments over bedrock, spatial variation in soil thickness is included here in version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). The number of soil layers for each grid cell is determined from the average soil depth for each 0.9° latitude x 1.25° longitude grid cell. Including variable soil thickness affects the simulations most in regions with shallow bedrock corresponding predominantly to areas of mountainous terrain. The greatest changes are to baseflow, with the annual minimum generally occurring earlier, while smaller changes are seen in surface fluxes like latent heat flux and surface runoff in which only the annual cycle amplitude is increased. These changes are tied to soil moisture changes which are most substantial in locations with shallow bedrock. Total water storage (TWS) anomalies do not change much over most river basins around the globe, since most basins contain mostly deep soils. However, it was found that TWS anomalies substantially differ for a river basin with more mountainous terrain. Additionally, the annual cycle in soil temperature are affected by including realistic soil thicknesses due to changes to heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  2. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator...

  7. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  8. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  9. Ca(2+) induces PI(4,5)P2 clusters on lipid bilayers at physiological PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Maria J; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    Calcium has been shown to induce clustering of PI(4,5)P2 at high and non-physiological concentrations of both the divalent ion and the phosphatidylinositol, or on supported lipid monolayers. In lipid bilayers at physiological conditions, clusters are not detected through microscopic techniques. Here, we aimed to determine through spectroscopic methodologies if calcium plays a role in PI(4,5)P2 lateral distribution on lipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Using several different approaches which included information on fluorescence quantum yield, polarization, spectra and diffusion properties of a fluorescent derivative of PI(4,5)P2 (TopFluor(TF)-PI(4,5)P2), we show that Ca(2+) promotes PI(4,5)P2 clustering in lipid bilayers at physiological concentrations of both Ca(2+) and PI(4,5)P2. Fluorescence depolarization data of TF-PI(4,5)P2 in the presence of calcium suggests that under physiological concentrations of PI(4,5)P2 and calcium, the average cluster size comprises ~15 PI(4,5)P2 molecules. The presence of Ca(2+)-induced PI(4,5)P2 clusters is supported by FCS data. Additionally, calcium mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering was more pronounced in liquid ordered (lo) membranes, and the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) clusters presented an increased affinity for lo domains. In this way, PI(4,5)P2 could function as a lipid calcium sensor and the increased efficiency of calcium-mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering on lo domains might provide targeted nucleation sites for PI(4,5)P2 clusters upon calcium stimulus.

  10. Four Percent Fallacy Revisited: Urban and Rural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, William H., III; Haas, Marilyn L.

    Cross sectional data indicate that about four percent of elderly persons reside in nursing homes. Yet many studies, some using death certificates, show actual risk of institutionalization is upwards of 25 percent. This paper presents a death registration study that examined all deaths in North Carolina and analyzed rural and urban differences. The…

  11. Molecular Determinants of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) Binding to Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuñiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V.; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  12. Tazarotene 0.1 percent cream plus clindamycin 1 percent gel versus tretinoin 0.025 percent gel plus clindamycin 1 percent gel in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tanghetti, Emil; Dhawan, Sunil; Torok, Helen; Kircik, Leon

    2007-07-13

    Topical retinoids are the cornerstone of therapy for acne vulgaris. Nevertheless, the adjunctive use of other anti-acne agents can help enhance the efficacy of topical retinoids still further. Given that tazarotene 0.1 percent gel has previously shown significantly greater efficacy than tretinoin 0.025 percent gel, it is likely that tazarotene plus clindamycin offers superior efficacy to tretinoin plus clindamycin, which has recently become available as a combination product. A total of 150 patients with facial acne vulgaris were randomly assigned to receive either tazarotene 0.1 percent cream plus clindamycin 1 percent gel, or tretinoin 0.025 percent gel plus clindamycin 1 percent gel. Each medication was applied once daily in the evening (clindamycin followed by the retinoid 5-10 minutes later) for up to 12 weeks. At week 12, the reduction from baseline in lesion counts was greater with tazarotene/clindamycin than tretinoin/clindamycin for both the non-inflammatory lesion count (71% vs. 52%, p< or =.01) and the inflammatory lesion count (77% vs. 67%, P=.053). Tazarotene/clindamycin also resulted in a significantly higher incidence of patients achieving > or = 50 percent global improvement (incidence of 88% vs. 75% at week 12; p< or =.05). Both regimens were similarly well tolerated. In the treatment of facial acne vulgaris, tazarotene plus clindamycin offers significantly greater efficacy than tretinoin plus clindamycin and has comparable tolerability.

  13. Selected fretting-wear-resistant coatings for titanium - 6-percent-aluminum - 4-percent-vanadium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A titanium - 6-percent-aluminum - 4-percent-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was subjected to fretting-wear exposures against uncoated Ti-6Al-4V as a baseline and against various coatings and surface treatments applied to Ti-6Al-4V. The coatings evaluated included plasma-sprayed tungsten carbide with 12 percent cobalt, aluminum oxide with 13 percent titanium oxide, chromium oxide, and aluminum bronze with 10 percent aromatic polyester; polymer-bonded polyimide, polyimide with graphite fluoride, polyimide with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and methyl phenyl silicone bonded MoS2, preoxidation surface treatment, a nitride surface treatment, and a sputtered MoS2 coating. Results of wear measurements on both the coated and uncoated surfaces after 300,000 fretting cycles indicated that the polyimide coating was the most wear resistant and caused the least wear to the uncoated mating surface.

  14. 6-Bromo-3-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Ghacham, Hend Bel; Rodi, Youssef Kandri; Capet, Frédéric; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C7H6BrN3O, was obtained from the reaction of 6-bromo-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one with methyl iodide. All non-H atoms lie in a common plane [r.m.s deviation = 0.017 (1) Å]. The amino group is a hydrogen-bond donor to the carbonyl group of an inversion-related mol­ecule, the pair of hydrogen bonds giving rise to a hydrogen-bonded dimer. PMID:21579134

  15. 2-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1-pentyl-4,5-di-phenyl-1H-imidazole.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jim; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Marzouk, Adel A; Talybov, Avtandil H; Abdelhamid, Antar A

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C27H28N2O, is a lophine (2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazole) derivative with an n-pentyl chain on the amine N atom and a 4-meth-oxy substituent on the benzene ring. The two phenyl and meth-oxy-benzene rings are inclined to the imidazole ring at angles of 25.32 (7), 76.79 (5) and 35.42 (7)°, respectively, while the meth-oxy substituent lies close to the plane of its benzene ring, with a maximum deviation of 0.126 (3) Å for the meth-oxy C atom. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R2(2)(22) loops. These dimers are stacked along the a-axis direction.

  16. Poly[[hexa-aqua-sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O} n , the Cu(2+) ion is hexa-coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ate (btec(4-)) ligands and one water mol-ecule. The Na(+) ion is also hexa-coordinated, by four O atoms from btec(4-) ligands and two water mol-ecules. One of the two btec(4-) mol-ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa-hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter-connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec(4-) ligands and by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec(4-) ligands and water mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  17. Simultaneous recovery of metals and degradation of organic species: copper and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abdul J; Hassan, Mukhtar-ul; Grimes, Susan M

    2009-06-15

    In mixed wastewater streams, the presence of metal ions can retard the destruction of organic contaminants and the efficiency of recovery of the metal is reduced by the presence of organic species. The reduction in the efficiency of these methods is due to the formation of complexes between the organic species and the metal ions in solution. Results are presented for copper-2,4,5-T system in which both effects occur. A photolytic cell alone can achieve the complete degradation of 2,4,5-T, in the presence of TiO(2) or H(2)O(2), at pH 3.5. The addition of Cu(II) ions, however, retard the degradation of 2,4,5-T and complete mineralisation of 2,4,5-T was not achieved and the system also leaves Cu(II) ions in solution. An electrolytic cell alone can be used to recover copper in pH range 1.5-4.5 but is not capable of achieving complete disappearance of 2,4,5-T by anodic oxidation. A combined photolytic-electrolytic system is capable of achieving simultaneous destruction of 2,4,5-T and recovery of copper from mixed wastewater streams at pH 3.5. The percentage destruction of 2,4,5-T and the recovery of copper can be increased further by using a combined photolytic and an activated carbon concentrator cell system. This system can achieve the simultaneous recovery of copper and the degradation of 2,4,5-T without the use of an additional oxidants or catalysts.

  18. 1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as emerging pronucleophiles in asymmetric catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric catalysis represents a very powerful tool for the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. In this context the main focus has been directed not only to the search for new efficient chiral catalysts, but also to the development of efficient pronucleophiles. This review highlights the utility and first examples of 1H-imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as pronucleophiles in catalytic asymmetric reactions. PMID:27340482

  19. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  20. Synthesis and structures of ruthenium di- and tricarbonyl complexes derived from 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Chakraborty, Indranil; Mascharak, Pradip

    2015-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been shown to impart beneficial effects in mammalian physiology and considerable research attention is now being directed toward metal-carbonyl complexes as a means of delivering CO to biological targets. Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes, namely trans-dicarbonyldichlorido(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-κ(2)N,N')ruthenium(II), [RuCl2(C11H6N2O)(CO)2], (1), and fac-tricarbonyldichlorido(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-κN)ruthenium(II), [RuCl2(C11H6N2O)(CO)3], (2), have been isolated and structurally characterized. In the case of complex (1), the trans-directing effect of the CO ligands allows bidentate coordination of the 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (dafo) ligand despite a larger bite distance between the N-donor atoms. In complex (2), the cis disposition of two chloride ligands restricts the ability of the dafo molecule to bind ruthenium in a bidentate fashion. Both complexes exhibit well defined (1)H NMR spectra confirming the diamagnetic ground state of Ru(II) and display a strong absorption band around 300 nm in the UV.

  1. Dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole: a highly luminescent electron-accepting building block.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Woo, Alva Y Y; Borau-Garcia, Javier; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2013-06-03

    A family of highly emissive dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes has been designed and synthesized. The structures of two trivalent P species, as well as their corresponding P oxides, have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The parent dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole oxide exhibits strong blue photoluminescence at λem = 442 nm, with an excellent quantum yield efficiency of ϕPL = 0.81. The photophysical properties of these compounds can be easily tuned by extension of the conjugation and modification of the phosphorus center. Compared with the established dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]phosphole system, the incorporation of electronegative nitrogen atoms leads to significantly lowered frontier orbital energy levels, as validated by both electrochemistry and theoretical calculations, thus suggesting that the dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes are valuable, air-stable, n-type conjugated materials. These new building blocks have been further applied to the construction of an extended oligomer with fluorene. Extension of the dithiazolophosphole core with triazole units through click reactions also provides a suitable N,N-chelating moiety for metal binding and a representative molecular species was successfully used as a selective colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for Cu(II) ions.

  2. Development of high efficiency (14 percent) solar cell array module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Khemthong, S.; Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.; Ling, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    Most effort was concentrated on development of procedures to provide large area (3 in. diameter) high efficiency (16.5 percent AM1, 28 C) P+NN+ solar cells. Intensive tests with 3 in. slices gave consistently lower efficiency (13.5 percent). The problems were identified as incomplete formation of and optimum back surface field (BSF), and interaction of the BSF process and the shallow P+ junction. The problem was shown not to be caused by reduced quality of silicon near the edges of the larger slices.

  3. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzamide-based derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ligia R.; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy­droxy­hex­yl)-3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex­yl)-3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di­eth­oxy­hex­yl)-3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol­ecules. In each mol­ecule, the m-meth­oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth­oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N—H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol­ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal –OH group links the mol­ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 2(17) rings in which the ⋯O—H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri­meth­oxy­benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N—H group to an O atom of the 4-meth­oxy group link the mol­ecules into a chain of R 2 2(17) rings. In 3, the mol­ecules are linked only by C(4) chains. PMID:27308017

  4. School Designed To Use 80 Percent Less Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The new Terraset Elementary School in Reston, Virginia, uses earth as a cover for the roof area and for about 80 percent of the wall area. A heat recovery system will be used with solar collectors playing a primary role in heating and cooling. (Author/MLF)

  5. Tricky Times for the Top 10 Percent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Both supporters and critics of Texas' Top 10 Percent law have been surprised at its popularity, but some UT officials and legislators would like to see the program scaled back. As a Texas state legislator, Jim McReynolds, D-Lufkin, knows a thing or two about influencing the voting positions of his colleagues. This past spring, when Texas House…

  6. Grieving: 22 to 30 Percent of All College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.

    2008-01-01

    At any given time, 22 to 30 percent of college undergraduates are in the first twelve months of grieving the death of a family member or friend. This conclusion, startling to some but accepted by others, comes from a variety of sources at academic sites in the United States and Europe. Information about the prevalence rate resulted from clinical…

  7. 35 GHz integrated circuit rectifying antenna with 33 percent efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, T.-W.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    A 35 GHz integrated circuit rectifying antenna (rectenna) has been developed using a microstrip dipole antenna and beam-lead mixer diode. Greater than 33 percent conversion efficiency has been achieved. The circuit should have applications in microwave/millimeter-wave power transmission and detection.

  8. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  9. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  10. Realities and Myths of the Top 10 Percent Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in Texas a baker's dozen years ago, educators look forward with every new legislative session to another round of discussion about the "top 10 percent rule," which guarantees admission to the state's public universities for these talented high school graduates. Originally passed as a way to increase enrollment of…

  11. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  12. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  13. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  14. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  15. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  16. Issues of Institutionalization: Five Percent Fallacies and Terminal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Edwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the "5 percent fallacy," which refers to the number of older people living in institutions at a given time, and the likelihood of an older person dying in an institution. Three articles discuss research methodology, data interpretation, and measuring techniques. (JAC)

  17. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  18. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N-body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k<=1 h Mpc-1 and to within three percent at k<=10 h Mpc-1. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k<= 2 h Mpc-1. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L=0.5 h-1Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of Mp=109 h-1Msolar is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  19. Crystal structure of 4,5-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The title compound, C20H23N3O6·CH3OH, was synthesized by [3 + 2] cyclo-addition of (Z)-2,3-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in DMF/water. The central nitro-gen of the triazole ring is protonated. The dihedral angles between the triazole ring and the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl ring planes are 34.31 (4) and 45.03 (5)°, while that between the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings is 51.87 (5)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules, along with two methanol solvent mol-ecules are linked into an R (4) 4(10) centrosymmetric dimer by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  20. First-principles studies of complex hydride YMn2H6 and its synthesis from metal hydride YMn2H4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Motoaki; Miwa, Kazutoshi; Semboshi, Satoshi; Li, Hai-Wen; Kano, Mika; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2011-05-01

    First-principles calculations were performed for a complex hydride YMn2H6 to investigate its electronic structure and thermodynamic stability. The results indicated that an Y atom and one of two Mn atoms were ionized as Y3+ and Mn2+, respectively, and another Mn atom bound covalently to H atoms to form a [MnH6]5- complex anion. Based on the enthalpy change of -65 kJ/mol estimated from the calculation, we experimentally verified a possible low-pressure synthesis of YMn2H6 from a metal hydride YMn2H4.5. X-ray diffractometry confirmed the formation of YMn2H6 after hydrogenation below 5 MPa, much lower than the previously reported value of 170 MPa.

  1. Microbial biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Karns, J S; Kilbane, J J; Chatterjee, D K; Chakrabarty, A M

    1984-01-01

    We have succeeded in isolating a pure culture of Pseudomonas cepacia, AC1100, from a chemostat enrichment culture experiment that is capable of growing on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid as its sole source of carbon and energy. AC1100 is not only capable of degrading 2,4,5-T but is also able to completely or partially dehalogenate a wide variety of halophenols. The regulation of the dehalogenating ability of AC1100 has been investigated which demonstrates that the enzyme(s) which allow the conversion of 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-TCP are constitutive, while the enzymes that allow the degradation of 2,4,5-TCP are inducible by 2,4,5-TCP (or some metabolite of 2,4,5-TCP) but not by 2,4,5-T or other halophenols which can serve as substrates. Moreover, the 2,4,5-TCP degradative pathway is repressed by the presence of an abundant alternative carbon source. The detailed pathway of 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 is currently under study. Although field tests have yet to be conducted, laboratory experiments have demonstrated rapid and complete degradation of 2,4,5-T from contaminated soil. Soil previously contaminated with as much as 5,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil could be detoxified by AC1100 treatment, allowing the growth of plants sensitive to less than 10 micrograms 2,4,5-T/g of soil. Moreover soil contaminated with as much as 20,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil showed greater than 90% degradation after six weekly AC1100 treatments. After 2,4,5-T has been substantially degraded in contaminated soil the titer of AC1100 rapidly falls to nearly undetectable levels, which indicates that no serious ecological disturbance is likely to result from the application of AC1100. It appears possible that the treatment of contaminated areas with appropriate microorganisms may allow essentially a total restoration of the original soil condition.

  2. 28 percent efficient GaAs concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, H. F.; Hamaker, H. C.; Kaminar, N. R.; Kuryla, M. S.; Ladle Ristow, M.

    1988-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs heteroface solar concentrator cells which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 27 percent at high solar concentrations (over 400 suns, AM1.5D, 100 mW/sq cm) have been fabricated with both n/p and p/n configurations. The best n/p cell achieved an efficiency of 28.1 percent around 400 suns, and the best p/n cell achieved an efficiency of 27.5 percent around 1000 suns. The high performance of these GaAs concentrator cells compared to earlier high-efficiency cells was due to improved control of the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth conditions and improved cell fabrication procedures (gridline definition and edge passivation). The design parameters of the solar cell structures and optimized grid pattern were determined with a realistic computer modeling program. An evaluation of the device characteristics and a discussion of future GaAs concentrator cell development are presented.

  3. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  4. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  5. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  6. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  7. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  8. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  9. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. (a) Outage is defined as a... government facilities.” 911 special facilities are addressed separately in paragraph (e) of this section....

  10. 24 CFR 4.5 - Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a). 4.5 Section 4.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  11. Analysis of data mining classification by comparison of C4.5 and ID algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajat, R.; Irianingsih, I.; Krisnawan, D.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology, triggered by the intensive use of information technology. For example, data mining widely used in investment. Many techniques that can be used assisting in investment, the method that used for classification is decision tree. Decision tree has a variety of algorithms, such as C4.5 and ID3. Both algorithms can generate different models for similar data sets and different accuracy. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provide accuracy are 87.16% and 99.83% and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 89.69%. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provides 520 and 598 customers and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 546 customers. From the analysis of the both algorithm it can classified quite well because error rate less than 15%.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate ionization in the presence of cholesterol, calcium or magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Graber, Zachary T; Gericke, Arne; Kooijman, Edgar E

    2014-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is an important signaling lipid and plays a crucial role in a wide variety of cellular processes by interacting with protein targets and localizing proteins at the plasma membrane. These interactions are strongly influenced by the lateral distribution of PI(4,5)P2 as well as its ionization state. The characterization of the PI(4,5)P2 ionization state provides important information about how PI(4,5)P2 interacts with other membrane resident or associated chemical species. In this study we have used solid-state MAS (31)P NMR to investigate the interactions of PI(4,5)P2 with potential cluster promoting agents, divalent cations and cholesterol. Both Ca(2+) and cholesterol were found previously to promote formation of local PI(4,5)P2 clusters in vitro. The NMR approach allows us to probe independently the ionization state of PI(4,5)P2 two phosphomonoester groups. We investigated mixed phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PI(4,5)P2 multilamellar vesicles in the presence of micro and millimolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). We found that both cations lead to an increased downfield chemical shift of the PI(4,5)P2 phosphomonoester peaks, indicating an increased ionization in the presence of the divalent cations. Ca(2+) has a much larger effect on PI(4,5)P2 as compared to Mg(2+) at similar concentrations. Physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) are significantly lower than those found for Mg(2+) and the comparison of the PI(4,5)P2 ionization in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at physiological concentrations resulted in similar charges of the phosphomonoester groups for both cations. PI(4,5)P2 was also examined with vesicles containing cholesterol since cholesterol has been shown to promote PI(4,5)P2 clustering. In the presence of 40 mol% cholesterol, the PI(4,5)P2 phosphomonoester (31)P NMR peaks shifted slightly downfield, indicating a small increase in charge. Previously published data suggest that PI(4,5)P2 is capable of

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray structure and DFT studies on 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ium chloride hydrate.

    PubMed

    Türkyılmaz, Murat; Özdemir, Namık; Baran, Yakup

    2011-11-01

    The title molecular salt, 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ium chloride hydrate (C(12)H(14)N(3)O(+)·Cl-·H(2)O), was synthesized and characterized by IR-NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the molecular geometry from X-ray experiment, the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values of the title compound in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets, and compared with the experimental data. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distribution and non-linear optical properties of the title compound were investigated by theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level.

  14. Novel synthesis, structural analysis, photophysical properties and theoretical study of 2,4,5-tris(2-pyridyl)imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Báez-Castro, Alberto; Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel; Höpfl, Herbert; Cruz-Enríquez, Adriana; Miranda-Soto, Valentín; Parra-Hake, Miguel; Campos-Gaxiola, José J.

    2015-11-01

    2,4,5-Tris(2-pyridyl)imidazole has been successfully synthetized by a novel synthetic route and fully characterized by FT-IR,UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C{1H} ATP, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY 1H-13C HSQC and HMBC) high-resolution, mass spectrometry (HR-FAB+), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Additionally, the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities were calculated by density functional theory using the M06/6-31G(d) level of theory, showing good agreement with the experimental results. The title compound showed interesting photophysical properties, which were studied experimentally in solution and in the solid state by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and theoretically using TD-DFT calculations. Natural and Mulliken atomic charges and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) have been mapped.

  15. IET. Aerial view of project, 95 percent complete. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Aerial view of project, 95 percent complete. Camera facing east. Left to right: stack, duct, mobile test cell building (TAN-624), four-rail track, dolly. Retaining wall between mobile test building and shielded control building (TAN-620) just beyond. North of control building are tank building (TAN-627) and fuel-transfer pump building (TAN-625). Guard house at upper right along exclusion fence. Construction vehicles and temporary warehouse in view near guard house. Date: June 6, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1462 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  17. Congress approves 13 percent increase in AIDS spending.

    PubMed

    1996-10-18

    A Republican Congress voted for a significant increase in AIDS-related spending for the fiscal year 1996. Increases were granted in every major program, including the Ryan White CARE Act and the once-doomed Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program. Overall, discretionary spending for Federal AIDS programs rose by 13 percent. This increase includes an additional $94 million for AIDS-related research at the National Institute's of Health (NIH). Advocates call on policy-makers to develop a long-term strategy for providing drugs to those who lack private insurance and are not qualified for Medicaid.

  18. Creep behaviour of Cu-30 percent Zn at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present, intermediate-temperature (573-823 K) range investigation of creep properties for single-phase Cu-30 percent Zn alpha-brass observed inverse, linear, and sigmoidal primary-creep transients above 573 K under stresses that yield minimum creep rates in the 10 to the -7th to 2 x 10 to the -4th range; normal primary creep occurred in all other conditions. In conjunction with a review of the pertinent literature, a detailed analysis of these data suggests that no clearly defined, classes M-to-A-to-M transition exists in this alloy notwithstanding the presence of both classes' characteristics under nominally similar stresses and temperatures.

  19. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  20. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  1. Smooth muscle length-dependent PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sul, D; Baron, C B; Broome, R; Coburn, R F

    2001-07-01

    We studied effects of increasing the length of porcine trachealis muscle on 5.5 microM carbachol (CCh)-evoked phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] synthesis and other parameters of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis rates in muscle held at 1.0 optimal length (L(o)), measured over the first 6 min of CCh stimulation, were 140 +/- 12 and 227 +/- 14% of values found in muscle held at 0.5 L(o) and in free-floating muscle, respectively. Time-dependent changes in cellular masses of PI(4,5)P2, PI, and phosphatidic acid, and PI resynthesis rates, were also altered by the muscle length at which contraction occurred. In free-floating muscle, CCh did not evoke increases in tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin (PTyr-paxillin), an index of beta1-integrin signaling; however, there were progressive increases in PTyr-paxillin in muscle held at 0.5 and 1.0 L(o) during contraction, which correlated with increases in PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates. These data indicate that PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates and other parameters of CCh-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover are muscle length-dependent and provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that length-dependent beta1-integrin signals may exert control on CCh-activated PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  2. RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-07-29

    Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

  3. A series of 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazole: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Vinay S.; Shaikh, Saminaparwin G.; Patel, Arun L.

    2016-06-01

    A new series of 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole were synthesized with good yields using simple methodology. All the compounds were thoroughly characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry and structures of 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyloxazole (5b) and 4,5-dimethyl-2-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)oxazole(5e) were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidently, the crystal structures of these compounds showed C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions. The electronic structures of these compounds were also studied by DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ++ level of theory.

  4. The in vitro metabolism of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R; Safe, S

    1980-08-01

    Radiolabelled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl was metabolized in vitro by rat liver microsomal enzymes to give more polar ether soluble lipophilic metabolites, trichloroacetic acid soluble conjugates and a macromolecular adduct fraction. The rates of formation of the three metabolic fractions were significantly enhanced using Firemaster BP-6 and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl induced microsomal enzymes. Comparative metabolic studies with the 4-brombiphenyl substrate showed that the lower brominated biphenyl substrate was more readily metabolized and the rate of metabolism was enhanced only with the Firemaster BP-6 induced microsomal enzymes and not the 2,2', 4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl induced enzyme system.

  5. Bis(tetra-methyl-amonium) bis-(2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate)-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Girginova, Penka I; Trindade, Tito; Rocha, João; Klinowski, Jacek; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2007-12-06

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C(4)H(12)N(+)·2C(10)H(5)O(8) (-)·C(10)H(6)O(8), consists of a tetra-methyl-amonium cation, an anion derived from the singly deprotonated pyromellitic acid anion, 2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate (H(3)bta(-)), and one-half of a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (H(4)bta) mol-ecule, which has the centroid of the aromatic ring positioned at a crystallographic centre of inversion. The H(4)bta and H(3)bta(-) residues are involved in an extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network, which leads to a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure containing one-dimensional channels running parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. These channels house the tetra-methyl-amonium cations.

  6. Syntheses and crystal structures of two ionic liquids with halogen-bonding groups: 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    We have prepared and characterized two novel Lewis acidic ionic liquids, 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates, using differential scanning calorimetry and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The effect of the halogen species on the phase transition behaviour and the cation-anion interacting geometry was investigated. The minor difference in chemical structure strongly affects the melting point, glass transition temperature and crystal structure because of the different halogen-bonding strength and linearity between C-Br⋯O and C-I⋯O. Both the salts melt above room temperature, but the fused salts show glass-forming property and poor crystallizability.

  7. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  8. Atomic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  9. [Comparative study of single strand conformation polymorphism of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Gong, L; Zhang, L; Li, S; Zhu, S

    1994-04-01

    A recently developed technique, non-isotopic single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR-SSCP), was applied to study the conserved feature of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria. The 4.5S RNA gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using the template DNA extracted respectively from five strains of Escherichia coli and three strains of different genera in Enterobacteriaceae, i.e. Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter aerogenes. The PCR products were then carried out SSCP analysis. The experimental results showed that there seemed to be no detectable differences in the size and single strand conformation of 4.5S RNA genes from above strains, except the negative strand conformation of Enterobacter aerogenes. Thus it can be seen that the secondary structures of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria are quite conservative.

  10. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.

  11. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation. PMID:23392104

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Yuriy V; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A; Ache, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel.

  13. The elongation factor Spt4/5 regulates RNA polymerase II transcription through the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Crickard, John B; Lee, Jaehyoun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Reese, Joseph C

    2017-04-03

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) passes through the nucleosome in a coordinated manner, generating several intermediate nucleosomal states as it breaks and then reforms histone-DNA contacts ahead of and behind it, respectively. Several studies have defined transcription-induced nucleosome intermediates using only RNA Polymerase. However, RNAPII is decorated with elongation factors as it transcribes the genome. One such factor, Spt4/5, becomes an integral component of the elongation complex, making direct contact with the 'jaws' of RNAPII and nucleic acids in the transcription scaffold. We have characterized the effect of incorporating Spt4/5 into the elongation complex on transcription through the 601R nucleosome. Spt4/5 suppressed RNAPII pausing at the major H3/H4-induced arrest point, resulting in downstream re-positioning of RNAPII further into the nucleosome. Using a novel single molecule FRET system, we found that Spt4/5 affected the kinetics of DNA re-wrapping and stabilized a nucleosomal intermediate with partially unwrapped DNA behind RNAPII. Comparison of nucleosomes of different sequence polarities suggest that the strength of the DNA-histone interactions behind RNAPII specifies the Spt4/5 requirement. We propose that Spt4/5 may be important to coordinate the mechanical movement of RNAPII through the nucleosome with co-transcriptional chromatin modifications during transcription, which is affected by the strength of histone-DNA interactions.

  14. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRANS-4,5-DIHYDROXY-4,5-DIHYDROBENZO[A]PYRENE TO BENZO[A]PYRENE-BIS-DIOLS AND DNA ADDUCTS BY INDUCED RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of (+)-trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol), the K-region dihydrodiol of B[a]P, by B-naphthoflavone (BNF)-induced rat liver microsomes was studied. Trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol was metabolized to six major products as characterized by...

  15. One Percent Strömvil Photometry in M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. D.; Boyle, R. P.; Janusz, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham is being used in a program of CCD photometry of open and globular clusters. We are using the Ströomvil System (Straižys et al. 1996), a combination of the Strömgren and Vilnius Systems. This system allows stars to be classified as to temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and reddening from the photometric measures alone. However, to make accurate estimates of the stellar parameters the photometry should be accurate to 1 or 1.5 percent. In our initial runs on the VATT we did not achieve this accuracy. The problem turned out to be scattered light in the telescope and this has now been reduced so we can do accurate photometry. Boyle has written a routine in IRAF which allows us to correct the flats for any differences. We take rotated frames and also frames which are offset in position by one third of a frame, east-west and north-south. Measures of the offset stars give us the corrections that need to be made to the flat. Robert Janusz has written a program, the CommandLog, which allows us to paste IRAF commands in the correct order to reduce measures made on a given observing run. There is an automatic version where one can test various parameters and get a set of solutions. Now we have a set of Strömvil frames in the open cluster, M 67 and we compare our color-magnitude diagram with those of BATC (Fan et al. 1996) and Vilnius (Boyle et al. 1998). A preliminary report of the M 67 photometry will be found in Laugalys et al. (2004). Here we report on a selected set of stars in the M 67 frames, those with errors 1 percent or less.

  16. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  17. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  18. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  19. Pharmacological Potential and Synthetic Approaches of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and Imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Krause, Malwina; Foks, Henryk; Gobis, Katarzyna

    2017-03-04

    The structural resemblance between the fused imidazopyridine heterocyclic ring system and purines has prompted biological investigations to assess their potential therapeutic significance. They are known to play a crucial role in numerous disease conditions. The discovery of their first bioactivity as GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators divulged their medicinal potential. Proton pump inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors, and NSAIDs were also found in this chemical group. Imidazopyridines have the ability to influence many cellular pathways necessary for the proper functioning of cancerous cells, pathogens, components of the immune system, enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, etc. The collective results of biochemical and biophysical properties foregrounded their medicinal significance in central nervous system, digestive system, cancer, inflammation, etc. In recent years, new preparative methods for the synthesis of imidazopyridines using various catalysts have been described. The present manuscript to the best of our knowledge is the complete compilation on the synthesis and medicinal aspects of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines and imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines reported from the year 2000 to date, including structure-activity relationships.

  20. Regulation of gene expression via retrotransposon insertions and the noncoding RNA 4.5S RNAH.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Kimura, Yuko; Mito, Mari; Okada, Shunpei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) comprise a significant portion of mammalian genomes and regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. Here, we show that Myodonta clade-specific 4.5S RNAH (4.5SH), an abundant nuclear noncoding RNA that is highly homologous to the retrotransposon SINE B1, controls the expression of reporter gene that contains the antisense insertion of SINE B1 via nuclear retention. The depletion of endogenous 4.5SH with antisense oligonucleotides neutralizes the nuclear retention and changes the subcellular distribution of the reporter transcripts containing the antisense SINE B1 insertion. Importantly, endogenous transcripts with antisense SINE B1 were increased in the cytoplasm after knockdown of 4.5SH, leading to a decrease in cellular growth. We propose a tentative hypothesis that the amplification of the 4.5SH cluster in specific rodent species might delineate their evolutionary direction via the regulation of genes containing the antisense insertion of SINE B1.

  1. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ran expression during simulated and real microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, B; Theisen, R; Schnabl, H

    2006-12-01

    In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate dynamically regulates the K2P background K+ channel TASK-2

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L. Pablo; Paulais, Marc; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.

    2017-01-01

    Two-pore domain K2P K+ channels responsible for the background K+ conductance and the resting membrane potential, are also finely regulated by a variety of chemical, physical and physiological stimuli. Hormones and transmitters acting through Gq protein-coupled receptors (GqPCRs) modulate the activity of various K2P channels but the signalling involved has remained elusive, in particular whether dynamic regulation by membrane PI(4,5)P2, common among other classes of K+ channels, affects K2P channels is controversial. Here we show that K2P K+ channel TASK-2 requires PI(4,5)P2 for activity, a dependence that accounts for its run down in the absence of intracellular ATP and its full recovery by addition of exogenous PI(4,5)P2, its inhibition by low concentrations of polycation PI scavengers, and inhibition by PI(4,5)P2 depletion from the membrane. Comprehensive mutagenesis suggests that PI(4,5)P2 interaction with TASK-2 takes place at C-terminus where three basic aminoacids are identified as being part of a putative binding site. PMID:28358046

  3. RNA polymerase and transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brianna J.; Bose, Daniel; Baker, Kevin J.; Yusoff, Zahirah M.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2011-01-01

    Spt4/5 in archaea and eukaryote and its bacterial homolog NusG is the only elongation factor conserved in all three domains of life and plays many key roles in cotranscriptional regulation and in recruiting other factors to the elongating RNA polymerase. Here, we present the crystal structure of Spt4/5 as well as the structure of RNA polymerase-Spt4/5 complex using cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction and single particle analysis. The Spt4/5 binds in the middle of RNA polymerase claw and encloses the DNA, reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp and ring helicases. The transcription elongation complex model reveals that the Spt4/5 is an upstream DNA holder and contacts the nontemplate DNA in the transcription bubble. These structures reveal that the cellular RNA polymerases also use a strategy of encircling DNA to enhance its processivity as commonly observed for many nucleic acid processing enzymes including DNA polymerases and helicases. PMID:21187417

  4. Synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, R J; Kaiser, S L; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate using a water-soluble carbodiimide. We obtained 1-1.5 mumol of the inositol cyclic trisphosphate starting with 5 mumol of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The cyclized product was isolated by HPLC on Partisil SAX. The identity of the cyclic product was verified by its hydrolysis to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in acid and by its conversion to 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate by a specific 5-phosphomonoesterase from platelets. We also identified the product by 31P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a peak at 17.2 ppm, characteristic of a five-membered cyclic phosphodiester ring, and peaks at 4.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, indicative of phosphomonoesters. This relatively simple method for producing inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate will facilitate studies of the physiology of this compound in signal transduction. PMID:3469663

  5. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4-5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-10-10

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4-5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  6. Atomic supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

  7. Human erythrocyte membrane proteins of zone 4.5 exist as families of related proteins.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C F; Coleman, D B; Kay, M M; Shiffer, K A; Miller, J; Goodman, S R

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the polypeptide composition of zone 4.5 of human erythrocyte membranes has been done by immunoautoradiographic and two-dimensional peptide mapping techniques. Results of these studies demonstrated that the Coomassie blue profile was constant, with 14 well-resolved bands present. Zone 4.5 polypeptides existed as at least four families of two or more components with closely related polypeptide backbones. The families could be distinguished on the basis of their extraction characteristics, immunological cross-reactivity, and two-dimensional peptide maps. One family was related to protein 4.1, one family was related to band 3, and two families were independent and not similar to other larger membrane proteins. The data show that all of the visualized bands in zone 4.5 do not have the same protein composition and that several closely related forms of some polypeptides are present.

  8. A new calmodulin-binding motif for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Baños-Sanz, Jose I; Monterroso, Begoña; Round, Adam; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; González, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    IP3-3K [Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase] is a key enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, using Ins(1,4,5)P3 and ATP as substrates. Both inositides, substrate and product, present crucial roles in the cell. Ins(1,4,5)P3 is a key point in Ca2+ metabolism that promotes Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and together with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates Ca2+ homoeostasis. In addition, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is involved in immune cell development. It has been proved that Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) regulates the activity of IP3-3K, via direct interaction between both enzymes. Although we have extensive structural knowledge of the kinase domains of the three IP3-3K isoforms, no structural information is available about the interaction between IP3-3K and Ca2+/CaM. In the present paper we describe the crystal structure of the complex between human Ca2+/CaM and the CaM-binding region of human IP3-3K isoform A (residues 158-183) and propose a model for a complex including the kinase domain. The structure obtained allowed us to identify all of the key residues involved in the interaction, which have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, pull-down and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. The results allowed the identification of a new CaM-binding motif, expanding our knowledge about how CaM interacts with its partners.

  9. Probing the Physical Properties of z = 4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pakzad, Sabrina; Salmon, Brett; Wang, Junxian

    2015-11-01

    We present the results from a stellar population modeling analysis of a sample of 162 z = 4.5 and 14 z = 5.7 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the Boötes field, using deep Spitzer/IRAC data at 3.6 and 4.5 μm from the Spitzer Lyα Survey, along with Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS and WFC3 imaging at 1.1 and 1.6 μm for a subset of the LAEs. This represents one of the largest samples of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer IRAC. We find that 30/162 (19%) of the z = 4.5 LAEs and 9/14 (64%) of the z = 5.7 LAEs are detected at ≥3σ in at least one IRAC band. Individual z = 4.5 IRAC-detected LAEs have a large range of stellar mass, from 5 × 108-1011 {M}⊙ . One-third of the IRAC-detected LAEs have older stellar population ages of 100 Myr-1 Gyr, while the remainder have ages <100 Myr. A stacking analysis of IRAC-undetected LAEs shows this population to be primarily low mass (8-20 × 108 {M}⊙ ) and young (64-570 Myr). We find a correlation between stellar mass and the dust-corrected ultraviolet-based star formation rate (SFR) similar to that at lower redshifts, in that higher mass galaxies exhibit higher SFRs. However, the z = 4.5 LAE correlation is elevated 4-5 times in SFR compared to continuum-selected galaxies at similar redshifts. The exception is the most massive LAEs which have SFRs similar to galaxies at lower redshifts suggesting that they may represent a different population of galaxies than the traditional lower-mass LAEs, perhaps with a different mechanism promoting Lyα photon escape.

  10. Calcium Directly Regulates Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Headgroup Conformation and Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The orchestrated recognition of phosphoinositides and concomitant intracellular release of Ca2+ is pivotal to almost every aspect of cellular processes, including membrane homeostasis, cell division and growth, vesicle trafficking, as well as secretion. Although Ca2+ is known to directly impact phosphoinositide clustering, little is known about the molecular basis for this or its significance in cellular signaling. Here, we study the direct interaction of Ca2+ with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), the main lipid marker of the plasma membrane. Electrokinetic potential measurements of PI(4,5)P2 containing liposomes reveal that Ca2+ as well as Mg2+ reduce the zeta potential of liposomes to nearly background levels of pure phosphatidylcholine membranes. Strikingly, lipid recognition by the default PI(4,5)P2 lipid sensor, phospholipase C delta 1 pleckstrin homology domain (PLC δ1-PH), is completely inhibited in the presence of Ca2+, while Mg2+ has no effect with 100 nm liposomes and modest effect with giant unilamellar vesicles. Consistent with biochemical data, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal how Ca2+ binding to the PI(4,5)P2 headgroup and carbonyl regions leads to confined lipid headgroup tilting and conformational rearrangements. We rationalize these findings by the ability of calcium to block a highly specific interaction between PLC δ1-PH and PI(4,5)P2, encoded within the conformational properties of the lipid itself. Our studies demonstrate the possibility that switchable phosphoinositide conformational states can serve as lipid recognition and controlled cell signaling mechanisms. PMID:28177616

  11. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  12. Cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and skin irritation of 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate and di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate.

    PubMed

    Monhaphol, Thitinun; Yibchok-Anun, Sirinthorn; Banlunara, Wijit; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Palaga, Tanapat; Asawanonda, Pravit; Wanichweacharungruang, Supason

    2008-01-01

    Safety of two new ultraviolet (UV) filters, 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (E8) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (B8), has been evaluated through the human melanoma cytotoxicity test and seven-day acute oral toxicity studies in rats. At 2.5 mg/mL, both compounds gave similar cell viability to the control. LD50 values for E8 and B8 are more than 5000 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. No significant difference in body weight and hematological parameters among the 0, 5, 50, 500, and 5000 mg/Kg E8-treated animals could be detected. Pathological examination of rat tissues collected at the end of the study period revealed no significant difference between the control and all E8-administered rats. There was no significant difference in all clinical blood chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cholesterol), except alanine aminotransferase (ALT), between the control and the E8-treated animals. All ALT values were, however, in the normal range of SD rats. E8 showed negative results for the skin irritation study on human volunteers, using patch and photopatch tests. Excitation of respiratory signs of dypsnea in 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated rats could be observed during 1-24 h. All groups were, however, normal during the second to the seventh day. Hematological parameters of the 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated animals showed no significant difference. Pathological examination revealed no significant difference between the control and all B8-administered rats. However, significant differences in some clinical blood chemistry parameters and body weights between the control and some B8-treated animals could be detected. All values, however, were in the normal ranges of the SD rats.

  13. 2-Methyl-sulfanyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxin-2-ium tetra-fluoro-borate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan; Chen, Xinzhi

    2012-04-01

    The title compound, C(6)H(7)O(2)S(3) (+)·BF(4) (-), consists of a planar 2-thioxo-1,3-dithiol-4,5-yl unit [maximum deviation from the ring plane = 0.020 (3) Å], with an ethyl-enedi-oxy group fused at the 4,5-positions; the ethyl-enedi-oxy C atoms are disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.5. The 1,4-dioxine ring has a twist-chair conformation. Weak cation-anion S⋯F inter-actions [3.022 (4)-3.095 (4) Å] and an S⋯O [3.247 (4) Å] inter-action are present.

  14. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume I: The Basic Functions of the Navigator Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This first of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on the basic functions of the Navigator component. Lesson 1 covers terminology and methods to connect to the World Wide Web, hardware needed, and a Netscape Communicator overview. Lesson 2 introduces the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus, and how to change the default…

  15. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  16. Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, K L; Kirchner, M; Guerra, B; Granier, S A; Lucarelli, C; Porrero, M C; Jakubczak, A; Threlfall, E J; Mevius, D J

    2010-06-03

    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s.

  17. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  18. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  19. 60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Bottom of swing span and top of center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  20. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  1. Dynamic NHERF interaction with TRPC4/5 proteins is required for channel gating by diacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Ursula; Forst, Anna-Lena; Pardatscher, Franziska; Erdogmus, Serap; Philipp, Maximilian; Gregoritza, Manuel; Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Gudermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The activation mechanism of the classical transient receptor potential channels TRPC4 and -5 via the Gq/11 protein-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway has remained elusive so far. In contrast to all other TRPC channels, the PLC product diacylglycerol (DAG) is not sufficient for channel activation, whereas TRPC4/5 channel activity is potentiated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion. As a characteristic structural feature, TRPC4/5 channels contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif allowing for binding of the scaffolding proteins Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and 2. PKC inhibition or the exchange of threonine for alanine in the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif conferred DAG sensitivity to the channel. Altogether, we present a DAG-mediated activation mechanism for TRPC4/5 channels tightly regulated by NHERF1/2 interaction. PIP2 depletion evokes a C-terminal conformational change of TRPC5 proteins leading to dynamic dissociation of NHERF1/2 from the C terminus of TRPC5 as a prerequisite for DAG sensitivity. We show that NHERF proteins are direct regulators of ion channel activity and that DAG sensitivity is a distinctive hallmark of TRPC channels. PMID:27994151

  2. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5,5\\'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 007F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' - HEXABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 153 ) ( CAS No . 68631 - 49 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washingt

  3. Photooxygenation of alkynylperylenes. Formation of dibenzo[jk,mn]phenanthrene-4,5-diones.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Nanai, Yasuaki; Mizuno, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Junya; Takeshima, Sakiko; Inouye, Masahiko

    2007-11-09

    3-(1-Alkynyl)perylenes undergo oxygenation when subjected to irradiation with visible light under aerated conditions. The structures of novel oxygenated products formed in this manner are assigned as regioisomeric dibenzo[jk,mn]phenanthrene-4,5-diones.

  4. Mathematics Pentathlon. A Manual of Directions and Official Tournament Rules. Division III. Grades 4-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Regato, John C.; And Others

    The Mathematics Pentathlon is a tournament of mathematics games held each spring since 1979 to promote the development of mathematical concepts and skills while fostering interaction among the educational community. There are five games in each of four divisions, for grades K-1, 2-3, 4-5, and 6-7. The focus is on active problem solving and…

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a.... § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a) provides rules for determining whether the timing of a plan amendment or series of amendments...

  7. Preparation of 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2002-01-01

    The compound of the structure ##STR1## where a, b, c, d and e are 0 or 1 and a+b+c+d+e is from 0 to 5 is disclosed together with the species 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) and a process of preparing such compounds.

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a)...

  10. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  11. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  12. Low-molecular-weight (4.5S) ribonucleic acid in higher-plant chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfeld, P R; Leaver, C J; Bottomley, W; Atchison, B

    1978-01-01

    A species of RNA that migrates on 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels between 5S and 4S RNA was detected in spinach chloroplasts. This RNA (referred to as 4.5 S RNA) was present in amounts equimolar to the 5S RNA and its molecular weight was estimated to be approx. 33 000. Fractionation of the chloroplast components showed that the 4.5S RNA was associated with the 50 S ribosomal subunit and that it could be removed by washing the ribosomes with a buffer containing 0.01 M-EDTA and 0.5 M-KCl. It did not appear to be a cleavage product of the labile 23 S RNA of spinach chloroplast ribosomes. When 125I-labelled 4.5 S RNA was hybridized to fragments of spinach chloroplast DNA produced by SmaI restriction endonuclease, a single fragment (mol.wt. 1.15 times 10(6)) became labelled. The same DNA fragment also hybridized to chloroplast 5 S RNA and part of the 23 S RNA. It was concluded that the coding sequence for 4.5 S RNA was part of, or immediately adjacent to, the rRNA-gene region in chloroplast DNA . A comparable RNA species was observed in chloroplasts of tobacco and pea leaves. Images Fig. 8. PMID:743229

  13. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  14. Picomolar, selective and subtype specific small-molecule inhibition of TRPC1/4/5 channels.

    PubMed

    Rubaiy, Hussein N; Ludlow, Melanie J; Henrot, Matthias; Gaunt, Hannah J; Miteva, Katarina; Cheung, Sin Yin; Tanahashi, Yasuyuki; Hamzah, Nurasyikin; Musialowski, Katie E; Blythe, Nicola M; Appleby, Hollie L; Bailey, Marc A; McKeown, Lynn; Taylor, Roger; Foster, Richard; Waldmann, Herbert; Nussbaumer, Peter; Christmann, Mathias; Bon, Robin S; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J

    2017-03-21

    The concentration of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and the voltage across the plasma membrane are major determinants of cell function. Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels are known to regulate these parameters but understanding of these channels remains inadequate. Here we focus on Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 4 and 5 proteins (TRPC4 and TRPC5) which assemble as homomers or heteromerize with TRPC1 to form Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels in many mammalian cell types. Multiple roles have been suggested including in epilepsy, innate fear, pain and cardiac remodeling but limitations in tools to probe these channels have restricted progress. A key question is whether we can overcome these limitations and develop tools which are high-quality, reliable, easy to use and readily accessible for all investigators. Here, through chemical synthesis and studies of native and over-expressed channels by Ca(2+) and patch-clamp assays, we describe compound 31 (C31), a remarkable small-molecule inhibitor of TRPC1/4/5 channels. Its potency ranged from 9 to 1300 pM, depending on the TRPC1/4/5 subtype and activation mechanism. Other channel types investigated were unaffected, including TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1, TRPM2, TRPM8 and store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by Orai1. These findings suggest identification of an important experimental tool compound which has much higher potency for inhibiting TRPC1/4/5 channels than previously reported agents, impressive specificity, and graded subtype selectivity within the TRPC1/4/5 channel family. The compound should greatly facilitate future studies of these ion channels. We suggest naming this TRPC1/4/5-inhibitory compound Pico145.

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3).

  16. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  17. Steady-state performance of J85-21 compressor at 100 percent of design speed with and without interstage rake blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Internal compressor instrumentation blockage effects on steady state J85-21 compressor performance at 100 percent of design speed are determined. The blockage was generated by instrumented vanes for the first three compressor stages and by removal rakes for stages 4 to 9. Individual flow passage blockages ranged up to 4.5 percent with the instrumented vanes and up to 22 percent with the removable interstage rakes. At a Reynolds number index of 1.0, pressure ratio and airflow remained unchanged with insertion of the interstage rakes, but efficiency dropped 0.3 percentage point. Compressor exit profiles, compressor stage static pressure rise coefficients, turbine exit temperature, and fuel flow are also presented.

  18. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  19. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  20. Crystal structure of 4,5-dinitro-1 H-imidazole

    DOE PAGES

    Windler, G. Kenneth; Scott, Brian L.; Tomson, Neil C.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Here, the title compound, C3H2N4O4, forms crystals with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which are conformationally similar. With the exception of the O atoms of the nitro groups, the molecules are essentially planar. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are associated by N—H...N hydrogen bonds involving the imidazole N—H donors and N-atom acceptors of the unsaturated nitrogen of neighboring rings, forming layers parallel to (010).

  1. Photometry of Scattered Disk Objects at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Chad A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Mommert, Michael; Lejoly, Cassandra; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Scattered disk objects (SDO) are some of the most intriguing of the estimated 100,000 icy bodies located in the outer Solar System. SDOs have been gravitationally disturbed and scattered by the orbital migration of Neptune. The surface compositions of these objects provide a window into formation conditions and dynamics of the outer Solar System. Characterization of volatiles and organic materials, in particular, provide important constraints on formation conditions and subsequent surface processing of these objects. We measured fluxes of 38 SDOs at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in order to characterize volatiles, silicates, and complex organics on their surfaces. Albedos calculated from these fluxes are combined with broadband albedos from ground-based observations at shorter wavelengths (spanning 0.55 - 2.22 μm) to provide spectrophotometry from 0.5 to 4.5 μm. Much of those ground-based data are from previously published literature. However, we have also conducted new ground-based Y, J, H, K observations of several of the targets. Sizes and visible geometric albedos, which are required to convert IRAC fluxes to geometric albedos, were extracted from published literature when available and computed from absolute magnitudes otherwise. Data were available to construct complete 0.55 to 4.5 μm spectrophotometric curves for 14 SDOs and partial curves for the remaining 24 SDOs. The resulting spectrophotometry of these 38 SDOs indicates a wide range of surface compositions. Several of the SDOs we observed show red visible and near-infrared spectral slopes and strong absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. These absorption features suggest the presence of complex organics. Other SDOs appear red as well, but show only moderate absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Moderate absorption features at these wavelengths may indicate a mixture of H2O ice and refractory material on the surface. Finally, some objects show no

  2. Bcl-2 functionally interacts with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors to regulate calcium release from the ER in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Valencia, Ignacio; Zhong, Fei; McColl, Karen S.; Roderick, H. Llewelyn; Bootman, Martin D.; Berridge, Michael J.; Conway, Stuart J.; Holmes, Andrew B.; Mignery, Gregory A.; Velez, Patricio; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are channels responsible for calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (either wild type or selectively localized to the ER) significantly inhibited InsP3-mediated calcium release and elevation of cytosolic calcium in WEHI7.2 T cells. This inhibition was due to an effect of Bcl-2 at the level of InsP3Rs because responses to both anti-CD3 antibody and a cell-permeant InsP3 ester were decreased. Bcl-2 inhibited the extent of calcium release from the ER of permeabilized WEHI7.2 cells, even at saturating concentrations of InsP3, without decreasing luminal calcium concentration. Furthermore, Bcl-2 reduced the open probability of purified InsP3Rs reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Bcl-2 and InsP3Rs were detected together in macromolecular complexes by coimmunoprecipitation and blue native gel electrophoresis. We suggest that this functional interaction of Bcl-2 with InsP3Rs inhibits InsP3R activation and thereby regulates InsP3-induced calcium release from the ER. PMID:15263017

  3. Framework 'interstitial' oxygen in La(10)(GeO(4))(5-)(GeO(5))O(2) apatite electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Pramana, Stevin S; Klooster, Wim T; White, T J

    2007-08-01

    Oxygen conduction at low temperatures in apatites make these materials potentially useful as electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells, but our understanding of the defect structures enabling ion migration is incomplete. While conduction along [001] channels is dominant, considerable inter-tunnel mobility has been recognized. Using neutron powder diffraction of stoichiometric 'La(10)(GeO(4))(6)O(3)', it has been shown that this compound is more correctly described as an La(10)(GeO(4))(5-)(GeO(5))O(2) apatite, in which high concentrations of interstitial oxygen reside within the channel walls. It is suggested that these framework interstitial O atoms provide a reservoir of ions that can migrate into the conducting channels of apatite, via a mechanism of inter-tunnel oxygen diffusion that transiently converts GeO(4) tetrahedra to GeO(5) distorted trigonal bipyramids. This structural modification is consistent with known crystal chemistry and may occur generally in oxide apatites.

  4. 6-Bromo-1,3-di-2-propynyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Dahmani, S.; Haoudi, A.; Capet, F.; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The room-temperature reaction of propargyl bromide and 6-bromo-1,3-dihydro­imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-one in dimethyl­formamide yields the title compound, C12H8BrN3O, which features nitro­gen-bound propynyl substituents. The imidazopyridine fused ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å); the propynyl chains point in opposite directions relative to the fused ring. One acetyl­enic H atom is hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl O atom of an inversion-related mol­ecule, forming a dimer; adjacent dimers are linked by a second acetyl­ene–pyridine C—H⋯N inter­action, forming a layer motif. PMID:21580601

  5. Analysis of the antioxidant activity of 4-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid derivatives using quantum-chemistry descriptors and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Ardjani, Ahmed Taki Eddine; Mekelleche, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the molecular structure and the antioxidant activity of 4-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (A) and its derivatives (B-E) have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31++G(2d,2p) computational level. The obtained results indicate that the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT mechanism) is thermodynamically more favored in gas phase; whereas, the sequential proton loss-electron transfer (SPLET mechanism) is more preferred in polar solvents. The antioxidant activity of compounds A-E is also analyzed by the calculation of atomic spin densities, chemical hardnesses, dipole moments, and lipophilicity indexes. It turns out that compound E (R = t-Bu) is predicted to be more antioxidant than ascorbic acid and other derivatives A-D in both gas phase and polar solvents. The high antioxidant activity of compound E compared to other derivatives A-D is also rationalized using the molecular docking technique.

  6. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Yuqian; Yan, Yi; Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2017-02-01

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing.

  7. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  8. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hille, Bertil

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ir)) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P(2). Wide expression of K(V) channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of K(V) channels by PI(4,5)P(2), we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (M(1)R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P(2) with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited K(V)7.1, K(V)7.2/7.3, and K(ir)2.1 channel current by 90-95%. Activation of M(1)R inhibited K(V)7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P(2) regulation of activity of K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1, K(V)1.3, K(V)1.4, and K(V)1.5/K(V)β1.3, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.4, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1 and K(V)3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M(1)R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested K(V) channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the K(V)7 and K(ir) families.

  9. Performance of three 4. 5 m dipoles for SSC reference design D

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Fernow, R.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three 4.5 m long dipoles for Reference Design D of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 to 2.4 K) liquid, 8T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated at eight times the required current without training.

  10. Molecular typing of monophasic Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- strains isolated in Belgium (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Wattiau, Pierre

    2014-01-31

    To assess the distribution of Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- subtypes in the Belgian food chain and compare it to the subtypes associated with human infections, a molecular assessment was initiated. Two hundred fifty-three Salmonella isolates serotyped as 4,[5]:i:- during the period 2008-2011 in Belgium and originating from animal productions, food or human clinical samples were analysed by a specific duplex PCR. One hundred ninety-four isolates (76.7%) fit the profile of a S. Typhimurium monophasic variant as defined by the European Food Safety Authority. The other isolates possessed but did not express the phase II flagellin gene (23.3%). Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) revealed many but closely related profiles in the fljB-negative S. Typhimurium monophasic variant isolates. Some MLVA types were associated with both human and animal isolates but no unique source of human contamination could be demonstrated.

  11. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; Blichert-Toft, J; Müller, W; Albarede, F; Holden, P; Mojzsis, S J

    2005-12-23

    The long-favored paradigm for the development of continental crust is one of progressive growth beginning at approximately 4 billion years ago (Ga). To test this hypothesis, we measured initial 176Hf/177Hf values of 4.01- to 4.37-Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia. epsilonHf (deviations of 176Hf/177Hf from bulk Earth in parts per 10(4)) values show large positive and negative deviations from those of the bulk Earth. Negative values indicate the development of a Lu/Hf reservoir that is consistent with the formation of continental crust (Lu/Hf approximately 0.01), perhaps as early as 4.5 Ga. Positive epsilon(Hf) deviations require early and likely widespread depletion of the upper mantle. These results support the view that continental crust had formed by 4.4 to 4.5 Ga and was rapidly recycled into the mantle.

  12. Backside optimization for improving avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV IGBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Tian; Jiang, Lu; Yuan, Teng; Wenliang, Zhang; Shuojin, Lu; Yangjun, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The static avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV high-voltage IGBT is studied by theory analysis and experiment. The avalanche breakdown behaviors of the 4.5 kV IGBTs with different backside structures are investigated and compared by using the curve tracer. The results show that the snap back behavior of the breakdown waveform is related to the bipolar PNP gain, which leads to the deterioration of the breakdown voltage. There are two ways to optimize the backside structure, one is increasing the implant dose of the N+ buffer layer, the other is decreasing the implant dose of the P+ collector layer. It is found that the optimized structure is effective in suppressing the snap back behavior and improving the breakdown characteristic of high voltage IGBT. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project of China (No. 2011ZX02503-003).

  13. N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-performance energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hao; Gao, Haixiang; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-12-15

    One route to high density and high performance energetic materials based on 1,2,4,5-tetrazine is the introduction of 2,4-di-N-oxide functionalities. Based on several examples and through theoretical analysis, the strategy of regioselective introduction of these moieties into 1,2,4,5-tetrazines has been developed. Using this methodology, various new tetrazine structures containing the N-oxide functionality were synthesized and fully characterized using IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Hydrogen peroxide (50 %) was used very effectively in lieu of the usual 90 % peroxide in this system to generate N-oxide tetrazine compounds successfully. Comparison of the experimental densities of N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine compounds with their 1,2,4,5-tetrazine precursors shows that introducing the N-oxide functionality is a highly effective and feasible method to enhance the density of these materials. The heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with Gaussian 03 (revision D.01) and these values were combined with measured densities to calculate detonation pressures (P) and velocities (νD ) of these energetic materials (Explo 5.0 v. 6.01). The new oxygen-containing tetrazines exhibit high density, good thermal stability, acceptable oxygen balance, positive heat of formation, and excellent detonation properties, which, in some cases, are superior to those of 1,3,5-tritnitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrotriazacyclohexane (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

  14. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  15. [Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl].

    PubMed

    Koga, N; Kanamaru, T; Oishi, N; Kato, Y; Kimura, R; Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y

    2001-05-01

    In vitro Metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB138) was studied using liver microsomes from rats, hamsters and guinea pigs. Guinea pig liver microsomes formed four metabolites named as M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 and these metabolites were all increased to about 4-5 fold of untreated microsomes by pretreatment of phenobarbital. Liver microsomes of rats and hamsters showed much less activity to metabolize CB138 than those of guinea pigs. Only phenobarbital-treated microsomes produced very small amounts of M-3 in rats and M-1, M-2 and M-3 in hamsters, but untreated and MC-treated microsomes did not. When mass spectra of the methylated derivatives of M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 were measured in GC/MS, the former two possess the molecular ion of 354 and the latter two had the molecular ion of 388. In addition, the mass fragmentation pattern indicated that M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 are 2-OH-4,5,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 5-OH-2,4,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3-OH-CB138 and 2-OH-3,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl, respectively. Of four metabolites, the chemical structures of M-3 and M-4 were supported by the synthesized authentic compounds. From these results, it is suggested that the metabolism of CB138 in guinea pig liver proceeds mainly via 2,3-epoxide as an intermediate and a PB-inducible P450, CYP2B18, is the most important isozyme in CB138 metabolism.

  16. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Long-life vibration-free 4.5 K sorption cooler for space applications.

    PubMed

    Burger, J F; ter Brake, H J M; Holland, H J; Meijer, R J; Veenstra, T T; Venhorst, G C F; Lozano-Castelló, D; Coesel, M; Sirbi, A

    2007-06-01

    A breadboard 4.5 K helium sorption cooler for use in vibration-sensitive space missions was developed and successfully tested. This type of cooler has no moving parts and is, therefore, essentially vibration-free. The absence of moving parts also simplifies scaling down of the cooler to small sizes, and it contributes to achieving a very long lifetime. In addition, the cooler operates with limited dc's so that hardly any electromagnetic interference is generated. This cooler is a favorite option for future missions such as ESA's Darwin mission, a space interferometer in which the sensitive optics and detectors can hardly accept any vibration. The system design consists of a hydrogen stage cooling from 80 to 14.5 K and a helium stage establishing 5 mW at 4.5 K. Both stages use microporous activated carbon as the adsorption material. The two cooler stages need about 3.5 W of total input power and are heat sunk at two passive radiators at temperatures of about 50 and 80 K-radiators which are constructed at the cold side of the spacecraft. We developed, built, and tested a demonstrator of the helium cooler. This demonstrator has four sorption compressor cells in two compressor stages. Test experiments on this cooler showed that it performs within all specifications imposed by ESA. The cooler delivered 4.5 mW at 4.5 K with a long-term temperature stability of 1 mK and an input power of 1.96 W. So far, the cooler has operated continuously for a period of 2.5 months and has not shown any sign of performance degradation.

  18. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4-5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A. F.; Roussin, R. W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  19. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4--5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  20. Test of microchannel plates in magnetic fields up to 4.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu; Barnyakov, M. Yu; Prisekin, V. G.; Karpov, S. V.; Katcin, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Detectors based on microchannel plates (MCP) can provide high time resolution and are able to operate in high magnetic field. An experimental setup based on a superconductive solenoid with 120 mm bore was created in BINP. The influence of magnetic field up to 4.5 T on the MCP photomultiplier parameters was studied. Several types of photodetectors produced in Novosibirsk were tested. Results of time resolution measurements, dependencies of gain and photon detection efficiency on magnetic field are presented.

  1. Development of a 4.5 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, Ted; Olson, Jeff; Champagne, Patrick; Mix, Jack; Evtimov, Bobby; Roth, Eric; Collaco, Andre

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's (LM) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed a four stage pulse tube cryocooler (stirling-type pulse tube system) to provide cooling at 4.5 K for superconducting digital electronics communications programs. These programs utilize superconducting niobium integrated circuits [1, 2]. A prior ATC 4 stage unit has provided cooling to 3.8 K. [3] The relatively high cooling loads for the present program led us to a new design which improves the 4.5 K power efficiency over prior systems. This design includes a unique pulse tube approach using both He-3 and He-4 working gas in two compression spaces. The compressor utilizes our standard moving magnet linear motor, clearance seal and flexure bearing system. The system is compact, lightweight and reliable and utilizes our aerospace cooler technology to provide unlimited lifetime. The unit is a proof of concept, but the construction is at an engineering model level. Follow on activities for improvements of performance and more compact packaging and future production for ground based communication systems is anticipated. This paper presents the experimental results at various cooling conditions. Primary results are shown for HYPRES cooling requirements and data is also included at lower cooling loads that may be required for future space missions. The system provides a maximum of 42 mW @ 4.5 K and a no load temperature of 3 K. The majority of this work was subcontracted by HYPRES and funded by the Army and Navy. A small part of this effort to obtain data at lower cooling loads (1-10 mW @ 4.5 K) was funded by LM internal funds.

  2. The effect of gamma irradiation on the fluorescence properties of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurak, Zbigniew; Wanic, Andrzej; Domański, Marian; Jarząbek, Bożena; Kaczmarczyk, Bożena; Konefał, Adam; Kądziołka-Gaweł, Mariola; Czaja, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The subject of our investigation was the intensity of the fluorescence of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides subjected to gamma radiation (the absorbed doses were 242 Gy, 1 kGy and 2.242 kGy). Dynamic changes of fluorescence intensity have been observed; the greatest relative increase of fluorescence intensity (and simultaneously, the least durable increase) occurs as a result of structural isomerisation.

  3. Molecular design of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-energy density materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Zhu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Yu-Fang; Xiao, Heming

    2009-08-20

    The heats of formation (HOFs) for a series of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT), Hartree Fork (HF), and Møller-Plesset (MP2) as well as semiempirical methods. The effects of different basis bets on HOFs were also considered. Our results show that the -CN or -N3 group plays a very important role in increasing the HOF values of the 1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives. An analysis of the bond dissociation energies for the weakest bonds indicates that substitutions of the -N3, -NH2, -CN, -OH, or -Cl group are favorable for enhancing the thermal stability of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine, but the -NHNH2, -NHNO2, -NO2, -NF2, or -COOH group produces opposite effects. The calculated detonation velocities and pressures indicate that the -NF2 or -NO2 group is very helpful for enhancing the detonation performance for the derivatives, but the case is quite the contrary for the -CN, -NH2, or -OH group. Considered the detonation performance and thermal stability, three derivatives may be regarded as potential candidates of high-energy density materials (HEDMs).

  4. Distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, P400, in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, J; Suburo, A M; Bentura, M L; Fernández, T; Nakade, S; Mikoshiba, K; Martínez-Murillo, R; Polak, J M

    1993-11-15

    The distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein, P400, was investigated in adult rat brain by immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody 4C11 raised against mouse cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein. Immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the cerebral cortex, the claustrum, the endopiriform nucleus, the corpus callosum, the anterior olfactory nuclei, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus, the caudate-putamen, the fundus striatum, the amygdaloid complex, the thalamus, the caudolateral part of the hypothalamus, the supramammillary nuclei, the substantia nigra, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the ventrotegmental area, the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the subnucleus oralis and caudalis of trigeminal nerve, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immunoreactive fibres were found in the medial forebrain bundle, the globus pallidus, the stria terminalis, the pyramidal tract, the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, and the ventral horn of spinal cord. Nerve fibres forming a dense plexus ending in terminal-like boutons were detected in relation to nonimmunoreactive neurons of the dentate, interpositus, and fastigial nuclei of the cerebellum and around neurons of the vestibular nuclei. This receptor protein binds a specific second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which produces a mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and a modulation of transmitter release.

  5. Relationship between 4,5-epoxymorphinan structure and in vitro modulation of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2004-06-28

    Morphine belongs to the class of compounds known as 4,5-epoxymorphinans, which can alter immune function directly via receptors expressed by immune cells. However, the opioid characteristics of these receptors are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of 24 structurally related 4,5-epoxymorphinans to allow further characterisation of the receptor that mediates the immunomodulation and to ascertain if there is any structure-effect relationship. The immunomodulation of 4,5-epoxymorphinans using isolated mouse splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A resulted in five types of responses: an inverted bell shaped curve (oxycodone, inhibitory EC(50)=1.6 nM), an inhibitory concentration response curve (buprenorphine, inhibitory EC(50)=12.6 microM), an inverted bell-shaped curve with induction (morphine, induction EC(50)=1.7 microM), an induction concentration response curve (oxymorphone, induction EC(50)=20 nM), and the lack of any response (e.g. noroxycodone). Non-stereoselectivity, naloxone-insensitivity, naloxone-sensitivity and non-classical opioid rank order of effect were all observed. A structure-effect relationship was developed and significant evidence for non-classical opioid receptor function on immune cells was concluded.

  6. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z > 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; Frey, Sándor; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-12-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early Universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here, we report on observations of an additional ten z > 4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network, thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50 per cent. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z > 4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis (unbeamed) radio sources with rest-frame self-absorption peaks at or below GHz frequencies and that these sources can be classified as gigahertz peaked-spectrum and megahertz peaked-spectrum sources.

  7. Atomic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Connatser, Robert; Cothren, Bobby; Johnson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  8. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency, and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines. This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under

  9. IEEE Conference Record of 1976 Twelfth Modulator Symposium, New York City, 4-5 February 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    206 Megawatt Nanosecond Switching Of High Power Laser Activated Silicon Switches . 0. S. Zucker, J...percent in the switch tube impe- sprArk chambers and in pulsed nitrogen UV lasers , dance may produce large amplitude fluctuations in laser output...Figure S Block Diagram of Logic Control and Pulse Generation 209 J I NEGAMATT NANOSECOND SWITCHING OF HIGH POWER LASER ACTIVATED SILICON SWITCHES * 0. S

  10. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2016-07-12

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  11. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  12. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  13. Poly[[octaaqua-μ4-(benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)-dicobalt(II)] octa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Magatte; Tine, Modou; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier; Roisnel, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The title polymeric coordination compound, {[Co2(C10H2O8)(H2O)8]·8H2O}n, was obtained by slow diffusion of a dilute aqueous solution of CoCl2 and the sodium salt of benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) through an agar–agar gel bridge in a U-shaped tube. The two independent Co2+ ions are each situated on an inversion centre and are coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry by four water O atoms and two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two btec4− ligands (-1> symmetry), forming a layer parallel to (11-1). This layer can be described as a mol­ecular two-dimensional square grid with the benzene rings at the nodes and the CoII atoms connecting the nodes. O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the coordinating water molecules, the carboxylate O atoms and lattice water molecules lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:24454183

  14. 30 CFR 57.22239 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent methane (IV mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from the mine until methane...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22240 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent methane (V-A mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from affected areas until...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22239 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent methane (IV mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from the mine until methane...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from affected areas until...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22240 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent methane (V-A mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from affected areas until...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from affected areas until...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22240 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent methane (V-A mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from affected areas until...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22239 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent methane (IV mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from the mine until methane...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than competent persons necessary to make ventilation changes shall be withdrawn from affected areas until...

  3. Investigation of Effectiveness of a Wing Equipped with a 50-percent-chord Sliding Flap, a 30-percent-chord Slotted Flap, and a 30-percent-chord Slat in Deflecting Propeller Slipstreams Downward for Vertical Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E

    1957-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the effectiveness of a wing equipped with a 50-percent-chord sliding flap and a 30-percent-chord slotted flap in deflecting a propeller slipstream downward for vertical take-off. Tests were conducted at zero forward speed in a large room and included the effects of flap deflection, proximity to the ground, a leading-edge slat, and end plates. A turning angle of about 70 degrees and a resultant force of about 100 percent of the thrust were achieved near the ground. Out of the ground-effect region, the turning angle was also about 70 degrees but the resultant force was reduced to about 86 percent of the thrust.

  4. Crystal structure of 4,5-dinitro-1 H-imidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Windler, G. Kenneth; Scott, Brian L.; Tomson, Neil C.; Leonard, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Here, the title compound, C3H2N4O4, forms crystals with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which are conformationally similar. With the exception of the O atoms of the nitro groups, the molecules are essentially planar. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are associated by N—H...N hydrogen bonds involving the imidazole N—H donors and N-atom acceptors of the unsaturated nitrogen of neighboring rings, forming layers parallel to (010).

  5. Crystal structure of 4,5-di­nitro-1H-imidazole

    PubMed Central

    Windler, G. Kenneth; Scott, Brian L.; Tomson, Neil C.; Leonard, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C3H2N4O4, forms crystals with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit which are conformationally similar. With the exception of the O atoms of the nitro groups, the mol­ecules are essentially planar. In the crystal, adjacent mol­ecules are associated by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the imidazole N—H donors and N-atom acceptors of the unsaturated nitro­gen of neighboring rings, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:26396875

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, Jose Ignacio; Villate, Maider; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Brearley, Charles Alistair; González, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase (IP5 2-K) is an enzyme involved in inositol metabolism that synthesizes IP6 (inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) from inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP5) and ATP. IP6 is the major phosphorus reserve in plants, while in mammals it is involved in multiple cellular events such as DNA editing and chromatin remodelling. In addition, IP6 is the precursor of other highly phosphorylated inositols which also play highly relevant roles. IP5 2-K is the only enzyme that phosphorylates the 2-OH axial position of the inositide and understanding its molecular mechanism of substrate specificity is of great interest in cell biology. IP5 2-K from Arabidopsis thaliana has been expressed in Escherichia coli as two different fusion proteins and purified. Both protein preparations yielded crystals of different quality, always in the presence of IP6. The best crystals obtained for X-ray crystallographic analysis belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.124, b = 113.591, c = 142.478 Å. Several diffraction data sets were collected for the native enzyme and two heavy-atom derivatives using a synchrotron source. PMID:20057083

  7. Quantum chemical and direct dynamic study on homogeneous gas-phase formation of PBDD/Fs from 2,4,5-tribromophenol and 3,4-dibromophenol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wanni; Li, Pengfei; Xu, Fei; Hu, Jingtian; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-09-01

    2,4,5-Tribromophenol (2,4,5-TBP) and 3,4-dibromophenol (3,4-DBP) have the minimum number of Br atoms needed to form 2,3,7,8-PBDD/Fs, which are the most toxic among all 210 PBDD/F isomers. A mechanistic understanding of the formation of PBDD/Fs is a prerequisite for minimizing their emissions. In this paper, the homogeneous gas-phase formation of PBDD/Fs from 2,4,5-TBP and 3,4-DBP as precursors was investigated theoretically by using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The mathematical model to predict the formation of PBDD/Fs places a high demand on accurate kinetic parameters. So, the rate constants of key elementary steps involved in the formation of PBDD/Fs were calculated by using canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with small curvature tunneling (SCT) contribution over a wide temperature range of 600-1200K. The pre-exponential factors and the activation energies are also reported. This might be the first to investigate the formation of 2,3,7,8-PBDD/Fs. The present study shows that the formation of PBDDs dominates over the formation of PBDFs. The meta bromine facilitates the dimerization of bromophenoxy radicals (BPRs), whereas the para and ortho bromines suppress the dimerization of BPRs.

  8. Structure cristalline de la triple molybdate Ag0.90Al1.06Co2.94(MoO4)5

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rawia; Chérif, Saïda Fatma; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Silver(I) aluminiun tricobalt(II) penta­kis­[tetra­oxidomolybdate(VI)], Ag0.90Al1.06Co2.94(MoO4)5, was synthesized using a solid-state reaction at 845 K. The structure can be described as a three-dimensional framework formed from dimeric M 2O10 (M = Co/Al) and trimeric M 3O14 units linked to MoO4 tetra­hedra by sharing corners, with the cavities occupied by disordered Ag+ cations. It is shown that the Co and Al atoms occupy common positions with different occupancies. The Ag+ cations are located at two different sites with occupancies of 0.486 (1) and 0.408 (1). The title coumpond is isotypic with NaMg3Al(MoO4)5 and NaFe4(MoO4)5. Differences and similarities with other related structures are discussed. PMID:26029398

  9. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HFAs accepting less than 50 percent... PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.305 HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk... electing to take less than 50 percent of the risk on certain projects are subject to review,...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22236 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22239 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22239 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22236 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22239 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22239 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  16. Auger electron spectroscopy study of initial stages of oxidation in a copper - 19.6-atomic-percent-aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine the initial stages of oxidation of a polycrystalline copper - 19.6 a/o-aluminum alloy. The growth of the 55-eV aluminum oxide peak and the decay of the 59-, 62-, and 937-eV copper peaks were examined as functions of temperature, exposure, and pressure. Pressures ranged from 1x10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0005 torr of O2. Temperatures ranged from room temperature to 700 C. A completely aluminum oxide surface layer was obtained in all cases. Complete disappearance of the underlying 937-eV copper peak was obtained by heating at 700 C in O2 at 0.0005 torr for 1 hr. Temperature studies indicated that thermally activated diffusion was important to the oxidation studies. The initial stages of oxidation followed a logarithmic growth curve.

  17. Triclinic form of 1,2,4,5-tetra-cyclo-hexyl-benzene.

    PubMed

    Mague, Joel T; Linhardt, Lisa; Medina, Iliana; Sattler, Daniel J; Fink, Mark J

    2008-01-04

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(30)H(46), has a crystallographically imposed inversion center and the cyclo-hexyl groups are oriented with their methine H atoms pointing towards one another (H⋯H = 2.04 Å).

  18. Spectroscopic Properties of the z ~ 4.5 Lyα Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Wang, JunXian; Landes, Emily

    2004-12-01

    We present Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer optical spectra of 17 Lyα-emitting galaxies and one Lyman break galaxy at z~4.5 discovered in the Large Area Lyman Alpha survey. The survey has identified a sample of ~350 candidate Lyα-emitting galaxies at z~4.5 in a search volume of 1.5×106 comoving Mpc3. We targeted 25 candidates for spectroscopy; hence, the 18 confirmations presented herein suggest a selection reliability of 72%. The large equivalent widths (median Wrestλ~80 Å) but narrow physical widths (Δv<500 km s-1) of the Lyα emission lines, along with the lack of accompanying high-ionization state emission lines, suggest that these galaxies are young systems powered by star formation rather than by active galactic nucleus activity. Theoretical models of galaxy formation in the primordial universe suggest that a small fraction of Lyα-emitting galaxies at z~4.5 may still be nascent, metal-free objects. Indeed, we find with 90% confidence that three to five of the confirmed sources show Wrestλ>240 Å, exceeding the maximum Lyα equivalent width predicted for normal stellar populations. Nonetheless, we find no evidence for He II λ1640 emission in either individual or composite spectra, indicating that although these galaxies are young, they are not truly primitive, Population III objects. Based in part on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Radio spectra of bright compact sources at z>4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; van Velzen, Sjoert; Intema, Huib T.; Müller, Cornelia; Frey, Sándor; Coppejans, Deanne L.; Cseh, Dávid; Williams, Wendy L.; Falcke, Heino; Körding, Elmar G.; Orrú, Emanuela; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift quasars are important to study galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution, test cosmological models, and study supermassive black hole growth. Optical searches for high-redshift sources have been very successful, but radio searches are not hampered by dust obscuration and should be more effective at finding sources at even higher redshifts. Identifying high-redshift sources based on radio data is, however, not trivial. Here we report on new multi-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations of eight z > 4.5 sources previously studied at high angular resolution with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Combining these observations with those from the literature, we construct broad-band radio spectra of all 30 z > 4.5 sources that have been observed with VLBI. In the sample we found flat, steep and peaked spectra in approximately equal proportions. Despite several selection effects, we conclude that the z > 4.5 VLBI (and likely also non-VLBI) sources have diverse spectra and that only about a quarter of the sources in the sample have flat spectra. Previously, the majority of high-redshift radio sources were identified based on their ultra-steep spectra (USS). Recently a new method has been proposed to identify these objects based on their megahertz-peaked spectra (MPS). Neither method would have identified more than 18 per cent of the high-redshift sources in this sample. More effective methods are necessary to reliably identify complete samples of high-redshift sources based on radio data.

  20. Sr[sub 2]UO[sub 4. 5]: A new perovskite-type strontium uranate

    SciTech Connect

    Cordfunke, E.H.P. ); IJdo, D.J.W. )

    1994-04-01

    A new strontium uranate with the formal composition Sr[sub 2]UO[sub 4.5] has been found. Its perovskite-type crystal structure has been studied with neutron diffraction from which it is found that there is a statistical distribution of Sr and U (2:1) on one octahedral position and one U on the other, leading to the formula Sr[sub 2](Sr[sub 2/3]U[sub 1/3])UO[sub 6]. Its thermal stability has been determined, and its relation with other perovskite-type structures is discussed.

  1. Accurate labeling of the light-actinide O4,5 ionization edges

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v

    2006-08-23

    In this short article the accurate labeling of the O4,5 edges of the light actinides is addressed. The O4 and O5 edges are both contained in what is termed the ''giant resonance'' and the smaller ''pre-peak'' that is observed is a consequence of first-order perturbation by the 5d spin-orbit interaction. Thus, the small prepeak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O5 peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak.

  2. Photophysics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro styrene) film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Donald B.; Scott, Gary W.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The temperature-dependent steady-state emission, emission polarization anisotropy, and fluorescence-kinetics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro styrene) film are reported. Two interconverting excited-state conformations of the chromophore have been identified. The fluorescence of the higher energy conformation results from excitation on the red edge of the polymer absorption band at temperatures below 180 K. The energy barrier for conversion of the high energy conformer to the lower energy conformer is estimated to be E/hc = 27 + or - 7/cm. Electronic energy migration is not evident in this polymer.

  3. Design, fabrication and characterization of an AWG at 4.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Barritault, Pierre; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Boulila, Fahem; Carras, Mathieu; Nicoletti, Sergio

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, we present the design, the fabrication and the characterization of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) based on a SiGe graded index waveguide platform, operating at 4.5 µm. These devices were specifically designed to work together with an array of Distributed Feedback Bragg Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB-QCL) emitting at different wavelengths. The AWG enables to combine the different light sources into a single output and the design adopted allows to maximize transmission over the entire spectral range defined by the array of DFB-QCLs.

  4. An opiate binding site in the rat brain is highly selective for 4,5-epoxymorphinans.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Sadée, W

    1983-09-16

    In vitro binding studies have demonstrated the existence of multiple opiate receptor types. An additional site in the rat brain (termed the lambda site) is distinct from the established types by its selectivity for 4,5-epoxymorphinans (such as naloxone and morphine). While the lambda site displays a high affinity for naloxone in vivo and in vitro in fresh brain membrane homogenates, these sites rapidly convert in vitro to a state of low affinity. The regional distribution of the lambda site in the brain is strikingly different from that of the classic opiate receptor types.

  5. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  6. Crystal structure of tri-aqua-(1,10-phen-anthroline-κ(2) N,N')(2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoato-κO (1))cobalt(II) 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junshan

    2014-11-01

    The title salt, [Co(C8H4F3O3)(C12H8N2)(H2O)3](C8H4F3O3), was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoic acid with CoCl2 in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The Co(II) ion is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms [Co-N = 2.165 (2) and 2.129 (2) Å] from the phen ligand, by one carboxyl-ate O atom [Co-O = 2.107 (1) Å] and by three O atoms from water mol-ecules [Co-O = 2.093 (1), 2.102 (1) and 2.114 (1) Å]. The equatorial positions of the slightly distorted octa-hedron are occupied by the N atoms, the carboxyl-ate O and one water O atom. An intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network between the water-containing complex cation and the organic anion leads to the formation of ribbons parallel to [010].

  7. Expression and Distribution Pattern of Aquaporin 4, 5 and 11 in Retinas of 15 Different Species

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Barbara; Kleinwort, Kristina J. H.; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Sekundo, Walter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins with 13 members in mammals and are essential for water transport across membranes. They are found in many different tissues and cells. Currently, there are conflicting results regarding retinal aquaporin expression and subcellular localization between genome and protein analyses and among various species. AQP4, 7, 9 and 11 were described in the retina of men; whereas AQP6, 8 and 10 were earlier identified in rat retinas and AQP4, 5 and 11 in horses. Since there is a lack of knowledge regarding AQP expression on protein level in retinas of different animal models, we decided to analyze retinal cellular expression of AQP4, 5 and 11 in situ with immunohistochemistry. AQP4 was detected in all 15 explored species, AQP5 and AQP11 in 14 out of 15. Interestingly, AQP4 was unambiguously expressed in Muller glial cells, whereas AQP5 was differentially allocated among the species analyzed. AQP11 expression was Muller glial cell-specific in 50% of the animals, whereas in the others, AQP11 was detected in ganglion cell layer and at photoreceptor outer segments. Our data indicate a disparity in aquaporin distribution in retinas of various animals, especially for AQP5 and 11. PMID:27438827

  8. Genotoxicity of chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene and its sulfone derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Sinsheimer, J.E.; Hooberman, B.H.; Das, S.K.; Savla, P.M.; Ashe, A.J. III )

    1992-01-01

    The authors' recent syntheses of cryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene together with its potential sulfone metabolite, chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene-4,4-dioxide, have made these compounds available for genotoxicity testing. Such toxicity testing is of interest as this thiophene is an isoster of the established carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is one of the thiaarenes which are potential environmental contaminants found in fossil fuels. Although the thiophene was less mutagenic than benzo[a]pyrene in Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 after S9 activation, it exhibited in vivo chromosomal aberration activity equal to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the bone-marrow cells of mice. A reduced activity with Salmonella as well as in the bone-marrow cell assay for the sulfone does not support its role as the key active metabolic intermediate for the genotoxicity of the thiophene. Molecular orbital calculations would be consistent with the concept of activation through a diol-epoxide mechanism and offers an explanation for the reduced genotoxicity of the sulfone via this mechanism. These genotoxicity studies support the concern that sulfur isosters of established carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could themselves be toxic. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Cytotoxic 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones as mitotic arresters and cell migration inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Salum, Lívia B.; Altei, Wanessa F.; Chiaradia, Louise D.; Cordeiro, Marlon N.S.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Melo, Carolina P.S.; Winter, Evelyn; Mattei, Bruno; Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Yunes, José A.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.; Day, Billy W.; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays. PMID:23524161

  10. Effect of azadirachtin of neemix-4.5 on SWR/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Tarboush, F.M.; El-Ashmaoui, H.M.; Hussein, H.I.; Al-Rajhy, D.; Al-Assiry, M.

    2009-01-01

    Inbred normal SWR/J male and female mice, 8–10 weeks old and weighing 22.55–26.72 g, were used throughout the study. A total of 100 males and 100 females were used and were divided into 20 groups, 10 animals in each group. Azadirachtin of neemix-4.5, a commercial botanical pesticide derived from the neem tree, orally administered to male and female SWR/J mice at a dose level 9.0 mg/kg (1/10 LD50) for different treatment periods (2, 4, 6, 8 or 11.5 weeks) has produced signs of toxicity, mortality and changes in body and tissue weights of both sexes at almost all treated periods used in the present study. Moreover the oral administration of this dose level for 11.5 weeks has also resulted in some histopathological changes in the livers, kidneys and testes of treated animals compared with the control group, and the degree of these changes ranged from mild to severe in these organs of treated males. However, conflicting results have been reported concerning the toxicity of azadirachtin in mammalian species using different formulations of neem-based pesticides. It appears, therefore, that the toxicity produced by neemix-4.5 in the present study may be due to factors other than azadirachtin in this formulation. PMID:23961045

  11. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  12. Investigation of water assisted phase transformation process from AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Zhi; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-01

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  13. Atomic arias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  14. Atomic rivals

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  15. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  16. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  17. 3D Cell Entrapment as a Function of the Weight Percent of Peptide-Amphiphile Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Carolyn M.; Forster, Colleen L.; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2015-01-01

    The design of scaffolds which mimic the stiffness, nanofiber structure, and biochemistry of the native extra-cellular matrix (ECM) has been a major objective for the tissue engineering field. Furthermore, mimicking the innate three dimensional (3D) environment of the ECM has been shown to significantly alter cellular response compared to traditional two dimensional (2D) culture. We report the development of a self-assembling, fibronectin-mimetic, peptide-amphiphile nanofiber scaffold for 3D cell culture. To form such a scaffold, 5 mol% of a bioactive PR_g fibronectin-mimetic peptide-amphiphile was mixed with 95 mol% of a diluent peptide-amphiphile (E2) whose purpose was to neutralize electrostatic interactions, increase the gelation kinetics and promote cell survival. Atomic force microscopy verified the fibrilar structure of the gels and the mechanical properties were characterized for various weight percent (wt%) formulations of the 5 mol% PR_g - 95 mol% E2 peptide-amphiphile mixture. The 0.5 wt% formulations had an elastic modulus of 429.0 ± 21.3 Pa while the 1.0 wt% peptide-amphiphile hydrogels had an elastic modulus of 808.6 ± 38.1 Pa. The presence of entrapped cells in the gels decreased the elastic modulus and the decrease was a function of the cell loading. While both formulations supported cell proliferation, the 0.5 wt% gels supported significantly greater NIH3T3/GFP fibroblast cell proliferation throughout the gels than the 1.0 wt% gels. However, compared to the 0.5 wt% formulations, the 1.0 wt% hydrogels promoted greater increase in mRNA expression and production of fibronectin and type IV collagen ECM proteins. This study suggests that this fibronectin-mimetic scaffold holds great promise in the advance of 3D culture applications and cell therapies. PMID:25970351

  18. Crystal structure of phenyl 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean; Staples, Richard J.; Biros, Shannon M.; Ngassa, Felix N.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C12H7Cl3O3S, was synthesized via a nucleophilic substitution reaction between phenol and 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonyl chloride. The two aryl rings are oriented gauche to one another around the sulfonate S—O bond, with a C—S—O—C torsion angle of −70.68 (16)°, and the two rings are inclined to one another by 72.40 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via various C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming ribbons propagating along [100]. Neighboring ribbons are linked by a weak C—Cl⋯π inter­action, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:27308043

  19. Local 4/5-law and energy dissipation anomaly in turbulence of incompressible MHD Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanshan; Tan, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we establish the longitudinal and transverse local energy balance equation of distributional solutions of the incompressible three-dimensional MHD equations. In particular, we find that the functions D_L^ɛ (u,B) and D_T^ɛ (u,B) appeared in the energy balance, all converging to the defect distribution (in the sense of distributions) D(u,B) which has been defined in Gao et al. (Acta Math Sci 33:865-871, 2013). Furthermore, we give a simpler form of defect distribution term, which is similar to the relation in turbulence theory, called the "4 / 3-law." As a corollary, we give the analogous "4 / 5-law" holds in the local sense.

  20. Fifth dimension of life and the 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Brain cells are not spherical. The basal metabolic rate (B) of a spherical cell scales as B approximately r2, where r is the radius of the cell; that of a brain cell scales as B approximately r(d), where r is the characteristic radius of the cell and d is the fractal dimensionality of its contour. The fractal geometry of the cell leads to a 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain, uniquely endowing humans with a 5th dimension and successfully explains why the scaling exponent varies during rest and exercise. A striking analogy between Kleiber's 3/4 law and Newton's second law is heuristically illustrated. A physical explanation is given for the 4th dimension of life for three-dimensional organisms and the 5th dimension for human brain.

  1. Dependence of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen photoaddition on the conformation of ribonucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Bachellerie, J.P.; Hall, K.; Hearst, J.E.

    1982-03-16

    The photoaddition of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) to different conformational states of RNA was studied. Poly(U), poly(A,U) (random copolymer), poly(A-U) (alternating copolymer), poly(A)-poly(U) (double stranded), and poly(U)-poly(A)-poly(U) (triple stranded) were reacted with HMT at different temperatures and salt concentrations. The conformation of the polymers was monitored by UV absorption and circular dichroism. It was found that the rate of HMT photoaddition changed dramatically at structural transitions in the RNA. The alternating copolymer poly(A-U) was found to have the highest rate of addition. Low salt and temperature produced maximal incorporation.

  2. DANGER, a novel regulatory protein of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor activity.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L; Cheung, King-Ho; Barrow, Roxanne K; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Gessell, Gregory S; Burkholder, Scott G; Watkins, D Neil; Foskett, J Kevin; Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-12-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of DANGER, a novel protein which physiologically binds to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R). DANGER is a membrane-associated protein predicted to contain a partial MAB-21 domain. It is expressed in a wide variety of neuronal cell lineages where it localizes to membranes in the cell periphery together with IP(3)R. DANGER interacts with IP(3)R in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with IP(3)R from cellular preparations. DANGER robustly enhances Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition of IP(3) RCa(2+) release without affecting IP(3) binding in microsomal assays and inhibits gating in single-channel recordings of IP(3)R. DANGER appears to allosterically modulate the sensitivity of IP(3) RtoCa(2+) inhibition, which likely alters IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) dynamics in cells where DANGER and IP(3)R are co-expressed.

  3. Covariantly constant curvature tensors and D=3, N=4, 5, 8 Chern-Simons matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fa-Min

    2012-03-01

    We construct some examples of D=3, N=4 GW theory and N=5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory by using the covariantly constant curvature of a quaternionic-Kahler manifold to construct the symplectic 3-algebra in the theories. Comparing with the previous theories, the N=4, 5 theories constructed in this way possess a local Sp(2n) symmetry and a diffeomorphism symmetry associated with the quaternionic-Kahler manifold. We also construct a generalized N=8 BLG theory by utilizing the dual curvature operator of a maximally symmetric space of dimension 4 to construct the Nambu 3-algebra. Comparing with the previous N=8 BLG theory, the theory has a diffeomorphism invariance and a local SO(4) invariance associated with the symmetric space.

  4. Effect of clinical death on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1993-01-01

    Changes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content in the rat brain have been evaluated by means of the radioimmunologic method during 5-min clinical death and up to 2 hrs after resuscitation. Ischemia produced a decrease of IP3 content in the brain on the average to 63% of the control values. IP3 concentration in the brain increased on the average to 197% of the control values at the 15th min after resuscitation, and decreased to 127% at the 60 min. Two hours after resuscitation the IP3 content in the brain again increased on the average to 187%. The new data on brain metabolism in the ischemic conditions and the role of IP3 as the second messenger and mediator of neuromodulation processes are discussed.

  5. Ethanol stimulates phospholipid turnover and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, A; Kuin, H; Jongen, M; de Wildt, P; Schuring, F; Klerk, H; van den Ende, H

    1992-02-01

    Alcohols induce mating-structure activation in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. From the effect of ethanol on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides, we conclude that the synthesis of these lipids is stimulated. Biologically inactive concentrations of ethanol (<6%) had no effect on synthesis, but 6-8% ethanol stimulated synthesis for upto 60 min. The (32)P incorporated into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid during ethanol treatment was readily chased out when 1 mM unlabelled Na3PO4 was added. Using a binding assay for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, we show that the production of this phospholipid constituent is dramatically increased after ethanol treatment. This effect, coupled to a rise in intracellular calcium concentration, could explain gamete activation. The significance of these results in explaining other ethanol-induced phenomena in algae is discussed.

  6. Theoretical and vibrational studies of 4,5-diphenyl-2-2 oxazole propionic acid (oxaprozin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdinc, Seda G.; Esme, Aslı

    2010-04-01

    The molecular structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties, and electronic properties of 4,5-diphenyl-2-2 oxazole propionic acid (oxaprozin) as a monomer were investigated by using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations that used 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability of oxaprozin (OXA) was found to be 1.117 × 10 -30 esu. The structure of oxaprozin dimer with HF/6-31G(d) level caused by the shifts of O-H and C dbnd O bands in the vibrational spectra of oxaprozin were also studied. Moreover, these calculated frequencies of oxaprozin dimer were compared with the solid FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The theoretical frequencies and infrared intensities were showed a good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives: synthesis and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Xue, Jia-Yu; Song, Bao-An; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Microwave irradiation promotes the rapid O,N-acylation-cyclodehydration cascade reaction of oximes and acid chloride. Twenty novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives containing heterocycle moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. The twenty compounds are all first reported and their structures were established by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The bioassay tests showed that compounds 2-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)benzo[d]thiazole (6af), 2-(2-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)pyrimidine (6bg) and 2-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6cf) displayed good antiproliferative activity in vitro, which were comparable to the positive control (5-fluorouracil).

  8. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  9. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  10. Inhibition of rat intestinal Cl- secretion by 4,5-dimethylresorcinol.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio; Shibata, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    Wood creosote, a mixture of phenolic compounds, inhibits enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion, suggesting that one of its constituents suppresses transepithelial Cl- secretion from the intestinal mucosa. To identify an active constituent in wood creosote that inhibits intestinal Cl- secretion through Cl- channels, we first examined its effect on Cl- secretion using a cultured cell line transfected with complementary DNA encoding a Cl- channel and a Cl- -sensitive fluorescent dye. We next assayed chromatographic fractions of wood creosote for the inhibitory activity on Cl- secretion using a Ussing chamber. We found that 4,5-dimethylresorcinol, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inhibited intestinal Cl- secretion dose-dependently when added to a serosal, but not mucosal, surface of rat jejunum, a half-inhibitory concentration being 3.8 microg/ml (28 micromol/l). It was strongly suggested that this effect was due to inhibition of Cl- channels.

  11. A 4.5-megabase YAC contig and physical map over the hemochromatosis gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, M.J.; Smit, D.J.; Pyper, W.R.; Powell, L.W.; Jazwinska, E.C.

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig over the candidate hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises 16 YACs from the CEPH, Washington University, and ICI YAC libraries and covers 4.5 Mb at 6p21.3-6p22. The complete contig has been restriction mapped, enabling the precise relationship between the YACs to be determined and the mapping of a total of 12 STSs. Nine of these are highly polymorphic STSs that are closely linked to hemochromatosis; this series includes D6S265 and D6S1260, which comprise the most proximal and distal markers linked to HC. This is the first YAC contig that spans the hemochromatosis candidate region, and it provides valuable resource material for the cloning of this and other genes in the region distal to the MHC class I complex. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Future climate data from RCP 4.5 and occurrence of malaria in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-10-15

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001-2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future.

  13. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R

    1993-01-01

    Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201

  14. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  15. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics studies on the mechanism of action of cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in ornithine 4,5-aminomutase.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiayun; Scrutton, Nigel S; Sutcliffe, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    A computational study was performed on the experimentally elusive cyclisation step in the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent D-ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (OAM)-catalysed reaction. Calculations using both model systems and a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach suggest that regulation of the cyclic radical intermediate is achieved through the synergy of the intrinsic catalytic power of cofactor PLP and the active site of the enzyme. The captodative effect of PLP is balanced by an enzyme active site that controls the deprotonation of both the pyridine nitrogen atom (N1) and the Schiff-base nitrogen atom (N2). Furthermore, electrostatic interactions between the terminal carboxylate and amino groups of the substrate and Arg297 and Glu81 impose substantial "strain" energy on the orientation of the cyclic intermediate to control its trajectory. In addition the "strain" energy, which appears to be sensitive to both the number of carbon atoms in the substrate/analogue and the position of the radical intermediates, may play a key role in controlling the transition of the enzyme from the closed to the open state. Our results provide new insights into several aspects of the radical mechanism in aminomutase catalysis and broaden our understanding of cofactor PLP-dependent reactions.

  16. Homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system at ER-PM junctions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Lun; Liou, Jen

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-Ca(2+) signaling system is important for cell activation in response to various extracellular stimuli. This signaling system is initiated by receptor-induced hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane (PM) to generate the soluble second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 subsequently triggers the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store to the cytosol to activate Ca(2+)-mediated responses, such as secretion and proliferation. The consumed PM PI(4,5)P2 and ER Ca(2+) must be quickly restored to sustain signaling responses, and to maintain the homeostasis of PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+). Since phosphatidylinositol (PI), the precursor lipid for PM PI(4,5)P2, is synthesized in the ER membrane, and a Ca(2+) influx across the PM is required to refill the ER Ca(2+) store, efficient communications between the ER and the PM are critical for the homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. This review describes the major findings that established the framework of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system, and recent discoveries on feedback control mechanisms at ER-PM junctions that sustain the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. Particular emphasis is placed on the characterization of ER-PM junctions where efficient communications between the ER and the PM occur, and the activation mechanisms of proteins that dynamically localize to ER-PM junctions to provide the feedback control during PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling, including the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1, the extended synaptotagmin E-Syt1, and the PI transfer protein Nir2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  17. 30 CFR 57.22240 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22240 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22240 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22240 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (V-A mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  19. TPLOT:A Simple Program for Plotting Percent Composition Data on Ternary Diagrams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TPLOT directs the Hewlett-Packard 9810A programmable calculator and the 9862A plotter to plot points, on an equilateral ternary diagram, which represent designated percent compositions of three pure end-members: A, B, and C. Percent A and percent B are the only required data input to this program. Use of the TPLOT program provides a substantial savings of time and minimizes operator fatigue when compared with manual methods of plotting the same data. (Author)

  20. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate regulates the formation of the basolateral plasma membrane in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gassama-Diagne, Ama; Yu, Wei; ter Beest, Martin; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Kierbel, Arlinet; Engel, Joanne; Mostov, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Polarity is a central feature of eukaryotic cells and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) has a central role in the polarization of neurons and chemotaxing cells. In polarized epithelial cells, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is stably localized at the basolateral plasma membrane, but excluded from the apical plasma membrane, as shown by localization of GFP fused to the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding pleckstrin-homology domain of Akt (GFP-PH-Akt), a fusion protein that indicates the location of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Here, we ectopically inserted exogenous PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 into the apical plasma membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Within 5 min many cells formed protrusions that extended above the apical surface. These protrusions contained basolateral plasma membrane proteins and excluded apical proteins, indicating that their plasma membrane was transformed from apical to basolateral. Addition of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells grown as cysts caused basolateral protrusions. MDCK cells grown in the presence of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor had abnormally short lateral surfaces, indicating that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates the formation of the basolateral surface.

  1. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate from inositol phosphates generated by receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T; Barker, C J; Downes, C P

    1988-01-01

    myo-[3H]Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate can be made from myo-[3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in a rat brain homogenate or soluble fraction. Although D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate can be phosphorylated by a soluble rat brain enzyme to give myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, it is not an intermediate in the pathway from myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The intermediates in the above pathway are myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate [Shears, Parry, Tang, Irvine, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 246, 139-147; Balla, Guillemette, Baukal & Catt (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9952-9955], and it is catalysed by soluble kinase activities of similar anion-exchange mobility and Mr value. Compounds with chromatographic and chemical properties consistent with the structures myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate and myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate are present in avian erythrocytes, human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells and primary-cultured murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The amounts of these inositol tetrakisphosphates rise upon muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the astrocytoma cells or stimulation of macrophages with platelet-activating factor. PMID:2845930

  2. 13 CFR 107.1410 - Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1410 Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1420 - Articles requirements for 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1420 Articles requirements for 4 percent...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1420 - Articles requirements for 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1420 Articles requirements for 4 percent...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1410 - Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1410 Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1410 - Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1410 Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1420 - Articles requirements for 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1420 Articles requirements for 4 percent...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1420 - Articles requirements for 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1420 Articles requirements for 4 percent...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1420 - Articles requirements for 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1420 Articles requirements for 4 percent...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1410 - Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1410 Requirement to redeem 4 percent Preferred...

  11. Effects of thermomechanical processing on tensile and long-time creep behavior of Nb-1 percent Zr-0.1 percent C sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Uz, Mehmet

    1994-01-01

    Effects of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical properties of Nb-1 wt. percent Zr-0.1 wt. percent C, a candidate alloy for use in advanced space power systems, were investigated. Sheet bars were cold rolled into 1-mm thick sheets following single, double, or triple extrusion operations at 1900 K. All the creep and tensile specimens were given a two-step heat treatment 1 hr at 1755 K + 2 hr 1475 K prior to testing. Tensile properties were determined at 300 as well as at 1350 K. Microhardness measurements were made on cold rolled, heat treated, and crept samples. Creep tests were carried out at 1350 K and 34.5 MPa for times of about 10,000 to 19,000 hr. The results show that the number of extrusions had some effects on both the microhardness and tensile properties. However, the long-time creep behavior of the samples were comparable, and all were found to have adequate properties to meet the design requirements of advanced power systems regardless of thermomechanical history. The results are discussed in correlation with processing and microstructure, and further compared to the results obtained from the testing of Nb-1 wt. percent Zr and Nb-1 wt. percent Zr-0.06 wt. percent C alloys.

  12. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  13. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMOSOMAL DNA REGION REQUIRED FOR GROWTH ON 2,4,5-T BY PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC1100

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of spontaneous 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) nonmetabolizing mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 were characterized to be defective in either 2,4,5-T uptake or conversion of this compound to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP). Two of these mutants, RHC22 a...

  14. Ca(2+) signals mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels in rat ureteric myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, F X; Coussin, F; Morel, J L; Halet, G; Macrez, N; Mironneau, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized Ca(2+)-release signals (puffs) and propagated Ca(2+) waves were characterized in rat ureteric myocytes by confocal microscopy. Ca(2+) puffs were evoked by photorelease of low concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) from a caged precursor and by low concentrations of acetylcholine; they were also observed spontaneously in Ca(2+)-overloaded myocytes. Ca(2+) puffs showed some variability in amplitude, time course and spatial spread, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels exist in clusters containing variable numbers of channels and that within these clusters a variable number of channels can be recruited. Immunodetection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors revealed the existence of several spots of fluorescence in the confocal cell sections, supporting the existence of clusters of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors. Strong Ins(1,4,5)P(3) photorelease and high concentrations of acetylcholine induced Ca(2+) waves that originated from an initiation site and propagated in the whole cell by spatial recruitment of neighbouring Ca(2+)-release sites. Both Ca(2+) puffs and Ca(2+) waves were blocked selectively by intracellular applications of heparin and an anti-Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-receptor antibody, but were unaffected by ryanodine and intracellular application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody. mRNAs encoding for the three subtypes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor and subtype 3 of ryanodine receptor were detected in these myocytes, and the maximal binding capacity of [(3)H]Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was 10- to 12-fold higher than that of [(3)H]ryanodine. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels mediate a continuum of Ca(2+) signalling in smooth-muscle cells expressing a high level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors and no subtypes 1 and 2 of ryanodine receptors. PMID:10861244

  15. A distinct pool of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in caveolae revealed by a nanoscale labeling technique

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Akikazu; Cheng, Jinglei; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple functionally independent pools of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] have been postulated to occur in the cell membrane, but the existing techniques lack sufficient resolution to unequivocally confirm their presence. To analyze the distribution of PI(4,5)P2 at the nanoscale, we developed an electron microscopic technique that probes the freeze-fractured membrane preparation by the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-δ1. This method does not require chemical fixation or expression of artificial probes, it is applicable to any cell in vivo and in vitro, and it can define the PI(4,5)P2 distribution quantitatively. By using this method, we found that PI(4,5)P2 is highly concentrated at the rim of caveolae both in cultured fibroblasts and mouse smooth muscle cells in vivo. PI(4,5)P2 was also enriched in the coated pit, but only a low level of clustering was observed in the flat undifferentiated membrane. When cells were treated with angiotensin II, the PI(4,5)P2 level in the undifferentiated membrane decreased to 37.9% within 10 sec and then returned to the initial level. Notably, the PI(4,5)P2 level in caveolae showed a slower but more drastic change and decreased to 20.6% at 40 sec, whereas the PI(4,5)P2 level in the coated pit was relatively constant and decreased only to 70.2% at 10 sec. These results show the presence of distinct PI(4,5)P2 pools in the cell membrane and suggest a unique role for caveolae in phosphoinositide signaling. PMID:19470488

  16. A spectroscopic investigation of the binding interactions between 4,5-dihydroxyxanthone and heme.

    PubMed

    Xu Kelly, J; Winter, R; Riscoe, M; Peyton, D H

    2001-09-01

    In order to investigate one possible mechanism by which xanthones inhibit growth of malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites, optical and NMR spectroscopic studies were performed on a prototypic xanthone, 4,5-dihydroxyxanthone (45X2), upon its complexation to heme. The 45X2 x heme complex stoichiometry in aqueous solution was found to be 1:2; this interaction was non-cooperative, and exhibited a very similar heme complex dissociation constant (K(d)=5.1 x 10(-6)) as observed for the common antimalarial agents, chloroquine and quinine. The 45X2 x heme(2) complex formation was found to be both pH- and solvent-dependent, with clear evidence of the xanthone carbonyl moiety coordinating with the iron of heme. Hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of 45X2 and the propionate side chains of heme, as well as pi-pi stacking between both aromatic systems appeared to contribute to the overall stability of the 45X2 x heme(2) complex, as judged by 1H NMR. It was concluded that 45X2 forms a complex with a heme dimer in aqueous solution, and that this interaction can be generalized to account for its in vivo detrimental effect of parasite growth through an effective inhibition of hemozoin aggregate formation.

  17. Photophysical Properties of a 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexasubstituted Fullerene Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Khin K.; Chuang, Shih-Ching; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias; Foote, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a novel 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexasusbstituted fullerene derivative (1) are examined in this study. In addition to the ground state absorption spectrum of 1 we report its triplet-triplet absorption spectrum and molar extinction coefficient (ΔεT-T), as well as the triplet quantum yield (ΦT), lifetime (τT), and energy (ET). The saturation of a single six-member ring on the fullerene cage results in significant changes in the triplet state properties as compared to that of pristine C60. The triplet-triplet absorption spectrum shows a hypsochromic shift in long wavelength absorption and both the triplet state lifetime and triplet quantum yield are decreased. The triplet energy was found to be similar to that of C60. In addition, the quantum yield (ΦΔ) of singlet oxygen generated by 1 was calculated and is found to be significantly less than in the case of C60. PMID:17181318

  18. High-spin states with seniority v=4, 5, and 6 in 119-126Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, A.; Porquet, M.-G.; Theisen, Ch.; Verney, D.; Deloncle, I.; Houry, M.; Lucas, R.; Azaiez, F.; Barreau, G.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Duchêne, G.; Gall, B. J. P.; Redon, N.; Rousseau, M.; Stézowski, O.

    2012-05-01

    The 119-126Sn nuclei have been produced as fission fragments in two reactions induced by heavy ions: 12C+238U at a bombarding energy of 90 MeV and 18O+208Pb at 85 MeV. Their level schemes have been built from γ rays detected using the Euroball array. High-spin states located above the long-lived isomeric states of the even- and odd-A 120-126Sn nuclei have been identified. Moreover, isomeric states lying around 4.5 MeV have been established in 120,122,124,126Sn from the delayed coincidences between the fission fragment detector SAPhIR and the Euroball array. The states located above 3 MeV excitation energy are ascribed to several broken pairs of neutrons occupying the νh11/2 orbit. The maximum value of angular momentum available in such a high-j shell, i.e., for midoccupation and the breaking of the three neutron pairs, has been identified. This process is observed for the first time in spherical nuclei.

  19. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  20. Flood of June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin, east-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware, Dubuque, Jackson, and Jones Counties, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cascade, Iowa, recorded a 14-hour rainfall of 6.0 inches at noon on June 4. Radar indications estimated as much as 8 to 10 inches of rain fell in the upper-middle part of the Maquoketa River Basin. Peak discharges on the Maquoketa River at Monticello of 47,500 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval estimated to be greater than 500 years as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey), and at the Maquoketa River near Maquoketa streamflow-gaging station of 47,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 50 years), were determined for the flood. The peak discharge of the 2002 flood is nearly equal that of the 1944 flood (48,000 cubic feet per second), the largest flood on record in the Maquoketa River Basin. The 2002 flood is the largest known flood in the North Fork Maquoketa River Basin. A peak discharge of 22,600 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 110 years) was determined for the flood at the North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton gaging station. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along the Maquoketa and North Fork Maquoketa Rivers.

  1. Geological Mapping Uses Landsat 4-5TM Satellite Data in Manlai Soum of Omnogovi Aimag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Author: Bayanmonkh N1, Undram.G1, Tsolmon.R2, Ariunzul.Ya1, Bayartungalag B31 Environmental Research Information and Study Center 2NUM-ITC-UNESCO Space Science and Remote Sensing International Laboratory, National University of Mongolia 3Geology and Hydrology School, Korea University KEY WORDS: geology, mineral resources, fracture, structure, lithologyABSTRACTGeologic map is the most important map for mining when it does exploration job. In Mongolia geological map completed by Russian geologists which is done by earlier technology. Those maps doesn't satisfy for present requirements. Thus we want to study improve geological map which includes fracture, structural map and lithology use Landsat TM4-5 satellite data. If we can produce a geological map from satellite data with more specification then geologist can explain or read mineralogy very easily. We searched all methodology and researches of every single element of geological mapping. Then we used 3 different remote sensing methodologies to produce structural and lithology and fracture map based on geographic information system's softwares. There can be found a visible lithology border improvement and understandable structural map and we found fracture of the Russian geological map has a lot of distortion. The result of research geologist can read mineralogy elements very easy and discovered 3 unfound important elements from satellite image.

  2. T cells deficient in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, T; Marks, A R

    1997-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) calcium release channel is present on the endoplasmic reticulum of most cell types. T lymphocytes which have been made deficient in IP3R1 lack detectable IP3-induced intracellular calcium release and exhibit defective signaling via the T-cell receptor (TCR) (T. Jayaraman, E. Ondriasova, K. Ondrias, D. Harnick, and A. R. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:6007-6011, 1995). We now show that IP3R1-deficient T cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, TCR stimulation, ionizing radiation, and Fas. Resistance to TCR-mediated apoptosis in IP3R1-deficient cells is reversed by pharmacologically raising cytoplasmic calcium levels. TCR-mediated apoptosis can be induced in calcium-free media, indicating that extracellular calcium influx is not required. These findings suggest that intracellular calcium release via the IP3R1 is a critical mediator of apoptosis. PMID:9154798

  3. Interactions of antagonists with subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Tovey, Stephen C; Molinski, Tedeusz F; Taylor, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+ channels. Interactions of the commonly used antagonists of IP3Rs with IP3R subtypes are poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R was measured using a luminal Ca2+ indicator. The effects of commonly used antagonists on IP3-evoked Ca2+ release and 3H-IP3 binding were characterized. KEY RESULTS Functional analyses showed that heparin was a competitive antagonist of all IP3R subtypes with different affinities for each (IP3R3 > IP3R1 ≥ IP3R2). This sequence did not match the affinities for heparin binding to the isolated N-terminal from each IP3R subtype. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and high concentrations of caffeine selectively inhibited IP3R1 without affecting IP3 binding. Neither Xestospongin C nor Xestospongin D effectively inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via any IP3R subtype. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Heparin competes with IP3, but its access to the IP3-binding core is substantially hindered by additional IP3R residues. These interactions may contribute to its modest selectivity for IP3R3. Practicable concentrations of caffeine and 2-APB inhibit only IP3R1. Xestospongins do not appear to be effective antagonists of IP3Rs. PMID:24628114

  4. Expression, purification, and properties of the Ubc4/5 family of E2 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lorick, Kevin L; Jensen, Jane P; Weissman, Allan M

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play a central role in ubiquitylation. They function to bridge the first, nonspecific step of ubiquitin activation by E1 with the transfer of activated ubiquitin to substrates by substrate-specific E3s. While sharing a common core UBC domain, members of this family exhibit significant specificity in their physical and functional interactions with E3s. Among the families of E2s, members of the yeast Ubc4/5 family are particularly well conserved in higher metazoans. In humans, these are represented by the UbcH5 family. Members of this ubiquitously expressed family show a capacity to interact with a wide range of E3s from both HECT and RING finger families, making them particularly useful tools in the laboratory. Using the UbcH5 family as a prototype, this chapter describes methods for the expression, purification, and characterization of E2 enzymes in vitro and some of the basics for their use in experiments in cells.

  5. Pheromone regulated production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate in the mammalian vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, K S; Anholt, R R

    1997-08-01

    Social behaviors of most mammals are profoundly affected by chemical signals, pheromones, exchanged between conspecifics. Pheromones interact with dendritic microvilli of bipolar neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). To investigate vomeronasal signal transduction pathways, microvillar membranes from porcine VNO were prepared. Incubation of such membranes from prepubertal females with boar seminal fluid or urine results in an increase in production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate (IP3). The dose response for IP3 production is biphasic with a GTP-dependent component at low stimulus concentrations and a nonspecific increase in IP3 at higher stimulus concentrations. The GTP-dependent stimulation is mimicked by GTPgammaS and blocked by GDPbetaS. Furthermore, the GTP-dependent component of the stimulation of IP3 production is sex specific and tissue dependent. Studies with monospecific antibodies reveal a G alpha(q/11)-related protein in vomeronasal neurons, concentrated at their microvilli. Our observations indicate that pheromones in boar secretions act on vomeronasal neurons in the female VNO via a receptor mediated, G protein-dependent increase in IP3. These observations set the stage for further investigations on the regulation of stimulus-excitation coupling in vomeronasal neurons. The pheromone-induced IP3 response also provides an assay for future purification of mammalian reproductive pheromones.

  6. Investigations of shot reproducibility for the SMP diode at 4.5 MV.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, Marlon D.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Lare, Gregory A.; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Rafael; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Welch, Dale Robert; Cordova, Steve Ray; Gallegos, M.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Daniel Scott; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Renk, Timothy Jerome; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy Jay; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2013-11-01

    In experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator, the SMP diode exhibits sig- ni cant shot-to-shot variability. Speci cally, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. To remove knob emission as a source, only data from a shot series conducted with a 4.5-MV peak voltage are considered. The scope of this report is limited to sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as power ow emission and trajectory changes, variations in pulsed power, dustbin and transmission line alignment, and di erent knob shapes. We nd no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we nd that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance pro les. This result forms the basis of a follow-on study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics. 3

  7. Proliferative response patterns of human fibroblasts after photoinjury with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.R.; Carter, D.M.; Gala, M.

    1981-01-01

    The extent of growth suppression and recovery following exposure to 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen plus uv-A irradiation was studied in 3 diploid human fibroblast strains. Inhibition of cellular proliferation was dose-dependent within the concentration range of TMP that was tested, using a constant level of uv-A. The population generation times for all cell strains were progressively lengthened under these conditions while maximal cell densities were reduced. At 2 to 4 x 10(-7) M TMP in the presence of uv-A, there was a triphasic pattern of growth which consisted of proliferative activity during the first 24 to 36 h, followed by complete growth inhibition for variable periods of time and a recovery period of log phase proliferation that was not as vigorous as measured for untreated cells. There were also declines in the percentage of cells labeled with 3H-Tdr at various times after TMP-uv-A treatment. These measurements were essentially identical for the three fibroblast strains evaluated. In that the cells employed for these investigations were derived from embryonic pulmonary tissue, neonatal foreskin and the buttock skin of an adult male, it seems unlikely that donor age and tissue source were important variables in determining growth response patterns after TMP-uv-A exposure. Because proliferative recovery was attenuated after this photochemical injury, researchers conclude that the biologic effect(s) of TMP-uv-A extend beyond the known period of psoralen-DNA cross-link removal.

  8. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo S.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Araújo Neto, João H.; Medina, Ana Carolina Q. D.; Menezes, Antonio C. S.; Sousa, José E. F.; Oliveira, Solemar S.; Camargo, Ademir J.; Napolitano, Hamilton B.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA) is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic P1¯ space group (Z' = 1) and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical R22(4) ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes PMID:27355378

  9. Optimization and In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of G4.5 Pamam Dendrimer-Risperidone Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Maria Jimena; del Rio Zabala, Nahuel Eduardo; Marotta, Cristian Hernán; Carreño Gutierrez, Hector; Arévalo Arévalo, Rosario; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Alonso, Silvia del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%). Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer) was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex. PMID:24587349

  10. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  11. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates autophagy through its interaction with Beclin 1.

    PubMed

    Vicencio, J M; Ortiz, C; Criollo, A; Jones, A W E; Kepp, O; Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Vitale, I; Morselli, E; Tailler, M; Castedo, M; Maiuri, M C; Molgó, J; Szabadkai, G; Lavandero, S; Kroemer, G

    2009-07-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) is a major regulator of apoptotic signaling. Through interactions with members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, it drives calcium (Ca(2+)) transients from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria, thereby establishing a functional and physical link between these organelles. Importantly, the IP(3)R also regulates autophagy, and in particular, its inhibition/depletion strongly induces macroautophagy. Here, we show that the IP(3)R antagonist xestospongin B induces autophagy by disrupting a molecular complex formed by the IP(3)R and Beclin 1, an interaction that is increased or inhibited by overexpression or knockdown of Bcl-2, respectively. An effect of Beclin 1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis was discarded as siRNA-mediated knockdown of Beclin 1 did not affect cytosolic or luminal ER Ca(2+) levels. Xestospongin B- or starvation-induced autophagy was inhibited by overexpression of the IP(3)R ligand-binding domain, which coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin 1. These results identify IP(3)R as a new regulator of the Beclin 1 complex that may bridge signals converging on the ER and initial phagophore formation.

  12. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  13. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media.

  14. Amine degradation by 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Gallardo, Emerenciana; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2006-03-22

    The reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal with octylamine, benzylamine, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester were studied to investigate if amines may suffer a Strecker type degradation by epoxyalkenals analogously to amino acids. In addition to other reactions, the studied amines were converted into their corresponding Strecker aldehydes (octanal, benzaldehyde, and methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate, respectively) to an extent that depended on the pH, the temperature, the amount of epoxyalkenal, and the amine involved. Each amine exhibited an optimum pH for the reaction, but the corresponding Strecker aldehydes were produced to a significant extent within a broad pH range. In addition, the temperature mostly influenced the reaction rate, which was increased between 6.5 and 9.5 times when the reaction was carried out at 60 degrees C than when it took place at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, Strecker aldehyde formation was linearly correlated with the amount of the epoxyalkenal present in the reaction mixture. Nevertheless, the reaction yield mostly depended on the amine involved. Thus, octylamine only produced trace amounts of octanal, benzylamine was converted into benzaldehyde with a yield of 4.3%, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester was converted into methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate with a reaction yield of 49%. All of these results suggest that suitable amines can be degraded by epoxyalkenals to their corresponding Strecker aldehydes to a significant extent.

  15. Ensemble perception of size in 4-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-07-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) controls magnesium gatekeeper TRPM6 activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia; Sun, Baonan; Du, Jianyang; Yang, Wenzhong; Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Overton, Jeffrey D; Runnels, Loren W; Yue, Lixia

    2011-01-01

    TRPM6 is crucial for human Mg2+ homeostasis as patients carrying TRPM6 mutations develop hypomagnesemia and secondary hypocalcemia (HSH). However, the activation mechanism of TRPM6 has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophate (PIP2) controls TRPM6 activation and Mg2+ influx. Stimulation of PLC-coupled M1-receptors to deplete PIP2 potently inactivates TRPM6. Translocation of over-expressed 5-phosphatase to cell membrane to specifically hydrolyze PIP2 also completely inhibits TRPM6. Moreover, depolarization-induced-activation of the voltage-sensitive-phosphatase (Ci-VSP) simultaneously depletes PIP2 and inhibits TRPM6. PLC-activation induced PIP2-depletion not only inhibits TRPM6, but also abolishes TRPM6-mediated Mg2+ influx.Furthermore, neutralization of basic residues in the TRP domain leads to nonfunctional or dysfunctional mutants with reduced activity by PIP2, suggesting that they are likely to participate in interactions with PIP2.Our data indicate that PIP2 is required for TRPM6 channel function; hydrolysis of PIP2 by PLC-coupled hormones/agonists may constitute an important pathway for TRPM6 gating, and perhaps Mg2+ homeostasis.

  17. Shot reproducibility of the self-magnetic-pinch diode at 4.5Â MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, M. Dale; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Lare, Greg; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Robert; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale R.; Cordova, Steve; Gallegos, Manuel L.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Nielsen, Dan; Renk, Timothy J.; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy J.; Ziska, Derek

    2014-05-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' RITS-6 accelerator, the self-magnetic-pinch diode exhibits significant shot-to-shot variability. Specifically, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. The scope of this report is limited to data collected at 4.5-MV peak voltage and sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as sheath electron emission and trajectories, variations in pulsed power, load and transmission line alignment, and different field shapers. We find no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we find that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance profiles. In poor shots, the sheath current in the load region falls from 16%-30% of the total current to less than 10%. This result will form the basis of a follow-up study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics.

  18. Electron delocalization in a rigid cofacial naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) dimer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilei; Frasconi, Marco; Gardner, Daniel M; McGonigal, Paul R; Schneebeli, Severin T; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-09-01

    Investigating through-space electronic communication between discrete cofacially oriented aromatic π-systems is fundamental to understanding assemblies as diverse as double-stranded DNA, organic photovoltaics and thin-film transistors. A detailed understanding of the electronic interactions involved rests on making the appropriate molecular compounds with rigid covalent scaffolds and π-π distances in the range of ca. 3.5 Å. Reported herein is an enantiomeric pair of doubly-bridged naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) cyclophanes and the characterization of four of their electronic states, namely 1) the ground state, 2) the exciton coupled singlet excited state, 3) the radical anion with strong through-space interactions between the redox-active NDI molecules, and 4) the diamagnetic diradical dianion using UV/Vis/NIR, EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies in addition to X-ray crystallography. Despite the unfavorable Coulombic repulsion, the singlet diradical dianion dimer of NDI shows a more pronounced intramolecular π-π stacking interaction when compared with its neutral analog.

  19. Functional architecture of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in restricted spaces of myoendothelial projections.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Taylor, Mark S; Bonev, Adrian D; Hannah, Rachael M; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Shui, Bo; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Nelson, Mark T

    2008-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) regulates the function of virtually every mammalian cell. Unlike ryanodine receptors, which generate local Ca(2+) events ("sparks") that transmit signals to the juxtaposed cell membrane, a similar functional architecture has not been reported for IP(3)Rs. Here, we have identified spatially fixed, local Ca(2+) release events ("pulsars") in vascular endothelial membrane domains that project through the internal elastic lamina to adjacent smooth muscle membranes. Ca(2+) pulsars are mediated by IP(3)Rs in the endothelial endoplasmic reticulum of these membrane projections. Elevation of IP(3) by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, increased the frequency of Ca(2+) pulsars, whereas blunting IP(3) production, blocking IP(3)Rs, or depleting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) inhibited these events. The elementary properties of Ca(2+) pulsars were distinct from ryanodine-receptor-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in smooth muscle and from IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) puffs in Xenopus oocytes. The intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (K(Ca)3.1) channel also colocalized to the endothelial projections, and blockage of this channel caused an 8-mV depolarization. Inhibition of Ca(2+) pulsars also depolarized to a similar extent, and blocking K(Ca)3.1 channels was without effect in the absence of pulsars. Our results support a mechanism of IP(3) signaling in which Ca(2+) release is spatially restricted to transmit intercellular signals.

  20. A map of dust reddening to 4.5 kpc from Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Jurić, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.

    2014-07-01

    We present a map of the dust reddening to 4.5 kpc derived from Pan-STARRS1 stellar photometry. The map covers almost the entire sky north of declination –30° at a resolution of 7'-14', and is based on the estimated distances and reddenings to more than 500 million stars. The technique is designed to map dust in the Galactic plane, where many other techniques are stymied by the presence of multiple dust clouds at different distances along each line of sight. This reddening-based dust map agrees closely with the Schlegel et al. (SFD) far-infrared emission-based dust map away from the Galactic plane, and the most prominent differences between the two maps stem from known limitations of SFD in the plane. We also compare the map with Planck, finding likewise good agreement in general at high latitudes. The use of optical data from Pan-STARRS1 yields reddening uncertainty as low as 25 mmag E(B – V).

  1. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media. PMID:25406424

  2. Expression of Spgatae, the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ortholog of vertebrate GATA4/5/6 factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei Yun; Davidson, Eric H

    2004-12-01

    Spgatae is the sea urchin ortholog of the vertebrate gata4/5/6 genes, as confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The accumulation of Spgatae transcripts during embryonic development and the spatial pattern of expression are reported here. Expression was first detected in the 15 h blastula. The number of Spgatae RNA molecules increases steadily during blastula stages, with expression peaking during gastrulation. After gastrulation is complete, the level of expression decreases until the end of embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that Spgatae transcripts were first detected in a ring of prospective mesoderm cells in the vegetal plate. Spgatae expression then expands to include the entire vegetal plate at the mesenchyme blastula stage. During gastrulation Spgatae is expressed at the blastopore, and at prism stage strongly in the hindgut and midgut but not foregut, and also in mesoderm cells at the tip of the archenteron. Towards the end of embryogenesis, expression in the hindgut decreases. The terminal pattern of expression is in midgut plus coelomic pouches.

  3. Design of a 4.5 MJ/1 MW sectored toroidal superconducting energy storage magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Akhter, Javed; Nandi, Chinmay; Pal, Gautam; Saha, Subimal

    2014-09-01

    A 4.5 MJ/1 MW superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is being developed at VECC centre, Kolkata. The magnet system consists of the cryostat and coil assembly comprising eight superconducting solenoid coils made of custom-made NbTi based Rutherford-type cable and arranged in toroidal fashion with finite inter-sector gap. Since the strong electromagnetic force distributed to the coil is asymmetric and non-uniform in nature, a precise 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) has been carried out to design a mechanically stable coil and support structure under various operational scenarios. The results reveal that maximum stress developed on coil and its support structure is below allowable stress limit. Extensive transient analysis has also been carried out to evaluate transient loss and assess the feasibility of using helium re-condensation technology with commercially available cryo-refrigerators. Finally, quench protection scenario has also been discussed suitable for this toroidal-type SMES system. The article investigates the design concept of the cryostat and coil assembly.

  4. A Reducing Milieu Renders Cofilin Insensitive to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PIP2) Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Bianca; John, Isabel; Simon, Bernd; Brockmann, Christoph; Oelmeier, Stefan A.; Jahraus, Beate; Kirchgessner, Henning; Riplinger, Selina; Carlomagno, Teresa; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Samstag, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to T cell hyporesponsiveness. A reducing micromilieu (e.g. provided by dendritic cells) can rescue T cells from such oxidant-induced dysfunction. However, the reducing effects on proteins leading to restored T cell activation remained unknown. One key molecule of T cell activation is the actin-remodeling protein cofilin, which is dephosphorylated on serine 3 upon T cell costimulation and has an essential role in formation of mature immune synapses between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Cofilin is spatiotemporally regulated; at the plasma membrane, it can be inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we show by NMR spectroscopy that a reducing milieu led to structural changes in the cofilin molecule predominantly located on the protein surface. They overlapped with the PIP2- but not actin-binding sites. Accordingly, reduction of cofilin had no effect on F-actin binding and depolymerization and did not influence the cofilin phosphorylation state. However, it did prevent inhibition of cofilin activity through PIP2. Therefore, a reducing milieu may generate an additional pool of active cofilin at the plasma membrane. Consistently, in-flow microscopy revealed increased actin dynamics in the immune synapse of untransformed human T cells under reducing conditions. Altogether, we introduce a novel mechanism of redox regulation: reduction of the actin-remodeling protein cofilin renders it insensitive to PIP2 inhibition, resulting in enhanced actin dynamics. PMID:24003227

  5. Acoustic Receptivity of Mach 4.5 Boundary Layer with Leading- Edge Bluntness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows where second mode instability is dominant. Computations are performed to investigate the effect of leading-edge thickness and it is found that bluntness tends to stabilize the boundary layer. Furthermore, the relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle.

  6. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels.

    PubMed

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of total

  7. (Z)-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri­methoxy­phen­yl)acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H18N2O3, the C=C bond of the acrylonitrile group that links the indole and the 3,4,5-trimeth­oxy­phenyl rings has Z geometry, with dihedral angles between the plane of the acrylonitrile unit and the planes of the benzene and indole ring systems of 21.96 (5) and 38.94 (7)°, respectively. The acrylonitrile group is planar (r.m.s. deviation from planarity = 0.037 Å). Mol­ecules are linked into head-to-tail chains that propagate along the b-axis direction by bifurcated N—H⋯O inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, which form an R 1 2(5) motif between the indole NH group and the two meth­oxy O atoms furthest from the nitrile group. PMID:22412611

  8. A red-shift colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for Cu2+ in aqueous solution: unsymmetrical 4,5-diaminonaphthalimide with N-H deprotonation induced by metal ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junhai; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong

    2009-04-07

    4,5-Diamino-1,8-naphthalimide (DNP)-based chemosensor was designed and synthesized. Probe specifically recognized Cu(2+) ions in neutral aqueous solution. The capture of Cu(2+) by the receptor resulted in deprotonation of the secondary amine conjugated to the 1,8-naphthalimide chromophore, so that the electron-donation ability of the "N" atom would be greatly enhanced; thus probe showed a 50 nm red-shift in absorption (from 464 nm to 514 nm) and a large colorimetric response, it also exhibited an on-off fluorescent response. Specifically, is a pH-independent sensor in the range of 6.0 to 12.0 and can be used as a probe for Cu(2+) in strong basic conditions. These results opened up new possibilities for construction of red-shift colorimetric and fluorescent sensors.

  9. Effects of Age, Adipose Percent, and Reproduction on PCB Concentrations and Profiles in an Extreme Fasting North Pacific Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Hassrick, Jason L.; Lafontaine, Anne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Crocker, Daniel E.; Debier, Cathy; Costa, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs) than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth) may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research. PMID:24755635

  10. In situ measurement of osmium concentrations in iron meteorites by resonance ionization of sputtered atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.; Pellin, M. J.; Calaway, W. F.; Young, C. E.; Gruen, D. M.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1990-03-01

    Resonance ionization of sputtered atoms followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for in situ quantitative measurement of Os with a spatial resolution of about 70 microns. A linear correlation between Os(+) signal intensity and the known Os concentration was observed over a range of nearly 10,000 in Os concentration with an accuracy of about + or - 10 percent, a minimum detection limit of 7 parts per billion atomic, and a useful yield of 1 percent. Resonance ionization of sputtered atoms samples the dominant neutral-fraction of sputtered atoms and utilizes multiphoton resonance ionization to achieve high sensitivity and to eliminate atomic and molecular interferences.

  11. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-14

    cooling of some atoms in atomic beam. We have reconfigured the apparatus for applying bichromatic forces transverse to the atomic beam, as it will be...apparatus for applying bichromatic forces transverse to the atomic beam, as it will be easier to extend this to two dimensions. Research to develop

  12. Atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  13. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Percent of guarantee and maximum loss. 762.129 Section 762.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.129 Percent of guarantee and...

  14. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  15. 13 CFR 107.1400 - Dividends or partnership distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities. 107.1400 Section 107.1400 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees... distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities. If you issued Preferred Securities to SBA on or after...

  16. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  17. 46 CFR 153.559 - Special requirements for nitric acid (less than 70 percent).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for nitric acid (less than 70... MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.559 Special requirements for nitric acid (less than 70 percent). A containment system that carries nitric acid (less than 70 percent) must be...

  18. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Percent of guarantee and maximum loss. 762.129 Section 762.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.129 Percent of guarantee and...

  19. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Percent of guarantee and maximum loss. 762.129 Section 762.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.129 Percent of guarantee and...

  20. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Percent of guarantee and maximum loss. 762.129 Section 762.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.129 Percent of guarantee and...

  1. 42 CFR 457.618 - Ten percent limit on certain Children's Health Insurance Program expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ten percent limit on certain Children's Health Insurance Program expenditures. 457.618 Section 457.618 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Payments to States § 457.618 Ten percent limit on...

  2. Evaluation of the Reactivity of Reillex HPQ in 64 Percent Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, W.J. III

    2001-02-20

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the reactivity of Reillex HPQ in 64 percent nitric acid and to address an accident scenario in which 64 percent nitric acid solution is inadvertently added to an HB-Line ion exchange column containing Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin.

  3. Injector Design Tool Improvements: User's manual for FDNS V.4.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Wei, Hong; Liu, Jiwen

    1998-01-01

    The major emphasis of the current effort is in the development and validation of an efficient parallel machine computational model, based on the FDNS code, to analyze the fluid dynamics of a wide variety of liquid jet configurations for general liquid rocket engine injection system applications. This model includes physical models for droplet atomization, breakup/coalescence, evaporation, turbulence mixing and gas-phase combustion. Benchmark validation cases for liquid rocket engine chamber combustion conditions will be performed for model validation purpose. Test cases may include shear coaxial, swirl coaxial and impinging injection systems with combinations LOXIH2 or LOXISP-1 propellant injector elements used in rocket engine designs. As a final goal of this project, a well tested parallel CFD performance methodology together with a user's operation description in a final technical report will be reported at the end of the proposed research effort.

  4. Poly[hexa-aqua-(μ9-cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ato)trimanganese(II)].

    PubMed

    Sun, Weixuan; Zang, Hu; Quan, Chengshi

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mn3(C12H6O12)(H2O)6] n , comprises one Mn(II) ion, one third of a cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion and two aqua ligands. The anion is completed by application of a -3 axis. The Mn(II) ion is six-coordinated by six O atoms from two aqua ligands and three different cyclo-hexa-carboxyl-ate anions in an octa-hedral geometry. The six carboxyl-ate groups adopt a bridging bidentate mode to ligate the Mn(II) ions. Thus, each cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion adopts a μ9-connected mode, ligating nine different Mn(II) ions and forming a three-dimensional framework. In the framework, there are strong O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, which further stabilize the crystal structure.

  5. Experimental (XRD, IR and NMR) and theoretical investigations on 1-(2-nitrobenzoyl)3,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evecen, Meryem; Tanak, Hasan; Tinmaz, Feyza; Dege, Necmi; Özer İlhan, İlhan

    2016-12-01

    The pyrazole compound 1-(2-nitrobenzoyl)3,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (I) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction methods. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 36.126(5) Ǻ, b = 8.1963(7) Ǻ, c = 14.3983(18) Ǻ, β = 100.825(10)° and Z = 8. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of 1-(2-nitrobenzoyl)3,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The optimized parameters are in agreement with X-ray data. The calculated vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values were compared with experimental IR and NMR values. In addition, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential and NBO analysis of (I) were investigated by DFT calculations.

  6. Synaptojanin 1-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis is modulated by membrane curvature and facilitates membrane fission

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Ileto, Belle; Frere, Samuel G.; Chan, Robin B.; Voronov, Sergey V.; Roux, Aurélien; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] plays a fundamental role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, precisely how PI(4,5)P2 metabolism is spatially and temporally regulated during membrane internalization and the functional consequences of endocytosis-coupled PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation remain to be explored. Using cell free assays with liposomes of varying curvatures, we show that the major synaptic phosphoinositide phosphatase, synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), acts with membrane curvature generators/sensors, such as the BAR protein endophilin, to preferentially remove PI(4,5)P2 from curved membranes as opposed to relatively flat ones. Moreover, in vivo recruitment of Synj1’s inositol 5-phosphatase domain to endophilin-induced membrane tubules results in fragmentation and condensation of these structures largely in a dynamin-dependent fashion. Our study raises the possibility that geometry-based mechanisms may contribute to spatially restricting PI(4,5)P2 elimination during membrane internalization and suggests that the PI(4,5)P2-to-PI4P conversion achieved by Synj1 at sites of high curvature may cooperate with dynamin to achieve membrane fission. PMID:21316588

  7. Removal of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by bacterial isolates from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kr; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-09-01

    2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) mineralizing bacteria were isolated from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper industry. These isolates used 2,4,5-TCP as a source of carbon and energy and were capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichimetric release of chloride and biomass formation. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these bacteria were identified as Kocuria sp. (CL2), Bacillus pumillus (CL5), Pseudomonas stutzeri (CL7). HPLC analysis revealed that these isolates were able to degrade 2,4,5-TCP at higher concentrations (600 mg/l or 3.0 mM). A consortia of these isolates completely removed 2,4,5-TCP from the sludge obtained from pulp and paper mill within 2 weeks when supplemented at a rate of 100 mg l(-1) . Bacterial consortium also significantly reduced absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) by 61% and 63%, respectively from the sludge. These isolates have high potential to remove 2,4,5-TCP and may be used for remediation of pulp paper mill waste containing 2,4,5-TCP.

  8. Assessment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of 2,4,5-TP in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sergi; Casino, Patricia; Marín, M Luisa; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2002-09-01

    A highly sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described for Silvex, 2-(2,4,5 trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, (2,4,5-TP). One specific feature of the immunoassay is the use of simple chemical activation of chlorophenoxy acids to prepare both the immunizing and coating conjugates. The assay is based on the use of polyclonal antibodies raised against 2,4,5-TP, and a peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody for colorimetric detection. The effect of different chemical conditions (pH, and salt and detergent concentration) on immunoassay performance has been studied. Under the best conditions the least detectable dose and the sensitivity (IC(50)) for 2,4,5-TP were 0.05 micro g L(-1) and 0.80 micro g L(-1), respectively. The optimized immunoassay was also highly specific, showing little (6.9% for 2,4,5-T) or no cross-reactivity with other similar herbicides. The assay was used to determine 2,4,5-TP in water and soils. The excellent recoveries obtained (mean values ranging between 89% and 104%) make this immunoassay a suitable screening method for either environmental monitoring or laboratory quantification of 2,4,5-TP.

  9. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 is required for Syntaxin1A clustering and neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Khuong, Thang Manh; Habets, Ron L P; Kuenen, Sabine; Witkowska, Agata; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Swerts, Jef; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert; Verstreken, Patrik

    2013-03-20

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find the lipid in membrane domains at neurotransmitter release sites, where it concentrates with Syntaxin1A, a protein essential for vesicle fusion. Reducing PI(3,4,5)P3 availability disperses Syntaxin1A clusters and increasing PI(3,4,5)P3 levels rescues this defect. In artificial giant unilamellar vesicles, PI(3,4,5)P3 also induces Syntaxin1A domain formation and this clustering, in vitro and in vivo, is dependent on positively charged residues in the Syntaxin1A-juxtamembrane domain. Functionally, reduced PI(3,4,5)P3 causes temperature-sensitive paralysis and reduced neurotransmitter release, a phenotype also seen in animals expressing a Syntaxin1A with a mutated juxtamembrane domain. Thus, our data indicate that PI(3,4,5)P3, based on electrostatic interactions, clusters Syntaxin1A at release sites to regulate neurotransmitter release.

  10. An Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor in Paramecium is associated with the osmoregulatory system.

    PubMed

    Ladenburger, Eva-Maria; Korn, Iris; Kasielke, Nicole; Wassmer, Thomas; Plattner, Helmut

    2006-09-01

    In the ciliate Paramecium, a variety of well characterized processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g. exocytosis, endocytosis and ciliary beat. Therefore, among protozoa, Paramecium is considered a model organism for Ca2+ signaling, although the molecular identity of the channels responsible for the Ca2+ signals remains largely unknown. We have cloned - for the first time in a protozoan - the full sequence of the gene encoding a putative inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) receptor from Paramecium tetraurelia cells showing molecular characteristics of higher eukaryotic cells. The homologously expressed Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain binds [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas antibodies unexpectedly localize this protein to the osmoregulatory system. The level of Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor expression was reduced, as shown on a transcriptional level and by immuno-staining, by decreasing the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ (Paramecium cells rapidly adjust their Ca2+ level to that in the outside medium). Fluorochromes reveal spontaneous fluctuations in cytosolic Ca2+ levels along the osmoregulatory system and these signals change upon activation of caged Ins(1,4,5)P3. Considering the ongoing expulsion of substantial amounts of Ca2+ by the osmoregulatory system, we propose here that Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors serve a new function, i.e. a latent, graded reflux of Ca2+ to fine-tune [Ca2+] homeostasis.

  11. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  12. Antibodies to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 in patients with cerebellar disease

    PubMed Central

    Fouka, Penelope; Alexopoulos, Harry; Chatzi, Ioanna; Dedos, Skarlatos G.; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Politis, Panagiotis; Tzioufas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe newly identified autoantibodies associated with cerebellar disorders. Design/Methods: We first screened the sera of 15 patients with cerebellar ataxia, without any known associated autoantibodies, with immunocytochemistry on mouse brain. After characterization and validation of a newly identified antibody, 85 additional patients with suspected autoimmune cerebellar disease were screened using a cell-based assay. Results: Immunoglobulin G from one of the first 15 patients demonstrated a distinct staining pattern on Purkinje neurons. This autoantibody, as characterized further by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, was binding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1), an intracellular channel that mediates the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Anti-IP3R1 specificity was then validated with a cell-based assay. On this basis, screening of 85 other patients with cerebellar disease revealed 2 additional IP3R1-positive patients. All 3 patients presented with cerebellar ataxia; the first was eventually diagnosed with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, the second had a homozygous CAG insertion at the gene TBP, and the third was thought to have a neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions: We independently identified an autoantibody against IP3R1, a protein highly expressed in Purkinje neurons, confirming an earlier report. Because a mouse knockout model for IP3R1 exhibits ataxia and epilepsy, this autoantibody may have a functional role. The heterogeneity of the antibody-positive patients suggests that this antibody may either have a direct involvement in disease pathogenesis or it is a surrogate marker secondary to cerebellar injury. Anti-IP3R1 antibodies should be further explored in various ataxic and epileptic syndromes as they may denote a marker of response to immunotherapies. PMID:27957507

  13. Use of the 4/5 Kolmogorov equation for describing some characteristics of fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarskii, V. I.

    2005-03-01

    The Kolmogorov equation, which relates the second-order structure function Dll(r ) and the third-ordrer structure function Dlll(r ), may be presented as a closed linear integrodifferential equation for the probability distribution function W(U ,r) of longitudinal velocity difference U. In general, without any restrictions, the function of two variables W(U ,r) may be presented as [Dll(r )]-1/2F(U/√Dll(r ) ,r). As a first approximation, we neglect dependence of F on the second argument r. In this approximation (self-similarity of the probability density function), the integrodifferential equation for W reduces to the ordinary nonlinear differential equation for Dll(r ). It follows from this equation that for r →∞ the function Dll(r )˜r2/3. This consideration does not use the 1941 Kolmogorov hypothesis that is based on dimension analysis. Any deviations from the 2/3 law, including intermittency effects, must be related to the violation of the above-mentioned self-similarity of W, i.e., with the additional dependence of F on the second argument r. On the basis of experimental data, we suggest a simple model of W, which allows us to describe deviations from the 2/3 law, caused by intermittency, and describe the local exponents κ in the structure functions ⟨∣U(r)∣ρ⟩˜rκ(ρ ) for moderate ρ. The so called "bottleneck effect" also can be described by 4/5 Kolmogorov equation.

  14. Morphological evaluation of eccentric sets guide-plates of dcp-l 4.5 mm

    PubMed Central

    Borges, José Humberto de Souza; da Silva Filho, Antonio Lisboa; Pereira Neto, Francisco; Daher, Walter Rodrigo; de Mesquita, Alessandro Queiroz; Freitas, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Objective To carry out isolated and comparative evaluations of the measurements of the set eccentric guide plates used in 4.5mm surgical implants, and to determine the effect of these measurements on compression strength. Methods Four eccentric guides, four large dynamic compression plates (L-DCP) from four local manufacturers, and a Vonder® 200 mm caliper brand were used. Five standard parameter measurements were created for the set eccentric guide-plate, which were identified as A to E. Four sets were made, using materials of the same factory, and identified as groups I to IV. The analyses were performed by measuring all the parameters from a ventral view of the plate, with the eccentric guide placed in the plate hole. Results Groups I and II showed the same values for all the parameters. All the groups showed the same measurements for E = 8.15 e B = 3.60. Group III: A = 8.10mm, C = 3.25mm, D = 1.25mm. Group IV: A = 7.00mm, C = 3.10mm, D = 0.30mm. Maximum compression force was (F Max.): Group I 80.58 N, Group. II: F Max. 81.63 N, Group. III: F Max. 36.32N, Group. IV: F Max. 37.52N Conclusion The measurements evaluated show a lack of standardization in the manufacture of orthopedic instruments and its effects on the values for compression strength. Level of Evidence: Level III, analytical study. PMID:24453573

  15. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in fasting and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguo; Li, Gang; Goode, Jason; Paz, Jose C; Ouyang, Kunfu; Screaton, Robert; Fischer, Wolfgang H; Chen, Ju; Tabas, Ira; Montminy, Marc

    2012-04-08

    In the fasted state, increases in circulating glucagon promote hepatic glucose production through induction of the gluconeogenic program. Triggering of the cyclic AMP pathway increases gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation of the CREB co-activator CRTC2 (ref. 1). Glucagon promotes CRTC2 dephosphorylation in part through the protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of the CRTC2 kinase SIK2. A number of Ser/Thr phosphatases seem to be capable of dephosphorylating CRTC2 (refs 2, 3), but the mechanisms by which hormonal cues regulate these enzymes remain unclear. Here we show in mice that glucagon stimulates CRTC2 dephosphorylation in hepatocytes by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores and activating the calcium/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr-phosphatase calcineurin (also known as PP3CA). Glucagon increased cytosolic calcium concentration through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs), which associate with CRTC2. After their activation, InsP(3)Rs enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting the calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of CRTC2. During feeding, increases in insulin signalling reduced CRTC2 activity via the AKT-mediated inactivation of InsP(3)Rs. InsP(3)R activity was increased in diabetes, leading to upregulation of the gluconeogenic program. As hepatic downregulation of InsP(3)Rs and calcineurin improved circulating glucose levels in insulin resistance, these results demonstrate how interactions between cAMP and calcium pathways at the level of the InsP(3)R modulate hepatic glucose production under fasting conditions and in diabetes.

  16. PBFA Z: A 55 TW/4.5 MJ electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.; Struve, K.W.; Seamen, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    PBFA Z is a new 55 TW/4.5 MJ short pulse electrical driver located at Sandia National Laboratories. The authors use PBFA Z to magnetically-implode plasma shells. These configurations are historically known as z pinches. The pulsed power design of PBFA Z is based on conventional single-pulse Marx generator, water-line pulse-forming technology used on the earlier Saturn and PBFA II accelerators. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in a 55-TW/105-ns pulse to the output water transmission lines, and delivers up to 3.0 MJ and 40 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on the initial load inductance and the implosion time, they attain peak currents of 16--20 MA with a rise time of 105 ns. Current is fed to the z-pinch load through self magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Peak electric fields in the MITLs exceed 2 MV/cm. The current from the four independent conical disk MITLs is combined together in a double post-hole vacuum convolute with an efficiency greater than 95%. The measured system performance of the water transmission lines, the vacuum insulator stack, the MITLs, and the double post-hole vacuum convolute differed from preshot predictions by {approximately} 5%. Using a 2-cm radius and a 2-cm length tungsten wire array with 240, 7.5-{micro}m diameter wires (4.1-mg mass) as the z-pinch load, they achieved x-ray powers of 200 TW and x-ray energies of 1.85 MJ as measured by x-ray diodes and resistive bolometry.

  17. Detection and quantification of 4(5)-methylimidazole in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound found in class III and IV ammoniated caramel colors, a group of additives widely used in the food industry. A suspected carcinogen and neurotoxin and efforts are underway to limit its presence in foods. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantitate 4-MeI in different food matrices, including roasted coffee, beer, soft drinks, and soy sauce; however, no methods are available to measure 4-MeI in cooked meat and meat products containing lipids and high levels of interfering nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and peptides. A rapid method using 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) as an extraction solvent followed by derivatization with isobutylchloroformate and gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry was developed to quantify 4-MeI in cooked meat products with added caramel colors containing 4-MeI. Selected ion monitoring mode was used to monitor 4-MeI ions fragments. In the 8 commercial meat products tested, 4-MeI levels ranged from 0.041 to 1.015 mg/kg, with recovery of 94.76% to 103.94%. In addition, a matrix-matched calibration performed by analyzing a spiked cooked meat sample indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05), which means the meat matrix had no effect on the developed method. This method proved useful in analyzing 4-MeI in meat products with added caramel color containing 4-MeI.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters synaptotagmin 1 membrane docking and drives opposing bilayers closer together.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Weiwei; Herrick, Dawn Z; Cafiso, David S

    2011-04-05

    Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) is a synaptic vesicle-anchored membrane protein that acts as the calcium sensor for the synchronous component of neuronal exocytosis. Using site-directed spin labeling, the position and membrane interactions of a fragment of syt1 containing its two C2 domains (syt1C2AB) were assessed in bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Addition of 1 mol % PIP(2) to a lipid mixture of PC and PS results in a deeper membrane penetration of the C2A domain and alters the orientation of the C2B domain so that the polybasic face of C2B comes into the proximity of the bilayer interface. The C2B domain is found to contact the membrane interface in two regions, the Ca(2+)-binding loops and a region opposite the Ca(2+)-binding loops. This suggests that syt1C2AB is configured to bridge two bilayers and is consistent with a model generated previously for syt1C2AB bound to membranes of PC and PS. Point-to-plane depth restraints, obtained by progressive power saturation, and interdomain distance restraints, obtained by double electron-electron resonance, were obtained in the presence of PIP(2) and used in a simulated annealing routine to dock syt1C2AB to two membrane interfaces. The results yield an average structure different from what is found in the absence of PIP(2) and indicate that bilayer-bilayer spacing is decreased in the presence of PIP(2). The results indicate that PIP(2), which is necessary for bilayer fusion, alters C2 domain orientation, enhances syt1-membrane electrostatic interactions, and acts to drive vesicle and cytoplasmic membrane surfaces closer together.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate competitively inhibits phorbol ester binding to protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A.; Cauhan, V.P.S.; Deshmukh, D.S.; Brokerhoff, H. )

    1989-06-13

    Calcium phospholipid dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diacylglycerol (DG) and by phorbol esters and is recognized to be the phorbol ester receptor of cells; DG displaces phorbol ester competitively from PKC. A phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), can also activate PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and Ca{sup 2+} with a K{sub PIP{sub 2}} of 0.04 mol %. Preliminary experiments have suggested a common binding site for PIP{sub 2} and DG on PKC. Here, the authors investigate the effect of PIP{sub 2} on phorbol ester binding to PKC in a mixed micellar assay. In the presence of 20 mol % PS, PIP{sub 2} inhibited specific binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in a dose-dependent fashion up to 85% at 1 mol %. Inhibition of binding was more pronounced with PIP{sub 2} than with DG. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in binding of PDBu in the presence of PIP{sub 2} is the result of an altered affinity for the phorbol ester rather than of a change in maximal binding. The plot of apparent dissociation constants (K{sub d{prime}}) against PIP{sub 2} concentration was linear over a range of 0.01-1 mol % with a K{sub i} of 0.043 mol % and confirmed the competitive nature of inhibition between PDBu and PIP{sub 2}. Competition between PIP{sub 2} and phorbol ester could be determined in a liposomal assay system also. These results indicate that PIP{sub 2}, DG, and phorbol ester all compete for the same activator-receiving region on the regulatory moiety of protein kinase C, and they lend support to the suggestion that PIP{sub 2} is a primary activator of the enzyme.

  20. Mechanism of protein kinase C activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myungho; Bell, R.M. )

    1991-01-29

    The mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) was investigated by using Triton X-100 mixed micellar methods. The activation of PKC by PIP{sub 2}, for which maximal activity was 60% of that elicited by sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), was similar to activation by DAG in several respects: (1) activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG required phosphatidylserine (PS) as a phospholipid cofactor, (2) PIP{sub 2} and DAG reduced the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} and PS required for activation, (3) the concentration dependences of activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG depended on the concentration of PS, and (4) PIP{sub 2} and DAG complemented one another to achieve maximal activation. On the other hand, PIP{sub 2} activation of the PKC differed from activation by DAG in several respects. With increasing concentrations of PIP{sub 2}, (1) the optimal concentration of PS required was constant at 12 mol%, (2) the maximal activity at 12 mol% PS increased, and (3) the cooperativity for PS decreased. PIP{sub 2} did not inhibit ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding of PKC at saturating levels of PS; however, at subsaturating levels of PS, PIP{sub 2} enhanced ({sup 3}H)PDBu binding by acting as a phospholipid cofactor. PIP did not function as an activator but served as a phospholipid cofactor in the presence of PS. These data establish that PIP{sub 2}, PIP, and PI can function to spare, in part, the PS phospholipid cofactor requirement of PKC, and they demonstrate that PIP{sub 2} but not PIP and PI can function as a lipid activator of PKC by mechanisms distinct from those of DAG and phorbol esters.

  1. Developmental Expression of Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate Receptor in the Post-Natal Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. J.; Yang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) has been established to be essential for hearing. However, the expression of IP3R in the cochlea in the period of auditory development remains unknown. We investigated the expression of IP3R in the developing rat cochlea using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed its presence in the developing rat cochlea, and changes in IP3R protein expressions from the early post-natal period to adult. At birth (postnatal day 0, P0), IP3R expression was only found in Hensen’s cell. IP3R immunoreactivity first appeared in the sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti at P2. This localization was confirmed by means of double-labeling experiments with Myosin VIIA, a marker for cochlear hair cells. Colocalization of IP3R and Myosin VIIA from P2 to the second post-natal week suggested early expression of IP3R in developing inner and outer hair cells. Claudius’ cells near the spiral ligament were labelled for IP3R from P8 onwards. Transient IP3R expression was observed in the stria vascularis in early post-natal rat from P4 to P8. Spiral ganglion neurons also exhibited weaker IP3R fluorescence signals during post-natal development. The results of RT-PCR demonstrated that all three IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) were present in rat cochlea during four different developmental stages of cochlea, from P0 to P28. Present immunohistochemical evidence for both change and maintenance of expression of IP3R during post-natal development of the rat cochlea indicated the possible involvement of IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in cochlear development. PMID:26150157

  2. The 18 May 2012 (Ms 4.5) Chapala Lake, Jalisco, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The central part of Jalisco, Mexico has experienced at different times the occurrence of low magnitude earthquakes series. Although the effect of these earthquakes have been limited to relatively small areas have caused general alarm within the population and even in some cases true catastrophes (e.g. San Cristobal 1875). These groups of earthquakes that have lasted for weeks and even months have greater importance because they affect the most populous state area including the capital city of Guadalajara. An extraordinary example of these series of earthquakes occurred on 8 may 1912 that lasted until September. In the first 18 days 64 events were felt by residents of Guadalajara. Since then, there has been a relative seismic activity calm in the region. This paper analyzes the earthquake of May 18, 2012 (03:07 UT) occurred at the West edge of Lake Chapala. While it's an event of low magnitude (4.5 Ms) it has the importance of having occurred just 60 km to the South of Guadalajara and for which instrumental data of first quality is available. The focus of the earthquake was located at 20.30 ° N and 103.49 ° W at a depth of 0 km using arrivals of P and S waves at 16 regional seismic stations. However, by the errors of localization inherent in the method focus could be in a range of 0 to 5 km deep. The mechanism of failure using the polarities of the first arrivals favors a clear faulting of dip slip type along a plane with strike = 227 °, Dip = 80 °, and Rake = 93 °. Waveforms analysis is being used to corroborate these results.

  3. Formation of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in Aqueous d-Glucose-Amino Acids Model System.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IRAC) has classified 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MeI) as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. Thus, how 4-MeI forms in a D-glucose (Glu) amino acids (AA) model system is important, as it is how browning is affected. An aqueous solution of Glu was mixed individually in equimolar amounts at 3 concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 M) with aqueous solutions of L-Alanine (Ala), L-Arginine (Arg), Glycine (Gly), L-Lysine (Lys), and L-Serine (Ser). The Glu-AA mixtures were reacted at 60, 120, and 160 °C for 1 h. The 4-MeI levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with isobutylchloroformate. No 4-MeI was formed at 60 °C for any treatment combination; however, at 120 °C and 0.05 M, Glu-Arg and Glu-Lys produced 0.13 and 0.14 mg/kg of 4-MeI. At 160 °C and 0.05 M all treatment combinations formed 4-MeI. At 160 °C and 0.15 M, the observed levels of Glu-Ala, Glu-Arg, Glu-Gly, Glu-Lys, and Glu-Ser were 0.21, 1.00, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.16 mg/kg. The AA type, reactant concentrations, and temperature significantly affected (P < 0.001) formation of 4-MeI as well as browning. Glu-Lys treatment in all combinations produced the most browning, but Glu-Arg produced the most 4-MeI. This method showed that foods processed using low temperatures may have reduced levels of 4-MeI.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  5. Interconversion of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate to inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate and (1,3,4)-trisphosphate in permeabilized adrenal glomerulosa cells is calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, M.F.; Dentand, I.A.; Lew, P.D.; Capponi, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.

    1986-08-29

    The metabolism of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate was followed in permeabilized bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. At low Ca++ concentration (pCa = 7.2), more than 90% of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate had disappeared within 2 min, while two other metabolites, (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate appeared progressively. At higher Ca++ concentrations (pCa = 5.7 and 4.8), the formation of these two metabolites was markedly increased, but completely abolished if the medium was ATP-depleted. The peak levels for the generation of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate (1 min) preceded those of (3H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and were closely correlated. These results suggest that, in adrenal glomerulosa cells, the isomer inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate is generated from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate via a calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway involving the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate.

  6. A study of injection processes for 15-percent fluorine - 85-percent oxygen and heptane in a 200-pound-thrust rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M F

    1957-01-01

    Characteristic exhaust velocity over a range of mixture ratios and variations in gas velocity with distance from the injector were measured for six injectors. Comparisons of injector performance showed the gains obtained from oxidant atomization, fuel atomization, and propellant mixing. The results are compared with oxygen and heptane performance and show the effect, which is qualitatively small, of spontaneous propellant ignition on the relation between injection processes and engine performance.

  7. Characterization of recombinant Beta vulgaris 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase active in the biosynthesis of betalains.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Betalains are water-soluble pigments with high antiradical capacity which bestow bright colors to flowers, fruits and other parts of most plants of the order Caryophyllales. The formation of the structural unit of all betalains, betalamic acid from the precursor amino acid 4,5-dihydroxyphenylalanine is catalyzed by the enzyme 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase followed by intramolecular cyclization of the 4,5-secodopa intermediate. This paper describes the purification and the molecular and functional characterization of an active 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase from the best-known source of betalains-Beta vulgaris-after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa characterized by chromatography, electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. Enzyme kinetic properties are characterized in the production of betalamic acid, the structural, chromophoric and bioactive unit of plant pigment betalains.

  8. Rapid redistribution of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and septins during the Candida albicans response to caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Blankenship, Jill R; Cheng, Shaoji; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2012-09-01

    We previously showed that phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and septin regulation play major roles in maintaining Candida albicans cell wall integrity in response to caspofungin and other stressors. Here, we establish a link between PI(4,5)P2 signaling and septin localization and demonstrate that rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins is part of the natural response of C. albicans to caspofungin. First, we studied caspofungin-hypersusceptible C. albicans irs4 and inp51 mutants, which have elevated PI(4,5)P2 levels due to loss of PI(4,5)P2-specific 5'-phosphatase activity. PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in discrete patches, rather than uniformly, along surfaces of mutants in yeast and filamentous morphologies, as visualized with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology domain. The patches also contained chitin (calcofluor white staining) and cell wall protein Rbt5 (Rbt5-GFP). By transmission electron microscopy, patches corresponded to plasma membrane invaginations that incorporated cell wall material. Fluorescently tagged septins Cdc10 and Sep7 colocalized to these sites, consistent with well-described PI(4,5)P2-septin physical interactions. Based on expression patterns of cell wall damage response genes, irs4 and inp51 mutants were firmly positioned within a group of caspofungin-hypersusceptible, septin-regulatory protein kinase mutants. irs4 and inp51 were linked most closely to the gin4 mutant by expression profiling, PI(4,5)P2-septin-chitin redistribution and other phenotypes. Finally, sublethal 5-min exposure of wild-type C. albicans to caspofungin resulted in redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a manner similar to those of irs4, inp51, and gin4 mutants. Taken together, our data suggest that the C. albicans Irs4-Inp51 5'-phosphatase complex and Gin4 function upstream of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a pathway that helps govern responses to caspofungin.

  9. Purification and Properties of Component B of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetate Oxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100

    PubMed Central

    Xun, L.; Wagnon, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 degrades 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4,5-T), an herbicide and chlorinated aromatic compound. Although some progress has been made in understanding 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 by molecular analysis, little is known about the biochemistry involved. Enzymatic activity converting 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol in the presence of NADH and O(inf2) was detected in cell extracts of AC1100. Phenyl agarose chromatography of the ammonium sulfate-fractionated cell extracts yielded no active single fractions, but the mixing of two fractions, named component A and component B, resulted in the recovery of enzyme activity. Component B was further purified to homogeneity by hydroxyapatite and DEAE chromatographies. Component B had a native molecular weight of 140,000, and it was composed of two 49-kDa (alpha)-subunits and two 24-kDa (beta)-subunits. Component B was red, and its spectrum in the visible region had maxima at 430 and 560 nm (shoulder), whereas upon reduction it had maxima at 420 (shoulder) and 530 nm. Each mole of (alpha)(beta) heterodimer contained 2.9 mol of iron and 2.1 mol of labile sulfide. These properties suggest strong similarities between component B and the terminal oxygenase components of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Component A was highly purified but not to homogeneity. The reconstituted 2,4,5-T oxygenase, consisting of components A and B, converted 2,4,5-T quantitatively into 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and glyoxylate with the coconsumption of NADH and O(inf2). PMID:16535134

  10. Accelerated dendritic development of rat cortical pyramidal cells and interneurons after biolistic transfection with BDNF and NT4/5.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Marcus J; Brun, Annika; Grabert, Jochen; Patz, Silke; Wahle, Petra

    2003-12-01

    Neurotrophins are candidate molecules for regulating dendritogenesis. We report here on dendritic growth of rat visual cortex pyramidal and interneurons overexpressing 'brain-derived neurotrophic factor' BDNF and 'neurotrophin 4/5' NT4/5. Neurons in organotypic cultures were transfected with plasmids encoding either 'enhanced green fluorescent protein' EGFP, BDNF/EGFP or NT4/5/EGFP either at the day of birth with analysis at 5 days in vitro, or at 5 days in vitro with analysis at 10 days in vitro. In pyramidal neurons, both TrkB ligands increased dendritic length and number of segments without affecting maximum branch order and number of primary dendrites. In the early time window, only infragranular neurons were responsive. Neurons in layers II/III became responsive to NT4/5, but not BDNF, during the later time window. BDNF and NT4/5 transfectants at 10 days in vitro had still significantly shorter dendrites than adult pyramidal neurons, suggesting a massive growth spurt after 10 days in vitro. However, segment numbers were already in the range of adult neurons. Although this suggested a role for BDNF, long-term activity-deprived, and thus BDNF-deprived, pyramidal cells developed a dendritic complexity not different from neurons in active cultures except for higher spine densities on neurons of layers II/III and VI. Neutralization of endogenous NT4/5 causes shorter and less branched dendrites at 10 days in vitro suggesting an essential role for NT4/5. Neutralization of BDNF had no effect. Transfected multipolar interneurons became identifiable during the second time window. Both TrkB ligands significantly increased number of segments and branch order towards the adult state with little effects on dendritic length. The results suggested that early in development BDNF and NT4/5 probably accelerate dendritogenesis in an autocrine fashion. In particular, branch formation was advanced towards the adult pattern in pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  11. cAMP generation inhibits inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Schramm, C M; Chuang, S T; Grunstein, M M

    1995-11-01

    Agonist-induced airway contraction involves the generation and subsequent binding of the phosphoinositide-derived second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], to its Ca(2+)-mobilizing intracellular receptor. To the extent that regulatory cross-talk is known to exist between different signal transduction pathways, the present study examined whether activation of the adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway induces altered binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor in membrane homogenates of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). In control TSM, monophasic binding curves provided mean +/- SE values for Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor density (Bmax) and binding affinity (Kd) amounting to 940 +/- 43 fmol/mg protein and 10.7 +/- 1.2 nM, respectively. Relative to control, binding of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 was significantly reduced in paired TSM separately treated with isoproterenol, forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP. Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding was inhibited to a level averaging 60% of control binding by maximal concentrations of each agonist, an effect attributed to a reduction in Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding sites rather than altered ligand affinity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway is associated with inhibition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor binding and implicate a novel mechanism of action of beta-adrenergic agents in preventing and/or reversing airway contraction.

  12. Phospholipase Cζ binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 requires the XY-linker region

    PubMed Central

    Nomikos, Michail; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Calver, Brian L.; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) is a strong candidate for the mammalian sperm-derived factor that triggers the Ca2+ oscillations required for egg activation at fertilization. PLCζ lacks a PH domain, which targets PLCδ1 to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) substrate in the plasma membrane. Previous studies failed to detect PLCζ in the plasma membrane, hence the means of PLCζ binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 is unclear. We find that the PLCζ XY linker, but not the C2 domain, exhibits robust binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 or to liposomes containing near-physiological levels of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The role of positively charged residues within the XY linker was addressed by sequentially substituting alanines for three lysine residues, K374, K375 and K377. Microinjection of these mutants into mouse eggs enabled their Ca2+ oscillation-inducing activities to be compared with wild-type PLCζ. The XY-linker mutant proteins were purified and the in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis and binding properties were monitored. Successive reduction of net positive charge within the PLCζ XY linker significantly affects both in vivo Ca2+-oscillation-inducing activity and in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 interaction of mouse PLCζ. Our data suggest that positively charged residues within the XY linker play an important role in the PLCζ interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2, a crucial step in generating the Ca2+ activation signal that is essential for fertilization in mammals. PMID:21730019

  13. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) sequesters spin-labeled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Michelle E; Ferguson, Colin G; Prestwich, Glenn D; Cafiso, David S

    2002-04-19

    The myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) may function to sequester phosphoinositides within the plane of the bilayer. To characterize this interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)), a novel spin-labeled derivative, proxyl-PIP(2), was synthesized and characterized. In the presence of molecules known to bind PI(4,5)P(2) the EPR spectrum of this label exhibits an increase in line width because of a decrease in label dynamics, and titration of this probe with neomycin yields the expected 1:1 stoichiometry. Thus, this probe can be used to quantitate the interactions made by the PI(4,5)P(2) head group within the bilayer. In the presence of a peptide comprising the effector domain of MARCKS the EPR spectrum broadens, but the changes in line shape are modulated by both changes in label correlation time and spin-spin interactions. This result indicates that at least some proxyl-PIP(2) are in close proximity when bound to MARCKS and that MARCKS associates with multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules. Titration of the proxyl-PIP(2) EPR signal by the MARCKS-derived peptide also suggests that multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules interact with MARCKS. Site-directed spin labeling of this peptide shows that the position and conformation of this protein segment at the membrane interface are not altered significantly by binding to PI(4,5)P(2). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that MARCKS functions to sequester multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules within the plane of the membrane as a result of interactions that are driven by electrostatic forces.

  14. Sprouty2 Regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ Signaling and HIV-1 Gag Release

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Carter, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that activation of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is required for efficient HIV-1 Gag trafficking and viral particle release (Ehrlich 2010). IP3R activation requires phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to IP3 and diacylglycerol. Here we show that Sprouty2 (Spry2), which binds PI(4,5)P2 and PLCγ, interfered with PI(4,5)P2 in a manner similar to U73122, an inhibitor of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, suggesting that Spry2 may negatively regulate IP3R by preventing formation of its activating ligand, IP3. Mutation to Asp of R252, a critical determinant of PI(4,5)P2 binding in the C-terminal domain of Spry2, prevented the interference completely, indicating that binding to the phospholipid is required. In contrast, deletion of the PLCγ binding region or mutation of a critical Tyr residue in the region did not prevent the interference but Spry2-PI(4,5)P2 colocalization was not detected, suggesting that PLC binding is required for their stable association. Like U73122, Spry2 over-expression inhibited WT Gag release as virus-like particles. The inhibition was relieved by disrupting either binding determinant. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling, in turn, was found to influence Spry2 subcellular distribution and ERK, a Spry2 regulator. Our findings suggest that Spry2 influences IP3R function through control of PI(4,5)P2 and IP3R influences Spry2 function by controlling its distribution and ERK activation. PMID:21762810

  15. Poly[[hexa­aqua­sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O}n, the Cu2+ ion is hexa­coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate (btec4−) ligands and one water mol­ecule. The Na+ ion is also hexa­coordinated, by four O atoms from btec4− ligands and two water mol­ecules. One of the two btec4− mol­ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa­hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter­connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec4− ligands and by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec4− ligands and water mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:25249873

  16. A combined solid-state NMR and synchrotron x-ray diffraction powder study on the structure of the antioxidant(+)-catechin 4.5 hydrate.

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J. K.; Doebbler, J. A.; Jaccques, E.; Grant, D. M.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Univ. of Utah

    2010-03-10

    Analyses combining X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data can now provide crystal structures in challenging powders that are inaccessible by traditional methods. The flavonoid catechin is an ideal candidate for these methods, as it has eluded crystallographic characterization despite extensive study. Catechin was first described nearly two centuries ago, and its powders exhibit numerous levels of hydration. Here, synchrotron XRD data provide all heavy-atom positions in (+)-catechin 4.5-hydrate and establish the space group as C2. SSNMR data ({sup 13}C tensor and {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C correlation) complete the conformation by providing catechin's five OH hydrogen orientations. Since 1903, this phase has been erroneously identified as a 4.0 hydrate, but XRD and density data establish that this discrepancy is due to the facile loss of the water molecule located at a Wyckoff special position in the unit cell. A final improvement to heavy-atom positions is provided by a geometry optimization of bond lengths and valence angles with XRD torsion angles held constant. The structural enhancement in this final structure is confirmed by the significantly improved fit of computed {sup 13}C tensors to experimental data.

  17. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors selectively localized to the acrosomes of mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Calcium flux is required for the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction, an exocytotic event triggered by egg binding, which results in a dramatic rise in sperm intracellular calcium. Calcium-dependent membrane fusion results in the release of enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration through the zona pellucida during fertilization. We have characterized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated calcium channels and upstream components of the phosphoinositide signaling system in mammalian sperm. Peptide antibodies colocalized G alpha q/11 and the beta 1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLC beta 1) to the anterior acrosomal region of mouse sperm. Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody directed against purified brain IP3 receptor (IP3R) identified a specific 260 kD band in 1% Triton X-100 extracts of rat, hamster, mouse and dog sperm. In each species, IP3R immunostaining localized to the acrosome cap. Scatchard analysis of [3H]IP3 binding to rat sperm sonicates revealed a curvilinear plot with high affinity (Kd = 26 nM, Bmax = 30 pmol/mg) and low affinity (Kd = 1.6 microM, Bmax = 550 pmol/mg) binding sites, reflecting among the highest receptor densities in mammalian tissue. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the acrosomal localization in rat sperm. The IP3R fractionated with acrosomes by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation and was enriched in the medium of acrosome- reacted sperm. ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ loading of digitonin permeabilized rat sperm was decreased by 45% in the presence of 10 microM IP3. The IP3-mediated release of calcium was blocked by heparin. Thapsigargin, a sequiterpene lactone inhibitor of the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase, stimulated the acrosome reaction of mouse sperm to the same extent as the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. The failure of caffeine and ryanodine to affect calcium accumulation suggested that thapsigargin acted through an IP3-sensitive store. The presence of G alpha q/11, PLC beta 1 and a functional IP3R in the anterior acrosomal region

  18. Gas Phase Chromatography of some Group 4, 5, and 6 Halides

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, Eric Robert

    1998-10-01

    Gas phase chromatography using The Heavy Element Volatility Instrument (HEVI) and the On Line Gas Apparatus (OLGA III) was used to determine volatilities of ZrBr4, HfBr4, RfBr4, NbBr5, TaOBr3, HaCl5, WBr6, FrBr, and BiBr3. Short-lived isotopes of Zr, Hf, Rf, Nb, Ta, Ha, W, and Bi were produced via compound nucleus reactions at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and transported to the experimental apparatus using a He gas transport system. The isotopes were halogenated, separated from the other reaction products, and their volatilities determined by isothermal gas phase chromatography. Adsorption Enthalpy (ΔHa) values for these compounds were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation program modeling the gas phase chromatography column. All bromides showed lower volatility than molecules of similar molecular structures formed as chlorides, but followed similar trends by central element. Tantalum was observed to form the oxybromide, analogous to the formation of the oxychloride under the same conditions. For the group 4 elements, the following order in volatility and ΔHa was observed: RfBr4 > ZrBr4 > HfBr4. The ΔHa values determined for the group 4, 5, and 6 halides are in general agreement with other experimental data and theoretical predictions. Preliminary experiments were performed on Me-bromides. A new measurement of the half-life of 261Rf was performed. 261Rf was produced via the 248Cm(18O, 5n) reaction and observed with a half-life of 74-6+7 seconds, in excellent agreement with the previous measurement of 78-6+11 seconds. We recommend a new half-life of 75±7 seconds for 261Rf based on these two measurements. Preliminary studies in transforming HEVI from an isothermal (constant

  19. Bimodal regulation of an Elk subfamily K+ channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Anishkin, Andriy; Liu, Hansi; van Rossum, Damian B; Chintapalli, Sree V; Sassic, Jessica K; Gallegos, David; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates Shaker K+ channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in a bimodal fashion by inhibiting voltage activation while stabilizing open channels. Bimodal regulation is conserved in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, but voltage activation is enhanced while the open channel state is destabilized. The proposed sites of PIP2 regulation in these channels include the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and conserved regions of the proximal cytoplasmic C terminus. Relatively little is known about PIP2 regulation of Ether-á-go-go (EAG) channels, a metazoan-specific family of K+ channels that includes three gene subfamilies, Eag (Kv10), Erg (Kv11), and Elk (Kv12). We examined PIP2 regulation of the Elk subfamily potassium channel human Elk1 to determine whether bimodal regulation is conserved within the EAG K+ channel family. Open-state stabilization by PIP2 has been observed in human Erg1, but the proposed site of regulation in the distal C terminus is not conserved among EAG family channels. We show that PIP2 strongly inhibits voltage activation of Elk1 but also stabilizes the open state. This stabilization produces slow deactivation and a mode shift in voltage gating after activation. However, removal of PIP2 has the net effect of enhancing Elk1 activation. R347 in the linker between the VSD and pore (S4-S5 linker) and R479 near the S6 activation gate are required for PIP2 to inhibit voltage activation. The ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state also requires these residues, suggesting an overlap in sites central to the opposing effects of PIP2 on channel gating. Open-state stabilization in Elk1 requires the N-terminal eag domain (PAS domain + Cap), and PIP2-dependent stabilization is enhanced by a conserved basic residue (K5) in the Cap. Our data shows that PIP2 can bimodally regulate voltage gating in EAG family channels, as has been proposed for Shaker and HCN channels. PIP2 regulation

  20. The mass function of black holes 14.5: comparison of models with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada; Volonteri, Marta

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we compare the observationally derived black hole mass function (BHMF) of luminous (>1045-1046 erg s-1) broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) at 1 < z < 4.5 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) presented by Kelly et al., with models of merger-driven black hole (BH) growth in the context of standard hierarchical structure formation models. In these models, we explore two distinct black hole seeding prescriptions at the highest redshifts: 'light seeds'- remnants of Population III stars and 'massive seeds' that form from the direct collapse of pre-galactic discs. The subsequent merger triggered mass build-up of the black hole population is tracked over cosmic time under the assumption of a fixed accretion rate as well as rates drawn from the distribution derived by Merloni & Heinz. Four model snapshots at z= 1.25, 2, 3.25 and 4.25 are compared with the SDSS-derived BHMFs of BLQSOs. We find that the light seed models fall short of reproducing the observationally derived mass function of BLQSOs at MBH > 109 M⊙ throughout the redshift range; the massive seed models with a fixed accretion rate of 0.3 Edd, or with accretion rates drawn from the Merloni & Heinz distribution provide the best fit to the current observational data at z > 2, although they overestimate the high-mass end of the mass function at lower redshifts. At low redshifts, a drastic drop in the accretion rate is observed and this is explained as arising due to the diminished gas supply available due to consumption by star formation or changes in the geometry of the inner feeding regions. Therefore, the overestimate at the high-mass end of the black hole mass function for the massive seed models can be easily modified, as the accretion rate is likely significantly lower at these epochs than what we assume. For the Merloni & Heinz model, examining the Eddington ratio distributions fEdd, we find that they are almost uniformly sampled from fEdd= 10-2 to 1 at z≃ 1, while at high redshift

  1. Iapetus: 4.5 Billion Years of Contamination by Phoebe Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1997-07-01

    accreted there. Since the distribution of Iapetus' dark material depends on the flux of Phoebe dust over 4.5 billion years, it is not surprising that the distribution does not precisely match predictions which consider only the present dynamical configurations of the two satellites.

  2. Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and ultrathin films prepared by microwave synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mintova, S.; Mo, S.; Bein, T.

    1998-12-01

    Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and submicron AlPO{sub 4}-5 films were synthesized by microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors. The effects of the chemical composition of the initial solution and the conditions of microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors on the synthesis of nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves were investigated. The syntheses were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a microwave oven at temperatures ranging from 90 to 160 C, using various concentrations of H{sub 2}O and organic template and varying aging times. The resulting bulk products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, dynamic light scattering, and nitrogen sorption. Optimal conditions for the preparation of nanosized molecular sieve crystals were found. Thin films of AlPO{sub 4}-5 on acoustic wave devices were also prepared, composed of a molecular coupling layer, AlPO{sub 4}-5 seed crystals, and a homogeneous porous film formed by microwave treatment of an aluminophosphate precursor. The initial mixture composition and microwave conditions affect the thickness and the orientation of the zeolite crystals in the films. Sorption isotherms for n-hexane and cyclohexane in these AlPO{sub 4}5 films are reported.

  3. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  4. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v).

  5. Endomembrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 activates the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Nirmal; Chung, Gary H C; Lete, Marta G; Alonso, Alicia; Byrne, Richard D; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé

    2015-09-15

    PKB/Akt activation is a common step in tumour growth, proliferation and survival. Akt activation is understood to occur at the plasma membrane of cells in response to growth factor stimulation and local production of the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] following phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. The metabolism and turnover of phosphoinositides is complex--they act as signalling molecules as well as structural components of biological membranes. The localisation and significance of internal pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has long been speculated upon. By using transfected and recombinant protein probes for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, we show that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is enriched in the nuclear envelope and early endosomes. By exploiting an inducible dimerisation device to recruit Akt to these compartments, we demonstrate that Akt can be locally activated in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and has the potential to phosphorylate compartmentally localised downstream substrates. This could be an important mechanism to regulate Akt isoform substrate specificity or influence the timing and duration of PI3K pathway signalling. Defects in phosphoinositide metabolism and localisation are known to contribute to cancer, suggesting that interactions at subcellular compartments might be worthwhile targets for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Prediction of Percent Body Fat for U.S. Navy Men from Body Circumferences and Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    AD-A143 890 (1" PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY MEN FROM BODY CIRCUMFERENCES AND JEIGHT ’•, i. A. HODGDON M.. B. BECKETI -W" RTll NO. 84...11 - N•. , 1 . V -’, ’’I ,Q NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTE•P - .AV’AL 1,iL[-i(.AL iI:- ARCh i,r.F: i[ jOFUi PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY...6110.1B established percent body fat (%BF) as the basis for weight control decisions, replacing height/weight tables. Tables based upon the work of

  7. The atomic orbitals of the topological atom.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Mayer, István

    2013-06-07

    The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These correspond to atomic hybrids that closely resemble the core and valence shells of the atom. The occupation numbers of the remaining effective orbitals are almost negligible, except for atoms with hypervalent character. In addition, the molecular orbitals of a calculation can be exactly expressed as a linear combination of this orthonormalized set of numerical atomic orbitals, and the Mulliken population analysis carried out on this basis set exactly reproduces the original QTAIM atomic populations of the atoms. Approximate expansion of the molecular orbitals over a much reduced set of orthogonal atomic basis functions can also be accomplished to a very good accuracy with a singular value decomposition procedure.

  8. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  9. 6-Bromo-1-(1,2-propadien­yl)-3-(2-propyn­yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Dahmani, S.; Haoudi, A.; Capet, F.; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of propargyl bromide and 6-bromo-1,3-dihydro­imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-one in refluxing dimethyl­formamide yields the title compound, C12H8BrN3O, which features nitro­gen-bound propadienyl and propynyl substituents. The imidazolopyridine fused ring is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å); the propadienyl chain is coplanar with the fused ring as it is conjugated with it, whereas the propynyl chain is not as the nitro­gen-bound C atom is a methyl­ene linkage. The acetyl­enic H atom is hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl O atom of an adjacent mol­ecule, forming a helical chain runnning along the b axis. PMID:21580600

  10. Irradiation effects on 17-7 PH stainless steel, A-201 carbon steel, and titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasse, R. A.; Hartley, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    Irradiation effects on three materials from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Surveillance Program were determined. An increase of 105 K in the nil-ductility temperature for A-201 steel was observed at a fluence of approximately 3.1 x 10 to the 18th power neutrons/sq cm (neutron energy E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). Only minor changes in the mechanical properties of 17-7 PH stainless steel were observed up to a fluence of 2 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). The titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy maintained its notch toughness up to a fluence of 1 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV).

  11. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and antiviral evaluation of new series of imidazo[4,5-g]quinoline and pyrido[2,3-g]quinoxalinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Irene; Loddo, Roberta; Laurini, Erik; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Piras, Sandra; Corona, Paola; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta; Sanna, Giuseppina; Giliberti, Gabriele; Ibba, Cristina; Farci, Pamela; La Colla, Paolo; Pricl, Sabrina; Carta, Antonio

    2015-11-13

    Linear aromatic N-tricyclic compounds with promising antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity were prepared and analyzed in the last years. Specifically, the pyrido[2,3-g]quinoxalinone nucleus was found endowed with high potency against several pathogenic RNA viruses as etiological agents of important veterinary and human pathologies. Following our research program on new antiviral agents we have designed, synthesized and assayed new series of imidazo[4,5-g]quinoline and pyrido[2,3-g]quinoxalinone derivatives. Lead compounds 1-4 were further modified to enhance their antiviral activity and reduce their cytotoxicity. Thus, different substituents were introduced on N atom at position 1 or the O atom at position 2 of the leads; contextually, several groups were inserted on the nitrogen atom at position 7 of diaminoquinoline intermediates. Title compounds were tested in cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against RNA virus families containing single-stranded (either positive-sense (ssRNA+) or negative-sense (ssRNA-)), and double-stranded genomes (dsRNA), and against two representatives of DNA virus families. Some derivatives emerged as potential leads for further development as antiviral agents against some viruses of public health significance, such as RSV, Reo, BVDV and HCV. Particularly, compounds 4, 11b, 11c, 13c, 15a, 18 and 21 resulted active against BVDV at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 5 μM. Compound 21 was also evaluated for its activity on the BVDV RdRp. Compound 4 was also tested as potential anti-HCV compound in a subgenomic replication assay. Molecular simulation results provided a molecular rationale for the anti-BVDV activity of these compounds.

  12. Near-real-time cheatgrass percent cover in the Northern Great Basin, USA, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2016-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dramatically changes shrub steppe ecosystems in the Northern Great Basin, United States.Current-season cheatgrass location and percent cover are difficult to estimate rapidly.We explain the development of a near-real-time cheatgrass percent cover dataset and map in the Northern Great Basin for the current year (2015), display the current year’s map, provide analysis of the map, and provide a website link to download the map (as a PDF) and the associated dataset.The near-real-time cheatgrass percent cover dataset and map were consistent with non-expedited, historical cheatgrass percent cover datasets and maps.Having cheatgrass maps available mid-summer can help land managers, policy makers, and Geographic Information Systems personnel as they work to protect socially relevant areas such as critical wildlife habitats.

  13. Health Care Spending for U.S. Kids Jumped 56 Percent in Less Than 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162753.html Health Care Spending for U.S. Kids Jumped 56 Percent in ... between 1996 and 2013, a new study finds. Health care expenditures jumped from nearly $150 billion in 1996 ...

  14. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent reduction. 42.20-8 Section 42.20-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction. (a) Design calculations...

  15. 46 CFR 42.20-7 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 60 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 60 percent reduction. 42.20-7 Section 42.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-7 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 60 percent reduction. (a) Design calculations must...

  16. Prediction of Percent Body Fat for U.S. Navy Women from Body Circumferences and Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY WOMEN FROII BODY CIRCUMFERENCES AND HEIGHT James A. Hodgdon Marcie B. Beckett Naval Health Research Center...22, including those having body fat above the 301 Navy body fat standard. It was decided to develop an alternative equation. o Factor analysis of the...is reconinended that this new equation be adopte’d for the determination of 1BF for female Navy personnel. -.. PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S

  17. WHK Student Internship Enrollment, Mentor Participation Up More than 50 Percent | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship Program (WHK SIP) has enrolled the largest class ever for the 2013–2014 academic year, with 66 students and 50 mentors. This enrollment reflects a 53 percent increase in students and a 56 percent increase in mentors, compared to 2012–2013 (43 students and 32 mentors), according to Julie Hartman, WHK SIP director.

  18. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    circumferences, 3D whole body laser scans and DEXA scans were performed on fifty-one men and women age 18-62. Mean percent body fat was not statistically...3D whole body laser scan , and DEXA scan to measure individuals during a one hour measurement session. 1 Report Documentation Page Form...underwent a 6 minute whole body DEXA scan using a GE Lunar Prodigy DEXA scanner running software version 7.53. Percent body fat was calculated from the

  19. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Sébastien; Orsato, Alexandre; Mologni, Luca; Bisson, William H; Donadoni, Carla; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gueyrard, David; Goekjian, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    Chromosomal translocations involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are the driving mutations for a range of cancers and ALK is thus considered an attractive therapeutic target. We synthesized a series of functionalized benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines by an aza-Graebe-Ullman reaction, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. A sequential regioselective cross-coupling route is reported for the synthesis of unsymmetrically disubstituted benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines. The inhibition of ALK was evaluated and compound 19 in particular showed good activity against both the wild type and crizotinib-resistant L1196M mutant in vitro and in ALK-transfected BaF3 cells.

  1. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazol-2-yl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R P

    2015-01-25

    The reaction of semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide with 2-arylidene-1-tetralones under alkaline condition affords 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazole-2-carbo(thio)amides as a mixture of cis and trans diastereoisomers of 3-H and 3a-H. The synthesis of new indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones from the condensation of cis isomer and α-halo acids is reported. A DFT study along with X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented. All the eight newly synthesised indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and some compounds have shown promising activities.

  2. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazol-2-yl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide with 2-arylidene-1-tetralones under alkaline condition affords 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazole-2-carbo(thio)amides as a mixture of cis and trans diastereoisomers of 3-H and 3a-H. The synthesis of new indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones from the condensation of cis isomer and α-halo acids is reported. A DFT study along with X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented. All the eight newly synthesised indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and some compounds have shown promising activities.

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  4. Annexin 2 Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate on Endocytic Vesicles Is Regulated by the Stress Response Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Matthew J.; Merrifield, Christien J.; Shao, Dongmin; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus; Schorey, Crislyn D’Souza; Levine, Tim P.; Proust, Jezabel; Curran, Julie; Bailly, Maryse; Moss, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Annexin 2 is a Ca2+-binding protein that has an essential role in actin-dependent macropinosome motility. We show here that macropinosome rocketing can be induced by hyperosmotic shock, either alone or synergistically when combined with phorbol ester or pervanadate. Rocketing was blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(s), p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and calcium, suggesting the involvement of phosphoinositide signaling. Since various phosphoinositides are enriched on inwardly mobile vesicles, we examined whether or not annexin 2 binds to any of this class of phospholipid. In liposome sedimentation assays, we show that recombinant annexin 2 binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5P2) but not to other poly- and mono-phosphoinositides. The affinity of annexin 2 for PtdIns-4,5P2 (KD ~5 μm) is comparable with those reported for a variety of PtdIns-4,5P2-binding proteins and is enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. Although annexin 1 also bound to PtdIns-4,5P2, annexin 5 did not, indicating that this is not a generic annexin property. To test whether annexin 2 binds to PtdIns-4,5P2 in vivo, we microinjected rat basophilic leukemia cells stably expressing annexin 2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) with fluorescently tagged antibodies to PtdIns-4,5P2. Annexin 2-GFP and anti-PtdIns-4,5P2 IgG co-localize at sites of pinosome formation, and annexin 2-GFP relocalizes to intracellular membranes in Ptk cells microinjected with Arf6Q67L, which has been shown to stimulate PtdIns-4,5P2 synthesis on pinosomes through activation of phosphatidylinositol 5 kinase. These results establish a novel phospholipid-binding specificity for annexin 2 consistent with a role in mediating the interaction between the macropinosome surface and the polymerized actin tail. PMID:14734570

  5. Regulation of histamine- and UTP-induced increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins (1,3,4,5)P4 and Ca2+ by cyclic AMP in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sipma, H; Duin, M; Hoiting, B; den Hertog, A; Nelemans, A

    1995-01-01

    1. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors with UTP or histamine H1-receptors with histamine gave rise to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4) in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. 2. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors or histamine H1-receptors caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, consisting of an initial peak, representing the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and a sustained phase representing Ca2+ influx. 3. The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry mechanism was more sensitive to UTP than Ca(2+)-mobilization (EC50: 3.3 microM +/- 0.4 microM vs 55.1 microM +/- 9.2 microM), in contrast to these processes activated by histamine H1-receptors (EC50: 5.8 microM +/- 0.6 microM vs 3.1 microM +/- 0.5 microM). 4. Pre-stimulation of cells with several adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) elevating agents, reduced the histamine H1-receptor-mediated formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. Forskolin completely inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation (IC50: 158 +/- 24 nM) whereas Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 formation was inhibited by only 45% (IC50: 173 +/- 16 nM). The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated production of these inositol phosphates was not affected by cyclic AMP. 5. Forskolin and isoprenaline reduced the histamine-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, as measured in Ca2+ containing medium and in nominally Ca(2+)-free medium but did not change the UTP-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+. 6. These results clearly demonstrate that cyclic AMP differentially regulates components of the histamine induced phospholipase C signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, cyclic AMP does not affect the phospholipase C pathway activated by stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

  6. Small chemicals with inhibitory effects on PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding of Btk PH domain.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Youngdae

    2014-05-15

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-5-triphosphates (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) formed by phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) had been known as a signaling molecule that plays important roles in diverse cellular processes such as cell signaling, metabolism, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates diverse cellular processes by recruiting effector proteins to the specific cellular locations for correct functions. In this study, we reported the inhibitory effect of small chemicals on the interaction between PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-Btk PH domain. Small chemicals were synthesized based on structural similarity of PtdInsP head-groups, and tested the inhibitory effects in vitro via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). As a result, the chemical 8 showed highest inhibitory effect with 17μM of IC50 value. To elucidate diverse inhibitory effects of different small chemicals we employed in silico docking experiment using molecular modeling and simulation. The result of docking experiments showed chemical 8 has more hydrogen bonding with the residues in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site of Btk PH domain than others. Overall, our studies demonstrate the efficient approach to develop lipid binding inhibitors, and further we can use these chemicals to regulate effector proteins. In addition, our study would provide new insight that lipid binding domain may be the attractive therapeutic targets to treat severe human diseases.

  7. 5-Stabilized phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate analogues bind Grp1 PH, inhibit phosphoinositide phosphatases, and block neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglu; He, Ju; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Sakai, Takahiro; Sasaki, Takehiko; Markadieu, Nicolas; Erneux, Christophe; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2010-02-15

    Metabolically stabilized analogues of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 have shown long-lived agonist activity for cellular events and selective inhibition of lipid phosphatase activity. We describe an efficient asymmetric synthesis of two 5-phosphatase-resistant analogues of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, the 5-methylene phosphonate (MP) and 5-phosphorothioate (PT). Furthermore, we illustrate the biochemical and biological activities of five stabilized PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 analogues in four contexts. First, the relative binding affinities of the 3-MP, 3-PT, 5-MP, 5-PT, and 3,4,5-PT3 analogues to the Grp1 PH domain are shown, as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Second, the enzymology of the five analogues is explored, showing the relative efficiency of inhibition of SHIP1, SHIP2, and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), as well as the greatly reduced ability of these phosphatases to process these analogues as substrates as compared to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Third, exogenously delivered analogues severely impair complement factor C5a-mediated polarization and migration of murine neutrophils. Finally, the new analogues show long-lived agonist activity in mimicking insulin action in sodium transport in A6 cells.

  8. Adsorption and photodegradation kinetics of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid with MgFeTi layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong; Beak, Min-wook; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-03-01

    The calcined layered double hydroxides (cLDHs) Ti-doped and undoped MgFe for this study were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) techniques and tested for adsorption and photodegradation (including photocatalytic and photo-Fenton-like) of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. In the range of studied operating conditions, the as-prepared samples exhibited excellent photo-Fenton-like activity, leading to more than 80-95% degradation of 2,4,5-T at initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with 4 g calcined LDHs per liter, was accomplished in 360 min, while 2,4,5-T half-life time was as short as 99-182 min. The kinetics of adsorption and photodegradation of 2,4,5-T were also discussed. These results offered a green, low cost and high efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  9. Novel 2-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[b]benzothiophene analogues as selective COX-2 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, anti-inflammatory evaluation, and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Chetan K; Indalkar, Krishna S; Patil, Chandragouda R; Goyal, Sameer N; Chaturbhuj, Ganesh U

    2017-04-15

    A series of 2-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[b]benzothiophene derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro COX inhibitory potential. Within the series, compounds 4a, 4j, 4k, and 4q were identified as potential and selective COX-2 inhibitors with COX-2 IC50 in 0.31-1.40µM range; COX-2 selectivity index (SI)=48.8-183.8 range and they showed percent PGE-2 inhibitory activity in the range of 25.4-46.9. Further, compounds 4a, 4j, 4k and 4q displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity with percentage rise in paw volume ranging from 21.1-30.5 at 180min, while celecoxib demonstrated 19.6 percentage rise at the same dose at 180min in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay. Cell viability via MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity up to 80µM concentrations. Molecular docking study of potent compounds in the series showed Gscore comparable to celecoxib with similar binding orientation for the COX-2 active site which also corroborates the observed in vitro COX-2 inhibition.

  10. Microleakage of composite resin restorations with a 10 percent maleic acid etchant.

    PubMed

    Gilpatrick, R O; Owens, B M; Kaplan, I; Cook, G

    1996-04-01

    Microleakage of Class V composite resin restorations with margins all in enamel were compared in this in-vitro study using Scotchbond MultiPurpose Adhesive (SMP) (3M Corp.), and Scotchbond II (SB II) (3M Corp). Twenty extracted human molars were randomly separated into two groups: Group One, which used the SMP system and Group Two, which used the SB II system. Circular Class V preparations were cut 1.8 mm deep and 3 mm in diameter using a #556 fissure bur. Cavosurface margins, all in enamel, were beveled. The enamel and dentin were treated following manufacturer's directions for each group, and a microfilled composite resin, Silux Plus (3M Corp), was applied in two hand-placed increments. All teeth were finished with Sof-Lex discs, stored in water for seven days, then thermocycled in a water bath for 100 cycles, alternating from 4 degrees C to 58 degrees C. The teeth were placed in a 5 percent solution of methylene blue, rinsed and then invested in resin. All teeth were sectioned vertically and horizontally and a ratio (percentage) of wall length to amount of leakage along each wall was established. The overall mean leakage of Group One was 15.27 percent and Group Two was 13.84 percent. Looking at individual walls, the mean occlusal wall leakage of Group One was 28.41 percent and Group Two was 12.45 percent. Mean gingival wall leakage of Group One was 15.96 percent and Group Two was 21.80 percent. Comparing the two groups, using a student's t test, there was no significant difference between the overall mean leakage or between the gingival wall leakage (p > 0.05); however, there was a significant difference between the occlusal wall leakage (p < 0.05), with SMP exhibiting more leakage.

  11. Multilayer coated grazing incidence condenser for large numerical aperture objective at wavelength of 4.5 nm.

    PubMed

    Ejima, T; Hatano, T; Ohno, K; Fukayama, T; Aihara, S; Yanagihara, M; Tsuru, T

    2014-10-10

    A grazing incidence condenser is developed for objectives with large numerical aperture working in Carbon-window wavelength region (λ=4.4-5.0  nm) with the use of a point light source. The condenser is composed of four pieces of toroidal mirrors and a piece of the mirror was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the mirror. The radii of the toroidal mirror are determined by ray-trace calculation, and each radius of the mirror substrate and the roughness of the polished surface were evaluated to satisfy the designed parameter. A Co/C reflection multilayer is also designed to reflect soft x-ray light at 4.5 nm wavelength, and the reflection multilayer was deposited on the mirror surface. Measured reflectance of the toroidal mirror with the reflection multilayer is higher than 0.32 at 4.5 nm wavelength.

  12. Multivalent benzene polyphosphate derivatives are non-Ca(2+)-mobilizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Luyten, Tomas; Erneux, Christophe; Parys, Jan B; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-12-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P31] mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) through the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor [InsP3R]. Although some progress has been made in the design of synthetic InsP3R partial agonists and antagonists, there are still few examples of useful small molecule competitive antagonists. A "multivalent" approach is explored and new dimeric polyphosphorylated aromatic derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The established weak InsP3R ligand benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4)P32] is dimerized through its 5-position in two different ways, first directly as the biphenyl derivative biphenyl 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate, [BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P68] and with its regioisomeric biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P611]. Secondly, a linker motif is introduced in a flexible ethylene-bridged dimer (9) with its corresponding 1,2-bisphosphate dimer (10), both loosely analogous to the very weak antagonist 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA 7). In permeabilized L15 fibroblasts overexpressing type 1 InsP3R, BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8) inhibits Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca(2+) release in a apparently competitive fashion [IC50 187 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 dimer (9) is only slightly weaker [IC50 380 nM]. Compounds were also evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. All compounds are resistant to dephosphorylation, with BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8), being the most effective inhibitor of any biphenyl derivative synthesized to date [IC50 480 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 ethylene dimer (9) weaker [IC50 3.55 μM]. BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 (11) also inhibits 5-phosphatase [IC50 730 nM] and exhibits unexpected Ca(2+) releasing activity [EC50 800 nM]. Thus, relocation of only a single mirrored phenyl phosphate group in (11) from that of antagonist (8) does not markedly change enzyme inhibitory activity, but elicits a dramatic switch in Ca(2+)-releasing activity. Such new agents demonstrate the

  13. Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-4.5wt% Cu reinforced with alumina nanoparticles by stir casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valibeygloo, N.; Azari Khosroshahi, R.; Taherzadeh Mousavian, R.

    2013-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-4.5wt% Cu alloy reinforced with different volume fractions (1.5vol%, 3vol%, and 5vol%) of alumina nanoparticles, fabricated using stir casting method, were investigated. Calculated amounts of alumina nanoparticles (about ϕ50 nm in size) were ball-milled with aluminum powders in a planetary ball mill for 5 h, and then the packets of milled powders were incorporated into molten Al-4.5wt% Cu alloy. Microstructural studies of the nanocomposites reveal a uniform distribution of alumina nanoparticles in the Al-4.5wt% Cu matrix. The results indicate an outstanding improvement in compression strength and hardness due to the effect of nanoparticle addition. The aging behavior of the composite is also evaluated, indicating that the addition of alumina nanoparticles can accelerate the aging process of the alloy, resulting in higher peak hardness values.

  14. Effect of minor reactive metal additions on fracture toughness of iron: 12-percent nickel alloy at-196 deg and 25 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The slow bend precracked Charpy fracture toughness and tensile behavior of arc-melted and hot-rolled Fe-12Ni alloys containing up to 4 atomic percent reactive metal additions were determined at -196 C and 25 C after water quenching from three annealing temperatures. The fracture toughness of Fe-12Ni at -196 C was improved by small amounts of Al, Ce, Hf, La, Nb, Ta, Ti, V, Y, and Zr, but not by Si. Cryogenic toughness was improved up to 7.5 times that of binary Fe-12Ni and varied with the reactive metal, its concentration, and the annealing temperature.

  15. Lipotoxic disruption of NHE1 interaction with PI(4,5)P2 expedites proximal tubule apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shenaz; Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Goel, Monu; Schilling, William P; Parker, Mark D; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Yadav, Satya P; Harris, Raymond C; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; Hoshi, Malcolm; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Deschênes, Isabelle; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease progression can be predicted based on the degree of tubular atrophy, which is the result of proximal tubule apoptosis. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulates proximal tubule cell survival through interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], but pathophysiologic triggers for NHE1 inactivation are unknown. Because glomerular injury permits proximal tubule luminal exposure and reabsorption of fatty acid/albumin complexes, we hypothesized that accumulation of amphipathic, long-chain acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) metabolites stimulates lipoapoptosis by competing with the structurally similar PI(4,5)P2 for NHE1 binding. Kidneys from mouse models of progressive, albuminuric kidney disease exhibited increased fatty acids, LC-CoAs, and caspase-2-dependent proximal tubule lipoapoptosis. LC-CoAs and the cytosolic domain of NHE1 directly interacted, with an affinity comparable to that of the PI(4,5)P2-NHE1 interaction, and competing LC-CoAs disrupted binding of the NHE1 cytosolic tail to PI(4,5)P2. Inhibition of LC-CoA catabolism reduced NHE1 activity and enhanced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of proximal tubule LC-CoA generation preserved NHE1 activity and protected against apoptosis. Our data indicate that albuminuria/lipiduria enhances lipotoxin delivery to the proximal tubule and accumulation of LC-CoAs contributes to tubular atrophy by severing the NHE1-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, thereby lowering the apoptotic threshold. Furthermore, these data suggest that NHE1 functions as a metabolic sensor for lipotoxicity.

  16. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

  17. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  18. Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Oleson, K.; Huber, M.

    2014-08-01

    We implement and analyze 13 different metrics (4 moist thermodynamic quantities and 9 heat stress metrics) in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5), the land surface component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We call these routines the HumanIndexMod. These heat stress metrics embody three philosophical approaches: comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to CLM4.5 BareGroundFuxesMod, CanopyFluxesMod, SlakeFluxesMod, and UrbanMod modules in order to differentiate between the distinct regimes even within one gridcell. This allows CLM4.5 to calculate the instantaneous heat stress at every model time step, for every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity in moisture-temperature covariance. Secondary modules for initialization and archiving are modified to generate the metrics as standard output. All of the metrics implemented depend on the covariance of near surface atmospheric variables: temperature, pressure, and humidity. Accurate wet bulb temperatures are critical for quantifying heat stress (used by 5 of the 9 heat stress metrics). Unfortunately, moist thermodynamic calculations for calculating accurate wet bulb temperatures are not in CLM4.5. To remedy this, we incorporated comprehensive water vapor calculations into CLM4.5. The three advantages of adding these metrics to CLM4.5 are (1) improved thermodynamic calculations within climate models, (2) quantifying human heat stress, and (3) that these metrics may be applied to other animals as well as industrial applications. Additionally, an offline version of the HumanIndexMod is available for applications with weather and climate datasets. Examples of such applications are the high temporal resolution CMIP5 archived data, weather and research forecasting models, CLM4.5 flux tower simulations (or other land surface model validation studies), and local weather station data analysis. To demonstrate the capabilities of the HumanIndexMod, we

  19. Synthesis of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives containing 4,5-dihydropyrazole moiety to scavenge radicals and to protect DNA.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan; Luo, Xu-Yang; Li, De-Jun; Lu, Hang; Liu, Zai-Qun; Song, Zhi-Guang; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2012-07-01

    A series of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives containing 4,5-dihydropyrazole moiety were synthesized and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride))-induced oxidation of DNA, and in trapping DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS(+•) (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical), respectively. Among coumarin derivatives, 3a-d and 4a-c exhibited the termination of radical propagation-chains in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA. The ortho dihydroxyphenyl substitution at 5 position and 1-unsubstitution of the 4,5-dihydroxylpyrazole was found enhancing the antioxidant activities of these coumarin derivatives.

  20. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75-80K and 4.5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Yehia; Zimmerman, George O.; Powers, Jr., Robert E.; McConeghy, Randy J.; Kaplan, Alvaro

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K. and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizationl arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained.

  1. OH-radical induced degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA): A pulse radiolysis and gamma-radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Robert; Solar, Sonja; Sehested, Knud

    2012-02-01

    The reactions of rad OH, H rad and e aq- with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were studied by pulse radiolysis. The site of rad OH-radicals addition to the aromatic ring of 2,4,5-T was found to be—C1: ˜18%, C2/C4/C5: total ˜28% and C3/C6: total ˜41%. The overall rate constants with OH-radicals were k( rad OH+2,4,5-T)=6.4 (±0.5)×10 9 mol dm -3 s -1 and k( rad OH+MCPA)=8.5 (±0.8)×10 9 mol dm -3 s -1. The radiation induced decomposition of the pesticides, chloride- and product formation (phenolic compounds, aliphatic acids) was studied by gamma radiolysis as a function of dose. A mechanism for acetate formation is discussed. The presence of oxygen during irradiation affected the decomposition rate only indiscernibly, however, chloride elimination, ring fragmentation (formation of aliphatic acids), TOC- and toxicity reduction were strongly enhanced. For complete removal of 500 μmol dm -3 herbicides a dose of ˜4 kGy was required. Using air saturation during irradiation a reduction of 37-40% of the TOC was observable at 5 kGy, detoxification (luminescence inhibition <20%) was achieved with 10 kGy.

  2. Synthèse et structure cristalline d'un matériau noir AgMn(II) 3(Mn(III) 0,26Al0,74)(MoO4)5.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Chahira; Frigui, Wafa; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2015-03-01

    A new silver aluminium trimangan-ese penta-molybdate {silver(I) trimanganese(II) aluminium penta-kis-[tetra-oxidomolybdate(VI)]}, AgMn(II) 3(Mn(III) 0,26Al0,74)(MoO4)5, has been synthesized using solid-state methods. The structure is composed of M 2O10 dimers, M 3O14 (M = Mn, Al) trimers and MoO4 tetra-hedra sharing corners and forming three types of layers A, B and B'. The sequence of the constituting layers is A-BB'-A-BB', with B' obtained from B by inversion symmetry, forming a three-dimensional structure with large channels in which the positionally disordered and partially occupied Ag(+) ions reside. The Mn(III) and Al(III) atoms share the same site, M. AgMn(II) 3(Mn(III) 0,26Al0,74)(MoO4)5 is isotypic with the NaMg3 X(MoO4)5 (X = Al, In) family and with NaFe4(MoO4)5. A comparative structural description is provided between the structure of the title compound and those of related phases containing dimers, trimers and tetra-mers.

  3. Synthèse et structure cristalline d’un matériau noir AgMnII 3(MnIII 0,26Al0,74)(MoO4)5

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Chahira; Frigui, Wafa; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    A new silver aluminium trimangan­ese penta­molybdate {silver(I) trimanganese(II) aluminium penta­kis­[tetra­oxidomolybdate(VI)]}, AgMnII 3(MnIII 0,26Al0,74)(MoO4)5, has been synthesized using solid-state methods. The structure is composed of M 2O10 dimers, M 3O14 (M = Mn, Al) trimers and MoO4 tetra­hedra sharing corners and forming three types of layers A, B and B′. The sequence of the constituting layers is A–BB′–A–BB′, with B′ obtained from B by inversion symmetry, forming a three-dimensional structure with large channels in which the positionally disordered and partially occupied Ag+ ions reside. The MnIII and AlIII atoms share the same site, M. AgMnII 3(MnIII 0,26Al0,74)(MoO4)5 is isotypic with the NaMg3 X(MoO4)5 (X = Al, In) family and with NaFe4(MoO4)5. A comparative structural description is provided between the structure of the title compound and those of related phases containing dimers, trimers and tetra­mers. PMID:25844193

  4. Hot press and roll welding of titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium bar and sheet with auto-vacuum cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holko, K. H.

    1972-01-01

    Hot press butt welds were made in 0.5 in. diameter bar, and roll lap welds were made in 0.060 in. thick sheet of Ti-6A1-4V. For hot press welds made after auto-vacuum cleaning at 1800 F for 2 hours, weld strength and ductility equaled the parent metal properties. Only 5 minutes of pressing time were needed at 1800 F and 200 psi to make the hot press welds. Roll welds were made in sheet at 1750 F with only 10 percent deformation. The welds in the bar and sheet were metallurgically indistinguishable from the parent material.

  5. Camphor revisited: involvement of a unique monooxygenase in metabolism of 2-oxo-delta 3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ougham, H J; Taylor, D G; Trudgill, P W

    1983-01-01

    Previously, Pseudomonas putida was shown to degrade (+)-camphor, and cleavage of the first ring of the bicyclic structure involved two monooxygenases (a hydroxylase and a ring oxygen-inserting enzyme), a dehydrogenase, and spontaneous cleavage of an unstable oxygenation product (lactone). Cleavage of the second ring was not demonstrated but was assumed also to occur by ring oxygen insertion, since the predicted oxygenation product was extracted from whole-cell incubation systems. Our investigation established that metabolism of the first ring cleavage intermediate, 2-oxo-delta 3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid, occurred through the sequential action of two inducible enzymes, a coenzyme A ester synthetase and an oxygenase. The oxygenase was purified to homogeneity and had a molecular weight of 106,000. This enzyme carried a single molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide and consisted of two identical subunits. Iron was not present at a significant level. The oxygenase was specific for NADPH as the electron donor and absolutely specific for the coenzyme A ester of 2-oxo-delta 3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid as the substrate. The reaction stoichiometry was compatible with this enzyme being a monooxygenase, and a mass spectral analysis of the methyl ester of the product confirmed the insertion of a single oxygen atom. The enzyme appeared to be analogous to, although distinct from. 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase in catalyzing a "biological Baeyer-Villiger" reaction with the formation of a lactone. Structural analogy suggested that this lactone, like the first, was also unstable and susceptible to spontaneous ring opening, although this was not experimentally established. Images PMID:6848481

  6. The Work and Home Activities Questionnaire: Energy Expenditure Estimates and Association With Percent Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D.; Block, Torin J.; Norris, Jean; Dalvi, Tapashi B.; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and increasing physical activity requires assessment of occupational, home, leisure and sedentary activities. Methods A physical activity questionnaire was developed using data from a large representative U.S. sample; includes occupational, leisure and home-based domains; and produces estimates of energy expenditure, percent body fat, minutes in various domains, and meeting recommendations. It was tested in 396 persons, mean age 44 years. Estimates were evaluated in relation to percent body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median energy expenditure was 2,365 kcal (women) and 2.960 kcal (men). Women spent 35.1 minutes/day in moderate household activities, 13.0 minutes in moderate leisure and 4.0 minutes in vigorous activities. Men spent 18.0, 22.5 and 15.6 minutes/day in those activities, respectively. Men and women spent 276.4 and 257.0 minutes/day in sedentary activities. Respondents who met recommendations through vigorous activities had significantly lower percent body fat than those who did not, while meeting recommendations only through moderate activities was not associated with percent body fat. Predicted and observed percent body fat correlated at r = .73 and r = .82 for men and women respectively, P < .0001. Conclusions This questionnaire may be useful for understanding health effects of different components of activity, and for interventions to increase activity levels. PMID:19998851

  7. Determinants of percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, J; Das, S K; Ahmed, S; Ferdous, F; Farzana, F D; Sarker, M H R; Ahmed, A M S; Chisti, M J; Malek, M A; Rahman, A; Faruque, A S G; Mamun, A A

    2015-10-01

    There is limited information on percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea especially in rural Bangladesh. A total of 4205 children aged <5 years with acute diarrhoea were studied. Percent expenditure was calculated as total expenditure for the diarrhoeal episode divided by monthly family income, multiplied by 100. Overall median percent expenditure was 3·04 (range 0·01-94·35). For Vibrio cholerae it was 6·42 (range 0·52-82·85), for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 3·10 (range 0·22-91·87), for Shigella 3·17 (range 0·06-77·80), and for rotavirus 3·08 (range 0·06-48·00). In a multinomial logistic regression model, for the upper tertile of percent expenditure, significant higher odds were found for male sex, travelling a longer distance to reach hospital (⩾median of 4 miles), seeking care elsewhere before attending hospital, vomiting, higher frequency of purging (⩾10 times/day), some or severe dehydration and stunting. V. cholerae was the highest and rotavirus was the least responsible pathogen for percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea.

  8. Biochemical Analysis of Yeast Suppressor of Ty 4/5 (Spt4/5) Reveals the Importance of Nucleic Acid Interactions in the Prevention of RNA Polymerase II Arrest.

    PubMed

    Crickard, J Brooks; Fu, Jianhua; Reese, Joseph C

    2016-05-06

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) undergoes structural changes during the transitions from initiation, elongation, and termination, which are aided by a collection of proteins called elongation factors. NusG/Spt5 is the only elongation factor conserved in all domains of life. Although much information exists about the interactions between NusG/Spt5 and RNA polymerase in prokaryotes, little is known about how the binding of eukaryotic Spt4/5 affects the biochemical activities of RNAPII. We characterized the activities of Spt4/5 and interrogated the structural features of Spt5 required for it to interact with elongation complexes, bind nucleic acids, and promote transcription elongation. The eukaryotic specific regions of Spt5 containing the Kyrpides, Ouzounis, Woese domains are involved in stabilizing the association with the RNAPII elongation complex, which also requires the presence of the nascent transcript. Interestingly, we identify a region within the conserved NusG N-terminal (NGN) domain of Spt5 that contacts the non-template strand of DNA both upstream of RNAPII and in the transcription bubble. Mutating charged residues in this region of Spt5 did not prevent Spt4/5 binding to elongation complexes, but abrogated the cross-linking of Spt5 to DNA and the anti-arrest properties of Spt4/5, thus suggesting that contact between Spt5 (NGN) and DNA is required for Spt4/5 to promote elongation. We propose that the mechanism of how Spt5/NGN promotes elongation is fundamentally conserved; however, the eukaryotic specific regions of the protein evolved so that it can serve as a platform for other elongation factors and maintain its association with RNAPII as it navigates genomes packaged into chromatin.

  9. JPL Ultrastable Trapped Ion Atomic Frequency Standards.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric A; Yi, Lin; Tucker, Blake; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Recently, room temperature trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on three directions: 1) ultrastable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate stability performance and autonomous timekeeping; 2) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements; and 3) miniature clocks. In this paper, we concentrate on the first direction and present a design and the initial results from a new ultrastable clock referred to as L10 that achieves a short-term stability of 4.5 ×10(-14)/τ(1/2) and an initial measurement of no significant drift with an uncertainty of 2.4 ×10(-16) /day over a two-week period.

  10. 2-Methyl­sulfanyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxin-2-ium tetra­fluoro­borate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoquan; Chen, Xinzhi

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C6H7O2S3 +·BF4 −, consists of a planar 2-thioxo-1,3-dithiol-4,5-yl unit [maximum deviation from the ring plane = 0.020 (3) Å], with an ethyl­enedi­oxy group fused at the 4,5-positions; the ethyl­enedi­oxy C atoms are disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.5. The 1,4-dioxine ring has a twist-chair conformation. Weak cation–anion S⋯F inter­actions [3.022 (4)–3.095 (4) Å] and an S⋯O [3.247 (4) Å] inter­action are present. PMID:22590011

  11. Racial/Ethnic Composition and Violence: Size-of-Place Variations in Percent Black and Percent Latino Effects on Violence Rates1

    PubMed Central

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffery T.

    2014-01-01

    According to racial invariance positions and mainstream sociological perspectives on race and crime, race differences in structural conditions should account for most if not all of the racial composition (or percent black) effect on aggregate-level violence rates. However, prior research (mostly conducted prior to 1990) generally provides mixed or contrary evidence for this position, showing instead that greater concentrations of blacks are linked to increased violence even after accounting for racial differences in socioeconomic conditions. The current study uses recent data and a novel unit of analysis to go beyond extant research in two ways. First, we include percent Latino in our examination of the extent to which both racial and ethnic composition effects on violent crime rates are mediated by racial/ethnic disparities in socioeconomic disadvantage. Second, we test whether racial/ethnic composition effects are conditioned by size of place, through the use census places as a uniquely varying unit of analysis. We find that both black and Latino composition effects are partly explained by controlling for structural conditions (especially structural disadvantage), but this characterizes smaller places much more than the largest, most urbanized places. PMID:25071305

  12. Racial/Ethnic Composition and Violence: Size-of-Place Variations in Percent Black and Percent Latino Effects on Violence Rates.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffery T

    2013-12-01

    According to racial invariance positions and mainstream sociological perspectives on race and crime, race differences in structural conditions should account for most if not all of the racial composition (or percent black) effect on aggregate-level violence rates. However, prior research (mostly conducted prior to 1990) generally provides mixed or contrary evidence for this position, showing instead that greater concentrations of blacks are linked to increased violence even after accounting for racial differences in socioeconomic conditions. The current study uses recent data and a novel unit of analysis to go beyond extant research in two ways. First, we include percent Latino in our examination of the extent to which both racial and ethnic composition effects on violent crime rates are mediated by racial/ethnic disparities in socioeconomic disadvantage. Second, we test whether racial/ethnic composition effects are conditioned by size of place, through the use census places as a uniquely varying unit of analysis. We find that both black and Latino composition effects are partly explained by controlling for structural conditions (especially structural disadvantage), but this characterizes smaller places much more than the largest, most urbanized places.

  13. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1 percent bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1 percent (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures, using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5 percent of baseline values. Physiological data obtained before, during, and after the exposures revealed significant changes during Halon inhalation for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1 percent Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  14. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-09-21

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion.

  15. Teachers' Evaluation of KBSM Form 4, 5 English Textbooks Used in the Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Hooi Shyan; Knight, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the suitability of Form 4, 5 KBSM English textbooks used in Penang public secondary schools, Malaysia. It aims to investigate the relevance of the current textbooks to the needs of learners and the requirement of public examinations. A checklist is used to gauge teachers' viewpoints while subsequent interview…

  16. 5,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxine-2-thione

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-nan; Xiao, Xun-wen; Cai, Tongjiang; Huang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C5H4O2S3, consists of a planar [mean deviation = 0.020 (1) Å] 1,3-dithiole-2-thione unit with an ethyl­enedi­oxy group in the 4,5-positions. The dioxine ring is in a twist-chair conformation. PMID:21754789

  17. 5,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxine-2-thione.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Xiao, Xun-Wen; Cai, Tongjiang; Huang, Qin

    2011-06-01

    The title mol-ecule, C(5)H(4)O(2)S(3), consists of a planar [mean deviation = 0.020 (1) Å] 1,3-dithiole-2-thione unit with an ethyl-enedi-oxy group in the 4,5-positions. The dioxine ring is in a twist-chair conformation.

  18. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  19. A global analysis of transcription reveals two modes of Spt4/5 recruitment to archaeal RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Smollett, Katherine; Blombach, Fabian; Reichelt, Robert; Thomm, Michael; Werner, Finn

    2017-03-01

    The archaeal transcription apparatus is closely related to the eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) II system, while archaeal genomes are more similar to bacteria with densely packed genes organized in operons. This makes understanding transcription in archaea vital, both in terms of molecular mechanisms and evolution. Very little is known about how archaeal cells orchestrate transcription on a systems level. We have characterized the genome-wide occupancy of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii transcription machinery and its transcriptome. Our data reveal how the TATA and BRE promoter elements facilitate recruitment of the essential initiation factors TATA-binding protein and transcription factor B, respectively, which in turn are responsible for the loading of RNAP into the transcription units. The occupancies of RNAP and Spt4/5 strongly correlate with each other and with RNA levels. Our results show that Spt4/5 is a general elongation factor in archaea as its presence on all genes matches RNAP. Spt4/5 is recruited proximal to the transcription start site on the majority of transcription units, while on a subset of genes, including rRNA and CRISPR loci, Spt4/5 is recruited to the transcription elongation complex during early elongation within 500 base pairs of the transcription start site and akin to its bacterial homologue NusG.

  20. Impaired permeability to Ins(1,4,5)P3 in a mutant connexin underlies recessive hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Beltramello, Martina; Piazza, Valeria; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Pozzan, Tullio; Mammano, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Connexins are membrane proteins that assemble into gap-junction channels and are responsible for direct, electrical and metabolic coupling between connected cells. Here we describe an investigation of the properties of a recombinantly expressed recessive mutant of connexin 26 (Cx26), the V84L mutant, associated with deafness. Unlike other Cx26 mutations, V84L affects neither intracellular sorting nor electrical coupling, but specifically reduces permeability to the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)). Both the permeability to Lucifer Yellow and the unitary channel conductance of V84L-mutant channels are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type Cx26. Injection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) into supporting cells of the rat organ of Corti, which abundantly express Cx26, ensues in a regenerative wave of Ca(2+) throughout the tissue. Blocking the gap junction communication abolishes wave propagation. We propose that the V84L mutation reduces metabolic coupling mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3) to an extent sufficient to impair the propagation of Ca(2+) waves and the formation of a functional syncytium. Our data provide the first demonstration of a specific defect of metabolic coupling and offer a mechanistic explanation for the pathogenesis of an inherited human disease.

  1. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  2. OCRL controls trafficking through early endosomes via PtdIns4,5P2-dependent regulation of endosomal actin

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Di Campli, Antonella; Polishchuk, Elena; Santoro, Michele; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Godi, Anna; Levtchenko, Elena; De Leo, Maria Giovanna; Polishchuk, Roman; Sandoval, Lisette; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome, which is characterised by congenital cataracts, central hypotonia, and renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that OCRL interacts with components of the endosomal machinery; however, its role in endocytosis, and thus the pathogenic mechanisms of Lowe syndrome, have remained elusive. Here, we show that via its 5-phosphatase activity, OCRL controls early endosome (EE) function. OCRL depletion impairs the recycling of multiple classes of receptors, including megalin (which mediates protein reabsorption in the kidney) that are retained in engorged EEs. These trafficking defects are caused by ectopic accumulation of PtdIns4,5P2 in EEs, which in turn induces an N-WASP-dependent increase in endosomal F-actin. Our data provide a molecular explanation for renal proximal tubular dysfunction in Lowe syndrome and highlight that tight control of PtdIns4,5P2 and F-actin at the EEs is essential for exporting cargoes that transit this compartment. PMID:21971085

  3. Using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 Program, to Teach Single-Subject Experimentation with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermer, Marshall Lev

    2004-01-01

    Students enrolled in a single-subject design course studied the repeated acquisition of response sequences by using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 program, which runs in DOS or Windows. For about 2 months, students examined the learning of such sequences as a function of various treatments. Each week students graphed their data, discussed their…

  4. Climate-vegetation interactions in the coupled RegCM4 - CLM4.5 CNDV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Luca; Giuliani, Graziano; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    We use the latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) including a dynamic vegetation model to study biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system related to vegetation composition and structure. Sets of parallel experiments are conducted over the Africa and South America CORDEX domains using the RegCM4-CLM4.5 in its standard configuration and with the CNDV activated (CLM 4.5 with both the Carbon Nitrogen and the Dynamic Vegetation Model activated). The potential role of regional vegetation feedbacks within the climate system and the impact of climate variability and change on the ecosystem dynamics is assessed for both domains. In addition, the sensitivity to initial vegetation conditions and different idealized climate forcings is investigated. Preliminary results show that the changes in the climate forcing can have substantial effects on the dynamics and evolution of different vegetation types over both domains, and that the vegetation coupling can have a substantial effect on the simulated regional climate regimes. Our results thus indicate on the one hand that climate change can have profound effects on the evolution of important ecosystems for the two regions, and on the other that vegetation dynamics can indeed affect the climate response at the regional scale.

  5. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid in cultured cells of lettuce leaves.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Akioka, Takashi; Ueno, Koichi; Chujyo, Takeshi; Okazaki, Katsu-ichiro; King, Peter J; Robinson, W Edward

    2006-04-01

    3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) that is not found in intact plant of lettuce leaves was isolated from the cultured cells. The intact plant produced chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid: L-CCA) as well as chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid: 3-CQA) as the major metabolites. After subculturing of the cells for 40 days, the amount of 3,4,5-TCQA reached to 0.14 mg/g fresh weight. The inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type 1 integrase was assayed. Anti-HIV activity using HIV and MT-2 cells was 1.15 microM and IC(50) against HIV integrase was 0.063 microM whereas cell toxicity of this chemical was expressed as 5% death of all living cells to be 18.4 microM. The HIV inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA was the highest in values among L-CCA, and other dicaffeoylquinic acids. This data will provide a new possibility for creating a new drug design for HIV.

  6. Synthesis of 3-Substituted Aryl[4,5]isothiazoles through an All-Heteroatom Wittig-Equivalent Process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fanghui; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Erkang; Sun, Zhihua

    2016-06-03

    Extending the previous use of tert-butyl sulfoxide as the sulfinyl source, intramolecular sulfinylation of sulfonamides was successfully performed. The resulting sulfinimides were not isolated and instead were believed to go through an all-heteroatom Wittig-equivalent process to eventually afford aryl[4,5]isothiazoles in high yields.

  7. Motion Popout in Selective Visual Orienting at 4.5 but Not at 2 Months in Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemiller, James L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of element density on selective orienting was examined in 2 experiments with 2- and 4.5-month-old infants. Selective visual orienting to a singleton oscillating target that appeared with other static bars was used to study the effects of element density. Increasing the set size and density of the static bars decreased selective…

  8. A numerical study of bench blast row delay timing and its influence on percent-cast

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    The computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code), which was developed for simulating the rock motion associated with blasting, has been used to study the influence of row delay timing on rock motion. The numerical simulations correspond with field observations in that very short delays (< 50ms) and very long delays (> 300ms) produce a lower percent-cast than a medium delay (100 to 200 ms). The DMC predicted relationship between row delay timing and percent-cast is more complex than expected with a dip in the curve where the optimum timing might be expected. More study is required to gain a full understanding of this phenomenon.

  9. Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the "other 99 percent".

    PubMed

    Autor, David H

    2014-05-23

    The singular focus of public debate on the "top 1 percent" of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that is arguably most consequential for the "other 99 percent" of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility.

  10. Wind-tunnel Investigation of Two Airfoils with 25-percent-chord Gwinn and Plain Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Milton B , Jr

    1940-01-01

    Aerodynamic force tests of an NACA 23018 airfoil with a Gwinn flap having a chord 25 percent of the overall chord and of an NACA 23015 airfoil with a plain flap having a 25-percent chord were conducted to determine the relative merits of the Gwinn and the plain flaps. The tests indicated that, based on speed-range ratios, the plain flap was more effective than the Gwinn flap. At small flap deflections, the plain flap had lower drag coefficients at lift-coefficient values less than 0.70. For lift coefficients greater than 0.70, however, the Gwinn flap at all downward flap deflections had the lower drag coefficients.

  11. Urban percent impervious surface and its relationship with land surface temperature in Yantai City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinyang; Lu, Changhe

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated percent impervious surface area (PISA) extracted by a four-endmember normalized spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) method and evaluated the reliability of PISA as an indicator of land surface temperature (LST). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for Yantai city, eastern China obtained from USGS were used as the main data source. The results demonstrated that four-endmember NSMA method performed better than the typical three-endmember one, and there was a strong linear relationship between LST and PISA for the two images, which suggest percent impervious surface area provides an alternative parameter for analyzing LST quantitatively in urban areas.

  12. Bioinjection Performance Review for the Building 100 Area and 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Survochak, Scott; Daniel, Joe

    2016-05-01

    This document provides a summary of a review of the performance of bioinjection activities at the Building 100 Area and the 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site since 2010, determines how best to optimize future injection events, and identifies the approach for the bioinjection event in 2016 at (1) the 4.5 Acre Site and (2) the Essentra property at the Building 100 Area. Because this document describes the next bioinjection event at the 4.5 Acre Site, it also serves as an addendum to the Interim Remedial Action Plan for Emulsified Edible Oil Injection at the 4.5 Acre Site (DOE 2013). In addition, this document revises the injection layout and injection intervals for the Essentra property that were originally described in the Interim Corrective Measure Work Plan for Source and Plume Treatment at the Building 100 Area (DOE 2014), and is a de facto update of that document. Bioinjection consists of injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DHM; formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface to enhance biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE), dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). VC is the only contaminant that exceeds its maximum contaminant level (10 micrograms per liter onsite and 1 microgram per liter onsite) on the 4.5 Acre Site and the Essentra property. Bioinjection was conducted at the 4.5 Acre Site in 2010 and 2013. Approximately 49,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 95 injection points in February 2010, and approximately 22,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 46 injection points in July 2013. The injection locations are shown on Figure 1. The goal of bioinjection at the 4.5 Acre Site is to decrease contaminant concentrations to maximum contaminant levels along the west and southwest property boundaries (to meet risk–based corrective action requirements) and to minimize the extent of the contaminant plume in the interior of the site. Bioinjection was

  13. Defining the functional domain of programmed cell death 10 through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Christopher F; Horst, Jeremy A; Malone, Michael H; Park, Kun; Temple, Brenda; Cheeseman, Holly; Barbaro, Justin R; Johnson, Gary L; Bencharit, Sompop

    2010-07-23

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system predisposing blood vessels to leakage, leading to hemorrhagic stroke. Three genes, Krit1 (CCM1), OSM (CCM2), and PDCD10 (CCM3) are involved in CCM development. PDCD10 binds specifically to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and OSM. Using threading analysis and multi-template modeling, we constructed a three-dimensional model of PDCD10. PDCD10 appears to be a six-helical-bundle protein formed by two heptad-repeat-hairpin structures (alpha1-3 and alpha4-6) sharing the closest 3D homology with the bacterial phosphate transporter, PhoU. We identified a stretch of five lysines forming an amphipathic helix, a potential PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site, in the alpha5 helix. We generated a recombinant wild-type (WT) and three PDCD10 mutants that have two (Delta2KA), three (Delta3KA), and five (Delta5KA) K to A mutations. Delta2KA and Delta3KA mutants hypothetically lack binding residues to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 at the beginning and the end of predicted helix, while Delta5KA completely lacks all predicted binding residues. The WT, Delta2KA, and Delta3KA mutants maintain their binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Only the Delta5KA abolishes binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Both Delta5KA and WT show similar secondary and tertiary structures; however, Delta5KA does not bind to OSM. When WT and Delta5KA are co-expressed with membrane-bound constitutively-active PI3 kinase (p110-CAAX), the majority of the WT is co-localized with p110-CAAX at the plasma membrane where PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is presumably abundant. In contrast, the Delta5KA remains in the cytoplasm and is not present in the plasma membrane. Combining computational modeling and biological data, we propose that the CCM protein complex functions in the PI3K signaling pathway through the interaction between PDCD10 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3.

  14. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  15. Late Alk4/5/7 signaling is required for anterior skeletal patterning in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, Michael L; Ramachandran, Janani; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires a conversation between the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and the overlying pattern-dictating ectoderm; however, our understanding of the molecular basis for this process remains incomplete. Here, we show that TGF-β-receptor signaling is required during gastrulation to pattern the anterior skeleton. To block TGF-β signaling, we used SB431542 (SB43), a specific inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor Alk4/5/7. Treatment with SB43 during gastrulation blocks anterior PMC positioning and the formation of the anterior skeleton, but does not perturb general ectoderm specification or development. This is the first example of a signaling event required for patterning of a specific part of the skeleton. Alk4/5/7 inhibition does not prevent the formation of a mouth, although SB43-treated plutei display reduced feeding ability, presumably due to the loss of the structural support for the mouth conferred by the anterior skeleton. Both Univin and Nodal are potential ligands for Alk4/5/7; however, Nodal is unilaterally expressed on only the right side, whereas Univin is bilaterally expressed in the ectoderm adjacent to the anterior skeleton during the relevant time period. Our results demonstrate that Univin is both necessary and sufficient for secondary skeletal development in a control background, consistent with the hypothesis that Univin is a relevant Alk4/5/7 ligand for anterior skeletal patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Alk4/5/7 signaling during gastrulation is required to direct PMCs to the oral hood, and suggest that Univin is a relevant ligand for this signaling event.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ischebeck, Till; Werner, Stephanie; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Lerche, Jennifer; Meijón, Mónica; Stenzel, Irene; Löfke, Christian; Wiessner, Theresa; Im, Yang Ju; Perera, Imara Y.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Busch, Wolfgang; Boss, Wendy F.; Teichmann, Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Persson, Staffan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. PMID:24326589

  17. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several “physiological” manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells. PMID:27217553

  18. Characterization of three types of silicon solar cells for SEPS Deep Space Mission. Volume 3: Current-voltage characteristics of spectrolab sculptured BSR/P+ (K7), BSR/P+ (K6.5) and BSR (K4.5) cells as a function of temperature and intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Wooden, V. A.; Carter, D. E.; Cothren, B. E.; Torstenson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of high performance silicon solar cells, sculptured BSR/P+(K7), BSR/P+(K6.5) and BSR(K4.5) manufactured by Spectrolab were evaluated for their low temperature and low intensity performance. Sixteen cells of each type were subjected to 11 temperatures and 9 intensities. The sculptured BSR/P+(K7) cells provided the greatest maximum power output both at 1 AU and at LTLI conditions. The average efficiencies of this cell were 14.4 percent at 1 SC/+25 deg C and 18.5 percent at 0.086 SC/-100 deg C.

  19. Crystal structure of a binuclear nickel(II) complex constructed of 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and doubly deprotonated benzene-1,3,5-tri­carb­oxy­lic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ying; Hao, Xiang-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The title complex, [Ni2(C9H4O6)2(C13H8N4)2(H2O)4]·2H2O, bis­(μ-5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 1′)bis­[di­aqua(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-κ2 N 7,N 8)nickel(II)] di­hydrate, was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) with Ni(NO3)2 in the presence of 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (IP). The crystal has triclinic (P-1) symmetry with a centrosymmetric binuclear nickel(II) cluster. The NiII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from a chelating 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligand, two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two 5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands and two water mol­ecules in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. Two carboxyl­ate groups bridge two NiII cations, forming the binuclear complex. Extensive N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure, forming a three-dimensional supermolecular framework. Weak π–π stacking is observed between parallel HBTC2− and IP ring systems, the face-to-face separation being 3.695 (2) Å. PMID:26029419

  20. Preparation, spectroscopic properties, and structure of 1-Oxo-2,3,6-(D-penicillaminato-N,S,O)-4,5-(D-penicillaminato-N,S) technetium (V)

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, K.J.; Howard-Lock, H.E.; Lock, C.J.L.

    1982-05-01

    1-Oxo-2,3,6-(D-penicillaminato-N,S,O)-4,5-(D-penicillaminato-N,S) technetium (V), TcO (C/sub 5/H/sub 9/NO/sub 2/S)(C/sub 5/H/sub 10/NO/sub 2/S), has been obtained as orthorhombic crystals: P2/sub 1/2/sub 1/2/sub 1/; a = 21.878 (5) A, b = 11.711 (2) A, c = 5.924 (1) A; Z = 4. Data were collected with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation and a Syntex P2/sub 1/ diffractometer. The crystal structure was solved by standard methods and refined to R/sub 1/ = 0.0592 and R/sub 2/ = 0.0439 on the basis of 3401 independent reflections. The technetium is six-coordinate, being bonded to oxygen (Tc-O = 1.657 (4) A), the S, N, and O atoms of a D-penicillamine dianion deprotonated at S and O, and to the S and N atoms of a D-penicillamine anion deprotonated at S. The second Tc-O distance is longer (2.214 (4) A), comparable to the Tc-N distances (2.185 (5), 2.209 (6) A). Tc-S distances are normal (2.283 (2), 2.296 (2) A). The molecules are strongly hydrogen bonded from carboxylic acid to carboxylate into a helical chain in the crystal. NMR, vibrational, and electronic spectra are reported.

  1. Spectroscopic, DFT, molecular dynamics and molecular docking study of 1-butyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-imidazole 3-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzon, K. B.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Pradhan, Kiran; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2017-04-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum of 1-butyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-imidazole 3-oxide were recorded and theoretical study has been made using Gaussian09 software package. DFT/B3LYP calculations have been done using 6-311++G (d, p) (5D, 7F) basis sets to investigate the vibrational frequencies and geometrical parameters. The assignments of the normal modes are done by potential energy distribution (PED) calculations. First and second hyperpolarizabilities are calculated in order to find its role in non-linear optics. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was calculated by the DFT method and predicts the most reactive part in the molecule. The calculated NMR values are in good agreement with experimental data. Reactive sites of the title molecule have been determined by calculations of average local ionization surfaces and Fukui functions. Analyzing electron density between atoms, intra-molecular non-covalent interactions have been determined. Possible locations prone to autoxidation and locations where degradation could start have been determined by calculation of bond dissociation energies for all single acyclic bonds. Atoms with pronounced interactions with water molecules have been located by calculations of radial distribution functions, obtained after molecular dynamics simulations. The docked title compound forms a stable complex with CDK inhibitor and gives a binding affinity value of -6.3 kcal/mol and the results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against CDK inhibitor.

  2. Atomic hydrogen as a launch vehicle propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of several atomic hydrogen launch vehicles was conducted. A discussion of the facilities and the technologies that would be needed for these vehicles is also presented. The Gross Liftoff Weights (GLOW) for two systems were estimated; their specific impulses (I sub sp) were 750 and 1500 lb (sub f)/s/lb(sub m). The atomic hydrogen launch vehicles were also compared to the currently planned Advanced Launch System design concepts. Very significant GLOW reductions of 52 to 58 percent are possible over the Advanced Launch System designs. Applying atomic hydrogen propellants to upper stages was also considered. Very high I(sub sp) (greater than 750 1b(sub f)/s/lb(sub m) is needed to enable a mass savings over advanced oxygen/hydrogen propulsion. Associated with the potential benefits of high I(sub sp) atomic hydrogen are several challenging problems. Very high magnetic fields are required to maintain the atomic hydrogen in a solid kilogauss (3 Tesla). Also the storage temperature of the propellant is 4 K. This very low temperature will require a large refrigeration facility for the launch vehicle. The design considerations for a very high recombination rate for the propellant are also discussed. A recombination rate of 210 cm/s is predicted for atomic hydrogen. This high recombination rate can produce very high acceleration for the launch vehicle. Unique insulation or segmentation to inhibit the propellant may be needed to reduce its recombination rate.

  3. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes. 2: Evidence for thermal dehydration occurring in the cure process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Olshavsky, Michael A.; Meador, Michael A.; Ahn, Myong-Ku

    1988-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers appear, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), to undergo dehydration at elevated temperatures. This would produce thermally stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone, and render the polymers incapable of unzipping through a retro-Diels-Alder pathway. High resolution solid 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of one formulation of the polymer system before and after heating at elevated temperatures, shows this to indeed be the case. NMR spectra of solid samples of the polymer before and after heating correlated well with those of the parent pentiptycene model compound before and after acid-catalyzed dehydration. Isothermal gravimetric analyses and viscosities of the polymer before and after heat treatment support dehydration as a mechanism for the cure reaction.

  4. The excitation energies and term energies of the excited states 1s2ns (n=3,4,5) and 1s2nf (n=4,5) of lithium-like systems of Z=11-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zi-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhou, Ya-Jun; He, Li-Ming; Liu, Guo-Guang

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, the full-core plus correlation (FCPC) and the Ritz method is extended to calculate the non-relativistic energies of 1s2ns (n=3,4,5) and 1s2nf (n=4,5) states and the wavefunctions of the lithium-like systems from Z=11-20. The mass-polarization and the relativistic correction including the kinetic-energy correction, the Darwin term, the electron-electron contact term and the orbit-orbit interaction are evaluated perturbatively as the first-order correction. The contribution from quantum electrodynamic is also included by using the effective nuclear charge formula. The excited energies, the term-energy and fine structure, are given and compared with the other theoretical calculation and experimental results. It is shown that the correlative wave in the FCPC method embodies well the strong correlation between the 1s2 core and the valence electron.

  5. Measuring percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, percent carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin, and concentrations of total hemoglobin and oxygen in blood of man, dog, and baboon.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R C; Valeri, C R

    1980-08-01

    We used an automated four-wavelength spectrometer to measure the concentration of total hemoglobin, percent oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin, and concentration of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in the blood of humans, dogs, and baboons under clinical and various experimental conditions. Measurements of total hemoglobin and methemoglobin with this simple method were comparable to those with standard spectrometric procedures. Carboxyhemoglobin measurements were comparable to those made with gas chromatography, and measurements of oxygen content were comparable to those made with the galvanic cell method. The new instrument is as accurate as the comparison methods used to evaluate it in all parameters, is reliable, and measurements take only 63 s per sample. In addition, it requires minimal operator training, infrequent need for calibration, and no sample preparation.

  6. 31 CFR 363.136 - Do zero-percent certificates of indebtedness pay interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT... interest rate, for zero-percent certificates of indebtedness by announcement at any time. The new rate... announcement. The Secretary's determination of the rate will be final....

  7. Safety Is 99 Percent Attitude: Strategies to Contain Workers' Compensation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Janet

    1993-01-01

    The University of Denver (Colorado) reduced workers' compensation losses 97 percent in 1990-91 by developing a master safety plan, sponsoring safety training, managing medical costs, providing modified duty for injured employees, screening applicants, orienting new employees, investigating claims thoroughly, performing life-safety audits, and…

  8. Percent Plans in College Admissions: A Comparative Analysis of Three States' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine L.; Flores, Stella M.

    Texas, California, and Florida are implementing versions of a percent plan in college admissions. This report assesses these plans using data from published information on the plans; state- and institution-calculated higher education application, admission, and enrollment data; media accounts of social and political contexts surrounding the plans;…

  9. Percent body fat equations for a diverse population, aged 17 to 30: the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research from our lab showed that the Jackson-Pollock generalized equations gave biased percent fat (%fat) estimates of men and women. The likely sources are increased %fat and the diversity of contemporary subjects. Our goal was to develop anthropometric %fat equations valid for a diverse populat...

  10. 5 CFR 2636.304 - The 15 percent limitation on outside earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to individuals who are covered noncareer employees on January 1 of any calendar year. A covered noncareer employee may not, in any calendar year, receive outside earned income attributable to that calendar year which exceeds 15 percent of the annual rate of basic pay for level II of the...

  11. The 25 percent-efficient GaAs Cassegrainian concentrator cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, H. C.; Grounner, M.; Kaminar, N. R.; Kuryla, M. S.; Ladle, M. J.; Liu, D. D.; Macmillan, H. F.; Partain, L. D.; Virshup, G. F.; Werthen, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Very high-efficiency GaAs Cassegrainian solar cells have been fabricated in both the n-p and p-n configurations. The n-p configuration exhibits the highest efficiency at concentration, the best cells having an efficiency eta of 24.5 percent (100X, AM0, temperature T = 28 C). Although the cells are designed for operation at this concentration, peak efficiency is observed near 300 suns (eta = 25.1 percent). To our knowledge, this is the highest reported solar cell efficiency for space applications. The improvement in efficiency over that reported at the previous SPRAT conference is attributed primarily to lower series resistance and improved grid-line plating procedures. Using previously measured temperature coefficients, researchers estimate that the n-p GaAs cells should deliver approximately 22.5 percent efficiency at the operating conditions of 100 suns and T = 80 C. This performance exceeds the NASA program goal of 22 percent for the Cassegrainian cell. One hundred Cassegrainian cells have been sent to NASA as deliverables, sixty-eight in the n-p configuration and thirty-two in the p-n configuration.

  12. Nickel-hydrogen LEO cycling at 20-50 percent DOD. [depth of discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.; Mai, Jenny

    1991-01-01

    Two NiH2 two-cell packs made up of engineering cells built according to the Hubble Space Telescope design (EPI RNH 90-3) are currently being low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycled at 20-50 percent depth of discharge (DOD). The cells were manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., and activated with electrolyte (KOH) concentrations of 26 percent (pack No.1) and 31 percent (pack No.2), for use during evaluation of the HST cell design. The cells have been grouped according to electrolyte concentration but follow the same test schedule for comparison. This test was set up to study the behavior of NiH2 cells having differing electrolyte concentrations, when operated at relatively high DOD (20-50 percent) in a LEO cycling program. The test was designed specifically to allow the cells to pick their own recharge ratio for varying DOD and varying EOC (end of charge) voltages. The cells are being cycled in a simulated 96-min orbit with 60-min charge and 36-min discharge where an EOC cutoff voltage controls high-rate charging. EOC cutoff voltages vary between 1.48 V and 1.56 V.

  13. Prices Paid by Colleges Rise 3.6 Percent, Trailing Consumer Price Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI), a widely used measure of colleges' costs, rose by 3.6 percent for the 2008 fiscal year, which ended on June 30. But even as they reported the good news of that moderate increase, experts at the Commonfund Institute who maintain the index noted that broader economic trends could…

  14. Introducing High School Students to NMR Spectroscopy through Percent Composition Determination Using Low-Field Spectrometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Pitzer, Joy M.; Frost, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Mole to gram conversions, density, and percent composition are fundamental concepts in first year chemistry at the high school or undergraduate level; however, students often find it difficult to engage with these concepts. We present a simple laboratory experiment utilizing portable nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine the…

  15. 13 CFR 107.1440 - Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989. 107.1440 Section 107.1440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... 21, 1989. Before November 21, 1989, Preferred Securities were available only in the form of...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1440 - Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989. 107.1440 Section 107.1440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... 21, 1989. Before November 21, 1989, Preferred Securities were available only in the form of...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1440 - Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989. 107.1440 Section 107.1440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... 21, 1989. Before November 21, 1989, Preferred Securities were available only in the form of...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1440 - Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Three percent preferred stock issued before November 21, 1989. 107.1440 Section 107.1440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... 21, 1989. Before November 21, 1989, Preferred Securities were available only in the form of...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1400 - Dividends or partnership distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dividends or partnership... (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1400 Dividends or partnership... 21, 1989, you must pay SBA a dividend or partnership distribution of 4 percent per year, from...

  20. Accuracy of the Generalizability-Model Standard Errors for the Percents of Examinees Reaching Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Schafer, William D.

    An empirical study of the Yen (W. Yen, 1997) analytic formula for the standard error of a percent-above-cut [SE(PAC)] was conducted. This formula was derived from variance component information gathered in the context of generalizability theory. SE(PAC)s were estimated by different methods of estimating variance components (e.g., W. Yens…