Science.gov

Sample records for 4-5 related science

  1. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR SCIENCE, GRADES 4-5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAHAM, KATHRYN A.; AND OTHERS

    COURSE CONTENT, ACTIVITIES, AND REFERENCE INFORMATION FOR TEACHING SCIENCE IN GRADES 4, 5, AND 6 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS RELATE TO AN APPROACH TO TEACHING SCIENCE AND THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE SCIENCE PROGRAM. THE FIVE UNITS INCLUDED FOR GRADE 4 ARE (1) INSECTS AND SPIDERS, (2) LIVING THINGS OF SIMILAR AREAS, (3) THE…

  2. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—Importation of Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol 27 CFR Part 71—Rules... regulations also relate to this part: 27 CFR Part 205—National Organic Program 27 CFR Part 1—Basic Permit..., Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits 27 CFR Part 5—Labeling and Advertising of...

  3. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Spirits 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages 27 CFR Part 9—American Viticultural Areas...—Importation of Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol 27 CFR Part 71—Rules... regulations also relate to this part: 7 CFR Part 205—National Organic Program 27 CFR Part 1—Basic...

  4. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Spirits 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages 27 CFR Part 9—American Viticultural Areas...—Importation of Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol 27 CFR Part 71—Rules... regulations also relate to this part: 7 CFR Part 205—National Organic Program 27 CFR Part 1—Basic...

  5. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Spirits 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages 27 CFR Part 9—American Viticultural Areas...—Importation of Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol 27 CFR Part 71—Rules... regulations also relate to this part: 7 CFR Part 205—National Organic Program 27 CFR Part 1—Basic...

  6. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Spirits 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages 27 CFR Part 9—American Viticultural Areas...—Importation of Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol 27 CFR Part 71—Rules... regulations also relate to this part: 7 CFR Part 205—National Organic Program 27 CFR Part 1—Basic...

  7. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 4/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 1/5 ) What will stop everybody from crashing into each other? And what would happen if they did?

  8. Landsat-4/5 Band 6 relative radiometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, D.L.; Boncyk, Wayne C.

    2002-01-01

    Relative radiometric responses for the thematic mapper (TM) band 6 data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were analyzed, and an algorithm has been developed that significantly reduces the striping in Band 6 images due to detector mismatch. The TM internal calibration system as originally designed includes a DC restore circuit, which acts as a feedback system designed to keep detector bias at a constant value. There is a strong indication that the DC restore circuitry implemented in Band 6 does not function as it had been designed to. It operates as designed only during a portion of the calibration interval and not at all during acquisition of scene data. This renders the data acquired during the calibration shutter interval period virtually useless for correction of the individual responses of the four detectors in Band 6. It was observed and statistically quantified that the relative response of each of the detectors to the band average is stable over the dynamic range and throughout the lifetime of the instrument. This allows an alternate approach to relative radiometric correction of TM Band 6 images

  9. Hydrogeodeformation field in the Caucasus related to the preparation of Tbilisi earthquakes (M>4.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, A.; Bendukidze, G.; Biagi, P. F.; Chelidze, T.; Devidze, M.; Garalov, B.; Melikadze, G.; Vartanian, G.

    2003-04-01

    Here we present the relation between the variations of the underground water level in boreholes and the deformation processes associated with the occurrence of Tbilisi earthquakes with Mge4.5. The hydrogeodeformation field (HGDF) has been pointed out on the basis of the data collected in networks located in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. The boreholes are uniformly distributed in the Caucasus and they cover all the main geological blocks of the region; their depth ranges from 250 m to 3.500 m. On the basis of the water variations related to the gravity tides, a preliminary calibration of the boreholes was carried out at the purpose to evaluate the sensitivity and to normalize the hydrodynamic signals. The hydrodynamical and hydrochemical data have been processed by means of spectral analyses to separate the disturbance background field from the valid signals. The processed data cover the period 1999-2002 in which 3 earthquakes (Mge4.5) occurred in Tbilisi at December 14, 2000, January 03, 2001 and April 25, 2002. The formation of an extension zone in the eastern Caucasus and of a compression zone in the western Georgia and northern Caucasus was observed 3 months before the April 2002 earthquake. The boundary between these 2 zones was along a well known sub horizontal fault. The largest deformation gradient was observed in a zone that is the joint of deep faults. This zone is the place where the previous earthquake was generated. After the earthquake occurrence, the zone of the largest gradient migrated towards East and the residual HGDF could be considered as source of the Ujarma earthquake (August 2002). Thus, HGDF seems to indicate a migration of the deformation field along the slope of the Greater Caucasus 3 months prior the earthquake. Another observation is that before the earthquakes, when the deformation reaches its critical value, the natural pattern of tidal variations in each observation point was disturbed. The period of the perturbation (from

  10. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  11. Spectral reflectance (0.4 - 5.0 microns) of sulfur related compounds and mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan C.

    1987-01-01

    Studied and quantified were: (1) the spectral properties of sulfur related compounds and materials; (2) the effects of thermal history, temperature and mixing ratios on the spectral properties of these materials; and (3) the application of these results to the Jovian system, in particular, the surfaces of Io, Europa, and Amalthea, and the chromophores in the Jovian atmosphere. Major results of the study include: (1) a study of how sulfur deposition affects the band strengths in various silicates; (2) a study of how the ultraviolet absorption band of sulfur is affected by dilution in ice; (3) the application of these two sets of experimental studies to Io, in the case of silicate band strengths, and Europa, as in the case of sulfur dilution in ices.

  12. Chemically related 4,5-linked aminoglycoside antibiotics drive subunit rotation in opposite directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, Michael R.; Pulk, Arto; Zhou, Zhou; Altman, Roger B.; Zinder, John C.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Doudna Cate, Jamie H.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic remodelling of intersubunit bridge B2, a conserved RNA domain of the bacterial ribosome connecting helices 44 (h44) and 69 (H69) of the small and large subunit, respectively, impacts translation by controlling intersubunit rotation. Here we show that aminoglycosides chemically related to neomycin--paromomycin, ribostamycin and neamine--each bind to sites within h44 and H69 to perturb bridge B2 and affect subunit rotation. Neomycin and paromomycin, which only differ by their ring-I 6'-polar group, drive subunit rotation in opposite directions. This suggests that their distinct actions hinge on the 6'-substituent and the drug's net positive charge. By solving the crystal structure of the paromomycin-ribosome complex, we observe specific contacts between the apical tip of H69 and the 6'-hydroxyl on paromomycin from within the drug's canonical h44-binding site. These results indicate that aminoglycoside actions must be framed in the context of bridge B2 and their regulation of subunit rotation.

  13. Chemically related 4,5-linked aminoglycoside antibiotics drive subunit rotation in opposite directions.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Michael R; Pulk, Arto; Zhou, Zhou; Altman, Roger B; Zinder, John C; Green, Keith D; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Cate, Jamie H Doudna; Blanchard, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic remodelling of intersubunit bridge B2, a conserved RNA domain of the bacterial ribosome connecting helices 44 (h44) and 69 (H69) of the small and large subunit, respectively, impacts translation by controlling intersubunit rotation. Here we show that aminoglycosides chemically related to neomycin-paromomycin, ribostamycin and neamine-each bind to sites within h44 and H69 to perturb bridge B2 and affect subunit rotation. Neomycin and paromomycin, which only differ by their ring-I 6'-polar group, drive subunit rotation in opposite directions. This suggests that their distinct actions hinge on the 6'-substituent and the drug's net positive charge. By solving the crystal structure of the paromomycin-ribosome complex, we observe specific contacts between the apical tip of H69 and the 6'-hydroxyl on paromomycin from within the drug's canonical h44-binding site. These results indicate that aminoglycoside actions must be framed in the context of bridge B2 and their regulation of subunit rotation. PMID:26224058

  14. Chemically related 4,5-linked aminoglycoside antibiotics drive subunit rotation in opposite directions

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Michael R.; Pulk, Arto; Zhou, Zhou; Altman, Roger B.; Zinder, John C.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Doudna Cate, Jamie H.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic remodelling of intersubunit bridge B2, a conserved RNA domain of the bacterial ribosome connecting helices 44 (h44) and 69 (H69) of the small and large subunit, respectively, impacts translation by controlling intersubunit rotation. Here we show that aminoglycosides chemically related to neomycin—paromomycin, ribostamycin and neamine—each bind to sites within h44 and H69 to perturb bridge B2 and affect subunit rotation. Neomycin and paromomycin, which only differ by their ring-I 6′-polar group, drive subunit rotation in opposite directions. This suggests that their distinct actions hinge on the 6′-substituent and the drug's net positive charge. By solving the crystal structure of the paromomycin–ribosome complex, we observe specific contacts between the apical tip of H69 and the 6′-hydroxyl on paromomycin from within the drug's canonical h44-binding site. These results indicate that aminoglycoside actions must be framed in the context of bridge B2 and their regulation of subunit rotation. PMID:26224058

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of the Relations between Opportunities to Learn about Science and the Development of Interests Related to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Joyce M.; Johnson, Kathy E.; Kelley, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Relations between parental reports of children's interests related to science and opportunities for science learning were examined longitudinally in 192 children between ages 4 and 7 years. Science interests were tracked during 1-year periods (ages 4-5, 5-6, and 6-7) and were more prevalent among boys, particularly prior to age 6 years. Gender…

  16. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies: colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in these galaxies. We find a tight relation between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and effective velocity dispersion, a good mass indicator in early-type galaxies: ([3.6]-[4.5])e = (-0.109 ? 0.007)?+ (0.154 ? 0.016). Contrary to other colours in the optical and near-infrared, we find that the colours become bluer for larger galaxies. The relations are tighter when using the colour inside re (scatter 0.013 mag), rather than the much smaller re/8 aperture (scatter 0.023 mag), due to the presence of young populations in the central regions. We also obtain strong correlations between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and three strong absorption lines (H?, Mgb and Fe 5015). Comparing our data with the models of Marigo et al., which show that more metal rich galaxies are bluer, we can explain our results in a way consistent with results from the optical, by stating that larger galaxies are more metal rich. The blueing is caused by a strong CO absorption band, whose line strength increases strongly with decreasing temperature and which covers a considerable fraction of the 4.5-?m filter. In galaxies that contain a compact radio source, the [3.6]-[4.5] colour is generally slightly redder (by 0.015 ? 0.007 mag using the re/8 aperture) than in the other galaxies, indicating small amounts of either hot dust, non-thermal emission, or young stars near the centre. We find that the large majority of the galaxies show redder colours with increasing radius. Removing the regions with evidence for young stellar populations (from the H? absorption line) and interpreting the colour gradients as metallicity gradients, we find that our galaxies are more metal poor going outwards. The radial [3.6]-[4.5] gradients

  17. Immune-related conditions and subsequent risk of brain cancer in a cohort of 4.5 million male US veterans

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, E K; Inskip, P D; Gridley, G; Brenner, A V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Case–control studies have reported an inverse association between self-reported history of allergy and risk of glioma, but cohort data are limited. Our objectives were to evaluate the associations of major groups of medically diagnosed immune-related conditions (allergy/atopy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, infectious/inflammatory disease) and to explore associations with specific conditions in relation to subsequent diagnosis of brain cancer in a large cohort study. Methods: We used hospital discharge records for a cohort of 4.5 million male US veterans, of whom 4383 developed primary brain cancer. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using time-dependent Poisson regression. Results: We found a significant trend of decreasing RRs for brain cancer with longer duration of allergy/atopy (P=0.02), but not for other conditions studied. Rate ratios of brain cancer for allergy/atopy and diabetes with duration of 10 or more years were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.83) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.93), respectively. Several associations with specific conditions were found, but these did not withstand correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: This study lends some support to an inverse association between allergy/atopy and diabetes of long duration and brain cancer risk, but prospective studies with biological samples are needed to uncover the underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:24595001

  18. Educational Plant Survey. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences on Campus--Alachua County. April 4-5, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a systematic study and evaluation of the existing educational plants of the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), along with a determination of future plant needs. Section 1 contains an introduction to the educational plant survey, including statutory foundations, procedural…

  19. The Related Science of Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward

    Intended as an instructional guide for the use of a science teacher or beauty culture shop teacher in teaching the scientific aspects in a 1-year prevocational cosmetology program at area vocational high schools, this state curriculum guide was developed by a committee of vocational instructors and field tested in three vocational schools. An…

  20. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  1. Government Relations: It's Not Rocket Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radway, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Many people in the early childhood education field are afraid of government relations work, intimidated by politicians, and believe the whole process is unseemly. The author asserts that they should not be afraid nor be intimidated because government relations is not rocket science and fundamentally officeholders are no different from the rest of…

  2. SOT1, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for correct processing of plastid 23S-4.5S rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjuan; Liu, Sheng; Ruwe, Hannes; Zhang, Delin; Melonek, Joanna; Zhu, Yajuan; Hu, Xupeng; Gusewski, Sandra; Yin, Ping; Small, Ian D; Howell, Katharine A; Huang, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Ribosomal RNA processing is essential for plastid ribosome biogenesis, but is still poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION1 (SOT1), a plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for maturation of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron. Loss of SOT1 function leads to slower chloroplast development, suppression of leaf variegation, and abnormal 23S and 4.5S processing. Predictions based on the PPR motif sequences identified the 5' end of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistronic precursor as a putative SOT1 binding site. This was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and by loss of the abundant small RNA 'footprint' associated with this site in sot1 mutants. We found that more than half of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistrons in sot1 mutants contain eroded and/or unprocessed 5' and 3' ends, and that the endonucleolytic cleavage product normally released from the 5' end of the precursor is absent in a sot1 null mutant. We postulate that SOT1 binding protects the 5' extremity of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron from exonucleolytic attack, and favours formation of the RNA structure that allows endonucleolytic processing of its 5' and 3' ends. PMID:26800847

  3. The Mass-Radius Relation of Young Stars. I. USco 5, an M4.5 Eclipsing Binary in Upper Scorpius Observed by K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Cody, Ann Marie; Covey, Kevin R.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Mann, Andrew W.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2015-07-01

    We present the discovery that UScoCTIO 5, a known spectroscopic binary in the Upper Scorpius star-forming region (P = 34 days, {M}{tot}{sin}(i)=0.64 {M}⊙ ), is an eclipsing system with both primary and secondary eclipses apparent in K2 light curves obtained during Campaign 2. We have simultaneously fit the eclipse profiles from the K2 light curves and the existing RV data to demonstrate that UScoCTIO 5 consists of a pair of nearly identical M4.5 stars with {M}A=0.329+/- 0.002 {M}⊙ , {R}A=0.834+/- 0.006 {R}⊙ , {M}B=0.317+/- 0.002 {M}⊙ , and {R}B=0.810+/- 0.006 {R}⊙ . The radii are broadly consistent with pre-main-sequence ages predicted by stellar evolutionary models, but none agree to within the uncertainties. All models predict systematically incorrect masses at the 25%-50% level for the HR diagram position of these mid-M dwarfs, suggesting significant modifications to mass-dependent outcomes of star and planet formation. The form of the discrepancy for most model sets is not that they predict luminosities that are too low, but rather that they predict temperatures that are too high, suggesting that the models do not fully encompass the physics of energy transport (via convection and/or missing opacities) and/or a miscalibration of the SpT-{T}{eff} scale. The simplest modification to the models (changing {T}{eff} to match observations) would yield an older age for this system, in line with the recently proposed older age of Upper Scorpius (τ ˜ 11 Myr).

  4. Women's Advancement in Political Science. A Report on the APSA Workshop on the Advancement of Women in Academic Political Science in the United States (Washington, DC, March 4-5, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Political Science Association (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    In March 2004, the National Science Foundation funded a two-day workshop by the American Political Science Association (APSA) on the advancement of women in academic political science in the United States. The workshop was prompted by an alarming stall in the number of women entering the discipline and persisting through early years of faculty…

  5. Basic Physical Science. Apprentice Related Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric

    One in a series of core instructional materials for apprentices to use during the first or second years of apprentice-related subjects training, this booklet deals with basic physical science. The first section consists of an outline of the content and scope of the core materials as well as a self-assessment pretest. Covered in the four…

  6. Space, Relations, and the Learning of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    In the literature on the situated and distributed nature of cognition, the coordination of spatial organization and the structure of human practices and relations is accepted as a fact. To date, science educators have yet to build on such research. Drawing on an ethnographic study of high school students during an internship in a scientific…

  7. Everyday science & science every day: Science-related talk & activities across settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Heather

    To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.

  8. Substances in human urine that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and related heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Brun, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1992-12-01

    Extracts of human urine were shown to contain substances that strongly inhibited the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain in a liquid incubation assay. The inhibitory effect was unrelated to cytotoxicity and was similar with urine extracts from smokers and non-smokers. Under similar assay conditions, the mutagenicity of the related amino-imidazoazaarenes, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline was also found to be strongly inhibited by urine extracts. Decreased or enhanced mutagenicity was seen with 2-acetyl-aminofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene depending on the type of assay, and the time of incubation in liquid medium. A weak inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, a direct-acting mutagen, was observed only after a short incubation time. Mutagenicity of 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide was not altered by the presence of urine extracts at concentrations shown to be inhibitory for the mutagenicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines. Our data suggest that the inhibitory substances in urine act through their capacity to non covalently bind the parent heterocyclic and aromatic amines, thus affecting their availability in aqueous medium for diffusion into liver microsomes where metabolic activation takes place. PMID:1473240

  9. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  10. Space, relations, and the learning of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    In the literature on the situated and distributed nature of cognition, the coordination of spatial organization and the structure of human practices and relations is accepted as a fact. To date, science educators have yet to build on such research. Drawing on an ethnographic study of high school students during an internship in a scientific research laboratory, which we understand as a "perspicuous setting" and a "smart setting," in which otherwise invisible dimensions of human practices become evident, we analyze the relationship between spatial configurations of the setting and the nature and temporal organization of knowing and learning in science. Our analyses show that spatial aspects of the laboratory projectively organize how participants act and can serve as resources to help the novices to participate in difficult and unfamiliar tasks. First, existing spatial relations projectively organize the language involving interns and lab members. In particular, spatial relations projectively organize where and when pedagogical language should happen; and there are specific discursive mechanisms that produce cohesion in language across different places in the laboratory. Second, the spatial arrangements projectively organize the temporal dimensions of action. These findings allow science educators to think explicitly about organizing "smart contexts" that help learners participate in and learn complex scientific laboratory practices.

  11. An Analysis of Earth Science Content Emphasis as Related to the National Science Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.; Krockover, Gerald H.; Braile, Lawrence W.; Rizzo, Andrea M.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes earth science content emphasis as related to the National Science Education Standards. Surveys the amount of time that teachers spend teaching the earth science topics named in the Standards. (CCM)

  12. Blacks in Science and Related Disciplines. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Vivian O., Comp.; Dempsey, Denise P., Comp.

    Humankind had its beginnings in Africa. Imhotep, the first scientist, was a man of color, an Egyptian. Africans made great strides in science and medicine prior to slavery. In the United States, blacks have contributed much to the advancement of science and invention; however, history for the most part has not given them credit for these…

  13. 4,5-Diaryl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thiones and related compounds as combretastatin A-4/oltipraz hybrids: Synthesis, molecular modelling and evaluation as antiproliferative agents and inhibitors of tubulin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Qi, Huan; Shen, Qirong; Lu, Guodong; Li, Mingyang; Bao, Kai; Wu, Yingliang; Zhang, Weige

    2016-10-21

    A new series of 4,5-diaryl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thiones and related compounds were designed and synthesised as combretastatin A-4/oltipraz hybrids. We evaluated the antiproliferative activities, inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and cell-cycle effects of these compounds. Several compounds in this series, such as 4d and 5c, displayed significant activity against SGC-7901, KB and HT-1080 cell lines, as determined using MTT assays. The most active compound, 4d, markedly inhibited tubulin polymerization, with an IC50 value of 4.44 μM being observed. In mechanistic studies, 4d caused cell arrest in G2/M phase, induced apoptotic cell death, and disrupted microtubule formation. Molecular docking studies revealed that 4d interacts and binds efficiently with the tubulin protein. PMID:27428395

  14. Novel GluN2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists: relative configuration of 7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ols.

    PubMed

    Tewes, Bastian; Frehland, Bastian; Fröhlich, Roland; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    The title compounds, C22H29NO2 (3) and C22H29NO2 (4) [systematic names: (1S*,2R*)-7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl-but-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol and (1R*,2R*)-7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl-but-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol, are diastereomers with the relative configuration of the adjacent hydroxyl and methyl groups at the seven-membered azepine ring being trans in (3) and cis in (4). In the crystals the orientation of these groups is -anti-periplanar (3) and +syn-clinal (4). In both cases, the crystals studied proved to be of a racemic mixture, with relative configurations (R*,S*)-3 and (R*,R*)-4. In both compounds, the seven-membered azepine ring has a chair-like conformation, and the 4-phenyl-butyl side chain adopts a extended conformation in (R*,S*)-3, but a twisted conformation in (R*,R*)-4. In the crystal of (S*,R*)-3, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. In the crystal of (R*,R*)-4, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the c-axis direction. The chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27308019

  15. Novel GluN2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists: relative configuration of 7-meth­oxy-2-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ols

    PubMed Central

    Tewes, Bastian; Frehland, Bastian; Fröhlich, Roland; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds, C22H29NO2 (3) and C22H29NO2 (4) [systematic names: (1S*,2R*)-7-meth­oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl­but­yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol and (1R*,2R*)-7-meth­oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl­but­yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol, are diastereomers with the relative configuration of the adjacent hydroxyl and methyl groups at the seven-membered azepine ring being trans in (3) and cis in (4). In the crystals the orientation of these groups is −anti-periplanar (3) and +syn-clinal (4). In both cases, the crystals studied proved to be of a racemic mixture, with relative configurations (R*,S*)-3 and (R*,R*)-4. In both compounds, the seven-membered azepine ring has a chair-like conformation, and the 4-phenyl­butyl side chain adopts a extended conformation in (R*,S*)-3, but a twisted conformation in (R*,R*)-4. In the crystal of (S*,R*)-3, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. In the crystal of (R*,R*)-4, mol­ecules are linked via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the c-axis direction. The chains are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27308019

  16. Fluorite-related one-dimensional units in natural bismuth oxysulfates: the crystal structures of Bi14O16(SO4)5 and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Daniela; Garavelli, Anna; Bindi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structures of two new natural Bi oxysulfates with the formula Bi14O16(SO4)5 [labelled new phase I; monoclinic, space group C2, a = 21.658 (4), b = 5.6648 (9), c = 15.092 (3) Å, β = 119.433 (11)° and Z = 2] and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 [labelled new phase II; triclinic, space group P1, a = 5.670 (3), b = 13.9408 (9), c = 22.7908 (18) Å, α = 80.903 (5), β = 82.854 (14), γ = 78.27 (2)° and Z = 1] from the high-temperature fumarole deposit of the La Fossa crater at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) are reported. The structures are built up by a combination of fluorite-related Bi-O units and isolated (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra (new phase I) or both (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra (new phase II). Owing to the effect of stereoactive lone pairs of Bi(3+), Bi-O units in both the structures can be suitably described in terms of oxo-centered OBi4 tetrahedra. The structure of Bi14O16(SO4)5 is based upon one-dimensional [O16Bi14](10+) ribbons formed by six chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra extending along [010]. In the structure of Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 the same ribbon type coexists with another one-dimensional ribbon formed by seven chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra and with the composition [O17Bi16](14+). Ribbons of the same type are joined by (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra along [010] – if a reduced triclinic unit-cell setting is considered – so forming two different (001) slabs which alternate to each other along [001] and are joined by additional (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra. New phase I represents the natural analogues of synthetic Bi14O16(SO4)5, but with an ordered structure model. PMID:26428401

  17. The Relation of Selected Student Characteristics to Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Robert Joseph

    Some of the purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether the "Meaning of Science" course can make a significant contribution to college students' understanding of science, (2) to determine whether the course can promote a positive change in attitude toward science, and (3) to identify academic and non-academic characteristics related to…

  18. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  19. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  20. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  1. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  2. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  3. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  4. 41 CFR 51-4.5 - Violations by nonprofit agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Violations by nonprofit agencies. 51-4.5 Section 51-4.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED...

  5. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water contents as well as with the modeling results. [3,4,5] References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Mäkinen, T. (2012) Personal communication [3] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [4] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13. [5] Savijarvi et al. (2010), Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136:651, 1497-1505.

  6. Gender, ethnicity, and students' perceptions about science and science-related careers in Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Dunne, Mairead

    This study examines the relationships between gender, ethnicity, and Fijian students' attitudes and perceptions about science, attributions of success and failure in science as school, science as a career, and the career-related advice they received. Data were collected with a questionnaire administered to a stratified, random, one-sixth sample of Form 5 (16-year-old) students in Fiji. Gender and ethnicity were found to have no consistent relationship with students' perceptions, attitudes, and attributions about science. However, students, particularly males, demonstrated strong sex-stereotyping of science-related careers, and different kinds of career advice were given to students on the basis of their gender and ethnicity. These, rather than students' attitudes and performance in science, are more likely to explain the patterns linking gender and ethnicity with the science-related work force and higher education in Fiji.

  7. Relational Database Design in Information Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on database management system (dbms) applications designed by library school students for university community at University of Iowa. Three dbms design issues are examined: synthesis of relations, analysis of relations (normalization procedure), and data dictionary usage. Database planning prior to automation using data dictionary approach…

  8. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  9. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  10. Gender-Related Science Anxiety: A First Binational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffry V.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to ascertain whether science anxiety as measured by a self-reporting instrument was related to gender for groups of American and Danish students aged 17 and up. In both national groups, females scored significantly higher on a variety of science anxiety measures than did males. (LZ)

  11. Elementary School Students' Attitude toward Science and Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X-Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the…

  12. Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Science is a social issue. The examination of scientific issues offers an excellent opportunity for helping students develop a synthesized perspective on science related issues--a synthesis of the technical data coupled with social, political, economic, ethical, and philosophical information. (RM)

  13. Science teachers' interpretations of Islamic culture related to science education versus the Islamic epistemology and ontology of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-03-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and science comes next. I will argue that teachers' personal religious beliefs are among the major constructs that drive teachers' ways of thinking and interpretation of scientific issues related with religion. Then, I discuss how teachers' personal religious beliefs have been formed and influenced their pedagogical beliefs related to science and religion issues. Finally, I will argue, how we use the personal religious beliefs model as a framework of teaching/learning scientific issues related with religion within sociocultural (Islamic) context. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

  14. Funds of relationality: social bonds and science learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smardon, Regina

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez, I will focus primarily on the importance of relationality for the development of a science learner identity. Along the way I will review (1) The cultural dynamics involved with the formation and sustenance of relationships in social life; (2) The methodological advantages of ethnographic inquiry for exploring funds of relationality; (3) The importance of relationality for science innovation throughout the pipeline of scientific training from K-12 schooling all the way through scientific breakthrough; (4) The absolutely vital role that relationality plays in creating a science learner identity. Finally I highlight how collaborative ethnography, in particular, is an excellent tool for seeking out funds of relationality that can be marshaled in the classroom as well as contributing to conceptual advancement in the theoretical vocabulary of relational sociology.

  15. Investigation of magnetic exchange via non-bonding halides and aromatic polyamines (1,2,4-triazine, 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and the related derivatives as ligands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixin

    -heterocyclic ligands such as pyrazine and its derivatives. Magnetic exchange can propagate through the conjugated system. As an extension of this method, we focused on using some new polyamines including 1,2,4,5-tetrazine (tetz), 1,2,4-triazine (tz) and the amino derivative 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine (atz) as ligands. Four new complexes have been prepared. They include bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II) Cu(hfac)2(C2H2N4) (13), bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)triazinecopper(II) Cu(hfac)2(tz) (15), bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)(3-aminotriazine)copper(II) Cu(hfac) 2(atz)2 (16) and hexakis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)bis(3-aminotriazine)tricopper(II) Cu3(hfac)6(atz)2 (17). The crystal structures and magnetic properties have been studied. The magnetic data show they are paramagnetic materials because of the weak coordination bonds. To compare with its atz analog, 2-aminopyrazine (apz) was also used and three new complexes have been prepared. They include hexakis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato) bis(2-amino-pyrazine)tricopper(II) Cu3(hfac)6 (apz)2 (18), bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)aminopyrazinecopper(II) Cu(hfac)2(apz)2 (19) and bis(acetylacetonato)aminopyrazinecopper(II) Cu(acac)2(apz)2 (20). The structures and their magnetic properties have been investigated.

  16. Art Related Experiences for Social Science, Natural Science, and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Edward B.

    This booklet is intended to serve as an introduction to art experiences that relate to studies in social science, natural science, and language arts. It is designed to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of interaction of the abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors of the total environment as manifest in art forms. Each section, presented…

  17. Aerospace-Related Life Science Concepts for Use in Life Science Classes Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; Rademacher, Jean

    The purpose of this guide is to provide the teacher of secondary school life science classes with resource materials for activities to familiarize students with recent discoveries in bioastronautics. Each section introduces a life science concept and a related aerospace concept, gives background information, suggested activities, and an annotated…

  18. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  19. Interest, Attitudes and Images Related to Science: Combining Students' Voices with the Voices of School Science, Teachers, and Popular Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christidou, Vasilia

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades students' science-related interests, attitudes, and images of science and scientists, and their differentiations according to gender, culture, and socio-economic status have been investigated by a multitude of research studies. These aspects of students' voices seem to be interrelated and to also affect students'…

  20. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identities of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary among manufacturers and types of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) are more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1550 to 45 100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18 400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with nonylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  1. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  2. Relational Analysis of College Science-Major Students' Epistemological Beliefs Toward Science and Conceptions of Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest among educational researchers in exploring the relationships between learners' epistemological beliefs and their conceptions of learning. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships particularly in the domain of science. The participants in this study included 407 Taiwanese college science-major students. All of them responded to two major questionnaires, one assessing their scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs) and the other one probing their conceptions of learning science (COLS). The SEB questionnaire included four factors: "certainty," "source," "development," and "justification" of science knowledge. The COLS survey consisted of six factors in a hierarchical order, that is, learning science as "memorizing," "preparing for tests," "calculating and practicing," "increasing one's knowledge," "application," and "understanding and seeing in a new way." The students' confidence and interest toward learning science were also assessed by additional questionnaire items. Stepwise regression analyses, in general, showed coherence between students' SEBs and their COLS, indicating that the sophistication of SEBs was consistent with less agreement with lower-level COLS (such as "memorizing" and "preparing for tests") as well as more agreement with higher-level COLS (such as "understanding and seeing in a new way"). However, the SEB's "justification" factor was positively related to almost all of COLS factors from the lower-level to higher-level. This study finally found that among all of the SEB and COLS factors, the "preparing for tests" factor in COLS was the solely significant variable for predicting students' interest in science and confidence toward learning science.

  3. Backside optimization for improving avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV IGBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Tian; Jiang, Lu; Yuan, Teng; Wenliang, Zhang; Shuojin, Lu; Yangjun, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The static avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV high-voltage IGBT is studied by theory analysis and experiment. The avalanche breakdown behaviors of the 4.5 kV IGBTs with different backside structures are investigated and compared by using the curve tracer. The results show that the snap back behavior of the breakdown waveform is related to the bipolar PNP gain, which leads to the deterioration of the breakdown voltage. There are two ways to optimize the backside structure, one is increasing the implant dose of the N+ buffer layer, the other is decreasing the implant dose of the P+ collector layer. It is found that the optimized structure is effective in suppressing the snap back behavior and improving the breakdown characteristic of high voltage IGBT. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project of China (No. 2011ZX02503-003).

  4. Everything's Relative: And Other Fables from Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Tony

    2003-09-01

    The surprising truth behind many of the most cherished "facts" in science history Morse invented the telegraph, Bell the telephone, Edison the light bulb, and Marconi the radio . . . right? Well . . . the truth is slightly more complicated. The history of science and technology is riddled with apocrypha, inaccuracies, and falsehoods, and physicist Tony Rothman has taken it upon himself to throw a monkey wrench into the works. Combining a storyteller's gifts with a scientist's focus and hardheaded devotion to the facts-such as they may be-Rothman breaks down many of the most famous "just-so" stories of physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, and technology to give credit where credit is truly due. From Einstein's possible misunderstanding of his own theories to actress Hedy Lemarr's role in the invention of the radio-controlled torpedo, he dredges his way through the legends of science history in relating the fascinating stories behind some of the most important, and often unsung, breakthroughs in science. Tony Rothman, PhD (Bryn Mawr, PA), is a Research Associate at Bryn Mawr College. He is the author of seven other critically acclaimed science books and a frequent contributor to leading science publications, including Scientific American and Discover.

  5. Drawing Connections across Conceptually Related Visual Representations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored beliefs about learning from multiple related visual representations in science, and compared beliefs to learning outcomes. Three research questions were explored: 1) What beliefs do pre-service teachers, non-educators and children have about learning from visual representations? 2) What format of presenting those…

  6. Problems Relating Mathematics and Science in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Richard; Beard, Earl

    This document contains various science problems which require a mathematical solution. The problems are arranged under two general areas. The first (algebra I) contains biology, chemistry, and physics problems which require solutions related to linear equations, exponentials, and nonlinear equations. The second (algebra II) contains physics…

  7. Relation of Technology, Science, Self-Concept, Interest, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ingeborg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the relation of technology, science, self-concept, interest, and gender. For nearly 20 years the topic of "women and technology" has played an important role in discussions about gender equality in Germany. The very first project for promoting females started in 1978 under the title "Women in Male…

  8. Literature Resources Relating to Computer Science Education in Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Gerald L.

    Over 100 key resources regarding computer science education at small colleges are collected in this bibliography. A brief review of the collected documents introduces the bibliography, categorizing and relating the materials and noting their emphases. The review concentrates on materials published after 1978, but cites the major works providing…

  9. Funds of Relationality: Social Bonds and Science Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardon, Regina

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez, I will focus primarily on the importance of relationality for the development of a science learner identity. Along the way I will review (1) The cultural dynamics involved with the formation and sustenance of relationships in social life; (2) The methodological…

  10. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  11. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  12. How high school science-related experiences influenced science career persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Andrew D.

    The events of 9/11 brought into focus two ongoing trends that were present before this tragedy and have continued since: (1) The United States needs more scientists if it is to ensure its freedoms and maintain its economy. (2) The number of scientists in the "pipeline" is declining because of the diminished presence of foreign scientists (they are wanted in their own countries), the under-representation of minorities and women, and the reduced numbers of students able and willing to take on the scholastic rigors necessary for a science or engineering degree. Though much has been written about improving science education, and numerous projects have been conducted to promote it, few education researchers have questioned the scientists themselves about the experiences, practices, and people that positively influenced them, particularly during their pre-college years. Towards this end, thirty-two scientists were interviewed in order to address four research questions: (1) How did practicing scientists' personal relationships with their science teachers influence their decision to pursue a career in science? (2) What pedagogical methods (e.g. lectures, demonstrations, "hands-on" work, problem solving, small groups) used in their high school science courses, if any, played a significant role in propelling certain students towards a career as a practicing scientist? (3) What high school science-related support structures (e.g. labs, equipment, textbooks, technology), if any, played a significant role in propelling certain students towards a career as a practicing scientist? (4) What high school science-related educational activities (e.g. science fairs, clubs, summer internships), if any, played a significant role in propelling certain students towards a career as a practicing scientist? Some of the scientists reported that they knew they were headed towards a career in science before they even entered high school, while others did not make a decision about a science

  13. Factors affecting science-related attitudes in academically talented youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kristen Renee

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the criterion variables of science-related attitudes and the predictor variables of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, and achievement in academically talented students. One hundred and sixty-seven students in grades 11 and 12 from a residential math and science high school in Alabama were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA; Fraser, 1981), the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers & Harris, 1969), and a general information questionnaire. Multiple linear regression consisting of canonical correlation, semi-partial correlation, and Manova were used to test the hypotheses of this study. Results indicate that students had favorable attitudes towards science. Significant interactions were found between gender and achievement for the Adoption of Scientific Attitude subtest with high achieving females having more favorable attitudes on this variable followed by low achieving males. Additionally, significant interactions were found between self-concept and achievement and between mother's occupation and father's occupation on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientists subtest. High achievers with high self-concept obtained the highest scores while low achievers with low self-concept obtained the lowest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest. Subjects with fathers and mothers in science occupations obtained the highest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest while subjects with a father in a nonscience occupation and a mother in a science occupation obtained the lowest scores. The lowest scores were found in Leisure Interest in Science regardless of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, or achievement.

  14. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  15. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  16. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  17. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  18. Exploring the Universe. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giessow, Jean; Giessow, Fred

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce elementary concepts in the study of the universe. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: the solar system, orbits, planets, the sun, forces in…

  19. How We Make Energy Work: Grades 4, 5, 6 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of units is designed to focus on the technological aspects of energy. Four units are presented, with from 1-4 lessons included in each unit. Units include: (1) basic concepts and applications of energy; (2) steps and processes of energy production and transmission; (3) fuel acquisition; and (4) energy futures and application of…

  20. Drawing Connections Across Conceptually Related Visual Representations in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Janice

    This dissertation explored beliefs about learning from multiple related visual representations in science, and compared beliefs to learning outcomes. Three research questions were explored: 1) What beliefs do pre-service teachers, non-educators and children have about learning from visual representations? 2) What format of presenting those representations is most effective for learning? And, 3) Can children's ability to process conceptually related science diagrams be enhanced with added support? Three groups of participants, 89 pre-service teachers, 211 adult non-educators, and 385 middle school children, were surveyed about whether they felt related visual representations presented serially or simultaneously would lead to better learning outcomes. Two experiments, one with adults and one with child participants, explored the validity of these beliefs. Pre-service teachers did not endorse either serial or simultaneous related visual representations for their own learning. They were, however, significantly more likely to indicate that children would learn better from serially presented diagrams. In direct contrast to the educators, middle school students believed they would learn better from related visual representations presented simultaneously. Experimental data indicated that the beliefs adult non-educators held about their own learning needs matched learning outcomes. These participants endorsed simultaneous presentation of related diagrams for their own learning. When comparing learning from related diagrams presented simultaneously to learning from the same diagrams presented serially indicate that those in the simultaneously condition were able to create more complex mental models. A second experiment compared children's learning from related diagrams across four randomly-assigned conditions: serial, simultaneous, simultaneous with signaling, and simultaneous with structure mapping support. Providing middle school students with simultaneous related diagrams

  1. Computer Related Mathematics and Science Curriculum Materials - A National Science Foundation Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Chuan C.

    Reported is the Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education which was conducted by the University of Colorado Department of Civil Engineering in the summer of 1967. The program consisted of two five-week terms. The course work was composed of two formal lecture courses in Computer Related Mathematics and Computer…

  2. Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paula Denise

    This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.

  3. Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    The book contains the Proceedings of XIII Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society "Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society". It consists of 9 main sections: "Introductory", "Astronomy and Philosophy", "Astrobiology", "Space-Earth Connections", "Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics", "Astronomy and Culture, Astrolinguistics", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Scientific Journalism", and "Armenian Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, philosophers, biologists, culturologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  4. Grace: Mission profile and its relation to science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettadpur, S.

    2003-04-01

    On Mar. 17, 2002, the twin GRACE satellites were successfully launched, with the purpose of collecting data leading to dramatic improvements in the estimates of the long-term mean and temporal variability of the Earth gravity field. The gravity information from GRACE is contained within the inter-satellite (microwave) range-change data. Ensuring sufficient quality of these measurements to meet the science goals had led to unique requirements on the GRACE system - including its attitude control, dimensional stability, precision of instrument accomodation and alignments, as well as other aspects of mission design. In this paper, certain aspects of the ongoing work of a multi-national GRACE project team is encapsulated into a description of the mission profile and its relationship to the science goals. Areas of focus include the orbit &station-keeping activities; the attitude pointing performance; the thermal stability performance; instrument configuration; and the status of key in-flight verification of the instrument alignments, the center-of-mass calibration and the K-Band boresight calibration. The impact of each of these on the science data quality, and current performance relative to pre-flight expectations will be presented. Arising from these considerations, the talk will conclude with an outline of the science mission plan for the near future.

  5. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.

    1998-05-04

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to 4.5 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigations successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen. These results are discussed in terms of future alloy development options.

  6. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  7. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Chung, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  8. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  9. On the Relation between Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, Victor; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we will shortly review a few old thoughts and recent thoughts on the relation between Mathematics and the Natural Sciences. Of course, the classic references to this open problem will include Wigner's paper (1964); a more recent review article is Darvas (2008). But it appears that this issue is partly on the domain of natural philosophy and also philosophy of inquiry. Therefore we will begin with a review on some known thoughts of Kant, Bacon, Popper, etc. Our hope here is to find out clues to reveal the hidden structure of Nature, just as what Planck did a century ago.

  10. Booklets for children related with Earth Sciences published in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz, S. A.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    The Centro de Geociencias, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, has published a series of booklets for children, entitled "Simple experiments to understand a complex Earth". It is part of the activities of the Mexican committee of the International Year of the Planet Earth. Each booklet contains experiments related with an Earth Sciences topic and includes the procedure to do one of the "Ten most beautiful experiments in physics" (Crease, P., Physics World May 2002 p17 and September 2002 pp19-20). In Mexico, as in other developing countries, there is very little information about Science in general and Earth Sciences in particular, in the basic education programs. Also, there is poor bibliography in Spanish about science experiments. For this reason, we try to fill the vacuum by distributing free the booklets in Science Museums and rural basic schools in paper, and by Internet in the Centro de Geociencias web site (http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/geociencias/difusion/indice.html). At present, we have been distributed 100,000 copies of 5 issues: 1."Atmospheric pressure and the falling bodies", it deals with the Galileo experiment of falling bodies, he proposed that all the bodies fall down at the same velocity. We discuss the properties of the atmosphere air (temperature, pressure and volume) and concluded that Galileo is right but when the bodies are very light. 2. "The light and the colors" is based in the Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism experiment. This booklet contains nine experiments to explain the colors that we find in Earth like the blue of the sky, the orange of the sunset, the rainbow and the mirage. 3. "¿Eureka! oceans and continents float". This booklet presents seven experiments related with density and buoyancy to explain the principles of the Plate tectonics theory. 4. "Climate hanging by a thread", Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of Earth without seeing the stars, in this booklet, we explain, through 9

  11. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persons submitting letters or other forms of statement shall not include relatives by blood or marriage... organization, group or association of employers dealing with labor organizations or industrial labor relations group....

  12. VLF study of low magnitude Earthquakes (4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbang, Daniel; Biernat, Helfried; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Eichelberger, Hans; Prattes, Gustav; Besser, Bruno; Boudjada, Mohammed; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Friedrich, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the European VLF/LF radio receiver network (International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors, INFREP), radio signals in the frequency range from 10-50 kilohertz are received, continuously recorded (temporal resolution 20 seconds) and analyzed in the Graz/Austria knot. The radio signals are generated by dedicated distributed transmitters and detected by INFREP receivers in Europe. In case the signal is crossing an earthquake preparation zone, we are in principle able to detect seismic activity if the signal to noise ratio is high enough. The requirements to detect a seismic event with the radio link methods are given by the magnitude M of the Earthquake (EQ), the EQ preparation zone and the Fresnel zone. As pointed out by Rozhnoi et al. (2009), the VLF methods are suitable for earthquakes M>5.0. Furthermore, the VLF/LF radio link gets only disturbed if it is crossing the EQ preparation zone which is described by Molchanov et al. (2008). In the frame of this project I analyze low seismicity EQs (M≤5.6) in south/eastern Europe in the time period 2011-2013. My emphasis is on two seismic events with magnitudes 5.6 and 4.8 which we are not able to adequately characterize using our single parameter VLF method. I perform a fine structure analysis of the residua of various radio links crossing the area around the particular 2 EQs. Depending on the individual paths not all radio links are crossing the EQ preparation zone directly, so a comparative study is possible. As a comparison I analyze with the same method the already good described EQ of L'Aquila/Italy in 2009 with M=6.3 and radio links which are crossing directly the EQ preparation zone. In the course of this project we try to understand in more detail why it is so difficult to detect EQs with 4.5

  13. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  14. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J.; Chung, H.M.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, JA; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Key Points Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppm MSL relative humidity observation provides good data Highest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75% PMID:26213667

  16. The role of science self-efficacy, science career efficacy, science career interest, and intentions to enroll in nonrequired science courses in the future selection of science-related careers for high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Sherri Patrice

    1998-12-01

    Underrepresentation of non-Asian minority groups and women in science and math related professions has been an area of concern for many years. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of career selection variables for African-American and European-American students on future aspirations of pursuing a science-related career. Other examined variables included gender, academic track and socioeconomic status. A survey was completed by 368 high school students in rural settings in the Southeastern portion of the United States. Gender, race, tracking, and socioeconomic differences in career selection variables and future aspirations of pursuing a science-related career were explored using a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 MANOVA. Multiple regression was used to examine the predictiveness of career selection variables relative to future career aspirations of pursuing a science-related career. Results indicated that African-Americans reported higher total science career interest, and higher science career efficacy. European-American students reported higher levels of science self-efficacy relative to making a B or better in science courses and solving science-related problems. Also, European-Americans reported higher levels of interest in science-related tasks, a subscale on the science career interest variable. When the effect of gender was examined across the total sample, no differences were found. However, when gender was examined by race, European-American females reported higher levels of science career interest than European-American males. Students from high academic tracking groups reported greater efficacy for completing science-related technical skills. Science career interest was predictive of future career selection for this sample.

  17. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  18. Exploring Relations Among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and dinosaurs and plate tectonics. Accepting the theory of evolution was positively correlated with correctly answering the three other questions related to the age of Earth. Furthermore, participants who rejected evolution scored significantly lower on a test of basic science concepts than did participants who held accurate views on human evolution. Study results revealed no apparent association between completion of advanced college science courses and acceptance of evolutionary theory or understanding of science concepts. Implications for elementary science teacher education were discussed.

  19. The relationship of mentoring on middle school girls' science-related attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Lynette M.

    This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These theories emphasize social and learning experiences that may impact the science-related attitudes of middle school girls. The research questions examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who participate in a science-related mentoring program. The hypotheses suggested that there are significant differences that exist between the attitudes of middle school female participants in a science-related mentoring program and female participants in a traditional mentoring program. The quantitative data were collected through a survey entitled the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) which measures science-related attitudes. The population of interest for this study is 11-15 year old middle school girls of various racial and socio-economic backgrounds. The sample groups for the study were middle school girls participating in either a science-focused mentoring program or a traditional mentoring program. Results of the study indicated that no significant difference existed between the science-related attitudes of middle school girls in a science-related mentoring program and the attitudes of those in a traditional mentoring program. The practical implications for examining the concerns of the study would be further investigations to increase middle school girls' science-related attitudes.

  20. Gender Differences in Science-Related Attitudes and Interests among Middle School and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desy, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Scott A.; Brockman, Vicky

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 6th-12th grade students was conducted to measure their science-related attitudes and interests. Significant gender differences were found among these students. Females reported more anxiety about science as well as less motivation in and enjoyment of science than males. In spite of their unfavorable attitudes toward science, a large…

  1. Enhancing Teachers' Awareness about Relations between Science and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagdonas, Alexandre; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Educators advocate that science education can help the development of more responsible worldviews when students learn not only scientific concepts, but also about science, or "nature of science". Cosmology can help the formation of worldviews because this topic is embedded in socio-cultural and religious issues. Indeed, during the Cold…

  2. What Scientists Say: Scientists' Views of Nature of Science and Relation to Science Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Renee; Lederman, Norman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine practicing scientists' views of nature of science (NOS) and explore possible relationships between these views and science context. Science educators emphasize teaching NOS through inquiry-based learning experiences throughout science disciplines. Yet aspects of NOS that are agreed upon as relevant to…

  3. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs—PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G.; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID

  4. Native american related materials in elementary science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Smith, Walter S.

    The low achievement of Native American students, as measured by standardized tests, results from a number of factors, including the lack of cultural relevance of curriculum materials used in their instruction. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, Native American students in Bureau of Indian Affairs schools in Grades 4-8 who were taught science using culturally relevant materials achieved significantly higher and displayed a significantly more positive attitude toward Native Americans and science than comparable students who were taught science without the culturally relevant materials. It is suggested that when educators of Native Americans teach science, they should use materials that incorporate frequent reference to Native Americans and science.

  5. Science Teachers' Interpretations of Islamic Culture Related to Science Education versus the Islamic Epistemology and Ontology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and…

  6. DUSEL-related Science at LBNL -- Program and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Christian; Detweiler, Jason; Freedman, Stuart; Gilchriese, Murdock; Kadel, Richard; Koch, Volker; Kolomensky, Yury; Lesko, Kevin; von der Lippe, Henrik; Marks, Steve; Nomura, Yasunori; Plate, David; Roe, Natalie; Sichtermann, Ernst; Ligeti, Zoltan

    2009-08-01

    neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan strongly endorses DUSEL and the associated nuclear physics programs. It mentions, in particular, neutrinoless double beta decay, and accelerator-based nuclear astrophysics measurements as key elements of the DUSEL nuclear physics experimental program. There are numerous fundamental scientific questions that experiments which can naturally be sited at DUSEL can address. LBNL has a long tradition and track record of successful experiments in all of these areas: neutrino physics, dark matter searches, and nuclear astrophysics. Clearly, DUSEL presents many scientific opportunities, and the committee was charged to present a roadmap for LBNL participation, the impact that LBNL is likely to have on experiments at the present level of effort, the value of additional manpower, and opportunities for synergistic Detector R&D activities. The Berkeley community is already deeply involved in a number of experiments and/or proposals, shown in Table 1, that will be relevant to science at DUSEL. The approximate time lines for all projects considered in this report are shown in Table 2. For the DUSEL-related experiments the depth at which they would be located is also shown. Section 2 of this report deals with nuclear astrophysics. Section 3 discusses neutrinoless double beta decays. Section 4 focuses on neutrino oscillations, including the search for CP violation and proton decay. Section 5 deals with dark matter searches. In each section we give a brief overview of that field, review the present Berkeley efforts, and discuss the opportunities going into the future. Section 6 contains our recommendations.

  7. Degradation of 4,5-dichloroguaiacol by soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    González, B; Brezny, R; Herrera, M; Joyce, T W

    1995-09-01

    No microorganisms could be isolated from chemostats or from a soil column fed with 4,5-dichloroguaiacol as the only carbon source. If guaiacol was added to chemostats with 4,5-dichloroguaiacol, either soil microbial consortia or guaiacol-degrading bacteria could dechlorinate the 4,5-dichloroguaiacol provided it was <0.2MM. A microbial consortium from farm soil removed 4,5-dichloroguaiacol under aerobic or anoxic conditions, with or without chlorolignin. Dichlorocatechol was the only 4,5-dichloroguaiacol-derived metabolite detected. In aerobic incubations, 4,5-dichlorocatechol was further degraded whereas under anoxic conditions it accumulated. PMID:24414909

  8. NOTES. A Course Relating Agronomy and Science to Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Marla S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a course designed to teach the relationship between science, agronomy, and society. Includes course and class description, course content, and evaluation of the course. (11 references) (MCO)

  9. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  10. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  11. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  12. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  13. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5 Section 4.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the complaint that is mailed to the...

  14. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  15. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  16. Depth versus Breadth: How Content Coverage in High School Science Courses Relates to Later Success in College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Marc S.; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    This study relates the performance of college students in introductory science courses to the amount of content covered in their high school science courses. The sample includes 8310 students in introductory biology, chemistry, or physics courses in 55 randomly chosen U.S. colleges and universities. Students who reported covering at least 1 major…

  17. Social Attitudes Toward Science of Freshmen at Hinds Junior College Relative to Their Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Troy Lee

    Reported is a study to: (1) measure the initial social attitudes of college freshmen toward science in comparison to their understanding of science, and (2) evaluate changes in the freshmen attitudes which may occur during the students' first academic year in a science course. The 413 students in this study were enrolled in one of the following…

  18. Vocational Agriculture Teachers' Opinions Relative to Selected Animal Science Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Larry G.; Groves, Ramsey

    1986-01-01

    The attitudes of 107 vocational agriculture teachers toward animal science competencies were compared to those of respondents to the National Agriculture Occupations Competency Study. The areas of disagreement indicate a need for increased cooperation between agricultural education and animal science departments in teacher preparation. (SK)

  19. Occupationally Related Science. Draft Curriculum 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Occupational Education Programs.

    To prepare occupational students for employment, a basic understanding of scientific knowledge and the processes of science that have been applied in the development of tools, machines, instruments, and technological techniques or processes should be taught. When a second unit of science was included for all high school students in the New York…

  20. Examining Classroom Interactions Related to Difference in Students' Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    Examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science using a cultural historical framework and the activity setting (AS) construct with five features: personnel, motivation, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Reports four emergent phenomena--science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over…

  1. Literature Related to Planning, Design and Construction of Science Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A list of the articles and papers in the science facilities collection of the Architectural Services Staff is presented. It has been prepared to serve as a bibliography that may be useful to persons searching for data on the design of science facilities, and as a means of informing such persons of the material available for reference in the…

  2. Science Education as It Relates to Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC. Commission on Science Education.

    The purpose of the symposium was to bring to the attention of the scientist, the industrialist, and the educator some of the critical problems facing the implementation of program offerings for technicians. Presentations were "The Science, and Mathematics Base of A Technical Curriculum" by Maurice W. Roney, "Science-Based Technical Education in…

  3. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    PubMed

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market. PMID:25089628

  4. Using Situational Interest to Enhance Individual Interest and Science-Related Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Situational interest is a relatively transient reaction to highly stimulating factors in the immediate environment, whereas individual interest is a relatively long-term preference for a particular subject or activity. It has been proposed that regular experiences of situational interest in a subject may eventually lead to the development of individual interest in that subject. Importantly, this should also result in an increase in behaviours related to that domain. For example, a student who develops an individual interest in science would be expected to spend more time on science-related activities such as reading about science, talking with other people about science, or watching science shows on TV. However, the extent to which this does happen has not yet been established. The purposes of this study were to find out whether regular experiences of situational interest in science classes can enhance individual interest in science and whether there is an associated increase in science-related activities. The participants were primary teacher education students who were enrolled in a semester-length science course. Data were collected using a survey, an interest inventory, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. It was found that regular experiences of situational interest during the course were associated with positive changes in individual interest in science and increased participation in science-related activities. These changes remained relatively stable over a delay period of 10 months after the end of the course.

  5. Mars Returned Sample Science: Scientific Planning Related to Sample Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, D. W.; Liu, Y.; Borg, L. E.; Herd, C. D. K.; McLennan, S. M.; Allen, C. C.; Bass, D. S.; Farley, K. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    We have evaluated the set of measurements central to addressing the science goals for MSR, and developed a list of the factors that would affect the usefulness of the samples for scientific investigations.

  6. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques for Environmental and Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The role of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Environmental and Life Sciences is discussed. Examples of radioanalytical investigations at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna illustrate the environmental, biomedical, geochemical and industrial applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  7. Factors Relating to Persistence in a Computer Science Major. Technical Report #82-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia F.; McCabe, George P.

    The pre-college entrance variables of freshmen computer science majors (N=256) were reviewed to determine which variables were related to persistence in the major. Students who persisted in computer science, engineering, or another science differed from those students who left for an academically dissimilar goal in their SAT-Math and SAT-verbal…

  8. Science-Related Social Issues: Challenges for the Social Studies. ERIC Digest No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.; Remy, Richard C.

    Background, rationale, and promising practices for teaching about science-related social issues in the science and social studies classroom are presented. Material is divided into five sections, each introduced with a topical question. The first section considers the challenges associated with the pervasive influences of science and technology in…

  9. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  10. Relationships among affective factors and preferred engagement in science-related activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated how affective factors impact participation in science learning using structural equation modeling. Using a dataset from Taiwan, a model was obtained that showed the relationships among science-related interest, enjoyment, self-efficacy, self-concept, competency, leisure time engagement, and future interest in science. The paths relating to engagement and future interest were much stronger for interest and enjoyment than for self-efficacy and self-concept. There was no significant path between science competency and future science interest or engagement. The results suggest that the affective and cognitive pathways to scientific competency are divergent and that they might be differentially activated by different contexts and activities. This indicates that school science educators might wish to reconsider the merit of overemphasizing achievement in comparison to interest. Finally, the results suggest that the development of science competency per se may not be the best way to ensure public engagement and understanding of science. PMID:24151085

  11. Spatial ability, motivation, and attitude of students as related to science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Judy Ann

    Understanding student achievement in science is important as there is an increasing reliance of the U.S. economy on math-, science-, and technology-related fields despite the declining number of youth seeking college degrees and careers in math and science. A series of structural equation models were tested using the scores from a statewide science exam for 276 students from a suburban north Texas public school district at the end of their 5th grade year and the latent variables of spatial ability, motivation to learn science and science-related attitude. Spatial ability was tested as a mediating variable on motivation and attitude; however, while spatial ability had statistically significant regression coefficients with motivation and attitude, spatial ability was found to be the sole statistically significant predictor of science achievement for these students explaining 23.1% of the variance in science scores.

  12. Using and Abusing: Relating History of Science to Learning and Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duschl, Richard A.

    The application of history of science to inform the design/curriculum, implementation/instruction and learning/assessment of science education is a process full of choices. What history and whose history to select and for what purposes ultimately defines the models of curriculum, instruction and assessment employed. Three organizational approaches…

  13. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    PubMed Central

    Strumwasser, F

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances in neuroscience over the last two decades have diminished the span. This article reviews the major advances of neuroscience in six areas with relevance to the behavioral sciences: (a) evolution of the nervous system; (b) visualizing activity in the human brain; (c) plasticity of the cerebral cortex; (d) receptors, ion channels, and second/third messengers; (e) molecular genetic approaches; and (f) understanding integrative systems with networks and circadian clocks as examples. PMID:7513347

  14. Perceived Teacher Factors in Relation to Students' Achievement-Related Outcomes in Science Classrooms in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the roles that perceived teacher affective support (PTAS), perceived teacher mastery goal orientation (PTMGO), academic emotions, self-efficacy and behavioural engagement play on students' science achievement in elementary school science classrooms. The potential relations of different levels of…

  15. Adolescent Girls' Experiences and Gender-Related Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-01-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse…

  16. An exploration of fifth-grade students' epistemological beliefs in science and an investigation of their relation to science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Anastasia Danos

    Elementary students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge---epistemological beliefs---are an emerging concern for science education and research. Composed of a critique of research literature and two studies, this dissertation investigated the epistemological beliefs of fifth-grade students who participated in inquiry-based, hands-on science program. The goals were to characterize their beliefs about the nature of knowledge in science and to investigate the relation between these beliefs and their learning of scientific process skills. In the first study, fifth-grade students (N = 211) were surveyed about their beliefs regarding the (1) purpose of science, (2) sources of scientific knowledge, (3) roles of evidence and experiments, (4) changing nature of knowledge in science, and (5) coherence of a scientific knowledge base. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to assess the interrelations among various epistemological belief constructs. Fifth-graders' epistemological beliefs in science were found to reflect a mixture of naive and sophisticated understanding. Few differences in beliefs were found according to gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. Students' understanding of the purpose of science and the changing nature of science seemed to act as two important constructs in their beliefs. Furthermore, students' epistemological beliefs was characterized as an emerging system in which beliefs were related to each other in consistent ways. In the second study, fifth-grade students (N = 194) responded to questionnaire items about their epistemological beliefs in science and completed performance assessments testing their science process skills in two units---one which embedded learning of process skills with conceptual knowledge and another in which process skills were learned with minimal reference to conceptual knowledge. Based on correlational and ANOVA analyses, modest links were found between students' epistemological

  17. Inquiry-Related Tasks in High School Science Laboratory Handbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Lunetta, Vincent N.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and compares results of content analysis studies of selected high school science laboratory handbooks using the Laboratory Structure and Task Analysis Inventory (LAI). Findings from two biology, two chemistry, and two physics handbooks indicate highly structured investigations where students perform manipulative and observational…

  18. Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

  19. Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students' Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

  20. Gender Related to Success in Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, Linda Rae

    1996-01-01

    This literature review examines the status of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; reasons women do not choose careers in these fields; and gender influences on technophobia. Concludes with strategies such as early exposure, supportive mentors and role models, information to enhance technological literacy, and ways to…

  1. Re-Norming the Science-Society Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle

    2006-01-01

    The ideal of "bildung" as a goal for higher education and research (HER) in European Union member states is losing ground to more pragmatic goals such as innovation and growth. This shift in the policy perspective about the role of science in society has given rise to a system of multi layered governance which in turn is progressively giving rise…

  2. Productive Learning: Science, Art, and Einstein's Relativity in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Sarason, Seymour B.

    2006-01-01

    Why do people, college-bound or even in college, stay away in droves from courses in science, especially physics? Why do people know so little about the significance of Einstein's contributions which require dramatic changes in how we understand ourselves, our world, and the entire universe? Why have educational reforms failed? In this book, two…

  3. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2. PMID:26476105

  4. The development of in-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge related to interdisciplinary science inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erica L.

    This study was situated in a NSF-funded multi-year teacher professional development project, STIS, between the university and a school district in the North Eastern United States. The STIS project affords an opportunity to understand the processes and conditions in which science teachers develop interdisciplinary science inquiry knowledge and how that is translated into their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). As part of that study and within the framework of PCK in science, this study explored (1) the extent to which the involvement of in-service science teachers in authentic research experiences impacts their PCK of interdisciplinary science inquiry, and (2) the factors that contribute to or constrain the development of interdisciplinary science inquiry PCK. This research study utilized a mixed method, explanatory research design. Cross-case analysis of 10 teachers and the development of 3 case studies were done to examine the development of in-service science teachers PCK over the course of the first 3 years of the STIS project. Results showed that teachers participating in the STIS project demonstrated various levels of change in regards to their PCK, understanding of ISI, and implementation of ISI in classroom practices. The core features of STIS identified as impacting this change included (1) the summer research connection, (2) collaboration with STEM students, (3) an active learning environment, and (4) duration. The core features and the major contextual factors that were identified were utilized to revise the STIS' conceptual framework and create a theory of action. The findings of this study have implications for planning and conducting effective in-service for science educators.

  5. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  6. The Relationship of Mentoring on Middle School Girls' Science-Related Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These…

  7. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5... Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager, in collaboration with any cooperating agencies, BLM will consider all reasonable resource management...

  8. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5... Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager, in collaboration with any cooperating agencies, BLM will consider all reasonable resource management...

  9. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5... Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager, in collaboration with any cooperating agencies, BLM will consider all reasonable resource management...

  10. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  11. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  12. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  13. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  14. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.5..., provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as...

  15. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.5..., provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as...

  16. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.5..., provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as...

  17. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  18. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  19. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  20. Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ranga

    In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

  1. Experiments in Planetary and Related Sciences and the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald (Editor); Williams, Richard J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Numerous workshops were held to provide a forum for discussing the full range of possible experiments, their science rationale, and the requirements on the Space Station, should such experiments eventually be flown. During the workshops, subgroups met to discuss areas of common interest. Summaries of each group and abstracts of contributed papers as they developed from a workshop on September 15 to 16, 1986, are included. Topics addressed include: planetary impact experimentation; physics of windblown particles; particle formation and interaction; experimental cosmochemistry in the space station; and an overview of the program to place advanced automation and robotics on the space station.

  2. Experiments in Planetary and Related Sciences and the Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, R.; Williams, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    Numerous workshops were held to provide a forum for discussing the full range of possible experiments, their science rationale, and the requirements on the Space Station, should such experiments eventually be flown. During the workshops, subgroups met to discuss areas of common interest. Summaries of each group and abstracts of contributed papers as they developed from a workshop on September 15 to 16, 1986, are included. Topics addressed include: planetary impact experimentation; physics of windblown particles; particle formation and interaction; experimental cosmochemistry in the space station; and an overview of the program to place advanced automation and robotics on the space station.

  3. I Ain't A-gonna Dry Lab No More or Some Thoughts on the Curious but Significant Relation Between Science Education and The Philosophy of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, George

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the relation between science education and the philosophy of science, and changes in the philosophy of science over the past 20 years. Includes notes on the nature of science, Einstein's contributions, scientific methodology, and justification for doing laboratory work. (SK)

  4. Attitudes toward Science: Measurement and Psychometric Properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes for Its Use in Spanish-Speaking Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Marianela; Förster, Carla; González, Caterina; González-Pose, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward science and measuring them remain two major challenges for science teaching. This article reviews the concept of attitudes toward science and their measurement. It subsequently analyzes the psychometric properties of the "Test of Science-Related Attitudes" (TOSRA), such as its construct validity, its…

  5. Relational Analysis of College Science-Major Students' Epistemological Beliefs toward Science and Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest among educational researchers in exploring the relationships between learners' epistemological beliefs and their conceptions of learning. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships particularly in the domain of science. The participants in this study included 407 Taiwanese…

  6. Synergistic and Antagonistic Mutation Responses of Human MCL-5 Cells to Mixtures of Benzo[a]pyrene and 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: Dose-Related Variation in the Joint Effects of Common Dietary Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    David, Rhiannon; Ebbels, Timothy; Gooderham, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    [a]pyrene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: dose-related variation in the joint effects of common dietary carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect 124:88–96; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409557 PMID:26091049

  7. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7..., or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on...

  8. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7..., or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on...

  9. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  10. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. Edward Arthur Milne-The relations of mathematics to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebsdorf, S.; Kragh, H.

    This is a transcript of Milne's manuscript notes for a talk which he gave to fellow members of the Cambridge University Natural Science Club in his rooms at Trinity College, Cambridge, on February 6, 1922. The notes are deposited in the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, Special Collections and Western Manuscripts. The background and essential points of Milne's talk are analysed in the article preceding this one. As far as is known, the text has not hitherto been published. Milne's handwriting is difficult to read, and square brackets […] denote the addition of a word for clarity of meaning. Meg Weston Smith and Simon Rebsdorf have ventured to fill in some chapter titles just in order to help with the separation of the varying content, hence we have made up all the headlines. All italics correspond to underlined words in the original. The Bergson citations and the Eddington passage at the end of the original text have not been transcribed.

  12. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  13. Life Skill Development Related to Participation in 4-H Animal Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carol Knowlton

    1996-01-01

    Alumni of 4-H animal science programs in New Jersey were surveyed (n=52). Participation had a positive influence on life skill development, especially "accepting responsibility." Experience with shows and judging was beneficial to public speaking/job interview skills. Although many were not in animal science careers, they enjoyed related hobbies.…

  14. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  15. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant scienc...

  16. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  17. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  18. Impact of WWI on Relativity and Other Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    Custom calls WWII the physicists' war (radar, nuclear bombs, rockets) and WWI the chemists' war (nitrogen fixation and synthetic fuels as well as poison gases). In fact both wars affected all of science profoundly. For us, hostilities began with the capture of Erwin Freundlich's German eclipse expedition to the Crrimea in August 1914. Curioiusly they had gone there to measure deflection of starlight be the sun at the half-of-GR level predicted earlier by Einstein. The end came in 1919 with the founding of the IAU (Central Powers strictly excluded; indeed Germany did not join until after WWII) and the Eddington-Dyson-Crommelin eclipse expedition that did record the deflection. In between were many deaths (Moseley and Karl Schwarzschild perhaps best know), turning of observatory optical shops to making binoculars, periscopes, etc, and twisting of careers (including probably the origin of the Hubble-Shapley enmity, when the former volunteered and the latter went directly to a job at Mt. Wilson; Lemaitre is another interesting case). There will be a small prize for the first person to identify the gentleman who refereed my second thesis paper, who served the full four years, partly in the trenches, on the German side.

  19. Classroom climate and science-related attitudes of junior high school students in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bao-Shan; Crawley, Frank E., III

    Differences in classroom climate and science related attitudes were investigated among junior high school science classes and students in Taiwan. The sample consisted of 1,269 students enrolled in 40 science classes distributed equally among ten junior high schools, five metropolitan and five rural. Classes were further classified according to sex (21 boys and 19 girls classes) and ability (19 high and 21 low ability classes). Using the Learning Environment Inventory (Anderson, Walberg, & Fraser, 1982) to measure climate, science classes in metropolitan schools, more than rural, were found to be characterized by Speed, Friction, Favoritism, Difficulty, Cliqueness, and Competitiveness. No differences were found in the classroom climates of classes in which students were grouped according to sex or ability. Using the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981), students in science classes in metropolitan schools, in contrast to rural, expressed more positive attitudes toward the Social Implications of Science, Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, and Attitude to Scientific Inquiry. Boys more than girls recorded high scores on Leisure Interest in Science and Career Interest in Science. High ability students were found to have higher scores on Attitude to Scientific Inquiry than did low ability students. When examining the relationship between the 15 subscale scores of the LEI and the seven subscale scores of the TOSRA for the 40 classes, only 9 out of 105 correlations proved to be significant. Most differences in climate, attitude, and their interactions were attributed to school location rather than to student characteristics.

  20. Sports-related concussions - media, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-08-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports. PMID:27364748

  1. Elementary Teachers' Classroom Practices and Beliefs in Relation to US Science Education Reform: Reflections from within

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Gregory, Bradley

    2013-07-01

    This study unveils the stories of 3 public school elementary teachers from the USA who reflected on their beliefs about science education reform, and implementation of the reform in their classroom teaching, in response to state recommendations for change in science education. The teachers' stories show how various factors assisted or impeded the implementations of reform in their teaching, the various challenges related to their grade-level teaching, and the teachers' personal struggles to make sense of reform recommendations. Within each case study, we describe 4 common themes from the teachers' interviews. These themes are related to teachers' science teaching strategies, their science teaching efficacy beliefs about adopting reform, the types of science learning outcomes teachers target, and the types of teaching resources available to them. Implications for teacher education and practice are discussed in relationship with study findings.

  2. Special Theory of Relativity, Conceptual Change and History of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, Alberto; Arruda, Sergio M.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the problem students have in learning the Theory of Relativity. Points out that the results of the study are ambiguous and intriguing. Describes the publication of Lorentz's Transformation Equations, the presentation of two postulates by Einstein, and the rejection of the Electron Theory and the final acceptance of the Theory of…

  3. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes differentially recognize regioisomers of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Takeuchi, H; Riley, A M; Mills, S J; Watanabe, Y; Potter, B V

    1997-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of

  4. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  5. 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole-based energetic salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiang; Guo, Yong; Joo, Young-Hyuk; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2010-09-17

    High-density energetic salts that are comprised of nitrogen-rich cations and the 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolate anion were synthesized in high yield by neutralization or metathesis reactions. The resulting salts were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, and IR spectroscopy; differential scanning calorimetry; and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structures of the 3,5-diaminotriazolium and triaminoguanidinium 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolates were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on the measured densities and calculated heats of formation, the detonation performances (pressure: 23.74-31.89 GPa; velocity: 7586-8543 ms(-1); Cheetah 5.0) of the 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolate salts are comparable with 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB; 31.15 GPa and 8114 ms(-1)). Impact sensitivities were determined to be no less than 35 J by hammer tests, which places these salts in the insensitive class. PMID:20661962

  6. The Second IEA Science Study: Data Related to Precollege Science in the U.S.A. ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest No. 1, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L.

    In 1986, a total of 11 different populations involving more than 1000 schools and more than 20,000 students participated in the Second IEA Science Study (SISS). This digest discusses findings related to curricular patterns and student outcomes. Ratings were done at grades 5, 9, and 12, to ensure that the achievement tests reflected the science…

  7. Teaching Relativity and Quantum Mechanics to Non-Science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Heather

    2009-10-01

    A course titled ``Relativity and Quantum Mechanics'' was offered to a group of honors students from a variety of majors. The curriculum will be described and compared to other class outlines for this type of course. This class included a laboratory component which is not often included in a non-majors course. The response of students from different disciplines gives insight into other ways the course could be improved. While some outcomes of the course were expected, such as the use of history to engage students, other successes and failures of the course were more surprising.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impact-Related Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Impact-Related Deposits" included:Evidence for a Lightning-Strike Origin of the Edeowie Glass; 57Fe M ssbauer Spectroscopy of Fulgurites: Implications for Chemical Reduction; Ca-Metasomatism in Crystalline Target Rocks from the Charlevoix Structure, Quebec, Canada: Evidence for Impact-related Hydrothermal Activity; Magnetic Investigations of Breccia Veins and Basement Rocks from Roter Kamm Crater and Surrounding Region, Namibia; Petrologic Complexities of the Manicouagan Melt Sheet: Implications for 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology; Laser Argon Dating of Melt Breccias from the Siljan Impact Structure, Sweden: Implications for Possible Relationship to Late Devonian Extinction Events; Lunar Impact Crater, India: Occurrence of a Basaltic Suevite?; Age of the Lunar Impact Crater, India: First Results from Fission Track Dating; The Fluidized Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket, Mexico: Implications for Mars; Low Velocity Ejection of Boulders from Small Lunar Craters: Ground Truth for Asteroid Surfaces; Ejecta and Secondary Crater Distributions of Tycho Crater: Effects of an Oblique Impact; Potassium Isotope Systematics of Crystalline Lunar Spherules from Apollo 16; Late Paleocene Spherules from the North Sea: Probable Sea Floor Precipitates: A Silverpit Provenance Unproven; A Lithological Investigation of Marine Strata from the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Including a Search for Shocked Quartz; Triassic Cratered Cobbles: Shock Effects or Tectonic Pressure?; Regional Variations of Trace Element Composition Within the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field; Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Microtektite-bearing Sands and Tsunami Beds, Alabama Gulf Coastal Plain; Sand Lobes on Stewart Island as Probable Impact-Tsunami Deposits; Distal Impact Ejecta, Uppermost Eocene, Texas Coastal Plain; and Continental Impact Debris in the Eltanin Impact Layer.

  9. Education Reform as it Relates to Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    Four decades of educational reform efforts from the nineteen sixties have not significantly improved our schools. It is believed that in the equation of educational reform, leadership and power in educational reform have mitigated against educational reform through the misapplicaiton of examination and accountability. A major subset of the field on public administration is accountability. Accountability is widely used in government although the concept is loosely defined. Most often it is used to express public frustration, to call for control, and to transmit a range of political agendas. Any accountability framework originates from the American model of shared powers between independent governmental bodies. It allows for institutions to depend on and accommodate other institutions. Accountability assumes that individuals or agencies may hold accountable for their performance. This assumes that there is a unidirectional flow of power and influence between a controlling partner and a controlled partner. This assumption is false. Individual administrators are exposed to the authority and persuasion within a democratic framework. Educators are also confronted with control mechanisms that are rooted in the organizational and professional standards and disciplinary standards regardless of whether any democratic controls are evoked. Accountability relationships have the potential to become quite complicated. Performance evaluation is significant to every accountability relationship. In the public sector, the citizens hold government accountable and the idea of performance evaluation is relative at best, however, in education the use of examination for accountability allows for the misapplication of the exam and affects education reform in negative ways.

  10. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  11. Multicultural Education Guide for Grades 4, 5, and 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millbrae School District, CA.

    This resource guide, prepared by teachers, is designed to incorporate minority group studies into the district's social studies curriculum at levels 4, 5, and 8 as a start toward goals specified in the state law. Introductory material discusses the California Education Code requirements, local district policy, and the work of the curriculum…

  12. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the complaint that is mailed to the invention promoter is returned undelivered, then the USPTO will primarily... in the Official Gazette and/or the Federal Register. The invention promoter will be given 30...

  13. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the complaint that is mailed to the invention promoter is returned undelivered, then the USPTO will primarily... in the Official Gazette and/or the Federal Register. The invention promoter will be given 30...

  14. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 4.5 Doses to Patients in Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.5 Doses to Patients in Diagnostics' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  16. Adolescents' Motivation to Select an Academic Science-Related Career: The Role of School Factors, Individual Interest, and Science Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskinen, Päivi H.; Schütte, Kerstin; Prenzel, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers consider a lacking interest in science and the students' belief that science is too demanding as major reasons why young people do not strive for science-related careers. In this article, we first delineated a theoretical framework to investigate the importance of interest, self-concept, and school factors regarding…

  17. SQL is Dead; Long-live SQL: Relational Database Technology in Science Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B.; Halperin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Relational databases are often perceived as a poor fit in science contexts: Rigid schemas, poor support for complex analytics, unpredictable performance, significant maintenance and tuning requirements --- these idiosyncrasies often make databases unattractive in science contexts characterized by heterogeneous data sources, complex analysis tasks, rapidly changing requirements, and limited IT budgets. In this talk, I'll argue that although the value proposition of typical relational database systems are weak in science, the core ideas that power relational databases have become incredibly prolific in open source science software, and are emerging as a universal abstraction for both big data and small data. In addition, I'll talk about two open source systems we are building to "jailbreak" the core technology of relational databases and adapt them for use in science. The first is SQLShare, a Database-as-a-Service system supporting collaborative data analysis and exchange by reducing database use to an Upload-Query-Share workflow with no installation, schema design, or configuration required. The second is Myria, a service that supports much larger scale data, complex analytics, and supports multiple back end systems. Finally, I'll describe some of the ways our collaborators in oceanography, astronomy, biology, fisheries science, and more are using these systems to replace script-based workflows for reasons of performance, flexibility, and convenience.

  18. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education…

  19. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  20. Constructing "sound science" and "good epidemiology": tobacco, lawyers, and public relations firms.

    PubMed

    Ong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2001-11-01

    The tobacco industry has attacked "junk science" to discredit the evidence that secondhand smoke-among other environmental toxins-causes disease. Philip Morris used public relations firms and lawyers to develop a "sound science" program in the United States and Europe that involved recruiting other industries and issues to obscure the tobacco industry's role. The European "sound science" plans included a version of "good epidemiological practices" that would make it impossible to conclude that secondhand smoke-and thus other environmental toxins-caused diseases. Public health professionals need to be aware that the "sound science" movement is not an indigenous effort from within the profession to improve the quality of scientific discourse, but reflects sophisticated public relations campaigns controlled by industry executives and lawyers whose aim is to manipulate the standards of scientific proof to serve the corporate interests of their clients. PMID:11684593

  1. Frequency and Efficacy of Talk-Related Tasks in Primary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braund, Martin; Leigh, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    Pupil talk and discussion are seen as having important social and cognitive outcomes. In science classes, pupils' collaborative talk supports the construction of meaning and helps examine the status of evidence, theory and knowledge. However, pupil interactive talk in groups is rare in science lessons. The research reported is part of a project to increase the amount of pupil-pupil talk in primary schools through a programme of teaching and professional development. Pupils' self-reports of the frequency and learning efficacies of talk related activities in science lessons were collected before and after a programme of teaching in 24 schools in one of the most socially and educationally deprived areas of England. Findings showed pupils valued talking about their ideas over listening to those of other pupils. Science talk frequency (STF) was closely correlated with science talk efficacy (STE) and both were positively correlated with pupils' attitudes to school science. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the correlation of STF with STE showed values were independent of gender and ability but that school experience was a significant factor. After the teaching programme and, contrary to expectations, the frequency of talk activities in science lessons appeared to have decreased but varied according to class grades. The degree of correlation between STF and STE was stronger after the teaching in over half of the schools. Schools where STF/STE strengthened most as a result of teaching were those involved in an additional initiative to use modelled talk related to industrial contexts.

  2. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2014-03-01

    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  3. Sex-Related Differences in Attitude toward Science: A Quantitative Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Marjorie W.

    The direction and magnitude of sex-related differences in science attitude and achievement have been topics of conjecture and research. Reported here are findings of a quantitative synthesis of completed research relating to these issues. A comprehensive literature search revealed 83 "articles" (journal publications, books, unpublished reports,…

  4. Similarity Comparisons and Relational Analogies in Parent-Child Conversations about Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Araceli; Callanan, Maureen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores analogy as a communicative tool used by parents to relate children's past experiences to unfamiliar concepts. Two studies explored how similarity comparisons and relational analogies were used in parent-child conversations about science topics. In Study 1, 98 family groups including 4- to 9-year-olds explored two science…

  5. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  6. The NIF 4.5-m nTOF Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Y

    2012-05-07

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator/photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring DD and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield benchmarks from below 1E9 (DD) to nearly 1E15 (DT). The detectors demonstrated DT yield measurement precisions better than 5%, but the absolute accuracy relies on cross calibration with independent measurements of absolute neutron yield. The 4.5-m nTOF data have provided a useful testbed for testing improvements in nTOF data processing, especially with respect to improving the accuracies of the detector impulse response functions. The resulting improvements in data analysis methods have produced more accurate results. In summary, results from the NIF 4.5-m nTOF detectors have provided consistent measurements of DD and DT neutron yields from laser-fusion implosions.

  7. New 4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate-bridged chained coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Juan; Wu, Di; Jia, Ming-Jun; Peng, Yu; Yu, Jie-Hui; Wang, Yu-Chang; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2011-03-01

    The hydrothermal self-assemblies of Pb 2+/Cd 2+ salt, 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid (dcpha), N 2H 4·H 2O together with 1,10-phenanthroline·H 2O (phen) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) generated two new monoacylhydrazidate-bridged 1-D chained coordination polymers [Pb 2(DCPTH) 4(phen) 2] 1 and [Cd 3(DCPTH) 2(dcph) 2(bpy) 2] 2 (DCPTH=4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate, dcph=4,5-dichlorophthalate). The monoacylhydrazidate ligand DCPTH originated from the hydrothermal in situ acylation reaction between dcpha and N 2H 4·H 2O. In compound 1, two types of coordination modes for DCPTH are found, which link alternately the Pb(II) centers into a 1-D chain structure of compound 1 with ancillary phen molecules. In compound 2, DCPTH and dcph as the mixed bridges extend the Cd(II) centers into a 1-D chain structure of compound 2 with auxiliary bpy molecules. DCPTH in compound 2 shows a different coordination mode from those observed in compound 1.

  8. Adolescent girls' experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/science and english.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-03-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse sample of 579 girls ages 13-18 years (M = 15) in the U.S. completed questionnaires measuring their academic achievement, ability beliefs, values, and experiences. Social and personal factors were hypothesized to predict motivation (expectancy-value) differently in math/science (M/S) and English. Social factors included perceived M/S and English support from parents and peers. Personal factors included facets of gender identity (felt conformity pressure, gender typicality, gender-role contentedness), gender-related attitudes, and exposure to feminism. In addition, grades, age, parents' education, and ethnicity were controlled. Girls' M/S motivation was positively associated with mother M/S support, peer M/S support, gender-egalitarian beliefs, and exposure to feminism; it was negatively related to peer English support. Girls' English motivation was positively associated with peer English support as well as felt pressure from parents; it was negatively related to peer M/S support and felt peer pressure. The findings suggest that social and personal factors may influence girls' motivation in domain-specific ways. PMID:21769612

  9. Priming 4.5-Month-Old Infants to Use Height Information by Enhancing Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua

    2011-01-01

    How do infants select and use information that is relevant to the task at hand? Infants treat events that involve different spatial relations as distinct, and their selection and use of object information depends on the type of event they encounter. For example, 4.5-month-olds consider information about object height in occlusion events, but…

  10. 4,5-Disubstituted oxazolidinones: High affinity molecular effectors of RNA function.

    PubMed

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Nayek, Abhijit; Green, Nicholas J; Grundy, Frank J; Henkin, Tina M; Means, John A; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Hines, Jennifer V

    2008-06-15

    The T box transcription antitermination system is a riboswitch found primarily in Gram-positive bacteria which monitors the aminoacylation of the cognate tRNA and regulates a variety of amino acid-related genes. Novel 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinones were identified as high affinity RNA molecular effectors that modulate the transcription antitermination function of the T box riboswitch. PMID:18502126

  11. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  12. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  13. A glossary of corrosion-related terms used in science and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vukasovich, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    A Glossary of Corrosion-Related Terms Used in Science and Industry features definitions for over 4,000 specialized terms related to corrosion and corrosion prevention/control. Its coverage encompasses not only the fundamental terms commonly used in corrosion science, but also lesser-known, industry-specific jargon. The Glossary contains terms relevant to the study, effect, and control of corrosion that pertain to chemistry/electro-chemistry, metallurgy, plastics, paints/coatings, metal finishing, and the environment. Various synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations are also included. A practical desk reference for students, scientists, engineers, technicians, and manufacturing and maintenance personnel.

  14. "What Comes to Mind When You Think of Science? The Perfumery!": Documenting Science-Related Cultural Learning Pathways across Contexts and Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Leah A.; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the details of one youth's science-related learning in- and out-of-school at the time of her participation in an ethnography of youth science and technology learning across contexts and over time. We use the Cultural Learning Pathways Framework to analyze the youth's interests, and the related sociocultural,…

  15. Carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole found in beverages, sauces, and caramel colors: chemical properties, analysis, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Matt; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-30

    Since the National Toxicology Program (NTP) identified 4(5)-methylimidazole [4(5)-MI] as a cancer causing chemical in 2007 and the State of California added it to the Proposition 65 list of compounds as a carcinogen on January 7, 2011, many researchers and regulatory agencies have become focused on the presence of 4(5)-MI in foods and beverages. 4(5)-MI has been known to form in the Maillard reaction system consisting of a sugar and ammonia-a typical caramel-color preparation method for beverages. 4(5)-MI is identified in various beverages and sauces, which are colored with caramel, as well as in caramel color itself. Analysis of 4(5)-MI is extremely difficult due to its high water solubility, but the analytical method for 4(5)-MI has progressed from conventional paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the most advanced high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various studies indicate that caramel colors and carbonated beverages contain 4(5)-MI in levels ranging from 0 to around 1000 ppm and from 0 to about 500 ppm, respectively. Reports of the toxicity of 4(5)-MI at relatively high levels suggest that it may cause some adverse effects on human consumers. PMID:23294412

  16. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities.

    PubMed

    Riesch, Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed. PMID:25571743

  17. Chinese students' science-related experiences: Comparison of the ROSE study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng

    2015-05-01

    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite many recent studies done in various Western countries. Purpose: This paper aims to report and compare the science-related experiences of ninth-graders from two places (in Urumqi City of Xinjiang province and Shanghai) in China through a large-scale survey of their junior secondary three students. Sample: The sample consists of 4115 students in Urumqi City (from 28 schools) and Shanghai (from 25 schools). Design and methods: This study adopted a Likert scale questionnaire instrument, as translated from the international Relevance Of Science Education (ROSE) Project. From a confirmatory factor analysis of the data, we identify and focus on six factors which are directly correlated with students' science-related experiences outside school environment in Xinjiang and Shanghai and employ relevant factor scores to compare the gender, regional, and socioeconomic effects. Results: As revealed by the t-test, gender and regional differences were statistically significant in affecting (1) students' outdoor living experience, (2) hands-on experience of transportation, and (3) their daily-life experience with do-it-yourself tools and models. In all three aspects, boys and Xinjiang students possessed richer experiences than girls and Shanghai students, respectively. Conclusions: Based on ANOVA tests, Shanghai students' out-of-school science-related experiences were more often significantly affected by various socioeconomic variables (including their parents' education and occupation and their family income) than Xinjiang students. From cross-regional comparison, Chinese students had much fewer science-related experiences than those of

  18. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    PubMed

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods. PMID:24871883

  19. Competency Exams for Computer Science Microcomputing-Related Occupations. Student and Instructor Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Maribeth L.; Huse, Vanessa E.

    This document contains 20 competency-based examinations with student and instructor manuals for computer science microcomputer-related occupations. For each of the examinations, the student manual contains the following: the competency, the performance objective, directions, the facility to be used, the materials and equipment needed, a space to…

  20. Youth Related Family and Consumer Science References for Consumer and Family Living Agents and Teachers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 307 references to magazine articles that relate to the subject areas covered by family and consumer sciences courses. The references are grouped into five categories: (1) clothing and textiles; (2) foods and nutrition; (3) home improvement; (4) child development and fun things to do with children; and (5) camp crafts.…

  1. Youth Motivation to Participate in Animal Science-Related Career Development Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Kendra; Knobloch, Neil; Jones, Amy; Brady, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The explorative study reported here describes youth participants in three animal science-related career development events from 2010. Variables included students' self-efficacy, task value motivation, career interests, and to what extent they utilized resources in preparation. It was concluded that all three groups were self-efficacious,…

  2. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated <span class=Science Assessment (ISA) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA is announcing the availability of the <...

  3. Test Every Senior Project: Evidence of Cognitive Processes Related to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardine, Frank E.

    Reported is a study designed to evaluate differences in cognitive processes related to science among (1) college bound high school students who had studied both physics and chemistry, (2) college bound students who had not studied either subject, and (3) non-college bound students who had not studied either subject. The test used to assess the…

  4. 76 FR 17121 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... published on February 28, 2011 (76 FR 10893). This assessment document was developed by the National Center... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of Federal Register Notice (76 FR 10893). For information... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants...

  5. Determining the Views and Adequacy of the Preschool Teachers Related to Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akçay, Nilüfer Okur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the views and adequacy of the preschool teachers related to science activities. The study is based on descriptive survey model. The sample of the study consists of 47 preschool teachers working in Agri city center. Personal information form, semi-structured interview form to determine the views of the…

  6. Recent Science and Engineering Graduates Working in Energy-Related Activities, 1979 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon E.

    Employment and professional activities of recent science and engineering graduates who described their work as energy-related were examined. The survey included graduates who received bachelor's or master's degrees between 1972 and 1979 and was conducted in 1976, 1978, 1979, and 1980. Data indicated that the number of graduates who reported…

  7. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  8. The Effects of Instruction on Elementary Teacher's Realistic and Idealistic Attitudes Toward Selected Science Related Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogut, Thomas L.; McFarland, Bruce L.

    Reported is a study designed to determine (1) if there was any significant relationship between elementary teachers' realistic and idealistic attitudes toward selected science-related concepts, (2) if the degree of open- or closed-mindedness of the teachers had any relationship to these realistic or idealistic attitudes, and (3) if instruction had…

  9. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of ...

  10. Relations among Grade 4 Students' Perceptions of Autonomy, Engagement in Science, and Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada Barber, Ana; Buehl, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend previous work on students' perceptions of teachers' autonomy-enhancing and autonomy-suppressing behaviors in relation to students' engagement to a more situated context (i.e., two Grade 4 science instructional conditions instead of school in general) and a linguistically diverse population (i.e., Hispanic…

  11. A Structure for the Affective Domain in Relation to Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    A classification scheme for the affective domain in relation to science education is presented in this article to clarify student's affective behaviors and their representative phenomena. Discussion is made in connection with the content-objectives grid in the cognitive domain. An analogous grid for the affective domain is delineated by a…

  12. Immunogenicity of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5 produced in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Webster, Diane E; Campbell, Alison E; Dry, Ian B; Wesselingh, Steve L; Coppel, Ross L

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem for which effective control measures are urgently needed. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of effective vaccines against the causative parasite and protective vaccine trials are now being reported. Due to the relative poverty and lack of infrastructure in malaria-endemic areas, a successful immunisation strategy will depend critically on cheap and scaleable methods of vaccine production, distribution and delivery. One promising technology is transgenic plants, both as a bioreactor for the vaccine-manufacturing process as well as a matrix for oral immunisation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using transgenic plants to induce protective immunity against malaria infection using Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5 (PyMSP4/5) in a mouse model of malaria infection. Our data show that the PyMSP4/5 protein can be produced in plants in a configuration that reacts with protective antibodies. Optimisation of codon usage for the PyMSP4/5 gene resulted in significantly increased antigen expression in plants. PyMSP4/5 protein from the codon-optimised construct accumulated to 0.25% of total soluble protein, a sixfold increase over the native gene sequence. Tobacco-made PyMSP4/5 was able to induce antigen-specific antibodies in mice following parenteral delivery, as well as boost the antibody responses induced by DNA vaccination when delivered parenterally or orally. We believe this is the first report to show that plant-made malaria antigens are immunogenic. However, the antibody levels were not high enough to protect the immunised mice against a lethal challenge with P. yoelii. Further strategies are needed to achieve a protective dose, including improvements to antigen expression levels in plants and strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed antigen. PMID:17681344

  13. Science-philosophy relation and the prevalence of the heliocentric theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    The relation between philosophy and science has passed from many phases in history and still is an interesting topic. The value of falsifiability (or refutability) in science was stressed by Popper. Here, as a paradigm, the juxtaposition of the Earth-centered view of the universe and the prevalence of the heliocentric theory is examined. A new physics appeared in the West in the 17th century, under the Cartesian philosophical canopy, the spirit of which had its deep influence on the savants of that period. This new physics, as defined by Galileo and Kepler, was not searching for purpose, but it was seeking for causes.

  14. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH RELATED TO SCIENCE INSTRUCTION FOR THE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL - A REVIEW AND COMMENTARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, HERBERT A.

    SIGNIFICANT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH RELATED TO ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHING IS REVIEWED. OUTSTANDING DEVELOPMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHING AFTER 1850 ARE PRESENTED. GENERAL TYPES OF STUDIES INCLUDED IN THE SURVEY ARE DESCRIBED IN AN OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION DURING…

  15. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  16. Software for the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment-4/5 (CanX-4/-5) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Matthew Leigh

    The CanX-4 and CanX-5 mission currently under development at The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies Space Flight Laboratory UTIAS/SFL is a challenging formation flying technology demonstration. Its requirements of sub-metre control accuracy have yet to be realized with nanosatellites. Many large technical challenges must be addressed in order to ensure the success of the CanX-4/5 mission. This includes the development of software for an intersatellite communication system, integration and optimization of key formation flying algorithms onto the Payload On-Board Computer as well as the development of a Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator for full on-orbit mission simulations. This thesis will provide background knowledge of the Space Flight Laboratory and its activities, the CanX-4/5 mission, and finally highlight the authors contributions to overcoming each of these technical challenges and ensuring the success of the CanX-4 and CanX-5 mission.

  17. Influence of lipolysis on the mobilization of 2,4,5,2'4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl from adipocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Epididymal adipocytes, isolated from rats pretreated with (/sup 14/C)-2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB), were utilized to examine the relationship between the mobilization of lipid and 6-CB and to determine whether 6-CB was differentially associated with subcellular organelles over time as has been demonstrated for newly synthesized lipid. Lipolysis, depleted approximately 1% of total cellular triacylglycerols (TG) regardless of time from treatment with 6-CB. The percentage of cellular 6-CB released from adipocytes to incubation buffer infranatants was not correlated with the magnitude of lipolysis produced over the 50-min incubation period; nor was the percentage of 6-CB released to the buffers correlated with the length of the incubation period, regardless of the presence of ISO. Although adipocytes responded similarly to lipolytic stimuli independent of time (days) since 6-CB treatment, significant decreases were found in the percentage of 6-CB released from adipocytes over time. The in vitro labeling of this newly synthesized TG in fat cells with (U-/sup 14/C)glucose or (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate demonstrated that TG was differentially distributed among adipocyte organelles. Newly synthesized TG was also the first to be mobilized under lipolytic stimulus. 6-CB was not released in a similar fashion, since radioactivity associated with the chemical levels of (/sup 14/C)-6-CB and glucose-derived /sup 14/C in buffers were not correlated over time.

  18. ED case managers save $4.5 million.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    Emergency department case managers at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL saved more than $4.5 million by ensuring that patients were in the right status and transferring patients who did not meet admission criteria to a more appropriate level of care. Case managers and social workers cover the emergency department at peak hours, seven days a week. Case managers screen patients for admission criteria and make sure admission orders are complete and correct. Case managers and social workers coordinate community services and placement for patients who don't meet admission criteria. Social workers intervene when there are concerns about abuse and neglect, and they facilitate placement to other acute care facilities. PMID:21789904

  19. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced calcium waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, M.

    Traveling waves of high concentration of Ca2+ are observed in many different cells and have attracted great interest in experimental and theoretical biological research in recent years. They are created by the nonlinear dynamics of the release and uptake of Ca2+ by intracellular Ca2+ stores like the endoplasmatic or sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Their characteristics depend on other cellular organelles and components like mitochondria and Ca2+ buffers too. Here, we present some mathematical models and results of recent research on intracellular Ca2+ waves generated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channel including the modeling of Calcium induced Calcium release, buffer dynamics, impact of mitochondria on wave formation and the effect of the spatial discreteness of the channels releasing Ca2+. Modeling of the communication of Ca2+ waves to adjacent cells through gap junctions concludes this report.

  20. The Relation between Middle School Science Teachers' Science Content Preparation, Professional Development, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Their Attitudes and Beliefs towards Inquiry-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Lawrence C.

    2012-01-01

    This study is a quantitative investigation of the relation of middle school science teachers' attitudes and beliefs about inquiry-based instruction to their accumulated amounts of science content preparation, content and pedagogical professional development, and their pedagogical content knowledge. Numerous researchers have found that even…

  1. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Equitation science describes an approach to horse training and riding that focuses on embracing the cognitive abilities of horses, their natural behaviour, and how human riders can use signalling and rewards to best effect. This approach is concerned with both horse welfare and rider safety, and this review discusses how equitation science can minimise risk to humans around horses and enhance horse welfare. Abstract Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  2. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive…

  3. Elementary Teacher Attitudes toward Science and Science Teaching as They Relate to Student Test Performance in Science Content and Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Jennifer; Elliott, H. G.

    This paper describes the results of a student science assessment test and teacher questionnaire surveying 424 sixth grade teachers in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The student test measures student attitudes to science and scientists, knowledge in life, physical and earth science, and student competence on 12 science processes…

  4. Mentoring, Women in Engineering and Related Sciences, and MentorNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockter, J.; Muller, C.

    2003-12-01

    Mentoring is a frequently employed strategy for retention of women in engineering and science. The power of mentoring is sometimes poorly understood, and mentoring is not always effectively practiced, however. At its strongest, mentoring is understood as a powerful learning process, which assures the intergenerational transfer of knowledge and "know-how" on an ongoing basis throughout one's life. Mentoring helps make explicit the tacit knowledge of a discipline and its professional culture, which is especially important for underrepresented groups. MentorNet (www.MentorNet.net), the E-Mentoring Network for Women in Engineering and Science, is a nonprofit organization focused on furthering women's progress in scientific and technical fields through the use of a dynamic, technology-supported mentoring program. Since 1998, nearly 10,000 undergraduate and graduate women studying engineering and related sciences at more than 100 colleges and universities across the U.S., and in several other nations, have been matched in structured, one-on-one, email-based mentoring relationships with male and female scientific and technical professionals working in industry and government. This poster will describe the MentorNet program, and provide findings of annual program evaluations related to outcomes for participants with particular focus on women in the planetary and earth sciences. We also address the development of the partnership of approximately 100 organizations currently involved in MentorNet and the value each gains from its affiliation. MentorNet is an ongoing effort which supports the interests of all organizations and individuals working to advance women in engineering and related sciences.

  5. The influence of relational formative discourse on students' positional identities in a middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    Formative assessment is the process of eliciting students' understanding during instruction in order to make sensitive instructional decisions and provide feedback to enhance students' learning. Research indicates that when used properly, formative assessment can lead to significant learning gains and enhance students' self-efficacy. Drawing on previous research and a framework of relational pedagogy, I studied the positional identities claimed, assigned and negotiated by a middle school science teacher and her students during formative assessment interactions. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze classroom interactions, teacher debriefings and student interviews. Findings from this study indicated that the teacher normatively positioned herself as authority during formative assessment interactions, yet students were not completely powerless. Through assertions of content knowledge and re-directions of topical focus, students positioned themselves actively and had the capacity to influence the direction and focus of formative assessment. Outside of classroom instruction, the teacher simultaneously positioned herself as both hindered by institutional structures yet actively subverted those structures in both covert and overt ways in the service of meaningful science learning. As indicated from interviews and SPAQ questionnaire responses, many students in this classroom positioned themselves positively in relation to science, the teacher and her methods of assessment, while some felt marginalized. This research has implications for the ways in which formative assessment is used to support teaching and learning in science classrooms. Findings from this study indicate that formative assessment is not simply an instrumental act carried out by teachers, but rather is a relational process that necessarily involves students. As a result, formative assessment should balance authoritative and dialogic discourse as a means for supporting and engaging students as

  6. Factors related to students' engaged reading in high school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Angrino, Solanlly

    Using emergent motivation theory, this study analyzes the relationships between high school students' perceptions of their reading skills, task challenge, and personal control over assigned reading activities and their reading engagement (i.e., interest, enjoyment, and concentration) during science instruction. The study also examines how these relationships differ between struggling and proficient readers. Further, the study examines the association between students' experiences of conditions of anxiety, apathy, boredom or relaxation and flow on their reading engagement during science instruction. Finally, the study investigates the relationship between reading engagement and science achievement. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with a sample of 244 high school students in grades 9--12 to measure students' perceptions of skill, challenge, and control, and their reading engagement during science instruction. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed with repeated-measures analysis of students' momentary experiences of skill, challenge, control, and engagement during reading. Results show that when students perceive having both high reading skills and high control, they exhibit deeper reading engagement than when they perceive having both low reading skills and low control. These feelings of control were noticeably important for struggling readers as compared to proficient readers. It was also found that students experience deeper reading engagement during flow (i.e., when students perceive they have high reading skills and the reading task is highly challenging), but reading engagement decreases significantly whenever students experience conditions of anxiety or apathy when reading science materials. Finally, reading engagement was positively related to science achievement. Educational implications of the results are presented. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are described.

  7. Critical analysis of science-related texts in a breastfeeding information, support, and advocacy community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.

    This study examines the way in which women in a breastfeeding information, support, and advocacy (BISA) community of practice critically engage with written/oral science-related texts. The range of texts that these participants encounter is explored and two critical reading approaches are investigated: (1) critical science reading, or reading to assess text validity; and (2) critical science-related text analysis (CSTA), or reading to determine the way in which a text positions subjects or reality, is indicative of particular interests, or leaves out particular voices. The former has been addressed by science education research; the latter is based upon feminist poststructuralism and critical literacy literature. Participants in BISA encounter a wide range of science-related texts, and, to varying degrees, assess the validity of these texts based upon what they know about science, their own and others' experiences, and practical knowledge. Participants also engage in CSTA to greater and lesser extents. Also, experts in BISA are entrusted by participants in the organization to identify valid and trustworthy texts. Differences in critical science reading across participants and texts are discussed, as are the purposes for critical science reading and conditions in BISA that support these critical practices. This study informs both science education and critical literacy research, argues that critical science reading and CSTA are worthwhile practices of both everyday folks and students, and suggests that educators encourage engagement in these practices by presenting students with conflicting science-related texts, encouraging doubt in and epistemic distancing from science-related texts, and modeling critical engagement with science-related texts for students.

  8. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  9. Mashup of Geo and Space Science Data Provided via Relational Databases in the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of RDBMS for the storage and management of geo and space science data and/or metadata is very common. Although the information stored in tables is based on a data model and therefore well organized and structured, a direct mashup with RDF based data stored in triple stores is not possible. One solution of the problem consists in the transformation of the whole content into RDF structures and storage in triple stores. Another interesting way is the use of a specific system/service, such as e.g. D2RQ, for the access to relational database content as virtual, read only RDF graphs. The Semantic Web based -proof of concept- GFZ ISDC uses the triple store Virtuoso for the storage of general context information/metadata to geo and space science satellite and ground station data. There is information about projects, platforms, instruments, persons, product types, etc. available but no detailed metadata about the data granuals itself. Such important information, as e.g. start or end time or the detailed spatial coverage of a single measurement is stored in RDBMS tables of the ISDC catalog system only. In order to provide a seamless access to all available information about the granuals/data products a mashup of the different data resources (triple store and RDBMS) is necessary. This paper describes the use of D2RQ for a Semantic Web/SPARQL based mashup of relational databases used for ISDC data server but also for the access to IUGONET and/or ESPAS and further geo and space science data resources. RDBMS Relational Database Management System RDF Resource Description Framework SPARQL SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language D2RQ Accessing Relational Databases as Virtual RDF Graphs GFZ ISDC German Research Centre for Geosciences Information System and Data Center IUGONET Inter-university Upper Atmosphere Global Observation Network (Japanese project) ESPAS Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science (European Union funded project)

  10. An investigation of Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy in relation to their conceptions of learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-11-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study adopted a multi-dimensional instrument to assess Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy and investigate the relationships with their conceptions of learning science. Sample: A total of 488 Taiwanese high school students (265 male and 223 female) were invited to participate in this survey. Design and method: All the participants responded to the Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire regarding 'Memorizing', 'Testing', 'Calculating and practicing', 'Increase of knowledge', 'Applying' and 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' and the Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE) instrument, including 'Conceptual understanding', 'Higher-Order cognitive skills', 'Practical work', 'Everyday application' and 'Science communication'. Results: The path analysis results derived from the structural equation modeling method indicated that, of all five SLSE dimensions, the 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' COLS displayed as a positive predictor, while the 'Testing' COLS was a significant negative predictor. The 'Applying' COLS item can only positively contribute to the SLSE dimensions of 'Higher-Order thinking skills', 'Everyday application' and 'Science Communication'. Conclusions: In general, students in strong agreement with learning science as understanding and seeing in a new way or the application of learned scientific knowledge are prone to possess higher confidence in learning science. However, students who consider learning science in terms of preparing for tests and examinations tend to hold lower science learning self-efficacy.

  11. The highly-cited Electrocardiogram-related articles in science citation index expanded: characteristics and hotspots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianglin; Gu, Jiaojiao; Yan, Hong; Xu, Zhi; Ren, Bing; Yang, Yaming; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Qi; Tan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    We used bibliometric analysis methodology in the expanded Science Citation Index to identify highly-cited electrocardiogram (ECG)-related articles with total citations (TC2012) exceeding 100 from the publication year to 2012. Web of Science search tools were used to identify the highly-cited articles. The aspects analyzed for highly cited publications included effect of time on citation analysis, journals and Web of Science categories, number of authors per publication, originating institutions and countries, total citation and total citation per year life cycles of articles (C2012) and research hotspots. Results showed that a total of 467 electrocardiogram-related publications were regarded as the highly-cited publications. TC2012 ranged from 101 to 2879, with 215 as the average number of citations. No highly-cited publications have emerged yet during the first two years of the present 2010 Decade. All 11 countries and institutions originating highly-cited ECG-related publications were developed countries, USA in 9 of them. Four subject categories were identified as hotspots by total citations TC2012 and C2012: atrial fibrillation, long QT syndrome, angina and myocardial infarction, and risk factor analysis and health evaluation. PMID:24742585

  12. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging

  13. Metal complexes of 4,5-dimethylpyrazole-3-carboxaldehyde phenylthiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dissouky, Ali

    Several new transition metal complexes derived from 4,5-dimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde phenyl- thiosemicarbazone, LH, have been synthesized. The complexes are of stoichiometry, [CoL 2]X, X = Cl -, Br -, ClO -4 or NO -3, [MnL 2] and [CuX nL m], X = Cl -, Br -, NCS - or N -3; n = 1 or 0; m = 1 or 2 and L = the anion of LH. All complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (i.r., electronic, NMR, ESR) and magnetic measurements. The ligand acts as tridentate monobasic co-ordinated to the metal ion via azomethine, pyrazole (N 2) nitrogen atoms and the thiolo-sulphur. The ligand field and ESR parameters are used to interpret the nature of bonding of LH with the metal ion, ground state and the ligand field strength of LH and the various co-ordinated simple ions. The coupling constants of various co-ordinated nuclei with copper (II) are estimated from ESR spectra of copper (II) complexes.

  14. Intracellular calcium channels: inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Olena A.; Popugaeva, Elena; Enomoto, Masahiro; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are the major intracellular Ca2+-release channels in cells. Activity of InsP3Rs is essential for elementary and global Ca2+ events in the cell. There are three InsP3Rs isoforms that are present in mammalian cells. In this review review we will focus primarily on InsP3R type 1. The InsP3R1 is a predominant isoform in neurons and it is most extensively studied isoform. Combination of biophysical and structural methods revealed key mechanisms of InsP3R function and modulation. Cell biological and biochemical studies lead to identification of a large number of InsP3R-binding proteins. InsP3Rs are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological processes, including learning and memory, proliferation, differentiation, development and cell death. Malfunction of InsP3R1 play a role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and other disease states. InsP3Rs represent a potentially valuable drug target for treatment of these disorders and for modulating activity of neurons and other cells. Future studies will provide better understanding of physiological functions of InsP3Rs in health and disease. PMID:24300389

  15. 4.5-kW Hall Effect Thruster Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an Interagency Agreement with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), a space simulation test of a Russian SPT 140 Hall Effect Thruster was completed in September 1999 at Vacuum Facility 6 at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The thruster was subjected to a three-part test sequence that included thrust and performance characterization, electromagnetic interference, and plume contamination. SPT 140 is a 4.5-kW thruster developed under a joint agreement between AFRL, Atlantic Research Corp, and Space Systems/Loral, and was manufactured by the Fakal Experimental Design Bureau of Russia. All objectives were satisfied, and the thruster performed exceptionally well during the 120-hr test program, which comprised 33 engine firings. The Glenn testing provided a critical contribution to the thruster development effort, and the large volume and high pumping speed of this vacuum facility was key to the test s success. The low background pressure (1 10 6 torr) provided a more accurate representation of space vacuum than is possible in most vacuum chambers. The facility had been upgraded recently with new cryogenic pumps and sputter shielding to support the active electric propulsion program at Glenn. The Glenn test team was responsible for all test support equipment, including the thrust stand, power supplies, data acquisition, electromagnetic interference measurement equipment, and the contamination measurement system.

  16. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  17. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  18. 'The kind of mildly curious sort of science interested person like me': Science bloggers' practices relating to audience recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Mathieu; Bultitude, Karen

    2016-04-01

    With at least 150 million professional and amateur blogs on the Internet, blogging offers a potentially powerful tool for engaging large and diverse audiences with science. This article investigates science blogging practices to uncover key trends, including bloggers' self-perceptions of their role. Interviews with seven of the most popular science bloggers revealed them to be driven by intrinsic personal motivations. Wishing to pursue their love of writing and share their passion for science, they produce content suitable for niche audiences of science enthusiasts, although they do not assume background scientific knowledge. A content analysis of 1000 blog posts and comparison with the most popular blogs on the Internet further confirmed this result and additionally identified key factors that affect science blog popularity, including update frequency, topic diversity and the inclusion of non-text elements (especially images and video). PMID:25361791

  19. Instructional Methods Within the Elementary-School Science Classroom Related to Improved Academic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Lisa

    There is gap in passing rates on the standardized science assessment between European American and Hispanic American students. The purpose of this study was to examine student performance in science and the closing of the achievement gap between European American and Hispanic American students based upon receipt of an inquiry or noninquiry instruction method. Guided by the theoretical framework of constructive learning, this quantitative ex post facto research design gathered data from 8 teachers who had already implemented 1 of the 2 methods of instruction. The teachers were chosen through purposive sampling based on previous observations of instructional method and were placed into 2 groups depending upon the type of instruction: inquiry or noninquiry. Descriptive statistics were used to determine mean differences and a 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine mean differences in science test scores between European American and Hispanic American students and between the instructional methods to which they had been exposed. Results found that the inquiry instructional method was related to a significant increase in mean scores for both ethnic groups, but the achievement gap between the two groups was not closed by the inquiry instruction method. This study can promote positive social change for students by informing the efforts of educational leaders and teachers to create professional development using inquiry instruction. Students may perform higher on standardized tests when they are allowed to explore science by asking questions and answering their own questions through the collection and analysis of data.

  20. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  1. A study of former students who chose postsecondary science-related programs: What they found useful in their high school science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Ronald

    This study explored a high school chemistry and physics teaching practice. The teacher had taught for 15 years in a rural school in Saskatchewan that produces on average 80-90 graduates each year. The purpose of this study is to explore how students enrolled in post secondary science-related programs understand their high school science experience. Eight former students who are currently enrolled in a post secondary science related fields were interviewed. Four students are in an Engineering program, one in Arts and Science, one in Physics, one in Animal science, and the other in an Instrumentation Technology School. The participants were in the third or fourth year of their programs. The participants discussed their opinions and gave insights about their own high school science experience. Students gave reasons about their choice of current program. Other topics that emerged were how former students thought about classroom laboratory work, demonstrations, assignments, exams, learning styles, lecture media, text book use, study groups, competitive learning, and topic relevance. Students also gave recommendations about how to improve science teaching. The findings were discussed and analyzed. One finding concludes students that chose Engineering or Physics programs were positively influenced by their high school physics courses. Some suggestions are made to improve current teaching practice. The recommendations are aimed at the researcher's practice as well as novice science teachers.

  2. Three studies of factors affecting the attitudes of blacks and females toward the pursuit of science and science-related careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Oliver W.; Pettus, W. Clinton; Hedin, Barbara A.

    This study involved the development of an instrument, the Science Career Predictor Scale (SCPS), which assesses seven factors thought to be involved with science career choices: teacher/counselor encouragement, participation in science-related hobbies and activities, academic self-image, science-related career interest, parental encouragement and support, the perceived relevance of mathematics and science, and mathematics and science ability. This instrument was administered to a sample of 522 middle and high school students, and a sample of 185 students from an historically black university, and the effects of such factors as sex, race, personal acquaintance with a scientist, and type of community (rural or urban) on the above-mentioned variables were ascertained using a multivariate analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. A separate study on a sample of 81 high school students looked at race and gender differences in critical thinking abilities as measured by the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking appraisal, and how these abilities correlated with scores on the Science Career Predictor Scale. These studies produced several significant findings. Female subjects did produce significantly lower scores on the career interest factor. Black students actually had significantly higher science-career preference scores than their white counterparts. However, blacks scored significantly lower on the measure of critical thinking ability. Across both races and both sexes, however, the major factor affecting science-related career decisions appears to be personal contact with a scientist. The implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible strategies for increasing the participation of these groups in science.

  3. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy.

  4. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  5. A Bump on a Bump? Emerging Intuitions Concerning the Relative Difficulty of the Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.; Schlegel, Esther

    2011-01-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined how intuitions about the relative difficulties of the sciences develop. In Study 1, familiar everyday phenomena in physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and economics were pretested in adults, so as to be equally difficult to explain. When participants in kindergarten, Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, and college were asked to rate the difficulty of understanding these phenomena, children revealed a strong bias to see natural science phenomena as more difficult than those in psychology. The perceived relative difficulty of economics dropped dramatically in late childhood. In Study 2, children saw neuroscience phenomena as much more difficult than cognitive psychology phenomena, which were seen as more difficult than social psychology phenomena, even though all phenomena were again equated for difficulty in adults. In Study 3, we explored the basis for these results in intuitions about common knowledge and firsthand experience. Study 4 showed that the intuitions about the differences between the disciplines were based on intuitions about difficulty of understanding and not on the basis of more general intuitions about the feasibility or truth of the phenomena in question. Taken together, in the studies, the authors find an early emerging basis for judgments that some sciences are intrinsically more difficult than others, a bias that may persevere in adults in subtler forms in such settings as the courtroom. PMID:20121309

  6. Factors Related to the Persistence and Attainment of Graduate Degrees in the Sciences by Women Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have shown that women remain underrepresented in the sciences particularly in doctorate degree attainment. This investigator aimed to extend previous research by examining possible causes of gender disparity in science graduate education using data from the "Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B.:93/03". Variables in…

  7. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  8. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  9. Science at NASA field centers: Findings and recommendations on the scope, strength and interactions of science and science-related technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Great achievements by NASA and other space agencies have shown us what opportunities lie in the opening of the space frontier. A broad and vigorous science program in NASA is vital to full U.S. exploitation of these new opportunities. Today, science in NASA Centers is characterized by its breadth, relevance, and excellence. The NASA in-house science program and its links to university programs constitute a vitally important national resource. Maintaining excellence as a foundation for the future is a fundamental responsibility of NASA, one that requires constant attention and effort. This report by the NASA Center Science Assessment Team documents the current state of science within NASA and recommends actions to maintain a healthy program. NASA scientists have always played key roles in planning, guiding, and conducting national programs in space science. The review of Center science programs is intended to ensure that both NASA and the nation can depend on their continuing contribution in these roles.

  10. Factors Related to the Choice of Science as a Major among Negro College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilford, Michael Phillip

    The purpose of this study was to identify some of the characteristics of Negro college students who majored in science in comparison to those who were non-majors. The science majors were sub-divided into pure science and applied science groups for some analyses. Twelve variables were investigated: (1) ACT composite scores, (2) ACT science scores,…

  11. Characterization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading fungi in Vietnamese soils.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazuhito; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Morishita, Shigeyuki; Chida, Masateru; Suyama, Kousuke

    2013-04-01

    Sixty-nine fungal strains were isolated countrywide from 10 Vietnamese soils, in areas both with and without a history of exposure to Agent Orange, and their degrading activities on the phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), as well as related compounds, were examined. Among taxonomically various fungi, 45, 12 and 4% of the isolates degraded phenoxyacetic acid (PA), 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, respectively. While the PA-degrading fungi were distributed to all sites and among many genera, the 2,4-D-degraders were found only in order Eurotiales in class Eurotiomycetes. All of the 2,4,5-T-degrading fungal strains were phylogenetically close to Eupenicillium spp. and were isolated from southern Vietnam. As a degradation intermediate, the corresponding phenol compounds were detected in some strains. The degradation substrate spectrum for 26 compounds of Eupenicillium spp. strains including 2,4,5-T-degraders and -non-degraders seemed to be related to phylogenetic similarity and soil sampling location of the isolates. These results suggest that the heavily contaminated environments enhanced the adaptation of the phylogenetic group of Eupenicillium spp. toward to obtain the ability to degrade 2,4,5-T. PMID:23167922

  12. Computational research on memory effects in AlPO4-5 nanoporous material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulín-González, J.; Demontis, P.; Navas Conyedo, E.; Suffritti, G. B.

    2012-06-01

    Reversible amorphization and memory effects of both dense and open frameworks have received a great attention due to their prospective industrial applications. In this paper, the results of a computational study related to phase transition and memory effects in AlPO4-5 nanoporous material at high external pressure is presented. The behavior of the AlPO4-5 unit cell at high external pressures was studied by energy minimization techniques using classical potentials. A combination of interatomic potentials was used to describe the crystalline structure of the aluminophosphate. According to simulation's result a decrease of crystalline order is observed at a pressure about 3.5 GPa. The behavior of the simulated infrared spectra of compressed structures is an unambiguous evidence of structural disorder. Also, an abrupt change in the slope of the unit cell volume vs. pressure curve was obtained. At P≤3.5 GPa the process was found reversible. Contrary to what has been reported in other aluminosilicate systems the final crystalline state of AlPO4-5 at the highest simulated pressure was not amorphous. According to our knowledge this is the first evidence of a reversible first-order crystal-crystal phase transition in AlPO- family materials. This result could be important in future industrial and catalytic applications of these materials.

  13. Development of a 4.5 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, Ted; Olson, Jeff; Champagne, Patrick; Mix, Jack; Evtimov, Bobby; Roth, Eric; Collaco, Andre

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's (LM) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed a four stage pulse tube cryocooler (stirling-type pulse tube system) to provide cooling at 4.5 K for superconducting digital electronics communications programs. These programs utilize superconducting niobium integrated circuits [1, 2]. A prior ATC 4 stage unit has provided cooling to 3.8 K. [3] The relatively high cooling loads for the present program led us to a new design which improves the 4.5 K power efficiency over prior systems. This design includes a unique pulse tube approach using both He-3 and He-4 working gas in two compression spaces. The compressor utilizes our standard moving magnet linear motor, clearance seal and flexure bearing system. The system is compact, lightweight and reliable and utilizes our aerospace cooler technology to provide unlimited lifetime. The unit is a proof of concept, but the construction is at an engineering model level. Follow on activities for improvements of performance and more compact packaging and future production for ground based communication systems is anticipated. This paper presents the experimental results at various cooling conditions. Primary results are shown for HYPRES cooling requirements and data is also included at lower cooling loads that may be required for future space missions. The system provides a maximum of 42 mW @ 4.5 K and a no load temperature of 3 K. The majority of this work was subcontracted by HYPRES and funded by the Army and Navy. A small part of this effort to obtain data at lower cooling loads (1-10 mW @ 4.5 K) was funded by LM internal funds.

  14. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  15. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  16. Numerical Relativity as preparation for Industrial Data Science, a personal perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Much of the conversation in commercial enterprises these days revolves around industry buzz words such as Big Data, Data Science, and being Data Driven. Beyond the hype surrounding these terms, there is a real, continuously growing movement for organizations to make better use of the data assets they have to inform decisions, strategy, and policy. This push is not unique to the commercial sector; governmental and academic organizations are also embracing such initiatives. The skills required to staff a Data Science project typically come from a number of disciplines, ranging from computer science, statistics, modeling and simulation, to information technology, but the emerging wisdom in the community is that the rigor and discipline of a scientific background often makes for the best data scientists. In this talk, I will offer a personal perspective on making the transition from a career in computational physics (specifically Numerical Relativity) to a career in industry, where I have focused on helping organizations make more informed decisions through better access and analysis of data at their disposal. I will identify the skills and training that carry over from a background in physics, discuss the gaps in that preparation, hypothesize as to where this industry is headed, and offer a frank look at a life outside of academia.

  17. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  18. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Basic and Translational Science Updates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1990s and the early 2000s, bisphosphonates had become the clinical pillar of excellence for treating metabolic bone disease, and thus their connection with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) caused significant concern. Over the past decade, progress has been made in understanding what is now referred to as medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), because of its connections to agents other than bisphosphonates, although in many respects the progress has been slow. This review highlights the key basic science and translational (animal) studies in the area of MRONJ and suggests areas of focus as the field moves into the next decade. PMID:26277349

  19. Characteristics of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl distribution among lipoproteins in vitro. [Rats and human whole blood, plasma, and lipoprotein fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Vomachka, M.S.; Vodicnik, M.J.; Lech, J.J.

    1983-09-01

    The uptake, distribution, and transfer of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) were examined in vitro with human and rat whole blood, plasma, and lipoprotein fractions. 6-CB distribution between plasma and erythrocytes as well as among lipoproteins was determined following sedimentation of erythrocytes and ultracentrifugal fractionation of plasma. In both rat and human whole blood, 70 to 75% of 6-CB partitioned into plasma and 25 to 30% into erythrocytes. The uptake of 6-CB into plasma was extremely rapid and the rate of uptake was found to be dependent upon temperature. The distribution of 6-CB among lipoproteins was relatively homogeneous with 20 to 30% being distributed in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL, d . 0.95-1.006 g/ml), 15 to 20% in low-density lipoproteins (LDL, d . 1.006-1.063 g/ml), and 15 to 25% in high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d . 1.063-1.21 g/ml). Over 25% of 6-CB was found in the remaining bottom fraction. In addition, each isolated fraction when incubated alone with 6-CB was shown capable of uptake. The relative proportion of 6-CB among the lipoproteins was independent of the level taken up by plasma. 6-CB was also found to transfer among lipoproteins. This exchange of 6-CB proved to be dependent upon the concentrations of both protein and triacylglycerol in the incubations. Two proteins in the bottom fraction (Bf), albumin and a steroid binding globulin, were capable of competing with the lipoproteins for 6-CB uptake.

  20. "The Seesaw Is a Machine that Goes up and down": Young Children's Narrative Responses to Science-Related Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: We report on an assessment developed to document young children's narrative production after listening to short segments of science-related informational text (SciT) on life science, earth and space, and simple machines. We examine differences between kindergarten boys (n = 39) and girls (n = 29) on several indices of narrative…

  1. Ecocultural Factors in Students' Ability to Relate Science Concepts Learned at School and Experienced at Home: Implications for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntegbe, Kunle Oke; Ikpe, Adakole

    2011-01-01

    Making connections between science concepts taught in school and real-world phenomena is considered important in engaging students in learning. The present study examines students' abilities to relate their in-school science learning to everyday experiences at home. The sample comprised 200 senior secondary chemistry students drawn from Ondo…

  2. Support of Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Researchers in the Sciences and Engineering: Impact of Related Policies and Practices. Workshop Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Robert E.; Stanzione, Dan

    2004-01-01

    On June 17-18th, 2004, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) sponsored a workshop at the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to discuss emerging issues, research, and current practices related to financial…

  3. A Comparative Study of Three Fifth Grade Classrooms on Five Selected Piaget Type Tasks Dealing with Science Related Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleminson, Ronald William

    The purpose was to determine (1) if there was a significant difference in the performance on five science-related Piaget type tasks by fifth graders who were currently involved in different elementary science programs, and (2) if the tasks formed a hierarchical sequence of difficulty for the students. Three groups of fifth graders were studied;…

  4. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university and assess…

  5. A Longitudinal Look at Attitudes and Perceptions Related to the Integration of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis of attitudes and perceptions related to the integration of mathematics, science, and technology education of preservice teachers preparing to teach STEM disciplines. Longitudinal data by individual cohort and across 7 years of the Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (MSAT)…

  6. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  7. Factors related to the persistence and attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences by women science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Janet E.

    Researchers have shown that women remain underrepresented in the sciences particularly in doctorate degree attainment. This investigator aimed to extend previous research by examining possible causes of gender disparity in science graduate education using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B.:93/03. Variables in categories of demographics, academic achievement, financial resources, degree expectations and attitudes toward educational experiences, future study and employment were analyzed by t tests and hierarchical regression to determine gender differences in graduate degree expectations and attainment by male and female science majors. Findings supported gender disparity in undergraduate and graduate fields of study. Women dominated health areas and earned terminal master's degrees, whereas men dominated the physical science field and attained a higher proportion of doctorate degrees. Results also showed no gender differences in master's degree attainment in other fields thus confirming that these graduates did not persist in science fields. Graduate degree expectation was a strong predictor for master's and doctorate degree attainment. Parent education had a significant effect on degree expectations but not on graduate degree attainment. Women tended to have lower degree expectations and earned fewer science and math credits than men. Results showed that unemployment and loans predicted doctorate degree attainment by men and women showed higher levels of employment in graduate school.

  8. Molecular Determinants of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) Binding to Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuñiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V.; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  9. Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The

  10. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  11. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and proportional relations in early secondary-school teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the epiSTEMe project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed topic modules for early secondary-school teaching in the UK, arranged for their implementation in classrooms, and evaluated the results. This paper reports the development, implementation, and evaluation of one of the epiSTEMe science modules. Entitled Forces and Proportional Relations, the module covers standard curricular material in the domain of forces, while paying particular attention to the proportional nature of many key constructs. It was developed in collaboration with a small group of teachers; implemented subsequently in 16 classrooms, in all cases involving students from the first year of secondary school; and evaluated through comparison with first-year students in 13 control classrooms who were studying the topic using established methods. Evaluation addressed topic mastery and opinions about the topic and the manner in which it was taught. While further research is required before definite conclusions are warranted, results relating to topic mastery provide grounds for optimism about the epiSTEMe approach. Furthermore, student opinions about the module were positive.

  12. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation Between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive perspective on how students manage to reconcile evolutionary theory with their religious beliefs. We underwrite the claim developed by cognitive scientists and anthropologists that religion is natural because it taps into people's intuitive understanding of the natural world which is constrained by essentialist, teleological and intentional biases. After contrasting the naturalness of religion with the unnaturalness of science, we discuss the difficulties cognitive and developmental scientists have identified in learning and accepting evolutionary theory. We indicate how religious beliefs impede students' understanding and acceptance of evolutionary theory. We explore a number of options available to students for reconciling an informed understanding of evolutionary theory with their religious beliefs. To conclude, we discuss the implications of our account for science and biology teachers.

  13. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  14. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fal'Ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Roche, Stephan; Bøggild, Peter; Borini, Stefano; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Palermo, Vincenzo; Pugno, Nicola; Garrido, José A.; Sordan, Roman; Bianco, Alberto; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kivioja, Jani; Marinelli, Claudio; Ryhänen, Tapani; Morpurgo, Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Colombo, Luigi; Fert, Albert; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Bachtold, Adrian; Schneider, Grégory F.; Guinea, Francisco; Dekker, Cees; Barbone, Matteo; Sun, Zhipei; Galiotis, Costas; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Kis, Andras; Katsnelson, Mikhail; Vandersypen, Lieven; Loiseau, Annick; Morandi, Vittorio; Neumaier, Daniel; Treossi, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Williams, Gareth M.; Hee Hong, Byung; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min Kim, Jong; Zirath, Herbert; van Wees, Bart J.; van der Zant, Herre; Occhipinti, Luigi; Di Matteo, Andrea; Kinloch, Ian A.; Seyller, Thomas; Quesnel, Etienne; Feng, Xinliang; Teo, Ken; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Hakonen, Pertti; Neil, Simon R. T.; Tannock, Quentin; Löfwander, Tomas; Kinaret, Jari

    2015-03-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. We provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries. We also define an extensive list of acronyms in an effort to standardize the nomenclature in this emerging field.

  15. British Thought on the Relations Between the Natural Sciences and the Humanities, c. 1870-1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger

    The fact is that debate about explanation and understanding in science, and the related debate about relations between Naturwissenschaften and Geisteswissenschaften, was a German-language debate conducted in German philosophical terms. There was no late nineteenth-century English-language argument about the same matters. There is no direct comparison to make, unless, that is, we were to take an essentialist view of philosophical questions and, as a result, look for what English-language writers missed, transformed into local idiom or substituted for the issues of substance rightly formulated by German-language philosophers and wrongly ignored by British ones. By contrast, if we take our cue from what Uljana Feest, in her introduction, refers to as 'the thicket' of issues and debates in the late nineteenth century, rather than from imagining that there was one debate, possibilities for comparison open up.

  16. Science-Related Aspirations across the Primary-Secondary Divide: Evidence from Two Surveys in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Students' engagement with science and the numbers pursuing further study of science continue to be a concern among policy-makers, particularly in Western countries. Previous research reflects that most children have positive attitudes to science at age 10 but that, by age 14, attitudes towards and interest in further pursuit of science have…

  17. Imaginary Subjects: School Science, Indigenous Students, and Knowledge-Power Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidman, Joanna; Abrams, Eleanor; McRae, Hiria

    2011-01-01

    The perspectives of indigenous science learners in developed nations offer an important but frequently overlooked dimension to debates about the nature of science, the science curriculum, and calls from educators to make school science more culturally responsive or "relevant" to students from indigenous or minority groups. In this paper the…

  18. Factors Impacting on Teachers' Job Satisfaction Related to Science Teaching: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, S.; Mustafa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Science teachers' job satisfaction is identified as a major factor that affects the quality of a science program. This research investigated to what extent a science program supports science teachers in terms of curriculum materials or extracurricular activities. It also examined the relationships among schools' curriculum support, the number of…

  19. Effects of academic-industry relations on the professional socialization graduate science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleman, Margaret Ann Phillippi

    This study asks if there has been a change in graduate student socialization in the biological sciences given the increased commercialism of life sciences. Drawing on the work of Steven Brint (1994) and Sheila Slaughter and Larry Leslie (1997) and Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades (2004), this study asks if graduate student socialization has shifted emphasis from the social and moral dimensions of work (social trustee professionalism) to the practical, technical, and commercial dimensions (expert professionalism). Building on the survey results of the Acadia Project (Swazey, Louis, & Anderson, 1994; Louis, Anderson & Rosenberg, 1995), this qualitative study uses interviews with 25 graduate science students at two A.A.U. research universities that have been heavily involved in academic-industry relations to see how the students were professionally socialized throughout their educational careers. The student configuration compares males and females, U.S. and international students, and those funded by the government versus those receiving at least partial support from industry. It uses critical professionalization theory as a framework. The study found that students' career goals and values were usually set before graduate school primarily by females in non-elite institutions, such as community colleges, women's and liberal arts colleges, and non-flagship state universities. Also, university science faculty tend to continue to socialize students---even those planning to go into industry---for the professoriate, as their prestige is based on placing proteges into other elite schools. U.S. females and most students going into academics or government labs had the values of social trustee professionals while those going into industry held those of expert professionals. The former were more likely to recognize situations involving conflicts of interest or commitment. Almost all the students were disillusioned by the grants and promotion and tenure systems. They feel both

  20. Analysis of the Rotational Spectra of 2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROTOLUENE and 1-CHLORO-2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROBENZENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osthoff, Ashley A.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Grubbs, Garry S. Grubbs, II; Cooke, Stephen A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.

    2009-06-01

    The microwave spectra of two substituted pentafluorobenzenes have been obtained. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorotoluene was measured using the FTMW spectrometer at Eastern Illinois University and the chirped-pulse FTMW spectrometer at University of North Texas. The heavy atom structure has been obtained from the assigned ^{13}C transitions and is in reasonable agreement with ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level. The ground state rotational constants are A = 1036.61253(10) MHz, B = 1030.94126(10) MHz, and C = 516.92062(9) MHz, and the single dipole moment component is μ_b = 1.98(17) D. Very small splittings for many of the assigned transitions and multiple, as yet unassigned, lines were presumably due to excited torsional states of the methyl group. In a related study, the microwave spectrum of 1-chloro-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzene was obtained for both the ^{35}Cl and the ^{37}Cl isotopologues using the chirped-pulse microwave spectrometer at University of Virginia. The preliminary ground state rotational constants for this compound are A = 1028.5403(14) MHz, B = 751.8198(3) MHz and C = 434.3533(4) MHz for ^{35}Cl and A = 1028.5435(7) MHz, B = 734.4786(2) MHz and C = 428.5082(2) MHz for ^{37}Cl. Initial fits of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants give χ_{aa} = -79.512(15) MHz, χ_{bb} = 43.593(8) MHz, χ_{cc} = 35.92(2) MHz for the ^{35}Cl species and χ_{aa} = -62.68(2) MHz, χ_{bb} = 34.38(4) MHz, χ_{cc} = 28.29(17) MHz for the ^{37}Cl species. These results will be compared with pentafluorotoluene to observe the effects on the structure of the benzene ring when substituting a chlorine atom for a methyl group.

  1. Growing Minority Student Interest in Earth and Space Science with Suborbital and Space-related Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation describes the transformative impact of student involvement in suborbital and Cubesat investigations under the MECSAT program umbrella at Medgar Evers College (MEC). The programs evolved from MUSPIN, a NASA program serving minority institutions. The MUSPIN program supported student internships for the MESSENGER and New Horizons missions at the Applied Physics Lab at John Hopkins University. The success of this program motivated the formation of smaller-scale programs at MEC to engage a wider group of minority students using an institutional context. The programs include an student-instrument BalloonSAT project, ozone investigations using sounding vehicles and a recently initiated Cubesat program involving other colleges in the City University of New York (CUNY). The science objectives range from investigations of atmospheric profiles, e.g. temperature, humidity, pressure, and CO2 to ozone profiles in rural and urban areas including comparisons with Aura instrument retrievals to ionospheric scintillation experiments for the Cubesat project. Through workshops and faculty collaborations, the evolving programs have mushroomed to include the development of parallel programs with faculty and students at other minority institutions both within and external to CUNY. The interdisciplinary context of these programs has stimulated student interest in Earth and Space Science and includes the use of best practices in retention and pipelining of underrepresented minority students in STEM disciplines. Through curriculum integration initiatives, secondary impacts are also observed supported by student blogs, social networking sites, etc.. The program continues to evolve including related student internships at Goddard Space Flight Center and the development of a CUNY-wide interdisciplinary team of faculty targeting research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students in Atmospheric Science, Space Weather, Remote Sensing and Astrobiology primarily for

  2. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains. PMID:27308017

  3. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 2(2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)PROPIONIC ACID (2,4,5-TP) (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on 2,4,5-TP. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of 2,4,5-TP; Toxicokinetics and human expo...

  4. Synthesis of pyrimido[4,5-c]azepine- and pyrimido[4,5-c]oxepine-based γ-secretase modulators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jin; Zhang, Yunhui; Toyn, Jeremy H; Macor, John E; Thompson, Lorin A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter describes an efficient ring-closing metathesis approach to 2-chloro-4-amino-pyrimido[4,5-c]azepines and 2-chloro-4-amino-pyrimido[4,5-c]oxepines. These chlorides were applied to the synthesis of several potent γ-secretase modulators (GSMs). PMID:26898338

  5. Crystal structure of (1S*,2R*)-7-benz­yloxy-2-methyl-3-tosyl-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-3-benz­azepin-1-ol: elucidation of the relative configuration of potent allosteric GluN2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tewes, Bastian; Frehland, Bastian; Fröhlich, Roland; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C25H27NO4S, which crystallized as a racemate, the relative configuration of the adjacent OH and CH3 groups on the azepine ring is trans. The seven-membered azepin ring has a chair-like conformation. The planar aromatic rings of the benzyl and tosyl­ate moiety are inclined to the planar 3-benzazepine ring by 78.39 (15) and 77.03 (14)°, respectively, and to each another by 13.82 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming double-stranded chains along the a-axis direction. The chains are linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:27308018

  6. Implicit Theories of Ability of Grade 6 Science Students: Relation to Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Motivation and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jason A.; Pajares, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We investigated: (a) the associations of implicit theories and epistemological beliefs and their effects on the academic motivation and achievement of students in Grade 6 science and (b) the mean differences of implicit theories, epistemological beliefs, and academic motivation and achievement as a function of gender and race/ethnicity (N=508).…

  7. Attitudes toward science: measurement and psychometric properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes for its use in Spanish-speaking classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marianela; Förster, Carla; González, Caterina; González-Pose, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Understanding attitudes toward science and measuring them remain two major challenges for science teaching. This article reviews the concept of attitudes toward science and their measurement. It subsequently analyzes the psychometric properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA), such as its construct validity, its discriminant and concurrent validity, and its reliability. The evidence presented suggests that TOSRA, in its Spanish-adapted version, has adequate construct validity regarding its theoretical referents, as well as good indexes of reliability. In addition, it determines the attitudes toward science of secondary school students in Santiago de Chile (n = 664) and analyzes the sex variable as a differentiating factor in such attitudes. The analysis by sex revealed low-relevance gender difference. The results are contrasted with those obtained in English-speaking countries. This TOSRA sample showed good psychometric parameters for measuring and evaluating attitudes toward science, which can be used in classrooms of Spanish-speaking countries or with immigrant populations with limited English proficiency.

  8. An Examination of Preservice Science Teachers' Views Related to Use of Tablet PCs in Science and Technology Course in Terms of Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzoglu, Mustafa; Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2012-01-01

    In this study, preservice science teachers opinions related to Ministry of National Education Fatih Project which will be used in schools for tablet PC were examined in terms of different variables. Descriptive survey method was used in the research. The participants of the study, which was conducted in 2011-2012 academic year in Giresun…

  9. Beyond agency: sources of knowing and learning in children's science- and technology-related problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-02-01

    In (science) education, primacy is given to agency, the human capability to act and, in this, to learn. However, phenomenological philosophers and societal-historical psychologists point out that agency, the purposeful (intentional) engagement with the world, is only the effect of a much more profound capacity: passibility, the capacity to be affected. In this study, we begin with what has been recognized as a fundamental condition of learning: learners cannot intentionally orient to the learning outcome because they inherently do not know it so that that knowledge cannot be the object of intention. In this study, we provide evidence for three empirically grounded assertions: (a) children do not intend new knowledge and understanding, which instead give themselves in and through materials and material configurations; (b) knowing-how is received (as unintended gifts) because our bodies are endowed with passibility, the capability to be affected; and (c) the new knowledge and understanding exists as and in social relation first. We suggest implications for engineering design in science classrooms.

  10. Semantic Network Analysis on Terms related Mantle in Earth Science 2 Textbooks of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; reum Cho, Ah; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1 in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science I fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth ScienceⅠ, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  11. Daytime long period micropulsations near geomagnetic shells L = 4. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines observations of long period (T > 12s) daytime micropulsations made from DE-1 satellite when it is travelling near apogee near the magnetic equator. Simultaneous observations at Siple, Antarctica, were also made, when DE-1 passes were close to the Siple field line, to be compared with the satellite observations. Previous observations and theoretical works on the continuous pulsation are reviewed, and Pc pulsations are classified in terms of physical mechanism. Detail observations and interpretations of seven pulsation events and the results of a brief statistical study are presented. The construction of the micropulsation detector (search coil and preamplifier) is also described. The observations show that different modes of MHD wave oscillations (e.g. transverse and compressional, or different harmonics) can be excited simultaneously on the same field line. It is very common that short period fluctuations (20-40 s) are superimposed on long period (T > 100s) waves. The dominant oscillations are in the east-west direction. Standing wave structure is evident for the long period waves by examining the phase relation between the wave magnetic and electric perturbations.

  12. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  13. "Exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.

    PubMed

    Schickore, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    This essay utilizes the concept "exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science. The essay traces the emergence of the historiographical concept "exploratory experimentation" in the late 1990s. The reconstruction of the early discussions about exploratory experimentation shows that the introduction of the concept had unintended consequences: Initially designed to debunk philosophical ideas about theory testing, the concept "exploratory experimentation" quickly exposed the poverty of our conceptual tools for the analysis of experimental practice. Looking back at a number of detailed analyses of experimental research, we can now appreciate that the concept of exploratory experimentation is too vague and too elusive to fill the desideratum whose existence it revealed. PMID:26774065

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN THE MOUSE FETUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) readily crosses the placenta in the mouse on gestational day 13. Concentrations of 2,4,5-T in maternal tissues and fetuses were obvious at 30 min., highest at 8 h, diminished by 24 h and almost entirely eliminated by 48 h....

  15. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  16. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  17. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  18. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  19. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  20. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.5 Use of materials from the collections. (a) Unrestricted...

  1. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.5 Use of materials from the collections. (a) Unrestricted...

  2. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.5 Use of materials from the collections. (a) Unrestricted...

  3. Patterns of response times and response choices to science questions: the influence of relative processing time.

    PubMed

    Heckler, Andrew F; Scaife, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student "misconceptions," and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics graphs. We found that response times of incorrect answers, resulting from comparing heights, were faster than response times of correct answers comparing slopes. This result alone might be explained by the fact that height was typically processed faster than slope for this kind of task, which we confirmed in a separate experiment. However, we hypothesize that the difference in response time is an indicator of the cause (rather than the result) of the response choice. To support this, we found that imposing a 3-s delay in responding increased the number of students comparing slopes (answering correctly) on the task. Additionally a significant proportion of students recognized the correct written rule (compare slope), but on the graph task they incorrectly compared heights. Finally, training either with repetitive examples or providing a general rule both improved scores, but only repetitive examples had a large effect on response times, thus providing evidence of dual paths or processes to a solution. Considering models of heuristics, information accumulation models, and models relevant to the Stroop effect, we construct a simple relative processing time model that could be viewed as a kind of fluency heuristic. The results suggest that misconception-like patterns of answers to some science questions commonly found on tests may be explained in part by automatic processes that involve the relative processing time of considered dimensions and a priority to answer quickly. PMID:25230833

  4. Workplace skills and the skills gaps related to employee critical thinking ability and science education curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, William A.

    In recent years, business and industry have been vocal critics of education. Critics complain the American workforce, particularly young people, are deficient in workplace skills. A survey of 500 randomly selected Ohio businesses was used to determine opinions of respondents related to workplace skills gaps, rising skill levels, and level and type of critical thinking used on the job by all employees and entry-level employees. Four of 18 science outcomes promoted by the Ohio Department of Education had an application in business and these required critical-thinking skills to complete. These four formed the foundation in the survey because they provided a connection between thinking skills required on the Ohio 12 th Grade Proficiency Test and those required on the job. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to identify correlation between responses. The alpha level was p ≤ .05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify significant (p ≤ .05) relationships between variables as represented by responses. In addition, one version of the Science Section of the Ohio 12th Grade Proficiency Test was analyzed for use of critical thinking using the SCAN's critical-thinking attributes as a standard. There were several findings related to workplace skills and critical thinking. Only 17.1% of respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the basic academic skill level of their employees. A majority (71.1%) of responding businesses perceived a lack of work ethic as more important than deficient academic skills. Only 17.1% of respondents reported the skill level of their entry-level employees was rising. Approximately 1/3 of responding businesses required no critical thinking at all from their entry-level employees. Small businesses were significantly more likely to require higher levels of critical thinking from their entry level employees than larger businesses. Employers who reported rising skill levels in entry-level employees required all of

  5. Effects of Solution Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Mg-4.5Zn-4.5Sn-2Al-0.6Sr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanghao; Chen, Jihua; Yan, Hongge; Su, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the Mg-4.5Zn-4.5Sn-2Al-0.6Sr alloy are investigated both in the as-cast condition and after the different three-step solution heat treatments (a solution heat treatment of 310 °C × 4 h + 340 °C × 28 h followed by a high-temperature solution treatment) to explore the optimal solution treatment cycle. The as-cast alloy contains a microstructure consisting of the α-Mg matrix, Mg2Sn, Mg51Zn20, Mg32(Al, Zn)49, and MgSnSr phases. After the solution heat treatment, all the Mg51Zn20, the Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phases, and most of the Mg2Sn phase are dissolved into the matrix, only the MgSnSr phase and a minority of the Mg2Sn phase are remained in the granular form or the fine dot-like. The volume fraction of the residual second phases decreases from 5.61 to 1.84% with the increasing solution time from 0 to 4 h at 420 °C and it decreases from 2.9 to 0.4% with the increasing solution temperature from 420 to 480 °C for 2 h. The alloy that experiences the solution treatment of 310 °C × 4 h + 340 °C × 28 h + 460 °C × 2 h exhibits the highest strength and the best plasticity among all the solution-treated alloys. Therefore, the optimal solution treatment is 310 °C × 4 h + 340 °C × 28 h + 460 °C × 2 h. The residual second phases in the alloy that experiences the optimal solution treatment are confirmed to be the Mg2Sn phase and the MgSnSr phase which are related to their relatively high thermal stability. The ultimate tensile strength and the elongation to rupture of the as-solutionized alloy are 238 MPa and 12%, respectively, about 25 MPa and 2.4% higher than the counterparts of the as-cast alloy.

  6. Control of diverse subcellular processes by a single multi-functional lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2].

    PubMed

    Kolay, Sourav; Basu, Urbashi; Raghu, Padinjat

    2016-06-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a multi-functional lipid that regulates several essential subcellular processes in eukaryotic cells. In addition to its well-established function as a substrate for receptor-activated signalling at the plasma membrane (PM), it is now recognized that distinct PI(4,5)P2 pools are present at other organelle membranes. However, a long-standing question that remains unresolved is the mechanism by which a single lipid species, with an invariant functional head group, delivers numerous functions without loss of fidelity. In the present review, we summarize studies that have examined the molecular processes that shape the repertoire of PI(4,5)P2 pools in diverse eukaryotes. Collectively, these studies indicate a conserved role for lipid kinase isoforms in generating functionally distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 in diverse metazoan species. The sophistication underlying the regulation of multiple functions by PI(4,5)P2 is also shaped by mechanisms that regulate its availability to enzymes involved in its metabolism as well as molecular processes that control its diffusion at nanoscales in the PM. Collectively, these mechanisms ensure the specificity of PI(4,5)P2 mediated signalling at eukaryotic membranes. PMID:27288030

  7. Enhancing Teachers' Awareness About Relations Between Science and Religion. The Debate Between Steady State and Big Bang Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdonas, Alexandre; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2015-11-01

    Educators advocate that science education can help the development of more responsible worldviews when students learn not only scientific concepts, but also about science, or "nature of science". Cosmology can help the formation of worldviews because this topic is embedded in socio-cultural and religious issues. Indeed, during the Cold War period, the cosmological controversy between Big Bang and Steady State theory was tied up with political and religious arguments. The present paper discusses a didactic sequence developed for and applied in a pre-service science teacher-training course on history of science. After studying the historical case, pre-service science teachers discussed how to deal with possible conflicts between scientific views and students' personal worldviews related to religion. The course focused on the study of primary and secondary sources about cosmology and religion written by cosmologists such as Georges Lemaître, Fred Hoyle and the Pope Pius XII. We used didactic strategies such as short seminars given by groups of pre-service teachers, videos, computer simulations, role-play, debates and preparation of written essays. Along the course, most pre-service teachers emphasized differences between science and religion and pointed out that they do not feel prepared to conduct classroom discussions about this topic. Discussing the relations between science and religion using the history of cosmology turned into an effective way to teach not only science concepts but also to stimulate reflections about nature of science. This topic may contribute to increasing students' critical stance on controversial issues, without the need to explicitly defend certain positions, or disapprove students' cultural traditions. Moreover, pre-service teachers practiced didactic strategies to deal with this kind of unusual content.

  8. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  9. Deepening Ecological Relationality through Critical Onto-Epistemological Inquiry: Where Transformative Learning Meets Sustainable Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous worldviews remain at the margins of education, science, and sustainability efforts. The emergence of sustainable science holds promise as a means of advancing deep sustainability and recentering Indigenous knowledge. Transformative learning's engagement with sustainable science has the potential to play an integral role in this…

  10. 4.5-K Cold Box for SNS - A Successful Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleck, U.; Kurtcuoglu, K.; Urbin, J.; Howe, D.

    2004-06-23

    The US Department of Energy is constructing the next generation, accelerator-based, neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The superconducting LINAC requires a large custom cryogenic helium system that was specified and ordered by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory. Two groups of Linde AG's engineering division teamed to design, fabricate, and deliver the 4.5-K cold box for the SNS Central He liquefier. Linde Kryotechnik AG (LK), Switzerland provided design, engineering support and the gas bearing turbine systems. Process design for 4.5 K cooling as well as 38-K shield cooling will be explained. Control logic, including turbine related logic, was specified by LK and implemented successfully by ORNL in their control system in cooperation with LK. Linde BOC Process Plants LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma fabricated, tested and delivered the cold box. Skills and techniques specific to helium cold box fabrication will be discussed. Finally, an overview of the commissioning will be provided according to the project status.

  11. 4.5-K Cold Box for SNS — A Successful Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, U.; Urbin, J.; Kurtcuoglu, K.; Howe, D.

    2004-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is constructing the next generation, accelerator-based, neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The superconducting LINAC requires a large custom cryogenic helium system that was specified and ordered by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory. Two groups of Linde AG's engineering division teamed to design, fabricate, and deliver the 4.5-K cold box for the SNS Central He liquefier. Linde Kryotechnik AG (LK), Switzerland provided design, engineering support and the gas bearing turbine systems. Process design for 4.5 K cooling as well as 38-K shield cooling will be explained. Control logic, including turbine related logic, was specified by LK and implemented successfully by ORNL in their control system in cooperation with LK. Linde BOC Process Plants LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma fabricated, tested and delivered the cold box. Skills and techniques specific to helium cold box fabrication will be discussed. Finally, an overview of the commissioning will be provided according to the project status.

  12. How Do High School Science Textbooks in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Explain Bioaccumulation-Related Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaccumulation-related concepts are important scientific knowledge, a study on whether high school textbooks include appropriate explanations has not been conducted. The present study investigated science and biology textbooks from Korea, Japan, and the U.S., focusing on how bioaccumulation-related concepts were defined, what types of…

  13. A Framework for Relating Cognitive to Neural Systems. Cognitive Science Program, Technical Report No. 84-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    This paper reviews the aspects of cognitive science that relate best to using electrical and magnetic recording to understand the function of brain systems. It outlines a framework for relating cognitive activities of daily life (typing, reading) to underlying neural systems. The framework uses five levels of analysis: task, elementary operations,…

  14. Sex, grade, and course differences in attitudes that are related to cognitive performance in secondary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, James; Seymour Fowler, H.

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on sexual differences in secondary school students' attitudes towards science. Attitudinal differences were also analyzed for the independent variables of science programs and grade levels. Data were collected from 988 students using a modified version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales to represent attitudes toward science. Reliabilities of the modified science subscales were all high ( > 0.83). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data for the main and interaction effects of the independent variables of sex (male, female), grade level (10th, 11th, 12th), and science program (advanced placement, academic, general, terminal). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were indicated for all main effects (sex, grade, science program). Interaction effects were not found. Mean separations for the various levels of sex, grade, and science program were performed for all attitudinal subscales. Females evidenced a significantly more positive attitude (p 0.01) than males on three subscales: Attitude Toward Success in Science Scale, Science as a Male Domain Scale, and Teacher Scale. Although not significant, males evidenced more positive attitudes on all the remaining five subscales. Eleventh graders evidenced significantly more positive attitudes than tenth graders on all but the Effectance Motivation Scale. Students in 11th grade had more positive attitudes than 12th-grade students on all scales but Science as a Male Domain Scale; however, these differences were not significant. Tenth graders differed significantly from 12th graders on three subscales; Science Usefulness Scale, Confidence in Learning Science Scale, and Teacher Scale. Positive attitudes decreased from advanced placement to terminal programs. Academic students did not differ significantly from general students except on the Father Scale; however, they were significantly different (more positive) from the terminal

  15. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  16. Evaluating a national science and technology program using the human capital and relational asset perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively to patent citation performance. Hence, the authors of this study investigate the qualitative perspective of intellectual capital rather than quantitative technological indices. The current study focuses on both human capital and relational assets through surveys of 53 principal investigators of NTP projects and 63 industrial R&D managers of telecommunications corporations in the Taiwan market. Results show that NSTP member quality and the flow of employment are good indicators of human capital and that both perform better than the middle value in the case of Taiwan NTP. In addition, we find that industrial participants are more likely to share R&D resources than other academic researchers with higher intention of co-publishing, co-funding, and sharing equipment and facilities. The industrial NTP participants also have higher expectations regarding achieving advanced technology breakthroughs in contrast to non-NTP industrial interviewees. Moreover, industrial participants with greater industry-university cooperation intensity indeed obtain a particular advantage, that is, greater knowledge acquisition from other fields related to the effect of knowledge spillovers through the particular NSTP linkage. Accordingly, from the perspectives of human capital and relational assets, the authors conclude by articulating the importance of absorptive capacity resulting from good human capital and knowledge spillover contributed by relational assets within governmental technology policy and NSTP programming. PMID:20193964

  17. 1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as emerging pronucleophiles in asymmetric catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric catalysis represents a very powerful tool for the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. In this context the main focus has been directed not only to the search for new efficient chiral catalysts, but also to the development of efficient pronucleophiles. This review highlights the utility and first examples of 1H-imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as pronucleophiles in catalytic asymmetric reactions. PMID:27340482

  18. Assessment of science-related environmental issues among Venezuelan students, with comparison to United States Student Data

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Arredondo, O.D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study is a comparative investigation of the current level of understanding of science-related environmental issues of students in the United States and Venezuela. Major facets of the study include the following aspects. The principal science-related environmental issues included in environmental curriculum programs in the United States and Venezuela were identified from school curriculum-programs, dissertations, environmental studies of the National Association of Environmental Education in the United States, and the Memoria y Cuenta (Memoirs and Accounts) of the ministries of Education and Environment in Venezuela. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test items pertaining to science-related environmental issues administered to representative United States' students in 1981-1982, were subsequently translated and administered to comparable students in Venezuela, in 1984.

  19. Alternative Conceptions in Biology-Related Topics of Integrated Science Teachers and Implications for Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se Yuen; Yip, Din Yan; Chung, Choi Man

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports a study of the alternative conceptions held by junior secondary science teachers enrolled in an in-service teacher training program. The subjects completed a written instrument which probed their understanding of biological concepts in the integrated science curriculum. The subjects, particularly the nonbiology graduates, were found to show serious misunderstanding in concepts concerning diversity of life, photosynthesis and respiration, reproduction, and detecting the environment. This finding supports the assertion that our science teachers, being graduates in specific areas, are inadequately prepared to teach a broad and balanced junior science curriculum. To strengthen the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical skills of prospective and practicing junior science teachers, a number of provisions are suggested for teacher training programs, undergraduate science courses, and school-based activities.

  20. Experimental Methods to Evaluate Science Utility Relative to the Decadal Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widergren, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The driving factor for competed missions is the science that it plans on performing once it has reached its target body. These science goals are derived from the science recommended by the most current Decadal Survey. This work focuses on science goals in previous Venus mission proposals with respect to the 2013 Decadal Survey. By looking at how the goals compare to the survey and how much confidence NASA has in the mission's ability to accomplish these goals, a method was created to assess the science return utility of each mission. This method can be used as a tool for future Venus mission formulation and serves as a starting point for future development of create science utility assessment tools.

  1. Geological Mapping Uses Landsat 4-5TM Satellite Data in Manlai Soum of Omnogovi Aimag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Author: Bayanmonkh N1, Undram.G1, Tsolmon.R2, Ariunzul.Ya1, Bayartungalag B31 Environmental Research Information and Study Center 2NUM-ITC-UNESCO Space Science and Remote Sensing International Laboratory, National University of Mongolia 3Geology and Hydrology School, Korea University KEY WORDS: geology, mineral resources, fracture, structure, lithologyABSTRACTGeologic map is the most important map for mining when it does exploration job. In Mongolia geological map completed by Russian geologists which is done by earlier technology. Those maps doesn't satisfy for present requirements. Thus we want to study improve geological map which includes fracture, structural map and lithology use Landsat TM4-5 satellite data. If we can produce a geological map from satellite data with more specification then geologist can explain or read mineralogy very easily. We searched all methodology and researches of every single element of geological mapping. Then we used 3 different remote sensing methodologies to produce structural and lithology and fracture map based on geographic information system's softwares. There can be found a visible lithology border improvement and understandable structural map and we found fracture of the Russian geological map has a lot of distortion. The result of research geologist can read mineralogy elements very easy and discovered 3 unfound important elements from satellite image.

  2. Science-related Aspirations Across the Primary-Secondary Divide: Evidence from two surveys in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Students' engagement with science and the numbers pursuing further study of science continue to be a concern among policy-makers, particularly in Western countries. Previous research reflects that most children have positive attitudes to science at age 10 but that, by age 14, attitudes towards and interest in further pursuit of science have declined. The Science Aspirations and Career Choice (ASPIRES) project, a 5-year longitudinal study, seeks to trace and track changes in students' interest in science and in scientific careers over the key period of ages 10-14. Building on an initial survey (consisting primarily of Likert-type items) of over 9,000 children in their last year of primary school, we explore shifts in attitudes and aspirations in science as reflected in a second survey of students from this cohort (over 5,600 students), completed when children were in their second year of secondary school (ages 12-13). Survey findings are supplemented by longitudinal interview data from 85 children. Contrary to previous research, descriptive, multivariate and multi-level modelling (MLM) analyses of the data indicate that the majority of our sample enjoy school science in secondary school and hold positive views of scientists. However, as with the primary school data, these positive attitudes also continue not to translate into an interest in 'being' a scientist. Attention is drawn to the importance of families and student experiences of school science in helping to explain this gap.

  3. University studies science course selection and academic achievement in relation to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauge, Suzanne Elizabeth

    This research conducted at a southern regional university studied general education (University Studies - US) science course selection and academic success in US science in relation to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preference categories (SF, ST, NF and NT). Additionally, differences in type preferences among students with mathematics and/or reading competency were explored. Data was examined for 755 students enrolled in the freshman success seminar course between Fall 1989 and Spring 1995 who had completed the MBTI test as part of that class. US science courses examined were grouped by science study: earth science, biology, chemistry and physics. Academic success was defined as a grade of "C" or higher and proficiency criteria were dictated by the university catalog. The study's nonparametric test results did not find any significant differences between MBTI type preferences and the two main areas of focus, US science course selection and academic success in US science courses. However, significant proportional differences were found between type preferences in relation to student reading competency (sig. = .03), as well as, reading competency and academic success in science (sig. = .04) even though fairly weak relationships existed between the variables with contingency coefficients of .11 and .10 respectively. All other relationships tested proved not significant. Each type's course selection closely reflected the overall sample: Earth Science 52.3%, Biology 34%, Chemistry 7.5% and Physics 6.1%. Nearly one-fifth (19.7%) of the sample were not successful in their selected science course. Less than two-fifths (37.7%) of student sample were not mathematics and/or reading competent. Academically in science intuitive types tended to do better than sensing types and feeling types tended to better than thinking types (NF 2.41, NT 2.36, SF 2.29 and ST 2.23). Further analysis found the TF preference scale contributed more toward the significant differences in reading

  4. Older and wiser? An affective science perspective on age-related challenges in financial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Munnell, Alicia H.; Sass, Steven A.; Dickerson, Brad C.; Wright, Christopher I.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Financial planning decisionss are fundamentally affective in nature; they are decisions related to money, longevity and quality of life. Over the next several decades people will be increasingly responsible for managing their own assets and investments, and they will be subject to the affective influences on active, personal decision-making. Many of these crucial decisions are made and revised across the lifespan, including when to buy or sell a home, how to save for childrens’ education, how to manage healthcare costs, when to retire, how much to save for retirement and how to allocate retirement funds. As average life expectancy increases, many retirees will be faced with inadequate savings to live comfortably until the end of their lives. In the current article, we examine the problems of and potential solutions to inadequate financial planning through the lens of affective science, with an emphasis on how brain-based changes in affective processing with age might contribute to the challenge of financial planning. PMID:20587596

  5. The Axion Dark Matter Experiment: Big Science with a (relatively) Small Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosi, Gianpaolo

    2016-03-01

    The idea of the solitary physicist tinkering alone in a lab was my image of how science was done growing up (mostly influenced by popular culture). Of course this is not generally how experimental physics is done now days with examples of experiments at the LHC now involving thousands of scientists. In this talk I will describe my experience in a relatively modest project, the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), which involves only a few dozen scientists at various universities and national labs. I will outline ADMX's humble beginnings at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where it began in the mid-1990s, and describe how the collaboration has evolved and grown throughout the years, as we pursue our elusive quarry: the dark-matter axion. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  6. Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, C.W.

    1991-02-01

    The activities of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), has a long history and the specific time period supported by this contract is but a small piece of the long-term continuing program. As a background, in August 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima (6 August) and Nagasaki (9 August). Shortly after the bombings, US medical teams joined forces with their Japanese counterparts to form a Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs. As a result of the Joint Commission's investigations, it was determined that consideration should be given to the establishment of a long-term study of the potential late health effects of exposure of the survivors to radiation from the bombs. The results obtained from RERF studies contribute the vast majority of information that provides a better understanding of radiation effects on humans. This information has been used extensively by national organizations and international committees for estimating risks associated with radiation exposures. The estimated risks developed by these independent organizations are used by government agencies around the world to establish standards for protection of individuals exposed in the occupational, medical, and general environment. Some of these results are described briefly in this report.

  7. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  8. Participation in Science and Technology: Young People's Achievement-Related Choices in Late-Modern Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline; Lyons, Terry; Schreiner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Young people's participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is a matter of international concern. Studies and careers that require physical sciences and advanced mathematics are most affected by the problem and women in particular are under-represented in many STEM fields. This article views international research about…

  9. Relation between Classroom Climate and Achievement in Physical Science of Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    R., Smitha; Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the extent of relationship between "Achievement in Physical Science" and "Classroom Climate" for the total sample and Sub sample based on gender. The tools used for collecting the data are scale of classroom climate and achievement test in physical science. The study reveals that boys show indifferent or negligible but…

  10. Turkish Students' Science Performance and Related Factors in PISA 2006 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Arikan, Serkan; Erbilgin, Evrim

    2015-01-01

    The OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) enables participating countries to monitor 15-year old students' progress in reading, mathematics, and science literacy. The present study investigates persistent factors that contribute to science performance of Turkish students in PISA 2006 and PISA 2009. Additionally,…

  11. Whose Science and Whose Religion? Reflections on the Relations between Scientific and Religious Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennan, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Arguments about the relationship between science and religion often proceed by identifying a set of essential characteristics of scientific and religious worldviews and arguing on the basis of these characteristics for claims about a relationship of conflict or compatibility between them. Such a strategy is doomed to failure because science, to…

  12. A Technique for Evaluating the Relationships between Science-Related Attitudes in Secondary-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulski, Richard E.; Raven, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    A study concurrently identified significant relationships between the attitudes of high school students toward nuclear energy, environmental issues, energy concepts, science concepts, space exploration, and metrication topical areas. Surveys indicated there were significant concurrent attitudinal relationships between specific science-related…

  13. Science Career-Related Possible Selves of Adolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Nguyen, Dam

    2003-01-01

    Of 41 female high school graduates of an intensive math/science program, 30 pursued science, math, engineering, or computer careers; 6 maintained initial career aspirations throughout adolescence; 12 chose their current aspiration from initial ones; 8 developed new aspirations; and 15 shifted initial aspirations to new ones. Internships,…

  14. Undergraduate Students' Science-Related Ideas as Embedded in Their Environmental Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored environmental worldviews of selected undergraduate students in Taiwan and located the associations of these worldviews with science. The "environment" is represented as nature or the natural world, as opposed to the social and spiritual world. The participants were undergraduate students (14 science and 15 nonscience…

  15. Instructional Methods within the Elementary-School Science Classroom Related to Improved Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is gap in passing rates on the standardized science assessment between European American and Hispanic American students. The purpose of this study was to examine student performance in science and the closing of the achievement gap between European American and Hispanic American students based upon receipt of an inquiry or noninquiry…

  16. Frequency and Efficacy of Talk-Related Tasks in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin; Leigh, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Pupil talk and discussion are seen as having important social and cognitive outcomes. In science classes, pupils' collaborative talk supports the construction of meaning and helps examine the status of evidence, theory and knowledge. However, pupil interactive talk in groups is rare in science lessons. The research reported is part of a project to…

  17. Towards an Inter-Language of Talking Science: Exploring Students' Argumentation in Relation to Authentic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olander, Clas; Ingerman, Ake

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the idea that learning science involves appropriation of the school-science language and how it manifests in the classroom. This is done through an analysis of peer group discussions in Swedish secondary schools; discussions that served both as an arena for learning and as a research tool. In this arena, the students are…

  18. Analytic Concepts and the Relation Between Content and Process in Science Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward L.

    The interrelation of science content and process is discussed in terms of analytic and systemic concepts. Analytic concepts identify the type or form of systemic concepts found in particular disciplines. In terms of analytic concepts, science processes such as observation, deduction, and prediction can be identified and defined as operations…

  19. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  20. Specific receptor for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeabilized rabbit neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.G.; Spat, A.; Rubin, R.P.

    1986-03-05

    Neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation are resultant, in part, from the mobilization of intracellular calcium by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP/sub 3/), one of the products of chemoattractant-stimulated phospholipase C activity. High specific activity (ca. 40 Ci/mmol) (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ was prepared from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts and was used in binding assays with saponin-permeabilized rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. At 4/sup 0/C and in the presence of inhibitors of the IP/sub 3/ 5-phosphomonoesterase, (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ rapidly associated with a specific binding component which saturated within 60s. Nonspecific binding, taken as the residual binding in the presence of 10 ..mu..M (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/, was 15% of the total. No specific binding was detected using intact cells. The specific binding to permeable cells was reversible (t/sup 1/2/ approx. 60s) and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ (EC/sub 50/ = 30 nM) and by other calcium mobilizing inositol phosphates ((2,4,5)IP/sub 3/) but not by inactive analogs ((1,4)IP/sub 2/, (4,5)IP/sub 2/, (1)IP). The dose-responses of (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ and (2,4,5)IP/sub 3/ in inhibiting (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ specific binding correlated well with their abilities to release Ca/sup 2 +/ from nonmitochondrial vesicular stores in the same preparation of cells, suggesting that the authors have identified the physiological receptor for (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/.

  1. Role of calcium in membrane interactions by PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marina E; Sarmento, Maria J; Fernandes, Fábio

    2014-10-01

    Ca²⁺ and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P₂] are key agents in membrane-associated signalling events. Their temporal and spatial regulation is crucial for activation or recruitment of proteins in the plasma membrane. In fact, the interaction of several signalling proteins with PI(4,5)P₂ has been shown to be tightly regulated and dependent on the presence of Ca²⁺, with co-operative binding in some cases. In these proteins, PI(4,5)P₂ and Ca²⁺ binding typically occurs at different binding sites. In addition, several PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins are known targets of calmodulin (CaM), which, depending on the presence of calcium, can compete with PI(4,5)P₂ for protein interaction, translating Ca²⁺ transient microdomains into variations of PI(4,5)P₂ lateral organization in time and space. The present review highlights different examples of calcium-dependent PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins and discusses the possible impact of this dual regulation on fine-tuning of protein activity by triggering target membrane binding in the presence of subtle changes in the levels of calcium or PI(4,5)P₂. PMID:25233429

  2. QSAR studies on 3-(4-biphenylmethyl) 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] Pyridine derivatives as angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh C

    2015-06-01

    QSAR studies were performed for correlating the chemical composition of 3-(4-biphenylmethyl) 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] pyridines bearing aryl acetic acid esters and acetamides as angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist. Four different quantitative structure-property relationship (QSAR) methods namely two-dimensional (2D-QSAR), group-based QSAR, k-nearest neighbor and Pharmacophore Modeling were employed to obtain statistically significant models. The statistically significant best 2D-QSAR model having correlation coefficient r(2) = 0:8940 and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient q(2) = 0:7648 with external predictive ability of pred_r(2) = 0:8177,pred_r(2)se = 0.4119 and best group-based QSAR model having r(2) = 0:7392 and q(2) = 0:6710with pred_r(2) = 0:7503was developed by SA-principal component regression. The most predictive k-nearest neighbor model derived from the superposition of conformations has good cross-validated q(2) = 0:7637 and satisfied predictive ability r(2)_pred = 0.7143. Continuing with compounds of substituted 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] pyridine derivatives chemical feature-based pharmacophore models with lowest RMSD value (0.3292 Å) consists of two Hac (Hydrogen bond acceptor), negative ionizable, and two AroC (Aromatic) features are important for the activity. The study suggested that substitution of group at R, R 1, R 2 and Ar, and position on 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] pyridine ring with more electronegative nature and low bulkiness are favorable for the antihypertensive activity. These theoretical results may provide a useful reference for understanding the action mechanism and designing potential angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonist. PMID:26215494

  3. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  4. University Curricula in the Marine Sciences and Related Fields, Academic Years 1979-1980, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Sea Grant Program.

    A listing of courses and programs offered by selected universities, colleges, and technical institutions in the United States and Canada is provided to assist students planning careers in the marine sciences and others who need current information on marine-related programs. Institutions included offer programs of at least 25 semester hours in the…

  5. The Use of Programed Chemistry Laboratory Experiments to Accomplish Selected Objectives Related to the Methods of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles Noojin, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the effects of an instructional program would affect the performance of general education chemistry students with respect to objectives related to the methods of science and the degree to which they are effective in simultaneously teaching the descriptive chemistry of certain elements. The mode of…

  6. Teachers Learning from Professional Development in Elementary Science: Reciprocal Relations between Formative Assessment and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Formative assessment, assessment used to inform subsequent learning, can have a powerful positive impact on student achievement, but little empirical work has been conducted to investigate the role of teachers' knowledge in its practice. This study investigated reciprocal relations between elementary science teachers' formative assessment…

  7. A Comparison of Level of Understanding of Eighth-Grade Students and Science Student Teachers Related to Selected Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare level of understanding of eighth-grade students and student teachers in their final year in the science education department related to concepts of solution, gas, and chemical change. A qualitative and quantitative methodology was used for this investigation. Open-ended questions and group…

  8. Task Value Profiles across Subjects and Aspirations to Physical and IT-Related Sciences in the United States and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Angela; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to extend previous research by examining the associations between task value priority patterns across school subjects and aspirations toward the physical and information technology- (IT-) related sciences. Study 1 measured task values of a sample of 10th graders in the United States (N = 249) across (a)…

  9. Unpacking the Complex Relationship between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written…

  10. Generating HRD Related "General Knowledge" from Mode 2 "Design Science" Research: A Cumulative Study of Manager and Managerial Leader Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates how Mode 2 "design science" research can generate HRD related "general knowledge" in support of evidence-based practice. It describes a "derived-etic" study that compares and contrasts the findings of six previous "emic" studies previously carried out within six different public and private/corporate sector organizations in…

  11. EPA'S REANALYSIS OF KEY ISSUES RELATED TO DIOXIN TOXICITY AND RESPONSE TO NAS COMMENTS (VOLUME 1) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 2: Contexts Relating to the Teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)

  12. Relative Evaluation System as an Obstacle to Cooperative Learning: The Views of Lecturers in a Science Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to define the contradiction between cooperative learning, which has an important place in science education, and the relative evaluation system. The fixation of the situation which was done with the data obtained from the literature also has been supported with a semi-structured interview study conducted with eighteen science…

  13. Using More than 10% of Our Brains: Examining Belief in Science-Related Myths from an Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Nader, Ingo W.; Voracek, Martin

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a dearth of research on the transmission and assimilation of myths. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel scale that measures belief in science-related myths. A total of 363 participants completed this new scale along with measures of personality (the Big Five factors), anti-scientific attitudes, and New Age…

  14. University Curricula in the Marine Sciences and Related Fields, Academic Years 1973-1974, 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Council for Science and Technology, Washington, DC. Interagency Committee on Marine Science and Engineering.

    The purpose of this document is to provide students and counselors with a guide to the academic institutions offering courses in the marine sciences. One hundred thirty-eight institutions offering at least 25 semester hours in the marine field are listed both alphabetically and geographically by States. The information relating to each institution…

  15. School-Related Factors Contributing to the Delivery Enhancement of the Special Science Program in Western Visayas, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangcaya, Porferio S.; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, the secondary schools in Western Visayas, Philippines offering special science program (SSP) were assessed as basis for delivery enhancement. The SSP along student-related factors and the extent of implementation in the areas of curriculum and instruction, laboratory facilities, and administration in terms of the…

  16. Student and High-School Characteristics Related to Completing a Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics (STEM) Major in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics…

  17. Lebanese Students' Conceptions of and Attitudes towards Science and Related Careers Based on Their Gender and Religious Affiliations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes and conceptions seem to be influenced by social/cultural contexts and interactions with other students from diverse backgrounds. Therefore, educators need to study attitudes, conceptions, and career choices in relation to diversity indicators. Such was one focus of the Science Education for Diversity project, which involved…

  18. The Views of the Classroom Teacher Candidates Related to the Environmental Science Course and the Environmental Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenice, Nilgun; Saracaloglu, A. Seda; Karacaoglu, O. Cem

    2008-01-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of the "Environmental Science Course" within the curriculum of Classroom Teacher Program in Education Faculty on the environmental sensibilities of the students, and the ideas of the students related to the effectiveness of their environmental education. The research has been performed on…

  19. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  1. 2,3,6-/3,4,5-Trimethyl substituted diaryl carotenoid derivatives (Chlorobiaceae) in petroleums of the Belarussian Pripyat River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, D.J.; Clayton, J.L.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Degradation products of the 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substituted analog of isorenieratene were characterized in Belarussian petroleums. Devonian oils of low maturity were found to contain high concentrations (e.g., 35 mg/g) of C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) along with an abundance of maturation-related compounds. A maturation scheme for diaryl carotenoid (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) precursors was proposed. Diaryl isoprenoids and aryl isoprenoid (2,3,6- and 3,4,5-trimethyl substitutions) contents were found to decrease as a function of maturity. Maturity parameters based on (i) the ratio of two specific C15 aryl isoprenoids and (ii) the ratio of C15 (2,3,6) aryl isoprenoids to C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5) were proposed.Degradation products of the 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substituted analog of isorenieratene were characterized in Belarussian petroleums. Devonian oils of low maturity were found to contain high concentrations (e.g., 35 mg/g) of C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) along with an abundance of maturation-related compounds. A maturation scheme for diaryl carotenoid (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) precursors was proposed. Diaryl isoprenoids and aryl isoprenoid (2,3,6- and 3,4,5-trimethyl substitutions) contents were found to decrease as a function of maturity. Maturity parameters based on (i) the ratio of two specific C15 aryl isoprenoids and (ii) the ratio of C15 (2,3,6) aryl isoprenoids to C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5) were proposed.

  2. Complexation studies on inositol-phosphates: IV. Ca(II) complexes of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, L; Schlewer, G; Spiess, B

    1992-01-01

    The stability constants of the complexes formed between Ca2+ and the myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) were determined by potentiometric titration in two different media and temperature conditions (medium 1: I = 0.1 M But4NBr, 25 degrees C; medium 2: I = 0.2 M KCl, 37 degrees C). Mainly because of the presence of potassium the results obtained in these media show large differences in both the nature and the stability of the complexes. In medium 1, MH2L and M2L species are formed along with the ML and MHL species which also exist in medium 2. In addition, the stability of the latter species decreases by more than one log unit in going from medium 1 to medium 2. In an attempt to assess the biological significance of the metal binding to Ins(1,4,5)P3, the results were compared to the Ca2+-ATP complexes that form in the same media conditions. Taking into account the relative stability of the complexes of both systems, it is likely that the action or metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3 may be influenced by coordination of either alkali or alkali-earth cations. PMID:1588343

  3. Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

  4. General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

  5. 24 CFR 4.5 - Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a). 4.5 Section 4.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  6. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  7. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  8. Phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-Fused Subphthalocyanines: Synthesis, Structure, and Spectroscopic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Houhe; Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Chiming; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-07-01

    A series of four phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-fused subphthalocyanine derivatives 0-3 containing zero, one, two, and three phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline moieties, respectively, were isolated from the mixed cyclotrimerization reaction of 2,9-di-tert-butylphenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-5,6-dicarbonitrile with 4,5-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)phthalonitrile and characterized by a series of spectroscopic methods including MALDI-TOF mass, (1) H NMR, electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular structures for the compounds 0 and 2 were clearly revealed on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their electrochemical properties were also studied by cyclic voltammetry. In particular, theoretical calculations in combination with the electronic absorption and electrochemical analyses revealed the significant influence of the fused-phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline units on the electronic structures. PMID:27123546

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridines: a review.

    PubMed

    Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Zambare, Abhay S; Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Gonjari, Indrajeet; Zaheer, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrothieno pyridine is an important class of heterocyclic nucleus. Various 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for various biological activities in different models with desired findings. Some analogs have shown potent biological activities and may be considered as lead molecule for the development of future drugs. Number of drug molecules are available in the market and many molecules are in clinical development containing 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine nucleus as an important core. This review is an attempt to organize the chemical and biological aspects of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine analogs reported in last 20 year to till date. Review mainly focuses on the important role of the core in synthesis of drug or drug intermediates giving emphasis on synthetic schemes and biological activities of the different 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine analogs. PMID:25373848

  10. Intercalative pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thieno(2,3-b)quinolines induce apoptosis in leukemic cells: a comparative study of methoxy and morpholino substitution.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, M S; Nambiar, Mridula; Advirao, Gopal M; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2011-10-01

    DNA intercalating molecules are promising anticancer agents. Polycyclic aromatic molecules such as ellipticine intercalate into double-stranded DNA and affect major physiological functions. In the present study, we have characterized two molecules with the same chemical backbone but different side chains, namely 8-methoxy pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thieno (2,3-b)quinoline-4(3H)-one (MPTQ) and 4-morpholino pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thieno(2,3-b)quinoline (morpho-PTQ) at the 8th and 4th position, respectively. Although both MPTQ and morpho-PTQ show similar biophysical properties with high DNA affinity, here we show that they differ in their biological activities. We find that MPTQ is many fold more potent than morpho-PTQ and is cytotoxic against different leukemic cell lines. IC(50) value of methoxy PTQ was estimated between 2-15 µM among the leukemic cells studied, while it was more than 200 µM when morpho-PTQ was used. Cell cycle analysis shows an increase in sub-G1 phase, without any particular cell cycle arrest. Annexin V staining in conjunction with comet assay and DNA fragmentation suggest that MPTQ induces cytotoxicity by activating apoptosis. Thus the observed low IC(50) value of MPTQ makes it a promising cancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:20424886

  11. Formation and metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, J L; Dangelmaier, C A; Smith, J B

    1987-01-01

    1. myo-[3H]Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], when added to lysed platelets, was rapidly converted into [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4], which was in turn converted into [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3]. This result demonstrates that platelets have the same metabolic pathways for interconversion of inositol polyphosphates that are found in other cells. 2. Labelling of platelets with [32P]Pi, followed by h.p.l.c., was used to measure thrombin-induced changes in the three inositol polyphosphates. Interfering compounds were removed by a combination of enzymic and non-enzymic techniques. 3. Ins(1,4,5)P3 was formed rapidly, and reached a maximum at about 4 s. It was also rapidly degraded, and was no longer detectable after 30-60 s. 4. Formation of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was almost as rapid as that of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and it remained detectable for a longer time. 5. Ins(1,3,4)P3 was formed after an initial lag, and this isomer reached its maximum, which was 10-fold higher than that of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at 30 s. 6. Comparison of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as measured with fura-2 indicates that agents other than Ins(1,4,5)P3 are responsible for the sustained maintenance of a high concentration of intracellular Ca2+. It is proposed that either Ins(1,3,4)P3 or Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 may also be Ca2+-mobilizing agents. PMID:3499898

  12. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ischebeck, Till; Werner, Stephanie; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Lerche, Jennifer; Meijón, Mónica; Stenzel, Irene; Löfke, Christian; Wiessner, Theresa; Im, Yang Ju; Perera, Imara Y.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Busch, Wolfgang; Boss, Wendy F.; Teichmann, Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Persson, Staffan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. PMID:24326589

  14. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Kruse, Martin; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis; Hille, Bertil

    2016-06-01

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na(+)/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several "physiological" manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells. PMID:27217553

  15. Acoustic Receptivity of Mach 4.5 Boundary Layer with Leading- Edge Bluntness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows where second mode instability is dominant. Computations are performed to investigate the effect of leading-edge thickness and it is found that bluntness tends to stabilize the boundary layer. Furthermore, the relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle.

  16. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  17. Superplasticity and the development of dislocation structures in an Al-4.5% Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Roberts, W.T.; Bate, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical behavior and development of microstructure in tension of an Al-4.5% Mg alloy at temperatures from 450 to 570C and strain rates from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} has been investigated. High strain rate sensitivities, up to m = 0.7, but relatively small elongations, between 120 and 280%, were observed. A single activation energy for deformation, close to reported values for self diffusion in aluminium, was obtained over the temperature and strain rate range used, and the strain rate and stress could be related using a hyperbolic sine function at constant strain. Tensile specimens were quenched and aged under stress to preserve the dislocation structures for examination by transmission electron microscopy. The dislocation structures observed showed a gradual and systematic change between regimes of power law creep at higher strain rates and diffusional creep at lower strain rates, and in the superplastic regime there was a tendency for small grains to be free of dislocations. Many of the dislocations had Burgers vectors inclined at about 45{degree} to the stress axis, which suggests that they were active directly in response to the applied stress rather than as the result of a relaxation process accommodating grain boundary sliding.

  18. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-12-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  19. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

  20. Investigating Undergraduate Students' Science Literacy: Responses Related to Radiation and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Nieberding, M.; Romine, J.

    2015-11-01

    This study is part of a larger one investigating undergraduate students' science literacy. Over the past 25 years we have been investigating undergraduate students' basic science knowledge as well as beliefs and attitudes towards science and technology. Data has been collected from almost 12,000 students, mostly freshman and sophomore students and mostly non-STEM majors. This paper presents findings of two open ended questions that probe students' understanding of radiation and DNA. Each open ended question was coded using a scheme developed from existing literature and emergent themes. Analyses revealed that STEM students are better able to correctly describe radiation and had fewer misconceptions. Many students mentioned chemical characteristics and functions of DNA although a substantial number of students reported common misconceptions or trivial responses. Our results add to our existing work to help us understand how to better support students' learning in our undergraduate courses.

  1. RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-07-29

    Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

  2. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  3. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAh, a small noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yutaka; Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    4.5S RNAh is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAh is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAh-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAhin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAh-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAh recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAh was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. PMID:17971306

  4. [Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should include standards related to acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Tian, Kaiyu

    2016-03-01

    The development of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should be in accord with the trend of standardization and internationalization of the science of acupuncture and moxibustion. Based on the arrangement of chapters and sections in the textbook, 29 national standards, 6 standards or guidelines made by World Health Or- ganization(WHO) and 1 standard out of International Standardization Organization (ISO) are classified and intro- duced. It is suggested that the above contents should be considered as the evidence when the textbook is reedited. Also, it is proposed that humanization should be supplemented and the newest research findings should be traced. PMID:27344845

  5. All the king's horses and 2,4,5-T was the best tool of all; yet 2,4,5-T had a very great fall. All of the facts midst all of the din couldn't put T back together again

    SciTech Connect

    Walstad, J.D.; Dost, F.N.

    1986-09-01

    On January 30 and February 11, 1985, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) canceled the use of 2,4,5-T and of silvex, a chemical analog of 2,4,5-T. These actions climaxed the most controversial and turbulent period in the history of forest pest management. Beginning in 1969, stories about 2,4,5-T safety generated intense social activism, litigation, and sometimes violence. Foresters, farmers, ranchers, politicians, manufacturers, environmentalists, scientists, regulatory officials, and local citizens entered the debate. The role of government in pesticide regulation and the integrity of industry and science were being challenged. Although 2,4,5-T and silvex are no longer used, questions remain. Were the ultimate decisions the result of scientific evidence and analysis, or were they a response to public opinion that with all the smoke there must be fire somewhere. Can forestry professionals help the nation avoid controversies of this nature in the future.

  6. LPS-induced clustering of CD14 triggers generation of PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Płóciennikowska, Agnieszka; Zdioruk, Mykola I; Traczyk, Gabriela; Świątkowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-15

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions after sequential binding to CD14 protein and TLR4 receptor. Here, we show that CD14 controls generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in response to LPS binding. In J774 cells and HEK293 cells expressing CD14 exposed to 10-100 ng/ml LPS, the level of PI(4,5)P2 rose in a biphasic manner with peaks at 5-10 min and 60 min. After 5-10 min of LPS stimulation, CD14 underwent prominent clustering in the plasma membrane, accompanied by accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and type-I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms Iα and Iγ (encoded by Pip5k1a and Pip5k1c, respectively) in the CD14 region. Clustering of CD14 with antibodies, without LPS and TLR4 participation, was sufficient to trigger PI(4,5)P2 elevation. The newly generated PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in rafts, which also accommodated CD14 and a large portion of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ. Silencing of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ, or application of drugs interfering with PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and availability, abolished the LPS-induced PI(4,5)P2 elevation and inhibited downstream pro-inflammatory reactions. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS induces clustering of CD14, which triggers PI(4,5)P2 generation in rafts that is required for maximal pro-inflammatory signaling of TLR4. PMID:26446256

  7. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  8. A series of 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazole: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Vinay S.; Shaikh, Saminaparwin G.; Patel, Arun L.

    2016-06-01

    A new series of 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole were synthesized with good yields using simple methodology. All the compounds were thoroughly characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry and structures of 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyloxazole (5b) and 4,5-dimethyl-2-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)oxazole(5e) were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidently, the crystal structures of these compounds showed C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions. The electronic structures of these compounds were also studied by DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ++ level of theory.

  9. Enantioselective synthesis and antioxidant activity of 3,4,5-substituted piperidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ho; Shyam, Pranab K; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jeong Tae; Jang, Hye-Young

    2016-07-01

    In this study, 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines were synthesized enantioselectively, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines containing TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and a spatially proximal hydroxy group showed good antioxidant activity. Some of these compounds showed IC50 values in a nanomolar range, comparable to that of TEMPO. Probably the TEMPO generated from the homolysis of the CON bond of 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines functions as a radical-scavenging entity, and the hydroxy group of piperidines has a synergistic effect to the antioxidant activity. PMID:27177825

  10. Energetic Trinitro- and Fluorodinitroethyl Ethers of 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Parrish, Damon A; Mitchell, Lauren

    2016-07-18

    Several new energetic ethyl ethers of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine have been synthesized. These molecules display good thermal stability, good oxygen balance, and high densities. Included in these studies are a 2,2,2-trinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and two fluorodinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazines. One of these compounds was converted into the di-N-oxide derivative. The sensitivity of these materials towards destructive stimuli was determined, and overall the materials show promising energetic performance properties. PMID:27273564

  11. A Prime Assessment for Black Colleges: Role of Blacks in the Sciences and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Herman

    1978-01-01

    This article examines the need for blacks in science and engineering. From a review of the history of blacks as objects of scientific study from the 1790s to the present a better grasp of the problems confronting blacks can be gained by examining two fields: genetics and psychology. In genetic research on blacks, the results are used not by…

  12. Are Students' Performances in Labs Related to Their Performances in Lecture Portions of Introductory Science Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author examined how attendance in the lab is associated with students' lab grades and overall course grades in an introductory biology course. Results from this study indicate that academic motivation, as expressed by high rates of class attendance, is critical to students' success in introductory science courses. The highest…

  13. Dynamic Variables of Science Classroom Discourse in Relation to Teachers' Instructional Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines if the occurrence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers' instructional beliefs. Twelve 4th grade teachers from two different schools volunteered to participate in the study. Data was collected through…

  14. English-Language Sources for Reference Questions Related to Soviet Science (With an Emphasis on Chemistry).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Gary

    The vast majority of science librarians and chemists in the United States do not have a sufficient command of the Russian language to effectively utilize Russian scientific literature in the original. Nevertheless, it is both desirable and necessary that the scientific community keep aware of developments in the Soviet Union. To meet this need, a…

  15. Women in Community College: Factors Related to Intentions to Pursue Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…

  16. Factors Related to Secondary School Students' Attitudes to Science in Benue State of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ato, Tortiv; Wilkinson, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Attitude measures were developed to examine relationships between attitudes toward science and selected variables (school type, location, ownership; sex and age of students; and year of study--Third/Fourth Form). Among results reported are those indicating that boys have more favorable attitudes than girls and boys' attitudes are affected by…

  17. Argumentation as/in/for Dialogical Relation: A Case Study from Elementary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation as a form of introducing children to science has received increasing attention over the past decade. Argumentation tends to be studied and theorized through the lens of individual speakers, who contribute to a conversation by means of opposing statements. M.M. Bakhtin and L.S. Vygotsky independently proposed a very different approach…

  18. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  19. Textbook Use in the Sciences and Its Relation to Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michelle; Taverna, Franco; Neumann, Melody; Paulo Kushnir, Lena; Harlow, Jason; Harrison, David; Serbanescu, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    There are limited studies with conflicting results examining textbook use and student performance at the university level. To learn more, we surveyed instructors and over one thousand students in 12 undergraduate introductory science courses. The majority (77%) of the students reported reading the textbook either "often" (>75% of the…

  20. Chinese Students' Science-Related Experiences: Comparison of the ROSE Study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite…

  1. Evaluating a National Science and Technology Program Using the Human Capital and Relational Asset Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively…

  2. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  3. Personal, Informal and Relatable: Engaging Wide Audiences in Climate Science with Nasa's Earth Right Now Blog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, L. F.; Shaftel, H.; Jackson, R.

    2014-12-01

    There is no such thing as a non-scientist, but there are some who have yet to acknowledge their inner science spark. Aiming to ignite and fan the flame of curiosity, promote dialogue and attempt to make climate science personal and relevant to everyday life, NASA's Global Climate Change website http://climate.nasa.gov/ and Earth Right Now campaign http://www.nasa.gov/content/earth-right-now/ partnered together this year to launch the Earth Right Now blog http://climate.nasa.gov/blog. It quickly became one of the most popular blogs in all of NASA social media, receiving thousands of likes per week, and frequent comments as well as thoughtful and respectful discussions about climate change. Social media platforms such as blogs have become popular vehicles for engaging large swaths of the public in new exciting ways. NASA's Earth Right Now blog has become a powerful platform for engaging both scientists and the science-curious in constructive, fruitful conversations about the complex topic of climate science. We continue to interact and have ongoing dialogue with our readers by making the scientific content both accessible and engaging for diverse populations.

  4. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and Proportional Relations in Early Secondary-School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the "epiSTEMe" project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed…

  5. Conceptual Problems in Biology-Related Topics in Primary Science and Technology Textbooks in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikmenli, Musa; Cardak, Osman; Oztas, Fulya

    2009-01-01

    Determination of conceptual problems which may cause alternative conceptions in science and technology textbooks is significant to increase in success of pupils and teachers. It is a vital issue to arrange books in a way removing or decreasing these faults in order to improve a better education via textbooks. This study aims to determine…

  6. Studying Learners and Assessing Learning: A Process-Relational Perspective on the Learning Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Yam San

    2010-01-01

    The field of the learning sciences appears to favor cognitive and social approaches to the study of human learning. In this article, the author proposes that a deep cognizance of cultural influences on learning is vital if formal and informal learning are to make vital connections to learners' lives and their personal need for meaning making in…

  7. Science Fair Projects Bring It All Together: Collaboration, Information Literacy, and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of school library media specialists in helping students with science fair projects. Topics include selecting a topic; reviewing basic library resources, including print and electronic; remote access to databases; locating information on the Web; word processing and presentation software; and relevant Web sites. (LRW)

  8. Patterns of Response Times and Response Choices to Science Questions: The Influence of Relative Processing Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student "misconceptions," and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics…

  9. Student Reactions to Materials Relating to the Social Sciences in a Third Semester College Spanish Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The problem of evaluating instructional materials in foreign language courses in terms of educational relevance is examined in this survey of a third-semester, college, Spanish class. Students were given reading materials in the social sciences in lieu of the more traditional literary selections and asked to evaluate them through an attitudinal…

  10. Factors Related to Students' Engaged Reading in High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa-Angrino, Solanlly

    2012-01-01

    Using emergent motivation theory, this study analyzes the relationships between high school students' perceptions of their reading skills, task challenge, and personal control over assigned reading activities and their reading engagement (i.e., interest, enjoyment, and concentration) during science instruction. The study also examines how…

  11. Students and School Characteristics Related to Elementary School Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Ertepinar, Hamide; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgul; Çakir, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate student- and school-level factors that help to explain the difference in the nature of science (NOS) views. Overall, the design of this study is correlational. The sample consisted of 3062 students enrolled in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades of elementary schools in Turkey. A hierarchical linear…

  12. 2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl-lipoprotein (LDL, HDL, VLDL) interaction and induced lipidosis in cultured skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, D.; Becker, M.M.; Kruth, H.S.; Gamble, W.

    1984-06-01

    2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) induced cytoplasmic inclusions and lipidosis in normal (AG1437) and hypercholesterolemic (GM488) human skin fibroblasts. Quantitative and qualitative microscopic fluorescence analysis showed that the cytoplasmic inclusions are formed as early as 3 hr after treatment with HCB. The inclusions contain lipids but no detectable nonesterified cholesterol or cholesteryl ester. High density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) facilitate the apparent uptake of HCB by skin fibroblasts. HDL and LDL appeared to reverse the induction of cytoplasmic inclusions and lipidosis when cells were pretreated with HCB, the HCB was removed from media, and the cells were incubated with LDL or HDL. The results suggest that lipoproteins participate in the uptake and egress of HCB from skin fibroblasts.

  13. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  14. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  15. Earth Science and Public Health: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. As the Nation?s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the USGS can play a significant role in providing scientific knowledge and information that will improve our understanding of the relations of environment and wildlife to human health and disease. USGS human health-related research is unique in the Federal government because it brings together a broad spectrum of natural science expertise and information, including extensive data collection and monitoring on varied landscapes and ecosystems across the Nation. USGS can provide a great service to the public health community by synthesizing the scientific information and knowledge on our natural and living resources that influence human health, and by bringing this science to the public health community in a manner that is most useful. Partnerships with health scientists and managers are essential to the success of these efforts. USGS scientists already are working closely with the public health community to pursue rigorous inquiries into the connections between natural science and public health. Partnering agencies include the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Mine Safety and Health Administration, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public Health Service, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Collaborations between public

  16. The attitudes and beliefs of a female science teacher: Implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara

    In this case study of a female science teacher named Laura, numerous observations, field notes, researcher interpretations, and assertions were developed. As meanings were negotiated, intent of actions was defined using significant statements, clustered to produce invariant meaning units. Both the participant's intents and how she interpreted her experiences were central to the understandings sought in this study. Whenever Laura planned for teaching science, taught, or otherwise interacted with students, the following four themes seemed to frame her actions: (1) Responsibility to Nurture/Mother/Mentor (2) Connecting to and Relating (3) Meeting Gender-Specific Expectations (4) Promoting the Fighter/Survivor Within. Each theme is examined in relation to attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science, and conclusions and assertions are expressed. The findings of this study point to the tensions between Laura's attitudes and beliefs and her pedagogical practices, disconfirming these as they pertain to gender in relation to teaching and learning science. It was not evident as part of her daily practice that student experiences were used in an attempt to create connections between their lives and science, although Laura always emphasized that science is a way of life. The findings support questioning the role of intentionality and a teacher's perceived ability to adhere to intentions while practicing within the norms established by the social institution of schools operating within the larger structures of society. The major findings and implications are relevant to the manner teachers are prepared and encouraged to enact their practice by departments and boards of education, prepared by institutions of higher education and subsequent participation in professional development. Specifically, calling attention to how these educational frameworks emphasize or de-emphasize the role of teachers and promote cognizance in terms of the culture of schools, reflective

  17. The Globally increasing digital divide: A challenge for the International Science Unions, Sciences Foundations and Education as well as for Cimatic and related Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G.

    2003-04-01

    Today the "digital divide" for scientific and technological information increases globally not only in the not highly industrialised nation states. Information can be accumulated, but human life-time and attention not. Most of the International Scientific Unions and Science Foundations now begin to contribute to a reduction of this digital divide, e.g. through "peer reviewed open access e-publishing"; inevitable also because of the fast increasing costs of commercially provided scientific literature. It implies the support of a further step, summarised under the term "further development of interactive dynamic flexible interfaces" - e.g. on CDs - providing specific optimised search -, e-editing -, and e-archiving tools with text indexing (thesaurus). It should be accompanied by a substantial increase of competence of "local" data producer and user. This can be realised by the described ADLATUS concept. Participation of and supplementary contributions from competent, small and/or middle size, flexible enterprises, e.g. like Copernicus GmbH or similar institutions, inevitably will and must play a much stronger role. Similar applies for local data users and producers ranging from elementary school to universities and research organizations. A good example for effectively supporting the decrease of the digital divide can be found under http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/index.html . Practical "local" co-operative learning-teaching and research teams will contribute to a reduction of the "local" incompetence and thus increase a qualified information search and archiving capability. Without this supplementary step the above mentioned reduction of the digital divide will soon be changed into a further increase causing not only more lack of actual information but also information refusal and "deformation". In context with bigger, complexer, more centralised, and faster changing "systems" also the risk of their malfunction and collapse increases. The less industrialised the

  18. On the contribution of stereochemistry to human ITPK1 specificity: Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 is not a physiologic substrate.

    PubMed

    Riley, Andrew M; Deleu, Sandrine; Qian, Xun; Mitchell, Jennifer; Chung, Sung-Kee; Adelt, Stephan; Vogel, Günter; Potter, Barry V L; Shears, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, a biologically active cell constituent, was recently advocated as a substrate of human Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 1-kinase (hITPK1), because stereochemical factors were believed relatively unimportant to specificity [Miller, G.J., Wilson, M.P., Majerus, P.W. and Hurley, J.H. (2005) Specificity determinants in inositol polyphosphate synthesis: crystal structure of inositol 1,3,4-triphosphate 5/6-kinase. Mol. Cell. 18, 201-212]. Contrarily, we provide three examples of hITPK1 stereospecificity. hITPK1 phosphorylates only the 1-hydroxyl of both Ins(3,5,6)P3 and the meso-compound, Ins(4,5,6)P3. Moreover, hITPK1 has >13,000-fold preference for Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 over its enantiomer, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4. The biological significance of hITPK1 being stereospecific, and not physiologically phosphorylating Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, is reinforced by our demonstrating that Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 is phosphorylated (K(m) = 0.18 microM) by inositolphosphate-multikinase. PMID:16376887

  19. Application of preprocessing filtering on Decision Tree C4.5 and rough set theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Joseph C. C.; Lin, Tsau Y.

    2001-03-01

    This paper compares two artificial intelligence methods: the Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory on the stock market data. The Decision Tree C4.5 is reviewed with the Rough Set Theory. An enhanced window application is developed to facilitate the pre-processing filtering by introducing the feature (attribute) transformations, which allows users to input formulas and create new attributes. Also, the application produces three varieties of data set with delaying, averaging, and summation. The results prove the improvement of pre-processing by applying feature (attribute) transformations on Decision Tree C4.5. Moreover, the comparison between Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory is based on the clarity, automation, accuracy, dimensionality, raw data, and speed, which is supported by the rules sets generated by both algorithms on three different sets of data.

  20. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Platen, Mitja; Junius, Meike; Diederichsen, Ulf; Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Honigmann, Alf; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a minor component of total plasma membrane lipids, but it has a substantial role in the regulation of many cellular functions, including exo- and endocytosis. Recently, it was shown that PI(4,5)P2 and syntaxin 1, a SNARE protein that catalyzes regulated exocytosis, form domains in the plasma membrane that constitute recognition sites for vesicle docking. Also, calcium was shown to promote syntaxin 1 clustering in the plasma membrane, but the molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, using a combination of superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, FRET, and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ca2+ acts as a charge bridge that specifically and reversibly connects multiple syntaxin 1/PI(4,5)P2 complexes into larger mesoscale domains. This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca2+ concentrations is likely to be important for Ca2+-regulated secretion. PMID:26884341

  1. 4,5-Dimethylangelicin effects on lymphocytes with and without UV-radiation.

    PubMed

    Gast, W; Rytter, M; Hofmann, C; Haustein, U F; Barth, J; Walther, T

    1987-03-01

    Compared to the linear derivative 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) the angular structured furocoumarin 4,5'-dimethylangelicin (4,5'-DMA) causes smaller photosensitization effects (loss of viability, inhibition of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation rate and E-rosette formation of T-cells, respectively) on cultured human lymphocytes. When 4,5'-DMA or 8-MOP are added to the cultures without additional UV-irradiation, increased or decreased PHA-stimulation rates are observed, respectively. In addition, 4,5'-DMA is able to reduce the binding of sheep erythrocytes to lymphocytes in a higher degree than 8-MOP. These findings suggest different action mechanisms on cytoplasma membranes and intracellular structures of lymphocytes by different furocoumarins. PMID:3653385

  2. The Students' Views Related to the Given Homeworks in the Science and Technology Courses: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci, Isa; Onder, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study has been created as a qualitative search related the given homeworks in the science and technology courses in order to examine the students' views. The sample consists of 1,539 7th- and 8th- grade students in the city centre of Osmaniye. The search data is obtained from by using five open-ended questions. In the analysis of the data,…

  3. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  4. Csátalja, the largest H4-5 chondrite from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, János; Sajó, István; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Jáger, Viktor; Hegedüs, Tibor; Berecz, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Gyenizse, Péter; Podobni, András

    2015-01-01

    We report here for the first time the composition and mineralogical studies on a new meteorite, which was found in August 2012 near the village of Csátalja, Hungary (46°0'21''N; 18°59'27'E). The Csátalja meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S2 and a degree of weathering W1 and the total mass is 15 kg. The Csátalja meteorite is characterized by well-defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. X-ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, kamacite, and albite. Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth taenite/kamacite. Raman spectra of forsterite indicate that Csátalja meteorite suffered from relatively low shock pressure regime. The texture of chondrules varies from nonporphyritic (e.g., barred olivine, radial pyroxene) to porphyritic ones (e.g., granular olivine as well as olivine pyroxene). The meteorite name has not yet approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society.

  5. Future Climate Data from RCP 4.5 and Occurrence of Malaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001–2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future. PMID:25321875

  6. Future climate data from RCP 4.5 and occurrence of malaria in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001-2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future. PMID:25321875

  7. Synthesis of New Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines as Corticotropin Releasing Factor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Kuppast, Bhimanna; Spyridaki, Katerina; Lynch, Christophina; Hu, Yueshan; Liapakis, George; Davies, Gareth E.; Fahmy, Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that plays a crucial role in integrating the body’s overall response to stress. It appears necessary and sufficient for the organism to mount functional, physiological and endocrine responses to stressors. CRF is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress. The role of CRF and its involvement in these neurological disorders suggest that new drugs that can target the CRF function or bind to its receptors may represent a new development of neuropsychiatric medicines to treat various stress-related disorders including depression, anxiety and addictive disorders. Based on pharmacophore of the CRF1 receptor antagonists, a new series of thiazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidines were synthesized as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor modulators and the prepared compounds carry groups shown to produce optimum binding affinity to CRF receptors. Twenty two compounds were evaluated for their CRF1 receptor binding affinity in HEK 293 cell lines and two compounds 5o and 5s showed approximately 25% binding affinity to CRF1 receptors. Selected compounds (5c and 5f) were also evaluated for their effect on expression of genes associated with depression and anxiety disorders such as CRF1, CREB, MAO-A, SERT, NPY, DatSLC6a3, and DBH and significant upregulation of CRF1 mRNA has been observed with compound 5c. PMID:25059547

  8. Intracellular localization of human Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Maria A.; Schenk, Tobias M. H.; Zhou, Xuefei; Fanick, Werner; Lin, Hongying; Windhorst, Sabine; Nalaskowski, Marcus M.; Kobras, Mario; Shears, Stephen B.; Mayr, Georg W.

    2007-01-01

    InsP6 is an intracellular signal with several proposed functions that is synthesized by IP5K [Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase]. In the present study, we overexpressed EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein)–IP5K fusion proteins in NRK (normal rat kidney), COS7 and H1299 cells. The results indicate that there is spatial microheterogeneity in the intracellular localization of IP5K that could also be confirmed for the endogenous enzyme. This may facilitate changes in InsP6 levels at its sites of action. For example, overexpressed IP5K showed a structured organization within the nucleus. The kinase was preferentially localized in euchromatin and nucleoli, and co-localized with mRNA. In the cytoplasm, the overexpressed IP5K showed locally high concentrations in discrete foci. The latter were attributed to stress granules by using mRNA, PABP [poly(A)-binding protein] and TIAR (TIA-1-related protein) as markers. The incidence of stress granules, in which IP5K remained highly concentrated, was further increased by puromycin treatment. Using FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) we established that IP5K was actively transported into the nucleus. By site-directed mutagenesis we identified a nuclear import signal and a peptide segment mediating the nuclear export of IP5K. PMID:17705785

  9. Synthesis of new thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines as Corticotropin releasing factor modulators.

    PubMed

    Kuppast, Bhimanna; Spyridaki, Katerina; Lynch, Christophina; Hu, Yueshan; Liapakis, George; Davies, Gareth E; Fahmy, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that plays a crucial role in integrating the body's overall response to stress. It appears necessary and sufficient for the organism to mount functional, physiological and endocrine responses to stressors. CRF is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress. The role of CRF and its involvement in these neurological disorders suggest that new drugs that can target the CRF function or bind to its receptors may represent a new development of neuropsychiatric medicines to treat various stress-related disorders including depression, anxiety and addictive disorders. Based on pharmacophore of the CRF1 receptor antagonists, a new series of thiazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidines were synthesized as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor modulators and the prepared compounds carry groups shown to produce optimum binding affinity to CRF receptors. Twenty two compounds were evaluated for their CRF1 receptor binding affinity in HEK 293 cell lines and two compounds 5o and 5s showed approximately 25% binding affinity to CRF1 receptors. Selected compounds (5c and 5f) were also evaluated for their effect on expression of genes associated with depression and anxiety disorders such as CRF1, CREB1, MAO-A, SERT, NPY, DatSLC6a3, and DBH and significant upregulation of CRF1 mRNA has been observed with compound 5c. PMID:25059547

  10. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRANS-4,5-DIHYDROXY-4,5-DIHYDROBENZO[A]PYRENE TO BENZO[A]PYRENE-BIS-DIOLS AND DNA ADDUCTS BY INDUCED RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of (+)-trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol), the K-region dihydrodiol of B[a]P, by B-naphthoflavone (BNF)-induced rat liver microsomes was studied. Trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol was metabolized to six major products as characterized by...

  11. Signal-dependent Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate without Activation of Phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Shaya; Katz, Ben; Tzarfaty, Vered; Minke, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade, couples photo-excitation of rhodopsin to the opening of the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels. A lipid product of PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), and its metabolites, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may function as second messengers of channel activation. However, how can one separate between the increase in putative second messengers, change in pH, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) depletion when exploring the TRPL gating mechanism? To answer this question we co-expressed the TRPL channels together with the muscarinic (M1) receptor, enabling the openings of TRPL channels via G-protein activation of PLC. To dissect PLC activation of TRPL into its molecular components, we used a powerful method that reduced plasma membrane-associated PI(4,5)P2 in HEK cells within seconds without activating PLC. Upon the addition of a dimerizing drug, PI(4,5)P2 was selectively hydrolyzed in the cell membrane without producing DAG, inositol trisphosphate, or calcium signals. We show that PI(4,5)P2 is not an inhibitor of TRPL channel activation. PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis combined with either acidification or application of DAG analogs failed to activate the channels, whereas PUFA did activate the channels. Moreover, a reduction in PI(4,5)P2 levels or inhibition of DAG lipase during PLC activity suppressed the PLC-activated TRPL current. This suggests that PI(4,5)P2 is a crucial substrate for PLC-mediated activation of the channels, whereas PUFA may function as the channel activator. Together, this study defines a narrow range of possible mechanisms for TRPL gating. PMID:22065576

  12. Family suffering related to war experiences: an interpretative synopsis review of the literature from a caring science perspective.

    PubMed

    Isovaara, Sten; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a synopsis review of findings from families' experiences related to combat and war events and to interpret these findings from the perspective of theories of suffering. The method used in the study was a synopsis review of 12 articles dealing with family suffering related to war or combat experiences and an interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective. Findings from the synopsis review were that the dominant part of the articles viewed suffering in general and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in particular from a medical, psychiatric or psychologically behaviouristic perspective. PTSD and other distress-related conditions were mainly described in terms of their symptoms and dealt with in terms of pathology. The interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective generated three significant themes: first, interdependence as a spiritual dimension of dependence, secondly, familial communion as sharing moral and spiritual values and thirdly, familial suffering visualized by compassion. The study's conclusion is that, from a caring science perspective, the appearance of family suffering should be comprehended in terms of expressed compassion and that any disturbance within familial communion is likely to have an emotional impact on all of the family members, as a result of their interdependence. PMID:16922977

  13. Localized Biphasic Changes in Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate at Sites of Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Roberto J.; Teruel, Mary; Dierckman, Renee; Anderson, Richard; Wells, Alan; York, John D.; Meyer, Tobias; Grinstein, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Phagocytosis requires localized and transient remodeling of actin filaments. Phosphoinositide signaling is believed to play an important role in cytoskeletal organization, but it is unclear whether lipids, which can diffuse along the membrane, can mediate the focal actin assembly required for phagocytosis. We used imaging of fluorescent chimeras of pleckstrin homology and C1 domains in live macrophages to monitor the distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (4,5-PIP2) and diacylglycerol, respectively, during phagocytosis. Our results reveal a sequence of exquisitely localized, coordinated steps in phospholipid metabolism: a focal, rapid accumulation of 4,5-PIP2 accompanied by recruitment of type Iα phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase to the phagosomal cup, followed by disappearance of the phosphoinositide as the phagosome seals. Loss of 4,5-PIP2 correlated with mobilization of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) and with the localized formation of diacylglycerol. The presence of 4,5-PIP2 and active PLCγ at the phagosome was shown to be essential for effective particle ingestion. The temporal sequence of phosphoinositide metabolism suggests that accumulation of 4,5-PIP2 is involved in the initial recruitment of actin to the phagocytic cup, while its degradation contributes to the subsequent cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:11134066

  14. Analysis and risk assessment of 4(5)-methylimidazole in brown colored foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) levels in various 144 brown coloured foods and beverages were determined. The brown coloured foods and beverages were 62 processed sauces, 40 coffee, 9 caramel syrups, 18 red ginseng juice and 15 Japanese apricot fruit juice. The amount of 4(5)-MI in brewed coffee (1821.3 ng/g) was the highest level among the samples. The 4(5)-MI concentration in processed sauce (47.6 ng/g) was the lowest level among the samples. The levels of 4(5)-MI in various samples were found as follows: 47.6-1748.5 ng/g in processed sauces, 64.1-1821.3 ng/g in commercial coffee, 115.5-491.9 ng/g in caramel syrups, 91.0-854.1 ng/g in red ginseng juice and 137.6-587.4 ng/g in Japanese apricot fruit juice. Based on the 4(5)-MI levels, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and chronic daily intake (CDI) were calculated. EDI and CDI of red ginseng juice was the highest among all samples, and they were 1618.6 and 1256.8 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. PMID:26653824

  15. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured in the Ground Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond George; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-06-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2/CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 2015/2016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. In this work we focus on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test.The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements will be compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI.Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters/source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.The data, the reduction steps and the resulting cross calibration are presented.

  16. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  17. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-03-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  18. 1H-Imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline derivatives as novel potent TNF-alpha suppressors: synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 1-, 2-and 4-substituted 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines or 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Tomoyuki; Sakaguchi, Jun; Takeshita, Makoto; Tawara, Harumi; Kato, Ken-ichi; Dose, Hitomi; Tsujino, Tomomi; Watanabe, Yoshinari; Kato, Hideo

    2003-06-12

    Structural modification of imiquimod (1), which is known as an interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) inducer, for the aim of finding a novel and small-molecule tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) suppressor and structure-activity relationship (SAR) are described. Structural modification of a imiquimod analogue, 4-amino-1-[2-(1-benzyl-4-piperidyl)ethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline (2), which had moderate TNF-alpha suppressing activity without IFN-alpha inducing activity, led to a finding of 4-chloro-2-phenyl-1-[2-(4-piperidyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline (10) with potent TNF-alpha suppressing activity. The relation between conformational direction of 2-(4-piperidyl)ethyl group at position 1 and TNF-alpha suppressing activity is also demonstrated by NMR. PMID:12757722

  19. Stretch increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Felix, J A; Woodruff, M L; Dirksen, E R

    1996-03-01

    Mechanical stimulation of airway epithelial cells with a microprobe leads to an increase in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] that appears to be due, in part, to release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores (Boitano et al., Science 258:292[1992]). To investigate whether intracellular IP3 concentration ([IP3]i) increases in response to mechanical stimulation, we grew confluent monolayers from rabbit tracheal mucosal explants on flexible substrates and measured [IP3]i after stretching the substrate. The effect of stretch on [IP3]i was measured in the presence of Li+, an inhibitor of IP3 degradation. In unstretched cells, IP3 measured approximately 5.1 pmol/10(6) cells, from which we estimated [IP3]i to be 1.8 microM. Addition of Li+ had no effect on resting [IP3]i. When the flexible cell support was stretched to increase its surface area by 13%, mean [IP3]i increased about 3-fold with a half-time of approximately 1 s. The increased [IP3]i was maintained in a plateau phase for approximately 8 s and then decayed to near the unstretched level over the next 10 s, despite the sustained application of stretch. A transient stretch (0.5 s) induced a similar rate of increase and peak [IP3]i; however, [IP3]i subsided without a plateau phase. The magnitude of the [IP3]i increase was proportional to stimulus intensity between 0 and 13% increase in substrate surface area. In addition, dissociated airway epithelial cells were exposed to hypotonic solution to induce cell swelling. [IP3]i increased about 4-fold above control levels after 10 s of exposure to hypotonic solution. Basal [IP3]i of dissociated cells in isotonic solution was estimated to be 0.7 microM. These results are consistent with mechanical stimulation leading to phospholipase C synthesis of IP3, which mediates intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:8845181

  20. The 18 May 2012 (Ms 4.5) Chapala Lake, Jalisco, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The central part of Jalisco, Mexico has experienced at different times the occurrence of low magnitude earthquakes series. Although the effect of these earthquakes have been limited to relatively small areas have caused general alarm within the population and even in some cases true catastrophes (e.g. San Cristobal 1875). These groups of earthquakes that have lasted for weeks and even months have greater importance because they affect the most populous state area including the capital city of Guadalajara. An extraordinary example of these series of earthquakes occurred on 8 may 1912 that lasted until September. In the first 18 days 64 events were felt by residents of Guadalajara. Since then, there has been a relative seismic activity calm in the region. This paper analyzes the earthquake of May 18, 2012 (03:07 UT) occurred at the West edge of Lake Chapala. While it's an event of low magnitude (4.5 Ms) it has the importance of having occurred just 60 km to the South of Guadalajara and for which instrumental data of first quality is available. The focus of the earthquake was located at 20.30 ° N and 103.49 ° W at a depth of 0 km using arrivals of P and S waves at 16 regional seismic stations. However, by the errors of localization inherent in the method focus could be in a range of 0 to 5 km deep. The mechanism of failure using the polarities of the first arrivals favors a clear faulting of dip slip type along a plane with strike = 227 °, Dip = 80 °, and Rake = 93 °. Waveforms analysis is being used to corroborate these results.

  1. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  2. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Dietary Supplements and Micronutrients in Health Sciences Students

    PubMed Central

    Adiga, Shalini; M, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about supplement users and their dietary behavior in India. This study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To determine the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students. 2. To determine their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding micronutrients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, questionnaire based study conducted at a University in south India, which included second year students pursuing medical, dental and nursing courses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 19. Results: The commonest reasons for consuming supplements were to maintain good health (136, 40.1%) and ensure adequate nutrition (125, 36.9%). The respondents’ opinions about dietary supplements were generally between ‘unsure’ and ‘agree’. Medical students scored the highest percentage (44.84%) in their knowledge about micronutrients as compared to nursing (43.17%) and dental (37.8%). There was a significant difference between the scores of medical and dental students (p=0.005) while the scoring of students of medical and nursing did not vary significantly. There was no significant difference between the scoring percentage of males and females in medical and dental groups while in the nursing group female students scored a better percentage as compared to males (p=0.036). Conclusion: Although, the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students is high, there is a dearth of knowledge, especially regarding role of micronutrients in health and disease. Hence, it is crucial this information must be highlighted in the health sciences curriculum with the objective of producing well-informed professionals who can later on have a positive impact on the health of society. PMID:25302213

  4. The science, technology and mission design for the Laser Astrometric test of relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) is a Michelson-Morley-type experiment designed to test the Einstein's general theory of relativity in the most intense gravitational environment available in the solar system - the close proximity to the Sun.

  5. An evaluation of pharmacology curricula in Australian science and health-related degree programs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacology is a biomedical discipline taught in basic science and professional degree programs. In order to provide information that would facilitate pharmacology curricula to be refined and developed, and approaches to teaching to be updated, a national survey was undertaken in Australia that investigated pharmacology course content, teaching and summative assessment methods. Methods Twenty-two institutions participated in a purpose-built online questionnaire, which enabled an evaluation of 147 courses taught in 10 different degrees. To enable comparison, degrees were grouped into four major degree programs, namely science, pharmacy, medicine and nursing. The pharmacology content was then classified into 16 lecture themes, with 2-21 lecture topics identified per theme. The resultant data were analysed for similarities and differences in pharmacology curricula across the degree programs. Results While all lecture themes were taught across degree programs, curriculum content differed with respect to the breadth and hours of coverage. Overall, lecture themes were taught most broadly in medicine and with greatest coverage in pharmacy. Reflecting a more traditional approach, lectures were a dominant teaching method (at least 90% of courses). Sixty-three percent of science courses provided practical classes but such sessions occurred much less frequently in other degree programs, while tutorials were much more common in pharmacy degree programs (70%). Notably, problem-based learning was common across medical programs. Considerable diversity was found in the types of summative assessment tasks employed. In science courses the most common form of in-semester assessment was practical reports, whereas in other programs pen-and-paper quizzes predominated. End-of-semester assessment contributed 50-80% to overall assessment across degree programs. Conclusion The similarity in lecture themes taught across the four different degree programs shows that common

  6. Development of 3D multimedia with advanced computer animation tools for outreach activities related to Meteor Science and Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Documentaries related to Astronomy and Planetary Sciences are a common and very attractive way to promote the interest of the public in these areas. These educational tools can get benefit from new advanced computer animation software and 3D technologies, as these allow making these documentaries even more attractive. However, special care must be taken in order to guarantee that the information contained in them is serious and objective. In this sense, an additional value is given when the footage is produced by the own researchers. With this aim, a new documentary produced and directed by Prof. Madiedo has been developed. The documentary, which has been entirely developed by means of advanced computer animation tools, is dedicated to several aspects of Meteor Science and Meteoritics. The main features of this outreach and education initiative are exposed here.

  7. An Investigation of Taiwanese High School Students' Science Learning Self-Efficacy in Relation to Their Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study…

  8. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  9. PTEN interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes containing PI(4,5)P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, R.; Shenoy, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kalinowski, A.; Gericke, A.; Heinrich, F.; Loesche, M.

    2009-03-01

    Synthetic lipid membrane models are frequently used for the study of biophysical processes at cell membranes. We use a robust membrane model, the tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM), based on a (C14)2-(PEO)6-thiol anchor, WC14 [1]. Such membranes can be prepared to contain single phospholipids or complex lipid mixtures [2], including functional lipids involved in cell signaling, such as the highly charged phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs). To study the interaction between the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and model membranes we have incorporated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) in tBLMs and use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), neutron reflectometry (NR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for their characterization. NR shows that tBLMs formed with PI(4,5)P2 are complete. FCS of labeled PI(4,5)P2 shows that diffusion occurs at the time scale characteristic of membrane-incorporated lipid. Finally, SPR shows specific binding of PTEN to the model membrane thus confirming the incorporation of PI(4,5)P2 into the tBLM. [1] McGillivray et al, Biointerphases 2, 21-33 (2007) [2] Heinrich et al, Langmuir, submitted

  10. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Triphosphate and Cellular Signaling: Implications for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Jain, Sushil K.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) is one of the most important phosphoinositides and is capable of activating a wide range of proteins through its interaction with their specific binding domains. Localization and activation of these effector proteins regulate a number of cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, intracellular vesicle trafficking, and cell metabolism. Phosphoinositides have been investigated as an important agonist-dependent second messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events depending upon the phosphorylation status of their inositol group. Dysregulation in formation as well as metabolism of phosphoinositides is associated with various pathophysiological disorders such as inflammation, allergy, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that the impaired metabolism of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a prime mediator of insulin resistance associated with various metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. This review examines the current status of the role of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in the regulation of various cellular functions and the implications of dysregulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in obesity, diabetes, and their associated complications. PMID:25721445

  11. The effects of professional development related to classroom assessment on student achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzie, Dawn Danielle

    This study investigated the relationship between students' standardized test scores in science and (a) increases in teacher assessment literacy and (b) teacher participation in a Teacher Quality Research (TQR) project on classroom assessment. The samples for these studies were teachers from underperforming schools who volunteered to take part in a professional development program in classroom assessment. School groups were randomly assigned to the treatment group. For Study 1, teachers in the treatment received professional development in classroom assessment from a trained assessment coach. Teachers in the control received no professional development. For Study 2, teachers in Treatment 1 received professional development in classroom assessment from a trained assessment coach and teachers in Treatment 2 received professional development in classroom assessment from a facilitator with one day of training. Teachers in both groups completed a measure of assessment literacy, the Teacher Quality Research Test of Assessment Literacy Skills (TQR_TALS), prior to the beginning and then again at the conclusion of the four month professional development program. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between students' standardized test scores in science and (a) increases in teacher assessment literacy and (b) teacher TQR status. Based upon these analyses, the professional development program increased teachers' assessment literacy skills; however, the professional development had no significant impact on students' achievement.

  12. Ab initio and molecular dynamics studies of crystalline TNAD (trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Xiao, He-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua; Xiao, Ji-Jun; Zhu, Wei

    2006-06-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the energetic crystal TNAD (trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8- tetraazadecalin) have been studied using plane-wave ab initio calculations based on the density function theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotentials. It is found that the predicted crystal structure is in good agreement with experimental data and there are strong inter- and intramolecular interactions in bulk TNAD. Band structure calculations indicate that TNAD is an insulator with the band gap of ca. 3.3 eV. The hydrostatic compression effect on TNAD has been studied in the pressure range of 0-600 GPa. The results show that a pressure less than 10 GPa does not significantly change the geometric parameters, charge distributions, and electronic bands. When the pressure is over 10 GPa, increasing the pressure determines significant changes of the geometrical and electronic structures and large broadening of the electronic bands together with a sharp decrease of the band gap. Isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations at atmospheric pressure were further performed on the TNAD crystal in the temperature range 5-500 K. Average equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic properties as functions of temperature were determined. The thermal expansion coefficients calculated for the crystal indicate anisotropic behavior with the largest expansion along the b axis. PMID:16771311

  13. Physical chemistry of binary organic eutectic and monotectic alloys; 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene-β-naphthol and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-succinonitrile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, U. S.; Pandey, Pinky; Rai, R. N.

    2000-12-01

    Phase diagrams of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene-β-naphthol and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-succinonitrile systems which are organic analogues of a nonmetal-nonmetal and a nonmetal-metal system, respectively, show the formation of a simple eutectic (melting point 103.7°C) with 0.71 mole fraction of β-naphthol in the former case and a monotectic (melting point 76.0°C) with 0.07 mole fraction of succinonitrile and a eutectic (melting point 52.5°C) with 0.97 mole fraction of succinonitrile in the latter case. The growth behaviour of the pure components, the eutectics and the monotectic studied by measuring the rate of movement of the solid-liquid interface in a capillary, suggests that the data obey the Hillig-Turnbull equation, v= u(Δ T) n, where v is the growth velocity, Δ T is the undercooling and u and n are constants depending on the nature of the materials involved. From the values of enthalpy of fusion determined by the DSC method using Mettler DSC-4000 system, entropy of fusion, interfacial energy, enthalpy of mixing and excess thermodynamic functions were calculated. The optical microphotographs of pure components and polyphase materials show their characteristic features.

  14. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  15. A novel DNA intercalator, butylamino-pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, M S; Nambiar, Mridula; Choudhary, Bibha; Advirao, Gopal M; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2010-02-01

    DNA intercalators are one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Novel intercalating compounds of pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline series having a butylamino or piperazino group at fourth position (BPSQ and PPSQ, respectively) are studied. Our results showed that BPSQ induced cytotoxicity whereas PPSQ was cytostatic. The cytotoxicity induced by BPSQ was concentration- and time-dependent. Cell cycle analysis and tritiated thymidine assay revealed that BPSQ affects the cell cycle progression by arresting at S phase. The absence of p-histone H3 and reduction in the levels of PCNA in the cells treated with BPSQ further confirmed the cell cycle arrest. Further, annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and changes in the expression levels of BCL2/BAD confirmed the activation of apoptosis. Activation of caspase 8 and lack of cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP suggest the possibility of BPSQ triggering extrinsic pathway for induction of apoptosis, which is discussed. Hence, we have identified a novel compound which would have clinical relevance in cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:19142583

  16. Protein kinase Cζ exhibits constitutive phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-independent regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Irene S.; Kaulich, Manuel; Kim, Peter K.; Simon, Nitya; Jacinto, Estela; Dowdy, Steven F.; King, Charles C.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoenzymes are key modulators of insulin signalling, and their dysfunction correlates with insulin-resistant states in both mice and humans. Despite the engaged interest in the importance of aPKCs to type 2 diabetes, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern their cellular functions than for the conventional and novel PKC isoenzymes and the functionally-related protein kinase B (Akt) family of kinases. Here we show that aPKC is constitutively phosphorylated and, using a genetically-encoded reporter for PKC activity, basally active in cells. Specifically, we show that phosphorylation at two key regulatory sites, the activation loop and turn motif, of the aPKC PKCζ in multiple cultured cell types is constitutive and independently regulated by separate kinases: ribosome-associated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) mediates co-translational phosphorylation of the turn motif, followed by phosphorylation at the activation loop by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Live cell imaging reveals that global aPKC activity is constitutive and insulin unresponsive, in marked contrast to the insulin-dependent activation of Akt monitored by an Akt-specific reporter. Nor does forced recruitment to phosphoinositides by fusing the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Akt to the kinase domain of PKCζ alter either the phosphorylation or activity of PKCζ. Thus, insulin stimulation does not activate PKCζ through the canonical phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-mediated pathway that activates Akt, contrasting with previous literature on PKCζ activation. These studies support a model wherein an alternative mechanism regulates PKCζ-mediated insulin signalling that does not utilize conventional activation via agonist-evoked phosphorylation at the activation loop. Rather, we propose that scaffolding near substrates drives the function of PKCζ. PMID:26635352

  17. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  18. Molecular control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongbo R; Mondal, Subhanjan

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils play critical roles in innate immunity and host defense. However, excessive neutrophil accumulation or hyper-responsiveness of neutrophils can be detrimental to the host system. Thus, the response of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli needs to be tightly controlled. Many cellular processes in neutrophils are mediated by localized formation of an inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), at the plasma membrane. The PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling pathway is negatively regulated by lipid phosphatases and inositol phosphates, which consequently play a critical role in controlling neutrophil function and would be expected to act as ideal therapeutic targets for enhancing or suppressing innate immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review current understanding about the action of lipid phosphatases and inositol phosphates in the control of neutrophil function in infection and inflammation. PMID:25576302

  19. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world. During the last four years, So-lar-Terrestrial Influences Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium, Stara Zagora succeeded to build an ex-cellent partnership, working on the International Heliophysical year and International Year of Astronomy -global efforts initiated by the UNESCO and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe. They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day,Yuri's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy 2009. A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized. Stara Zagora became a host of IHY Space Weather Monitor -SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances), numerous of educational materials have been adapted and translated in Bulgarian. Cycle of lectures "Epock of Great astronomical discoveries", devoted to the International Year of Astronomy was given in April 2009 in the Stara Zagora Art Gallery. Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was organized: "100 hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April

  20. A Collection of Articles Reprinted from Science & Technology Review on University Relations Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H; Rennie, G; Henke, A

    2006-08-23

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) The Power of Partnership--Livermore researchers forge strategic collaborations with colleagues from other University of California campuses to further science and better protect the nation; (2) Collaborative Research Prepares Our Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers--Commentary by Laura R. Gilliom; (3) Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab's Resources--University of California Ph.D. candidates work with Livermore scientists and engineers to conduct fundamental research as part of their theses; (4) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory; and (5) Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore--Faculty members from around the world come to the Laboratory as sabbatical scholars.

  1. The Contribution of Applied Social Sciences to Obesity Stigma-Related Public Health Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is viewed as a major public health concern, and obesity stigma is pervasive. Such marginalization renders obese persons a “special population.” Weight bias arises in part due to popular sources' attribution of obesity causation to individual lifestyle factors. This may not accurately reflect the experiences of obese individuals or their perspectives on health and quality of life. A powerful role may exist for applied social scientists, such as anthropologists or sociologists, in exploring the lived and embodied experiences of this largely discredited population. This novel research may aid in public health intervention planning. Through these studies, applied social scientists could help develop a nonstigmatizing, salutogenic approach to public health that accurately reflects the health priorities of all individuals. Such an approach would call upon applied social science's strengths in investigating the mundane, problematizing the “taken for granted” and developing emic (insiders') understandings of marginalized populations. PMID:24782921

  2. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Iliyan N.; Petrova, Svetlana P.; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Shivachev, Boris L.

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the synthesis of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. The combination of iodine and silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) reagents was used successfully for the iodination of 3,4,5-trimetoxybenzoic acid. To improve the efficiency of the synthetic process a significant modification on the experimental design was also performed. The main structural features of the obtained aryl iodide were investigated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 29 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include botany, genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, entomology, molecular structure, spreadsheets, chemistry, mechanics, astronomy, relativity, aeronautics, instrumentation, electrostatics, quantum mechanics, and laboratory interfacing. (CW)

  5. Experiences of high school Hispanic girls in pursuit of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related coursework and careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijil, Veronica G.

    2011-12-01

    An overall increased awareness of the importance of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has prompted attention toward the continued underrepresentation of Hispanic women in this field. The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the support systems, perceived barriers, and prior experiences influencing high school Hispanic girls' decisions to pursue advanced coursework and related careers through a career pathway in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas. Specifically, participants were interviewed regarding their mathematics and science experiences in elementary and middle schools, as well as perceived supports and barriers to their choices to pursue STEM careers and advanced coursework. Results indicated that the participants linked their elementary and middle school experiences with their teachers rather than specific activities. Accolades such as certificates and good grades for academic achievement contributed to the girls' strong self-efficacy at an early age. The participants possessed self-discipline and self-confidence, using intrinsic motivation to pursue their goals. Support systems included families and a few teachers. Barriers were revealed in different forms including derogatory comments by boys in class, difficult curricula with limited tutors available for higher level courses, and receipt of financial assistance to attend a university of their choice.

  6. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome. PMID:19579532

  7. Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers in an Integrated Teacher Preparation Program for Grades 7-12: A 3-Year Study of Attitudes and Perceptions Related to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe a unique teacher licensure program for grades 7-12 that integrates mathematics, science, and technology education and (b) to explore the attitudes and perceptions related to the integration of mathematics, science, and technology education of three cohorts of preservice teachers enrolled in…

  8. An Assessment of 4th, 8th, and 11th Grade Students' Knowledge Related to Marine Science and Natural Resource Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; Koch, Helmut

    In an effort to contribute information for science teachers and curriculum developers in Maine, this study generated base line data on 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students' knowledge of marine science and natural resources principles in relation to the Gulf of Maine. Five concept maps representing 15 major content principles were developed. Two…

  9. National Library of Medicine Classification: A Scheme for the Shelf Arrangement of Books in a Field of Medicine and Its Related Sciences. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Emilie, Ed.

    Outlined is the National Library of Medicine classification system for medicine and related sciences. In this system each preclinical science, such as human anatomy, biochemistry or pathology, and each medical subject, such as infectious diseases or pediatrics, receives a two-letter classification. Under each of these main headings numbered minor…

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New [1,3]Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazin-4(5H)-ones

    PubMed Central

    Demchenko, Anatoly; Bobkova, Ludmila; Yadlovskiy, Oleh; Buchtiarova, Tatiana; Demchenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 2-(N-pyrrolidino, N-piperidino or N-morpholino)-7-phenyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazinones 10a–c, 14–16a,b was synthesized in 78–87% yields via the reaction of methyl 5-benzoyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-2-aminosubstituted-thiazol-4-carboxylates 9a–c, 13a–e with hydrazine. These new compounds have been tested for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds have been characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. PMID:27222602

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New [1,3]Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazin-4(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Demchenko, Anatoly; Bobkova, Ludmila; Yadlovskiy, Oleh; Buchtiarova, Tatiana; Demchenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 2-(N-pyrrolidino, N-piperidino or N-morpholino)-7-phenyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazinones 10a-c, 14-16a,b was synthesized in 78-87% yields via the reaction of methyl 5-benzoyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-2-aminosubstituted-thiazol-4-carboxylates 9a-c, 13a-e with hydrazine. These new compounds have been tested for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds have been characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:27222602

  12. A History of Regression and Related Model-Fitting in the Earth Sciences (1636?-2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, Richard J.

    2001-12-15

    The (statistical) modeling of the behavior of a dependent variate as a function of one or more predictors provides examples of model-fitting which span the development of the earth sciences from the 17th Century to the present. The historical development of these methods and their subsequent application is reviewed. Bond's predictions (c. 1636 and 1668) of change in the magnetic declination at London may be the earliest attempt to fit such models to geophysical data. Following publication of Newton's theory of gravitation in 1726, analysis of data on the length of a 1{sup o} meridian arc, and the length of a pendulum beating seconds, as a function of sin{sup 2}(latitude), was used to determine the ellipticity of the oblate spheroid defining the Figure of the Earth. The pioneering computational methods of Mayer in 1750, Boscovich in 1755, and Lambert in 1765, and the subsequent independent discoveries of the principle of least squares by Gauss in 1799, Legendre in 1805, and Adrain in 1808, and its later substantiation on the basis of probability theory by Gauss in 1809 were all applied to the analysis of such geodetic and geophysical data. Notable later applications include: the geomagnetic survey of Ireland by Lloyd, Sabine, and Ross in 1836, Gauss's model of the terrestrial magnetic field in 1838, and Airy's 1845 analysis of the residuals from a fit to pendulum lengths, from which he recognized the anomalous character of measurements of gravitational force which had been made on islands. In the early 20th Century applications to geological topics proliferated, but the computational burden effectively held back applications of multivariate analysis. Following World War II, the arrival of digital computers in universities in the 1950s facilitated computation, and fitting linear or polynomial models as a function of geographic coordinates, trend surface analysis, became popular during the 1950-60s. The inception of geostatistics in France at this time by Matheron had

  13. Relating Students' Reasoning To the History of Science: The Case of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Driel, Jan H.; De Vos, Wobbe; Verloop, Nico

    1998-01-01

    Relates the reasoning of students introduced to the concept of chemical equilibrium to the historical development of the concept. Concludes that the study of authentic historical sources may inspire the design of effective teaching activities. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  14. ‘The kind of mildly curious sort of science interested person like me’: Science bloggers’ practices relating to audience recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Mathieu; Bultitude, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With at least 150 million professional and amateur blogs on the Internet, blogging offers a potentially powerful tool for engaging large and diverse audiences with science. This article investigates science blogging practices to uncover key trends, including bloggers’ self-perceptions of their role. Interviews with seven of the most popular science bloggers revealed them to be driven by intrinsic personal motivations. Wishing to pursue their love of writing and share their passion for science, they produce content suitable for niche audiences of science enthusiasts, although they do not assume background scientific knowledge. A content analysis of 1000 blog posts and comparison with the most popular blogs on the Internet further confirmed this result and additionally identified key factors that affect science blog popularity, including update frequency, topic diversity and the inclusion of non-text elements (especially images and video). PMID:25361791

  15. 60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Bottom of swing span and top of center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. Low-molecular-weight (4.5S) ribonucleic acid in higher-plant chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfeld, P R; Leaver, C J; Bottomley, W; Atchison, B

    1978-01-01

    A species of RNA that migrates on 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels between 5S and 4S RNA was detected in spinach chloroplasts. This RNA (referred to as 4.5 S RNA) was present in amounts equimolar to the 5S RNA and its molecular weight was estimated to be approx. 33 000. Fractionation of the chloroplast components showed that the 4.5S RNA was associated with the 50 S ribosomal subunit and that it could be removed by washing the ribosomes with a buffer containing 0.01 M-EDTA and 0.5 M-KCl. It did not appear to be a cleavage product of the labile 23 S RNA of spinach chloroplast ribosomes. When 125I-labelled 4.5 S RNA was hybridized to fragments of spinach chloroplast DNA produced by SmaI restriction endonuclease, a single fragment (mol.wt. 1.15 times 10(6)) became labelled. The same DNA fragment also hybridized to chloroplast 5 S RNA and part of the 23 S RNA. It was concluded that the coding sequence for 4.5 S RNA was part of, or immediately adjacent to, the rRNA-gene region in chloroplast DNA . A comparable RNA species was observed in chloroplasts of tobacco and pea leaves. Images Fig. 8. PMID:743229

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a)...

  20. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-5 - Political contributions by certain investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investment adviser that has reported on its annual updating amendment to Form ADV (17 CFR 279.1) that it has... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Political contributions by....206(4)-5 Political contributions by certain investment advisers. (a) Prohibitions. As a...