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Sample records for 4-5 times greater

  1. 18 CFR 4.5 - Time for filing protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time for filing protest. 4.5 Section 4.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... to such reports. If no protest is filed within the time allowed, the Commission will issue such...

  2. Determination of time-dependent inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate concentrations during calcium release in a smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, C C; Slepchenko, B; Loew, L M

    1999-01-01

    The level of [InsP3]cyt required for calcium release in A7r5 cells, a smooth muscle cell line, was determined by a new set of procedures using quantitative confocal microscopy to measure release of InsP3 from cells microinjected with caged InsP3. From these experiments, the [InsP3]cyt required to evoke a half-maximal calcium response is 100 nM. Experiments with caged glycerophosphoryl-myo-inositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (GPIP2), a slowly metabolized analogue of InsP3, gave a much slower recovery and a half-maximal response of an order of magnitude greater than InsP3. Experimental data and highly constrained variables were used to construct a mathematical model of the InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]cyt changes; the resulting simulations show high fidelity to experiment. Among the elements considered in constructing this model were the mechanism of the InsP3-receptor, InsP3 degradation, calcium buffering in the cytosol, and refilling of the ER stores via sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) pumps. The model predicts a time constant of 0.8 s for InsP3 degradation and 13 s for GPIP2. InsP3 degradation was found to be a prerequisite for [Ca2+]cyt recovery to baseline levels and is therefore critical to the pattern of the overall [Ca2+]cyt signal. Analysis of the features of this model provides insights into the individual factors controlling the amplitude and shape of the InsP3-mediated calcium signal. PMID:10388786

  3. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF.

    PubMed

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Yu

    2012-10-01

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator∕photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y(n)) measurements from below 10(9) (DD) to nearly 10(15) (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y(n) precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of ± 10% and precision of ± 1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y(n) measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  4. Time allocation by Greater White-fronted Geese: Influence of diet, energy reserves and predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1992-01-01

    I determined the amount of time Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) allocated to various activities from September to May, 1980-1982 at their primary wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway of North America. The length of time spent on roosts during the day was positively correlated to day length. Geese at roost sites spent the majority of their time sleeping (24-46%), alert (17-40%), walking or swimming (6-24%), and in comfort behaviors (3-25%). The amount of time geese fed each day varied little from early autumn to late spring (4.5-4.9 hr), except during mid-winter when minimum temperatures were below freezing (3.9 hr), and immediately before migration in spring (6.3 hr). The proportion of time devoted to feeding and alert behavior, the two most dominant activities at field sites, varied significantly among seasons and locations. The amount of time geese were actively engaged in foraging each season was more dependent on feeding intensity than the amount of time spent at foraging sites (fields), and varied almost three-fold, from 1.8 hr during late winter to 5.1 hr during late spring. Geese fed in closer proximity to conspecifics, were more frequently disturbed, and spent less time feeding during the hunting season. Exploitation of high energy foods and catabolism of substantial energy reserves probably enabled geese to minimize foraging time during periods of harsh weather and high predation pressure. Seasonal variation in the proportion of time spent feeding corresponded closely to changes in body mass. Greater White-fronted Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway spent substantially less time feeding than they do in Europe, as geese in California fed primarily on high energy cereal grains, while in Europe they subsist on green vegetation which has relatively less digestible energy than cereal grains.

  5. Development and validation of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5log(10) concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness.

  6. Relationships between Reading Achievement and Leisure-Time Reading in Grades 3, 4, 5, and 6: A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otter, Martha E.; And Others

    A longitudinal study investigated the effects of leisure time reading (reading at home for pleasure or fun) on pupils' reading achievement in school. Subjects, 736 students in grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 in 30 schools located throughout the Netherlands, had their reading achievement determined five times: at the beginning and end of grade 3 and at the…

  7. The influence of time of maternal exposure to 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime ,5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl on its accumulation in their nursing offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) is mobilized from rodent tissues during the lipid depletion associated with food restriction or lactation, the latter condition resulting in the substantial elimination of the maternal body burden of the chemical to nursing offspring. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the rate and/or magnitude of accumulation of 6-CB in nursing offspring differed with time following PCB administration to the maternal animal. Female ICR mice were administered two doses of 6-CB. Group I animals received (14C)-6-CB as weanlings (15-20 g) followed by unlabeled 6-CB 5 weeks later, after mating, on Day 1 of gestation. Group II received unlabeled 6-CB as weanlings and (14C)-6-CB on Day 1 of gestation. Thus, 14C identified the mobilization and elimination of either the first or the second dose of 6-CB in the treatment groups (I = (14C)-6-CB, 6-CB; II = 6-CB, (14C)-6-CB). Both groups of animals retained approximately 80% of the administered radiolabeled dose. The tissue distribution of (14C)-6-CB in group II as a percentage of the body burden was not different from that in group I as determined from maternal tissue concentrations on Day 14 of gestation. The percentage of the maternal body burden of (14C)-6-CB accumulated in suckling offspring of group II mothers was significantly greater than that in group I offspring on Day 1 (I, 2.2 +/- 0.5%; II, 3.5 +/- 0.4%), Day 3 (I, 14.8 +/- 1.9%; II, 24.6 +/- 2.7%), Day 5 (I, 16.8 +/- 1.4%; II, 24.8 +/- 0.8%), and Day 12 (I, 32.3 +/- 0.5%; II, 45.5 +/- 1.7%) postpartum. This differential elimination was reflected in the t1/2 of elimination of the radiolabeled dose from parametrial fat during lactation, which was significantly longer in group I (14 days) than group II maternal animals (9 days).

  8. A description of an 'obesogenic' eating style that promotes higher energy intake and is associated with greater adiposity in 4.5year-old children: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-02-14

    Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, p<0.001), fewer chews per gram (r=-0.71, p<0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r=-0.25, p<0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r=0.61, p<0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p<0.01) and higher energy intakes (p<0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p<0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an 'obesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight

  9. Determinants of shear stress-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide production assessed in real-time by 4,5-diaminofluorescein fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Qiu, W; Kass, D A; Hu, Q; Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-08-17

    The extremely short biological half-life of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has impeded real-time measurements of NO synthesis. We used the membrane-permeable fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) to study determinants of NO synthesis in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A step increase in shear stress (SS) from 0.3 to 3.4 dyne/cm(2) triggered an increase in DAF-2 fluorescence starting 3.0 +/- 0.5 min after the flow rise and peaking at 44.7 +/- 7.2 min. This was abolished by intracellular Ca(2+) chelation, but was unaffected by blocking extracellular Ca(2+) influx or by inhibiting SS-related changes in intracellular pH. The increase in DAF-2 fluorescence occurred significantly earlier in BAECs transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT), indicating concomitant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by SS and "competition" between ROS- and DAF-2-NO interactions. These data provide novel insights into several NO signaling determinants and reveal that DAF-2 can assess real-time SS-stimulated NO synthesis in endothelial cells. This should facilitate the analysis of NO-signaling pathways.

  10. 4.5 YEARS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF MRK 421 DURING THE ARGO-YBJ AND FERMI COMMON OPERATION TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di; Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Sciascio, G. Di; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhenyong; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2016-01-15

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3–58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9–7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be

  11. 4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of MRK 421 During the ARGO-YBJ and FERMI Common Operation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to

  12. Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Greater Metropolitan Mumbai: Trends over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T. K.; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Background While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. Results A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005–2007 and 27.8% in 2011–2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (p<0.05). Discussion The observed trends in TB drug-resistance patterns in Mumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within

  13. Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

    2010-08-01

    As the majority of the world’s population is living in urban environments, there is growing interest in studying local urban climates. In this paper, for the first time, the long-term trends (31-162 years) of temperature change have been analyzed for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Annual and seasonal time series for a number of urban, suburban, and rural weather stations are considered. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for the assessing of the significance and detection of trends, and the sequential Mann test is used to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significant trends for annual mean and minimum temperatures are detected for almost all stations in the GTA. Winter is found to be the most coherent season contributing substantially to the increase in annual minimum temperature. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature suggest that the beginning of the increasing trend in Toronto started after the 1920s and then continued to increase to the 1960s. For all stations, there is a significant increase of annual and seasonal (particularly winter) temperatures after the 1980s. In terms of the linkage between urbanization and spatiotemporal thermal patterns, significant linear trends in annual mean and minimum temperature are detected for the period of 1878-1978 for the urban station, Toronto, while for the rural counterparts, the trends are not significant. Also, for all stations in the GTA that are situated in all directions except south of Toronto, substantial temperature change is detected for the periods of 1970-2000 and 1989-2000. It is concluded that the urbanization in the GTA has significantly contributed to the increase of the annual mean temperatures during the past three decades. In addition to urbanization, the influence of local climate, topography, and larger scale warming are incorporated in the analysis of the trends.

  14. Time-dependent effects of lithium on the agonist-stimulated accumulation of second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Los, G V; Artemenko, I P; Hokin, L E

    1995-10-01

    In order to approach the molecular mechanism of Li+'s mood-stabilizing action, the effect of Li+ (LiCl) on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] mass was investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which express muscarinic M3 receptors, coupled to PtdIns hydrolysis. Stimulation of these cells, with the cholinergic agonist acetylcholine, resulted in a rapid and transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 with a maximum at 10 s. This was followed by a rapid decline in Ins(1,4,5)P3 within 30 s to a plateau level above baseline, which gradually declined to reach a new steady state, which was significantly higher than resting Ins(1,4,5)P3 at 30 min. Li+ had no effect on Ins(1,4,5)P3 in resting cells, as well as on the acetylcholine-dependent peak of Ins(1,4,5)P3. However, Li+ caused a transient reduction (at 45 s), followed by a long lasting increase in the Ins(1,4,5)P3 (30 min), as compared with controls. The Li+ effects were dose-dependent and were observed at concentrations used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Supplementation with inositol had no effect on the level of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at least over the time periods studied. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors with consequent activation of phospholipase C were necessary for the manifestation of Li+ effects in SH-SY5Y cells, Li+ did not interfere with degradation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 after receptor-blockade with atropine, suggesting that Li+ has no direct effect on the Ins(1,4,5)P3-metabolizing enzymes. A direct effect of Li+ on the phospholipase C also is unlikely. Blockade of Ca2+ entry into the cells by Ni2+, or incubation with EGTA, which reduces agonist-stimulated accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, had no effect on the Li(+)-dependent increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3.

  15. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses.

  16. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  17. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  18. Simulating Photosynthetic 13C Fractionation at a Western Subalpine Forest for Seasonal and Multi-Decadal Time Periods with the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczka, B. M.; Duarte, H.; Koven, C. D.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are an important tool to diagnose and predict land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and energy. This is critical in order to quantify the land-carbon feedback into the climate system. Ecological observations are extremely important in order to quantify model skill and to improve techniques in which to simulate ecosystem behavior. Isotope observations of 13C are especially useful in diagnosing the ecosystem response to water stress, atmospheric humidity and CO2 fertilization. We test the representation of isotopes within CLM 4.5 against site level observations of biomass and carbon fluxes measured at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. First we 'spun-up' the model for 1800 years to approximate site level conditions during the 21st century. We accomplished this by imposing a site-level reconstruction of seasonally varying atmospheric δ13C and atmospheric CO2 from 1850-2013 and site level meteorological observations from 1998-2013. We also imposed an empirical-downscaling of simulated photosynthesis to reproduce the observed photosynthesis. We found that the simulated δ13C of biomass pools was more depleted than the observed by 1-2 o/oo. This finding suggests the magnitude of photosynthetic discrimination was overestimated in the model. The model reproduced observed seasonal trends in discrimination with higher values in the spring and fall but lower values in the summer. However, if nitrogen-limitation is imposed in the model the photosynthetic downscaling influences the fractionation in such a way to obscure this observed trend. This suggests an alternative approach should be taken in order to account for nitrogen limitation. During the last century the model simulated an abrupt drop in δ13C for biomass pools, primarily because of the concurrent drop in atmospheric δ13C, but also because of increasing discrimination driven by increases in the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO2. Finally, we identified photosynthetic rate, and vapor pressure

  19. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). I. A Neptune-sized Planet Orbiting an M4.5 Dwarf in the Hyades Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; LaCourse, Daryll; Jacobs, Thomas L.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.; Kaplan, Kyle F.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of young planetary systems can shed light on how the dynamics and structure of planets evolve during their most formative years. Recent K2 observations of nearby young clusters (10-800 Myr) have facilitated the discovery of such planetary systems. Here we report the discovery of a Neptune-sized planet transiting an M4.5 dwarf (K2-25) in the Hyades cluster (650-800 Myr). The light curve shows a strong periodic signal at 1.88 days, which we attribute to spot coverage and rotation. We confirm that the planet host is a member of the Hyades by measuring the radial velocity of the system with the high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer. This enables us to calculate a distance based on K2-25's kinematics and membership to the Hyades, which in turn provides a stellar radius and mass to ≃5%-10%, better than what is currently possible for most Kepler M dwarfs (12%-20%). We use the derived stellar density as a prior on fitting the K2 transit photometry, which provides weak constraints on eccentricity. Utilizing a combination of adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution spectra, we rule out the possibility that the signal is due to a bound or background eclipsing binary, confirming the transits’ planetary origin. K2-25b has a radius ({3.43}-0.31+0.95 R⊕) much larger than older Kepler planets with similar orbital periods (3.485 days) and host-star masses (0.29 M⊙). This suggests that close-in planets lose some of their atmospheres past the first few hundred million years. Additional transiting planets around the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters from K2 will help confirm whether this planet is atypical or representative of other close-in planets of similar age.

  20. Web-Based Time Entry Systems: Providing Greater Automation and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Time and resources are becoming increasingly scarce in most higher education institutions today. As a result, colleges and universities are looking to streamline and simplify many costly, labor-intensive administrative processes. In this article, Tracy Williams examines how Web-based time-entry systems can help institutions save valuable time and…

  1. Increasing Time and Enriching Learning for Greater Equity in Schools: Perspective from Two Community Funders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…

  2. Greater bed- and wake-time variability is associated with less healthy lifestyle behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J; Kline, Christopher E; Rebar, Amanda L; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Short, Camille E

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study examines associations between the variability in bed/rise times, usual bed/rise time and dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, sitting time, sleep insufficiency and a composite index of behaviors. Subject and methods A random sample of Australian adults drawn from an online Panel cohort in 2013 completed a cross-sectional online survey. A total of 1,317 participants, median age 57 (IQR=20) completed the survey. Bed- and wake times, variability in bed- and wake-times, dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, sitting time, sleep insufficiency and socio-demographics were assessed using a questionnaire. Associations were examined with generalized linear models. Results Having bed - times that varied by >30 min were associated with lower dietary quality, higher alcohol consumption, higher sitting time, more frequent insufficient sleep and poorer overall pattern of lifestyle behaviors. Greater variability in wake times, usual bed times and usual wake times were inconsistently associated with lifestyle behaviours. Conclusions Greater bed-time variability is associated with a less healthy pattern of lifestyle behaviors. Greater consistency in sleep timing may contribute to, or be reflective of, a healthier lifestyle. PMID:27110481

  3. Does Social Connectedness Promote a Greater Sense of Well-Being in Adolescence over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Ryan, Nicholas; Pryor, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether or not social connectedness predicts psychological well-being over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the temporal relations between these constructs assessed yearly for 3 years for a sample of 1,774 10- to 15-year-olds (at Time 1). Results indicated that global…

  4. An Earlier Time of Scan is Associated with Greater Threat-related Amygdala Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Baranger, David A A; Margolis, Seth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-04-04

    Time-dependent variability in mood and anxiety suggest that related neural phenotypes, such as threat-related amygdala reactivity, may also follow a diurnal pattern. Here, using data from 1,043 young adult volunteers, we found that threat-related amygdala reactivity was negatively coupled with time of day, an effect which was stronger in the left hemisphere (β=-0.1083, p-fdr=0.0012). This effect was moderated by subjective sleep quality (β=-0.0715, p-fdr=0.0387); participants who reported average and poor sleep quality had relatively increased left amygdala reactivity in the morning. Bootstrapped simulations suggest that similar cross-sectional samples with at least 300 participants would be able to detect associations between amygdala reactivity and time of scan. In control analyses, we found no associations between time and V1 activation. Our results provide initial evidence that threat-related amygdala reactivity may vary diurnally, and that this effect is potentiated among individuals with average to low sleep quality. More broadly, our results suggest that considering time of scan in study design or modeling time of scan in analyses, as well as collecting additional measures of circadian variation, may be useful for understanding threat-related neural phenotypes and their associations with behavior, such as fear conditioning, mood and anxiety symptoms, and related phenotypes.

  5. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  6. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  7. Comparison of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tube method with the conventional method and real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raut, U; Rantai, S; Narang, P; Chauhan, D S; Chahar, M; Narang, R; Mendiratta, D K

    2012-01-01

    Colorimetric methods are cheap, reproducible, and rapid methods of detecting drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method is one such technique that has been established in our laboratory to detect rifampicin resistance. The present study compared the results of the MTT method with those of the proportion method and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) in order to establish sensitivity and specificity of MTT. The mutations for rifampicin resistance occur in rpoB gene, and the commonest reported are in codons 526 and 531. Therefore, RTPCR was targeted at these two codons. The concordance of MTT with the proportion method and RTPCR was 94 and 72.77%, respectively, and that of RTPCR with the proportion method was 77.77%. While the study confirmed that the MTT method is a good method for detecting rifampicin resistance, it also brought out the fact that RTPCR when targeted for limited mutations is not a good tool. Either the genotypic method used should target the total 81-bp rpoB genome or methods such as DNA sequencing should be used. For resource-constraint laboratories, the MTT method can be considered as a better choice.

  8. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; Zhao, Maosheng; Zhao, Feng A.; Gong, Peng; Yu, Le; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24 years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.

  9. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24more » years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.« less

  10. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  11. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  12. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  13. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  14. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  15. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  16. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  17. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  18. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  19. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and

  20. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

  1. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Character endorsements. 4.5 Section 4.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... reputation in his community or in his circle of business or social acquaintances. Each letter or other...

  2. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... management of the United States or any of its agencies, if such vessel is manned wholly by members of...

  3. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  4. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-01-01

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners’ tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing. PMID:28276461

  5. Role-Playing and Real-Time Strategy Games Associated with Greater Probability of Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Adam; Kattner, Florian; Bradford, Daniel; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates that a small subset of those who routinely play video games show signs of pathological habits, with side effects ranging from mild (e.g., being late) to quite severe (e.g., losing a job). However, it is still not clear whether individual types, or genres, of games are most strongly associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A sample of 4,744 University of Wisconsin-Madison undergraduates (Mage=18.9 years; SD=1.9 years; 60.5% female) completed questionnaires on general video game playing habits and on symptoms of IGD. Consistent with previous reports: 5.9-10.8% (depending on classification criteria) of individuals who played video games show signs of pathological play. Furthermore, real-time strategy and role-playing video games were more strongly associated with pathological play, compared with action and other games (e.g., phone games). The current investigation adds support to the idea that not all video games are equal. Instead, certain genres of video games, specifically real-time strategy and role-playing/fantasy games, are disproportionately associated with IGD symptoms.

  6. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  7. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  8. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  9. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  10. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  11. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  12. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fedy, Bradley C; Doherty, Kevin E

    2011-04-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0.77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes.

  13. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: Greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.C.; Doherty, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0. 77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes. ?? 2010 US Government.

  14. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.

    1998-05-04

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to 4.5 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigations successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen. These results are discussed in terms of future alloy development options.

  15. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  16. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Chung, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  17. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  18. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.

  19. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J.; Chung, H.M.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  20. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district.... (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and duty stations support the bank and...

  1. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district.... (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and duty stations support the bank and...

  2. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district... Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, and Guam. (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and...

  3. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who are authorized to accept service of...

  4. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  5. Microbial biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Karns, J S; Kilbane, J J; Chatterjee, D K; Chakrabarty, A M

    1984-01-01

    We have succeeded in isolating a pure culture of Pseudomonas cepacia, AC1100, from a chemostat enrichment culture experiment that is capable of growing on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid as its sole source of carbon and energy. AC1100 is not only capable of degrading 2,4,5-T but is also able to completely or partially dehalogenate a wide variety of halophenols. The regulation of the dehalogenating ability of AC1100 has been investigated which demonstrates that the enzyme(s) which allow the conversion of 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-TCP are constitutive, while the enzymes that allow the degradation of 2,4,5-TCP are inducible by 2,4,5-TCP (or some metabolite of 2,4,5-TCP) but not by 2,4,5-T or other halophenols which can serve as substrates. Moreover, the 2,4,5-TCP degradative pathway is repressed by the presence of an abundant alternative carbon source. The detailed pathway of 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 is currently under study. Although field tests have yet to be conducted, laboratory experiments have demonstrated rapid and complete degradation of 2,4,5-T from contaminated soil. Soil previously contaminated with as much as 5,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil could be detoxified by AC1100 treatment, allowing the growth of plants sensitive to less than 10 micrograms 2,4,5-T/g of soil. Moreover soil contaminated with as much as 20,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil showed greater than 90% degradation after six weekly AC1100 treatments. After 2,4,5-T has been substantially degraded in contaminated soil the titer of AC1100 rapidly falls to nearly undetectable levels, which indicates that no serious ecological disturbance is likely to result from the application of AC1100. It appears possible that the treatment of contaminated areas with appropriate microorganisms may allow essentially a total restoration of the original soil condition.

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  7. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  8. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY AND RELEASE OF INFORMATION, CONTRACTING OUTREACH PROGRAM, POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS FOR...

  9. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  10. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  11. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  12. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  13. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  14. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  15. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  16. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska...

  17. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska...

  18. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  19. The 2-Year Checkup on 10 SNe IIn Discovered by Spitzer to Exhibit Late-Time (is greater than 100 Day) IR Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori Dosovitz; Chevalier, R. A.; Skrutskie, A. V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Ganeshalingam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, a warm Spitzer survey of sixty-eight SNe IIn identified between the years 1998-2008 discovered 10 events with unreported late-time infrared (IR) excesses, in some cases more than 5 years post-explosion. These data nearly double the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn and offer important clues regarding the SN circumstellar.

  20. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  1. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  2. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager,...

  3. 43 CFR 3802.4-5 - Maintenance and public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-5 Maintenance and public safety. During all... otherwise identified to protect the public in accordance with applicable Federal and State laws...

  4. GBU4-5 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GBU-4 is a recently identified protein which was identified using SEREX technologies. GBU4-5 has a DEAD-box domain (like the CAGE protein), but until 2003 had not been described as eliciting an autoantibody response.

  5. Waterborne outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:-.

    PubMed

    Kozlica, Jennifer; Claudet, Amanda L; Solomon, Deborah; Dunn, John R; Carpenter, L Rand

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- is an emerging serotype, and little information regarding attribution or risk factors for infection has been documented. We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- infections in a rural community and identified the community's private water system as the source of infection. Five people were ill with gastroenteritis. Water testing identified Salmonella. Contamination of the unprotected spring from an environmental source was suspected.

  6. Smooth muscle length-dependent PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sul, D; Baron, C B; Broome, R; Coburn, R F

    2001-07-01

    We studied effects of increasing the length of porcine trachealis muscle on 5.5 microM carbachol (CCh)-evoked phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] synthesis and other parameters of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis rates in muscle held at 1.0 optimal length (L(o)), measured over the first 6 min of CCh stimulation, were 140 +/- 12 and 227 +/- 14% of values found in muscle held at 0.5 L(o) and in free-floating muscle, respectively. Time-dependent changes in cellular masses of PI(4,5)P2, PI, and phosphatidic acid, and PI resynthesis rates, were also altered by the muscle length at which contraction occurred. In free-floating muscle, CCh did not evoke increases in tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin (PTyr-paxillin), an index of beta1-integrin signaling; however, there were progressive increases in PTyr-paxillin in muscle held at 0.5 and 1.0 L(o) during contraction, which correlated with increases in PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates. These data indicate that PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates and other parameters of CCh-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover are muscle length-dependent and provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that length-dependent beta1-integrin signals may exert control on CCh-activated PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  7. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  8. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR SCIENCE, GRADES 4-5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAHAM, KATHRYN A.; AND OTHERS

    COURSE CONTENT, ACTIVITIES, AND REFERENCE INFORMATION FOR TEACHING SCIENCE IN GRADES 4, 5, AND 6 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS RELATE TO AN APPROACH TO TEACHING SCIENCE AND THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE SCIENCE PROGRAM. THE FIVE UNITS INCLUDED FOR GRADE 4 ARE (1) INSECTS AND SPIDERS, (2) LIVING THINGS OF SIMILAR AREAS, (3) THE…

  9. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  11. Distribution and excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H B; Kato, S; Morales, N M; Tuey, D B

    1977-10-01

    The intestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of the major component of Firemaster BP-6,2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, has been studied in the male rat. This polybrominated biphenyl was readily absorbed from the intestine, initially distributed throughout the body, and eventually stored primarily in the adipose tissue, was not subject to appreciable metabolism, and was excreted almost exclusively in the feces and at a very slow rate. Approximately 90% of an oral dose was absorbed from the intestine, and extrapolation of the rate of excretion to infinity indicates that less than 10% of the total dose would ever be excreted.

  12. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  13. PBFA Z: A 55 TW/4.5 MJ electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.; Struve, K.W.; Seamen, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    PBFA Z is a new 55 TW/4.5 MJ short pulse electrical driver located at Sandia National Laboratories. The authors use PBFA Z to magnetically-implode plasma shells. These configurations are historically known as z pinches. The pulsed power design of PBFA Z is based on conventional single-pulse Marx generator, water-line pulse-forming technology used on the earlier Saturn and PBFA II accelerators. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in a 55-TW/105-ns pulse to the output water transmission lines, and delivers up to 3.0 MJ and 40 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on the initial load inductance and the implosion time, they attain peak currents of 16--20 MA with a rise time of 105 ns. Current is fed to the z-pinch load through self magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Peak electric fields in the MITLs exceed 2 MV/cm. The current from the four independent conical disk MITLs is combined together in a double post-hole vacuum convolute with an efficiency greater than 95%. The measured system performance of the water transmission lines, the vacuum insulator stack, the MITLs, and the double post-hole vacuum convolute differed from preshot predictions by {approximately} 5%. Using a 2-cm radius and a 2-cm length tungsten wire array with 240, 7.5-{micro}m diameter wires (4.1-mg mass) as the z-pinch load, they achieved x-ray powers of 200 TW and x-ray energies of 1.85 MJ as measured by x-ray diodes and resistive bolometry.

  14. Launchers and Improved Components for 4.5 in. Rockets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-02-09

    plotted from wind tunnel test data. P ART V An igniter was developed for use on the 4.5 inch rocket which may be inserted through the nozzle. It is...8217e. ca 8400 SM 2900 4150 411SZ 4800 500 Ifz. Provo straa 2800 3C 2640 39O 3760 4400 500 Prem aftr Feak istrs 000 gage ISMO 2000 I44 &440 W 0o tiLas ted

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a.... § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a) provides rules for determining whether the timing of a plan amendment or series of amendments...

  16. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  17. The 18 May 2012 (Ms 4.5) Chapala Lake, Jalisco, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The central part of Jalisco, Mexico has experienced at different times the occurrence of low magnitude earthquakes series. Although the effect of these earthquakes have been limited to relatively small areas have caused general alarm within the population and even in some cases true catastrophes (e.g. San Cristobal 1875). These groups of earthquakes that have lasted for weeks and even months have greater importance because they affect the most populous state area including the capital city of Guadalajara. An extraordinary example of these series of earthquakes occurred on 8 may 1912 that lasted until September. In the first 18 days 64 events were felt by residents of Guadalajara. Since then, there has been a relative seismic activity calm in the region. This paper analyzes the earthquake of May 18, 2012 (03:07 UT) occurred at the West edge of Lake Chapala. While it's an event of low magnitude (4.5 Ms) it has the importance of having occurred just 60 km to the South of Guadalajara and for which instrumental data of first quality is available. The focus of the earthquake was located at 20.30 ° N and 103.49 ° W at a depth of 0 km using arrivals of P and S waves at 16 regional seismic stations. However, by the errors of localization inherent in the method focus could be in a range of 0 to 5 km deep. The mechanism of failure using the polarities of the first arrivals favors a clear faulting of dip slip type along a plane with strike = 227 °, Dip = 80 °, and Rake = 93 °. Waveforms analysis is being used to corroborate these results.

  18. Test of microchannel plates in magnetic fields up to 4.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu; Barnyakov, M. Yu; Prisekin, V. G.; Karpov, S. V.; Katcin, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Detectors based on microchannel plates (MCP) can provide high time resolution and are able to operate in high magnetic field. An experimental setup based on a superconductive solenoid with 120 mm bore was created in BINP. The influence of magnetic field up to 4.5 T on the MCP photomultiplier parameters was studied. Several types of photodetectors produced in Novosibirsk were tested. Results of time resolution measurements, dependencies of gain and photon detection efficiency on magnetic field are presented.

  19. Probing the Physical Properties of z = 4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pakzad, Sabrina; Salmon, Brett; Wang, Junxian

    2015-11-01

    We present the results from a stellar population modeling analysis of a sample of 162 z = 4.5 and 14 z = 5.7 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the Boötes field, using deep Spitzer/IRAC data at 3.6 and 4.5 μm from the Spitzer Lyα Survey, along with Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS and WFC3 imaging at 1.1 and 1.6 μm for a subset of the LAEs. This represents one of the largest samples of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer IRAC. We find that 30/162 (19%) of the z = 4.5 LAEs and 9/14 (64%) of the z = 5.7 LAEs are detected at ≥3σ in at least one IRAC band. Individual z = 4.5 IRAC-detected LAEs have a large range of stellar mass, from 5 × 108-1011 {M}⊙ . One-third of the IRAC-detected LAEs have older stellar population ages of 100 Myr-1 Gyr, while the remainder have ages <100 Myr. A stacking analysis of IRAC-undetected LAEs shows this population to be primarily low mass (8-20 × 108 {M}⊙ ) and young (64-570 Myr). We find a correlation between stellar mass and the dust-corrected ultraviolet-based star formation rate (SFR) similar to that at lower redshifts, in that higher mass galaxies exhibit higher SFRs. However, the z = 4.5 LAE correlation is elevated 4-5 times in SFR compared to continuum-selected galaxies at similar redshifts. The exception is the most massive LAEs which have SFRs similar to galaxies at lower redshifts suggesting that they may represent a different population of galaxies than the traditional lower-mass LAEs, perhaps with a different mechanism promoting Lyα photon escape.

  20. Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)

    SciTech Connect

    Brunke, Michael A.; Broxton, Patrick; Pelletier, Jon; Gochis, David; Hazenberg, Pieter; Lawrence, David M.; Leung, L. Ruby; Niu, Guo-Yue; Troch, Peter A.; Zeng, Xubin

    2016-05-01

    One of the recognized weaknesses of land surface models as used in weather and climate models is the assumption of constant soil thickness due to the lack of global estimates of bedrock depth. Using a 30 arcsecond global dataset for the thickness of relatively porous, unconsolidated sediments over bedrock, spatial variation in soil thickness is included here in version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). The number of soil layers for each grid cell is determined from the average soil depth for each 0.9° latitude x 1.25° longitude grid cell. Including variable soil thickness affects the simulations most in regions with shallow bedrock corresponding predominantly to areas of mountainous terrain. The greatest changes are to baseflow, with the annual minimum generally occurring earlier, while smaller changes are seen in surface fluxes like latent heat flux and surface runoff in which only the annual cycle amplitude is increased. These changes are tied to soil moisture changes which are most substantial in locations with shallow bedrock. Total water storage (TWS) anomalies do not change much over most river basins around the globe, since most basins contain mostly deep soils. However, it was found that TWS anomalies substantially differ for a river basin with more mountainous terrain. Additionally, the annual cycle in soil temperature are affected by including realistic soil thicknesses due to changes to heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  1. Low-molecular-weight (4.5S) ribonucleic acid in higher-plant chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfeld, P R; Leaver, C J; Bottomley, W; Atchison, B

    1978-01-01

    A species of RNA that migrates on 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels between 5S and 4S RNA was detected in spinach chloroplasts. This RNA (referred to as 4.5 S RNA) was present in amounts equimolar to the 5S RNA and its molecular weight was estimated to be approx. 33 000. Fractionation of the chloroplast components showed that the 4.5S RNA was associated with the 50 S ribosomal subunit and that it could be removed by washing the ribosomes with a buffer containing 0.01 M-EDTA and 0.5 M-KCl. It did not appear to be a cleavage product of the labile 23 S RNA of spinach chloroplast ribosomes. When 125I-labelled 4.5 S RNA was hybridized to fragments of spinach chloroplast DNA produced by SmaI restriction endonuclease, a single fragment (mol.wt. 1.15 times 10(6)) became labelled. The same DNA fragment also hybridized to chloroplast 5 S RNA and part of the 23 S RNA. It was concluded that the coding sequence for 4.5 S RNA was part of, or immediately adjacent to, the rRNA-gene region in chloroplast DNA . A comparable RNA species was observed in chloroplasts of tobacco and pea leaves. Images Fig. 8. PMID:743229

  2. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  3. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  4. Ca(2+) signals mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels in rat ureteric myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, F X; Coussin, F; Morel, J L; Halet, G; Macrez, N; Mironneau, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized Ca(2+)-release signals (puffs) and propagated Ca(2+) waves were characterized in rat ureteric myocytes by confocal microscopy. Ca(2+) puffs were evoked by photorelease of low concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) from a caged precursor and by low concentrations of acetylcholine; they were also observed spontaneously in Ca(2+)-overloaded myocytes. Ca(2+) puffs showed some variability in amplitude, time course and spatial spread, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels exist in clusters containing variable numbers of channels and that within these clusters a variable number of channels can be recruited. Immunodetection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors revealed the existence of several spots of fluorescence in the confocal cell sections, supporting the existence of clusters of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors. Strong Ins(1,4,5)P(3) photorelease and high concentrations of acetylcholine induced Ca(2+) waves that originated from an initiation site and propagated in the whole cell by spatial recruitment of neighbouring Ca(2+)-release sites. Both Ca(2+) puffs and Ca(2+) waves were blocked selectively by intracellular applications of heparin and an anti-Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-receptor antibody, but were unaffected by ryanodine and intracellular application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody. mRNAs encoding for the three subtypes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor and subtype 3 of ryanodine receptor were detected in these myocytes, and the maximal binding capacity of [(3)H]Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was 10- to 12-fold higher than that of [(3)H]ryanodine. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels mediate a continuum of Ca(2+) signalling in smooth-muscle cells expressing a high level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors and no subtypes 1 and 2 of ryanodine receptors. PMID:10861244

  5. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels.

    PubMed

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of total

  6. Ca(2+) induces PI(4,5)P2 clusters on lipid bilayers at physiological PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Maria J; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    Calcium has been shown to induce clustering of PI(4,5)P2 at high and non-physiological concentrations of both the divalent ion and the phosphatidylinositol, or on supported lipid monolayers. In lipid bilayers at physiological conditions, clusters are not detected through microscopic techniques. Here, we aimed to determine through spectroscopic methodologies if calcium plays a role in PI(4,5)P2 lateral distribution on lipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Using several different approaches which included information on fluorescence quantum yield, polarization, spectra and diffusion properties of a fluorescent derivative of PI(4,5)P2 (TopFluor(TF)-PI(4,5)P2), we show that Ca(2+) promotes PI(4,5)P2 clustering in lipid bilayers at physiological concentrations of both Ca(2+) and PI(4,5)P2. Fluorescence depolarization data of TF-PI(4,5)P2 in the presence of calcium suggests that under physiological concentrations of PI(4,5)P2 and calcium, the average cluster size comprises ~15 PI(4,5)P2 molecules. The presence of Ca(2+)-induced PI(4,5)P2 clusters is supported by FCS data. Additionally, calcium mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering was more pronounced in liquid ordered (lo) membranes, and the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) clusters presented an increased affinity for lo domains. In this way, PI(4,5)P2 could function as a lipid calcium sensor and the increased efficiency of calcium-mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering on lo domains might provide targeted nucleation sites for PI(4,5)P2 clusters upon calcium stimulus.

  7. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  8. Performance of three 4. 5 m dipoles for SSC reference design D

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Fernow, R.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three 4.5 m long dipoles for Reference Design D of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 to 2.4 K) liquid, 8T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated at eight times the required current without training.

  9. Understanding the O4,5 edge structure of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, M; Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Wall, M; Haire, D

    2007-12-12

    Using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, we examine the O{sub 4,5} (5d {yields} 5f) edge structure of the ground-state {alpha} phase of Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm metal. Results show that the dipole-allowed transitions are contained within the giant resonance and that the small pre-peak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O{sub 5} peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak. Lastly, we present for the first time the O{sub 4,5} EELS spectra for Np, Am, and Cm metal.

  10. An Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor in Paramecium is associated with the osmoregulatory system.

    PubMed

    Ladenburger, Eva-Maria; Korn, Iris; Kasielke, Nicole; Wassmer, Thomas; Plattner, Helmut

    2006-09-01

    In the ciliate Paramecium, a variety of well characterized processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g. exocytosis, endocytosis and ciliary beat. Therefore, among protozoa, Paramecium is considered a model organism for Ca2+ signaling, although the molecular identity of the channels responsible for the Ca2+ signals remains largely unknown. We have cloned - for the first time in a protozoan - the full sequence of the gene encoding a putative inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) receptor from Paramecium tetraurelia cells showing molecular characteristics of higher eukaryotic cells. The homologously expressed Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain binds [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas antibodies unexpectedly localize this protein to the osmoregulatory system. The level of Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor expression was reduced, as shown on a transcriptional level and by immuno-staining, by decreasing the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ (Paramecium cells rapidly adjust their Ca2+ level to that in the outside medium). Fluorochromes reveal spontaneous fluctuations in cytosolic Ca2+ levels along the osmoregulatory system and these signals change upon activation of caged Ins(1,4,5)P3. Considering the ongoing expulsion of substantial amounts of Ca2+ by the osmoregulatory system, we propose here that Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors serve a new function, i.e. a latent, graded reflux of Ca2+ to fine-tune [Ca2+] homeostasis.

  11. Wavelet analysis of paleomagnetic data: 4. Characteristic short times (0.4-4.5 ky) of variations in the elements of the geomagnetic field during the early Jaramillo reversal and in the stationary field during the Matuyama and Jaramillo chrons (Western Turkmenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarii, G. Z.; Aleksyutin, M. V.; Ataev, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    The geomagnetic variations with characteristic times ranging from 0.4 to 15 ka are shown to be largely stochastic. Variations with different characteristic times appear during different time intervals and reflect accelerating and decelerating processes. The variations do not exhibit any predominant times. At the same time, almost periodic variations in the lithological characteristics are clearly seen in the wavelet diagrams of the parameters that reflect the changes in the composition (quantitative and qualitative) of ferrimagnetic material; i.e., the changes in the conditions of sedimentation related to climate variations. The variations with periods of 5, 8.5, and 13 ka are concurrent with the similar variations in the paleomagnetic data, while the variations with a period of 3.5 ka are only observed in the magnetic parameters. We suggest that the first mentioned oscillations reflect the changes of the external (relative to the Earth) origin, whereas the changes with a period of 3.5 ka are caused by some terrestrial factors.

  12. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  13. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  14. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  15. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  16. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  17. Accelerated dendritic development of rat cortical pyramidal cells and interneurons after biolistic transfection with BDNF and NT4/5.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Marcus J; Brun, Annika; Grabert, Jochen; Patz, Silke; Wahle, Petra

    2003-12-01

    Neurotrophins are candidate molecules for regulating dendritogenesis. We report here on dendritic growth of rat visual cortex pyramidal and interneurons overexpressing 'brain-derived neurotrophic factor' BDNF and 'neurotrophin 4/5' NT4/5. Neurons in organotypic cultures were transfected with plasmids encoding either 'enhanced green fluorescent protein' EGFP, BDNF/EGFP or NT4/5/EGFP either at the day of birth with analysis at 5 days in vitro, or at 5 days in vitro with analysis at 10 days in vitro. In pyramidal neurons, both TrkB ligands increased dendritic length and number of segments without affecting maximum branch order and number of primary dendrites. In the early time window, only infragranular neurons were responsive. Neurons in layers II/III became responsive to NT4/5, but not BDNF, during the later time window. BDNF and NT4/5 transfectants at 10 days in vitro had still significantly shorter dendrites than adult pyramidal neurons, suggesting a massive growth spurt after 10 days in vitro. However, segment numbers were already in the range of adult neurons. Although this suggested a role for BDNF, long-term activity-deprived, and thus BDNF-deprived, pyramidal cells developed a dendritic complexity not different from neurons in active cultures except for higher spine densities on neurons of layers II/III and VI. Neutralization of endogenous NT4/5 causes shorter and less branched dendrites at 10 days in vitro suggesting an essential role for NT4/5. Neutralization of BDNF had no effect. Transfected multipolar interneurons became identifiable during the second time window. Both TrkB ligands significantly increased number of segments and branch order towards the adult state with little effects on dendritic length. The results suggested that early in development BDNF and NT4/5 probably accelerate dendritogenesis in an autocrine fashion. In particular, branch formation was advanced towards the adult pattern in pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  18. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Molecular Determinants of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) Binding to Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuñiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V.; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  20. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  1. Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and ultrathin films prepared by microwave synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mintova, S.; Mo, S.; Bein, T.

    1998-12-01

    Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and submicron AlPO{sub 4}-5 films were synthesized by microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors. The effects of the chemical composition of the initial solution and the conditions of microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors on the synthesis of nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves were investigated. The syntheses were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a microwave oven at temperatures ranging from 90 to 160 C, using various concentrations of H{sub 2}O and organic template and varying aging times. The resulting bulk products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, dynamic light scattering, and nitrogen sorption. Optimal conditions for the preparation of nanosized molecular sieve crystals were found. Thin films of AlPO{sub 4}-5 on acoustic wave devices were also prepared, composed of a molecular coupling layer, AlPO{sub 4}-5 seed crystals, and a homogeneous porous film formed by microwave treatment of an aluminophosphate precursor. The initial mixture composition and microwave conditions affect the thickness and the orientation of the zeolite crystals in the films. Sorption isotherms for n-hexane and cyclohexane in these AlPO{sub 4}5 films are reported.

  2. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  3. Endomembrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 activates the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Nirmal; Chung, Gary H C; Lete, Marta G; Alonso, Alicia; Byrne, Richard D; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé

    2015-09-15

    PKB/Akt activation is a common step in tumour growth, proliferation and survival. Akt activation is understood to occur at the plasma membrane of cells in response to growth factor stimulation and local production of the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] following phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. The metabolism and turnover of phosphoinositides is complex--they act as signalling molecules as well as structural components of biological membranes. The localisation and significance of internal pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has long been speculated upon. By using transfected and recombinant protein probes for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, we show that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is enriched in the nuclear envelope and early endosomes. By exploiting an inducible dimerisation device to recruit Akt to these compartments, we demonstrate that Akt can be locally activated in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and has the potential to phosphorylate compartmentally localised downstream substrates. This could be an important mechanism to regulate Akt isoform substrate specificity or influence the timing and duration of PI3K pathway signalling. Defects in phosphoinositide metabolism and localisation are known to contribute to cancer, suggesting that interactions at subcellular compartments might be worthwhile targets for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) sequesters spin-labeled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Michelle E; Ferguson, Colin G; Prestwich, Glenn D; Cafiso, David S

    2002-04-19

    The myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) may function to sequester phosphoinositides within the plane of the bilayer. To characterize this interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)), a novel spin-labeled derivative, proxyl-PIP(2), was synthesized and characterized. In the presence of molecules known to bind PI(4,5)P(2) the EPR spectrum of this label exhibits an increase in line width because of a decrease in label dynamics, and titration of this probe with neomycin yields the expected 1:1 stoichiometry. Thus, this probe can be used to quantitate the interactions made by the PI(4,5)P(2) head group within the bilayer. In the presence of a peptide comprising the effector domain of MARCKS the EPR spectrum broadens, but the changes in line shape are modulated by both changes in label correlation time and spin-spin interactions. This result indicates that at least some proxyl-PIP(2) are in close proximity when bound to MARCKS and that MARCKS associates with multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules. Titration of the proxyl-PIP(2) EPR signal by the MARCKS-derived peptide also suggests that multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules interact with MARCKS. Site-directed spin labeling of this peptide shows that the position and conformation of this protein segment at the membrane interface are not altered significantly by binding to PI(4,5)P(2). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that MARCKS functions to sequester multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules within the plane of the membrane as a result of interactions that are driven by electrostatic forces.

  5. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  6. Simultaneous recovery of metals and degradation of organic species: copper and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abdul J; Hassan, Mukhtar-ul; Grimes, Susan M

    2009-06-15

    In mixed wastewater streams, the presence of metal ions can retard the destruction of organic contaminants and the efficiency of recovery of the metal is reduced by the presence of organic species. The reduction in the efficiency of these methods is due to the formation of complexes between the organic species and the metal ions in solution. Results are presented for copper-2,4,5-T system in which both effects occur. A photolytic cell alone can achieve the complete degradation of 2,4,5-T, in the presence of TiO(2) or H(2)O(2), at pH 3.5. The addition of Cu(II) ions, however, retard the degradation of 2,4,5-T and complete mineralisation of 2,4,5-T was not achieved and the system also leaves Cu(II) ions in solution. An electrolytic cell alone can be used to recover copper in pH range 1.5-4.5 but is not capable of achieving complete disappearance of 2,4,5-T by anodic oxidation. A combined photolytic-electrolytic system is capable of achieving simultaneous destruction of 2,4,5-T and recovery of copper from mixed wastewater streams at pH 3.5. The percentage destruction of 2,4,5-T and the recovery of copper can be increased further by using a combined photolytic and an activated carbon concentrator cell system. This system can achieve the simultaneous recovery of copper and the degradation of 2,4,5-T without the use of an additional oxidants or catalysts.

  7. Future climate data from RCP 4.5 and occurrence of malaria in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-10-15

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001-2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future.

  8. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  9. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  10. 1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as emerging pronucleophiles in asymmetric catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric catalysis represents a very powerful tool for the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. In this context the main focus has been directed not only to the search for new efficient chiral catalysts, but also to the development of efficient pronucleophiles. This review highlights the utility and first examples of 1H-imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as pronucleophiles in catalytic asymmetric reactions. PMID:27340482

  11. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes somatic embryogenesis in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.).

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Tammy; Browne, Robin; Dong, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) offers vast potential for the clonal propagation of high-value roses. However, some recalcitrant cultivars unresponsive to commonly employed SE-inducing agents and low induction rates currently hinder the commercialization of SE technology in rose. Rose SE technology requires improvement before it can be implemented as a production system on a commercial scale. In the present work, we assessed 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin not previously tested in rose, for its effectiveness to induce SE in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.). We ran a parallel comparison to the commonly used 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). We tested each auxin with two different basal media: Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and woody plant medium (WPM). MS medium resulted in somatic embryo production, whereas WPM did not. 2,4,5-T induced SE over a greater concentration range than 2,4-D's and resulted in significantly greater embryo yields. 2,4,5-T at a concentration of 10 or 25 microM was better for embrygenic tissue initiation than 2,4,5-T at 5 microM. Further embryo development occurred when the tissue was transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR) free medium or media with 40% the original auxin concentration. However, the PGR-free medium resulted in a high percentage of abnormal embryos (32.31%) compared to the media containing auxins. Upon transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos successfully converted into plantlets at rates ranging from 33.3 to 95.2%, depending on treatment. Survival rates 3 months ex vitro averaged 14.0 and 55.6% for 2,4-D- and 2,4,5-T-derived plantlets, respectively. Recurrent SE was observed in 60.2% of the plantlets growing on germination medium. This study is the first report of SE in the commercially valuable rose cultivar 'Livin' Easy' (Rosa sp.) and a suitable methodology was developed for SE of this rose cultivar.

  12. Adsorption and photodegradation kinetics of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid with MgFeTi layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong; Beak, Min-wook; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-03-01

    The calcined layered double hydroxides (cLDHs) Ti-doped and undoped MgFe for this study were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) techniques and tested for adsorption and photodegradation (including photocatalytic and photo-Fenton-like) of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. In the range of studied operating conditions, the as-prepared samples exhibited excellent photo-Fenton-like activity, leading to more than 80-95% degradation of 2,4,5-T at initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with 4 g calcined LDHs per liter, was accomplished in 360 min, while 2,4,5-T half-life time was as short as 99-182 min. The kinetics of adsorption and photodegradation of 2,4,5-T were also discussed. These results offered a green, low cost and high efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  13. Flood of June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin, east-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware, Dubuque, Jackson, and Jones Counties, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cascade, Iowa, recorded a 14-hour rainfall of 6.0 inches at noon on June 4. Radar indications estimated as much as 8 to 10 inches of rain fell in the upper-middle part of the Maquoketa River Basin. Peak discharges on the Maquoketa River at Monticello of 47,500 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval estimated to be greater than 500 years as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey), and at the Maquoketa River near Maquoketa streamflow-gaging station of 47,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 50 years), were determined for the flood. The peak discharge of the 2002 flood is nearly equal that of the 1944 flood (48,000 cubic feet per second), the largest flood on record in the Maquoketa River Basin. The 2002 flood is the largest known flood in the North Fork Maquoketa River Basin. A peak discharge of 22,600 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 110 years) was determined for the flood at the North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton gaging station. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along the Maquoketa and North Fork Maquoketa Rivers.

  14. Two Novel 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines that Participate in Inverse Electron Demand Diels–Alder Reactions with an Unexpected Regioselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Akiyuki; Ducray, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Two new unsymmetrical 1,2,4,5-tetrazines, 3-methylsulfinyl-6-methylthio-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (4) and 3-(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino-6-methylsulfinyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (5), were prepared and scope of their participation in intermolecular inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reactions defined. As anticipated, sulfoxides 4 and 5 (4 > 5) display a reactivity that is substantially greater than that of their corresponding sulfides (2 and 3) being derived from their enhanced electron-deficient character and resulting in a wider range of potential dienophile choices or the use of milder reaction conditions. The cycloaddition reactions were expectedly regioselective typically producing a single cycloadduct ensuring their synthetic utility, but both were found to proceed with a regioselectivity opposite what would be anticipated and complementary to that observed with 2 and 3. PMID:16388634

  15. Crystal structure of 4,5-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The title compound, C20H23N3O6·CH3OH, was synthesized by [3 + 2] cyclo-addition of (Z)-2,3-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in DMF/water. The central nitro-gen of the triazole ring is protonated. The dihedral angles between the triazole ring and the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl ring planes are 34.31 (4) and 45.03 (5)°, while that between the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings is 51.87 (5)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules, along with two methanol solvent mol-ecules are linked into an R (4) 4(10) centrosymmetric dimer by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  16. Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Oleson, K.; Huber, M.

    2014-08-01

    We implement and analyze 13 different metrics (4 moist thermodynamic quantities and 9 heat stress metrics) in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5), the land surface component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We call these routines the HumanIndexMod. These heat stress metrics embody three philosophical approaches: comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to CLM4.5 BareGroundFuxesMod, CanopyFluxesMod, SlakeFluxesMod, and UrbanMod modules in order to differentiate between the distinct regimes even within one gridcell. This allows CLM4.5 to calculate the instantaneous heat stress at every model time step, for every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity in moisture-temperature covariance. Secondary modules for initialization and archiving are modified to generate the metrics as standard output. All of the metrics implemented depend on the covariance of near surface atmospheric variables: temperature, pressure, and humidity. Accurate wet bulb temperatures are critical for quantifying heat stress (used by 5 of the 9 heat stress metrics). Unfortunately, moist thermodynamic calculations for calculating accurate wet bulb temperatures are not in CLM4.5. To remedy this, we incorporated comprehensive water vapor calculations into CLM4.5. The three advantages of adding these metrics to CLM4.5 are (1) improved thermodynamic calculations within climate models, (2) quantifying human heat stress, and (3) that these metrics may be applied to other animals as well as industrial applications. Additionally, an offline version of the HumanIndexMod is available for applications with weather and climate datasets. Examples of such applications are the high temporal resolution CMIP5 archived data, weather and research forecasting models, CLM4.5 flux tower simulations (or other land surface model validation studies), and local weather station data analysis. To demonstrate the capabilities of the HumanIndexMod, we

  17. Proliferative response patterns of human fibroblasts after photoinjury with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.R.; Carter, D.M.; Gala, M.

    1981-01-01

    The extent of growth suppression and recovery following exposure to 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen plus uv-A irradiation was studied in 3 diploid human fibroblast strains. Inhibition of cellular proliferation was dose-dependent within the concentration range of TMP that was tested, using a constant level of uv-A. The population generation times for all cell strains were progressively lengthened under these conditions while maximal cell densities were reduced. At 2 to 4 x 10(-7) M TMP in the presence of uv-A, there was a triphasic pattern of growth which consisted of proliferative activity during the first 24 to 36 h, followed by complete growth inhibition for variable periods of time and a recovery period of log phase proliferation that was not as vigorous as measured for untreated cells. There were also declines in the percentage of cells labeled with 3H-Tdr at various times after TMP-uv-A treatment. These measurements were essentially identical for the three fibroblast strains evaluated. In that the cells employed for these investigations were derived from embryonic pulmonary tissue, neonatal foreskin and the buttock skin of an adult male, it seems unlikely that donor age and tissue source were important variables in determining growth response patterns after TMP-uv-A exposure. Because proliferative recovery was attenuated after this photochemical injury, researchers conclude that the biologic effect(s) of TMP-uv-A extend beyond the known period of psoralen-DNA cross-link removal.

  18. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of metamorphic complexes in the conjunction of the Greater and Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China: Timing of formation and metamorphism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fuqin; Zhu, Mingshuai; Liu, Dunyi

    2015-12-01

    Metamorphic complexes, including the Luomahu, Xinkailing and Fengshuigouhe groups, are scattered in the conjunction of the Greater and the Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China, and have long been interpreted to represent the Precambrian basement of the so-called "Xing'an" and "Songnen" blocks although reliable evidence is lacking. Thin-section examination and mineral assemblage indicate that the protoliths of these metamorphic rocks are mainly meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks and have experienced greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism and strong deformation. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of the metamorphic complexes and associated pre- or syn-kinematic veins constrained the formation and metamorphic ages of the Luomahuo Group at 175 ± 3 Ma and 159 ± 3 Ma, the Xingkailing Group at 200 ± 2 Ma and 158 ± 3 Ma, and the Fengshuigouhe Group at between 230-310 Ma and 170 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Additionally, all these rocks contain some Late Paleozoic detrital or inherited zircons with ages between 290-390 Ma, but no Precambrian, even if Early Paleozoic, age information was detected from these metamorphic rocks. These new data suggest that the metamorphic complexes were formed during Mesozoic-Late Paleozoic period, rather than in Precambrian as previously inferred, and that all of them underwent metamorphism and deformation during Middle Jurassic between 170-160 Ma. Consequently, these metamorphic complexes are not basement rocks of the so-called Precambrian continental blocks. Instead, there are likely metamorphosed Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic accretionary complexes and/or arc terranes. These results, in combination with published data, illustrate an overall young trend from north to south in the tectonic evolution of the northern Xing'an region. Significantly, the Jurassic (170-160 Ma) metamorphism and deformation event firstly identified by this study from the metamorphic complexes likely recorded the coinstantaneous Mongol-Okhotsk collisional and

  19. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  20. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  1. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  2. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  3. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  4. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  5. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. (a) Outage is defined as a... government facilities.” 911 special facilities are addressed separately in paragraph (e) of this section....

  6. 24 CFR 4.5 - Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a). 4.5 Section 4.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  7. Analysis of data mining classification by comparison of C4.5 and ID algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajat, R.; Irianingsih, I.; Krisnawan, D.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology, triggered by the intensive use of information technology. For example, data mining widely used in investment. Many techniques that can be used assisting in investment, the method that used for classification is decision tree. Decision tree has a variety of algorithms, such as C4.5 and ID3. Both algorithms can generate different models for similar data sets and different accuracy. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provide accuracy are 87.16% and 99.83% and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 89.69%. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provides 520 and 598 customers and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 546 customers. From the analysis of the both algorithm it can classified quite well because error rate less than 15%.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate ionization in the presence of cholesterol, calcium or magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Graber, Zachary T; Gericke, Arne; Kooijman, Edgar E

    2014-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is an important signaling lipid and plays a crucial role in a wide variety of cellular processes by interacting with protein targets and localizing proteins at the plasma membrane. These interactions are strongly influenced by the lateral distribution of PI(4,5)P2 as well as its ionization state. The characterization of the PI(4,5)P2 ionization state provides important information about how PI(4,5)P2 interacts with other membrane resident or associated chemical species. In this study we have used solid-state MAS (31)P NMR to investigate the interactions of PI(4,5)P2 with potential cluster promoting agents, divalent cations and cholesterol. Both Ca(2+) and cholesterol were found previously to promote formation of local PI(4,5)P2 clusters in vitro. The NMR approach allows us to probe independently the ionization state of PI(4,5)P2 two phosphomonoester groups. We investigated mixed phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PI(4,5)P2 multilamellar vesicles in the presence of micro and millimolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). We found that both cations lead to an increased downfield chemical shift of the PI(4,5)P2 phosphomonoester peaks, indicating an increased ionization in the presence of the divalent cations. Ca(2+) has a much larger effect on PI(4,5)P2 as compared to Mg(2+) at similar concentrations. Physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) are significantly lower than those found for Mg(2+) and the comparison of the PI(4,5)P2 ionization in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at physiological concentrations resulted in similar charges of the phosphomonoester groups for both cations. PI(4,5)P2 was also examined with vesicles containing cholesterol since cholesterol has been shown to promote PI(4,5)P2 clustering. In the presence of 40 mol% cholesterol, the PI(4,5)P2 phosphomonoester (31)P NMR peaks shifted slightly downfield, indicating a small increase in charge. Previously published data suggest that PI(4,5)P2 is capable of

  9. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents through TRPC channels controlled via the PI(4,5)P2-PLC signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masayuki X; Itsuki, Kyohei; Hase, Hideharu; Sawamura, Seishiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Mori, Yasuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents (ROCs) triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5)P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5)P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5)P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5)P2 on different ROCs.

  10. Late Alk4/5/7 signaling is required for anterior skeletal patterning in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, Michael L; Ramachandran, Janani; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires a conversation between the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and the overlying pattern-dictating ectoderm; however, our understanding of the molecular basis for this process remains incomplete. Here, we show that TGF-β-receptor signaling is required during gastrulation to pattern the anterior skeleton. To block TGF-β signaling, we used SB431542 (SB43), a specific inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor Alk4/5/7. Treatment with SB43 during gastrulation blocks anterior PMC positioning and the formation of the anterior skeleton, but does not perturb general ectoderm specification or development. This is the first example of a signaling event required for patterning of a specific part of the skeleton. Alk4/5/7 inhibition does not prevent the formation of a mouth, although SB43-treated plutei display reduced feeding ability, presumably due to the loss of the structural support for the mouth conferred by the anterior skeleton. Both Univin and Nodal are potential ligands for Alk4/5/7; however, Nodal is unilaterally expressed on only the right side, whereas Univin is bilaterally expressed in the ectoderm adjacent to the anterior skeleton during the relevant time period. Our results demonstrate that Univin is both necessary and sufficient for secondary skeletal development in a control background, consistent with the hypothesis that Univin is a relevant Alk4/5/7 ligand for anterior skeletal patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Alk4/5/7 signaling during gastrulation is required to direct PMCs to the oral hood, and suggest that Univin is a relevant ligand for this signaling event.

  11. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  12. RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-07-29

    Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

  13. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larry; Hall, Jeffrey; McLean, Robert; Dunbar, Michael; Klenk, Kaci; Bowen, Richard; Smeraski, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45-80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental studies. Grouse were challenged by subcutaneous injection of WNV (10(3.2) plaque-forming units [PFUs]). All grouse died within 6 days of infection. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 50% survival was 4.5 days. Mean peak viremia for nonvaccinated birds was 10(6.4) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.2) PFUs/ml, standard error of the mean [SEM]). Virus was shed cloacally and orally. Four of the five vaccinated grouse died, but survival time was increased (50% survival=9.5 days), with 1 grouse surviving to the end-point of the experiment (14 days) with no signs of illness. Mean peak viremia for the vaccinated birds was 10(2.3) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.6) PFUs/ml, SEM). Two birds cleared the virus from their blood before death or euthanasia. These data emphasize the high susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to infection with WNV.

  14. A series of 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazole: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Vinay S.; Shaikh, Saminaparwin G.; Patel, Arun L.

    2016-06-01

    A new series of 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole were synthesized with good yields using simple methodology. All the compounds were thoroughly characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry and structures of 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyloxazole (5b) and 4,5-dimethyl-2-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)oxazole(5e) were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidently, the crystal structures of these compounds showed C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions. The electronic structures of these compounds were also studied by DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ++ level of theory.

  15. The in vitro metabolism of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R; Safe, S

    1980-08-01

    Radiolabelled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl was metabolized in vitro by rat liver microsomal enzymes to give more polar ether soluble lipophilic metabolites, trichloroacetic acid soluble conjugates and a macromolecular adduct fraction. The rates of formation of the three metabolic fractions were significantly enhanced using Firemaster BP-6 and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl induced microsomal enzymes. Comparative metabolic studies with the 4-brombiphenyl substrate showed that the lower brominated biphenyl substrate was more readily metabolized and the rate of metabolism was enhanced only with the Firemaster BP-6 induced microsomal enzymes and not the 2,2', 4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl induced enzyme system.

  16. Bis(tetra-methyl-amonium) bis-(2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate)-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Girginova, Penka I; Trindade, Tito; Rocha, João; Klinowski, Jacek; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2007-12-06

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C(4)H(12)N(+)·2C(10)H(5)O(8) (-)·C(10)H(6)O(8), consists of a tetra-methyl-amonium cation, an anion derived from the singly deprotonated pyromellitic acid anion, 2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate (H(3)bta(-)), and one-half of a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (H(4)bta) mol-ecule, which has the centroid of the aromatic ring positioned at a crystallographic centre of inversion. The H(4)bta and H(3)bta(-) residues are involved in an extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network, which leads to a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure containing one-dimensional channels running parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. These channels house the tetra-methyl-amonium cations.

  17. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  18. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  19. Syntheses and crystal structures of two ionic liquids with halogen-bonding groups: 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    We have prepared and characterized two novel Lewis acidic ionic liquids, 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates, using differential scanning calorimetry and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The effect of the halogen species on the phase transition behaviour and the cation-anion interacting geometry was investigated. The minor difference in chemical structure strongly affects the melting point, glass transition temperature and crystal structure because of the different halogen-bonding strength and linearity between C-Br⋯O and C-I⋯O. Both the salts melt above room temperature, but the fused salts show glass-forming property and poor crystallizability.

  20. High-spin states with seniority v=4, 5, and 6 in 119-126Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, A.; Porquet, M.-G.; Theisen, Ch.; Verney, D.; Deloncle, I.; Houry, M.; Lucas, R.; Azaiez, F.; Barreau, G.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Duchêne, G.; Gall, B. J. P.; Redon, N.; Rousseau, M.; Stézowski, O.

    2012-05-01

    The 119-126Sn nuclei have been produced as fission fragments in two reactions induced by heavy ions: 12C+238U at a bombarding energy of 90 MeV and 18O+208Pb at 85 MeV. Their level schemes have been built from γ rays detected using the Euroball array. High-spin states located above the long-lived isomeric states of the even- and odd-A 120-126Sn nuclei have been identified. Moreover, isomeric states lying around 4.5 MeV have been established in 120,122,124,126Sn from the delayed coincidences between the fission fragment detector SAPhIR and the Euroball array. The states located above 3 MeV excitation energy are ascribed to several broken pairs of neutrons occupying the νh11/2 orbit. The maximum value of angular momentum available in such a high-j shell, i.e., for midoccupation and the breaking of the three neutron pairs, has been identified. This process is observed for the first time in spherical nuclei.

  1. Amine degradation by 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Gallardo, Emerenciana; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2006-03-22

    The reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal with octylamine, benzylamine, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester were studied to investigate if amines may suffer a Strecker type degradation by epoxyalkenals analogously to amino acids. In addition to other reactions, the studied amines were converted into their corresponding Strecker aldehydes (octanal, benzaldehyde, and methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate, respectively) to an extent that depended on the pH, the temperature, the amount of epoxyalkenal, and the amine involved. Each amine exhibited an optimum pH for the reaction, but the corresponding Strecker aldehydes were produced to a significant extent within a broad pH range. In addition, the temperature mostly influenced the reaction rate, which was increased between 6.5 and 9.5 times when the reaction was carried out at 60 degrees C than when it took place at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, Strecker aldehyde formation was linearly correlated with the amount of the epoxyalkenal present in the reaction mixture. Nevertheless, the reaction yield mostly depended on the amine involved. Thus, octylamine only produced trace amounts of octanal, benzylamine was converted into benzaldehyde with a yield of 4.3%, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester was converted into methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate with a reaction yield of 49%. All of these results suggest that suitable amines can be degraded by epoxyalkenals to their corresponding Strecker aldehydes to a significant extent.

  2. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Platen, Mitja; Junius, Meike; Diederichsen, Ulf; Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Honigmann, Alf; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a minor component of total plasma membrane lipids, but it has a substantial role in the regulation of many cellular functions, including exo- and endocytosis. Recently, it was shown that PI(4,5)P2 and syntaxin 1, a SNARE protein that catalyzes regulated exocytosis, form domains in the plasma membrane that constitute recognition sites for vesicle docking. Also, calcium was shown to promote syntaxin 1 clustering in the plasma membrane, but the molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, using a combination of superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, FRET, and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ca2+ acts as a charge bridge that specifically and reversibly connects multiple syntaxin 1/PI(4,5)P2 complexes into larger mesoscale domains. This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca2+ concentrations is likely to be important for Ca2+-regulated secretion. PMID:26884341

  3. [Comparative study of single strand conformation polymorphism of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Gong, L; Zhang, L; Li, S; Zhu, S

    1994-04-01

    A recently developed technique, non-isotopic single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR-SSCP), was applied to study the conserved feature of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria. The 4.5S RNA gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using the template DNA extracted respectively from five strains of Escherichia coli and three strains of different genera in Enterobacteriaceae, i.e. Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter aerogenes. The PCR products were then carried out SSCP analysis. The experimental results showed that there seemed to be no detectable differences in the size and single strand conformation of 4.5S RNA genes from above strains, except the negative strand conformation of Enterobacter aerogenes. Thus it can be seen that the secondary structures of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria are quite conservative.

  4. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.

  5. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation. PMID:23392104

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Yuriy V; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A; Ache, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel.

  7. The elongation factor Spt4/5 regulates RNA polymerase II transcription through the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Crickard, John B; Lee, Jaehyoun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Reese, Joseph C

    2017-04-03

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) passes through the nucleosome in a coordinated manner, generating several intermediate nucleosomal states as it breaks and then reforms histone-DNA contacts ahead of and behind it, respectively. Several studies have defined transcription-induced nucleosome intermediates using only RNA Polymerase. However, RNAPII is decorated with elongation factors as it transcribes the genome. One such factor, Spt4/5, becomes an integral component of the elongation complex, making direct contact with the 'jaws' of RNAPII and nucleic acids in the transcription scaffold. We have characterized the effect of incorporating Spt4/5 into the elongation complex on transcription through the 601R nucleosome. Spt4/5 suppressed RNAPII pausing at the major H3/H4-induced arrest point, resulting in downstream re-positioning of RNAPII further into the nucleosome. Using a novel single molecule FRET system, we found that Spt4/5 affected the kinetics of DNA re-wrapping and stabilized a nucleosomal intermediate with partially unwrapped DNA behind RNAPII. Comparison of nucleosomes of different sequence polarities suggest that the strength of the DNA-histone interactions behind RNAPII specifies the Spt4/5 requirement. We propose that Spt4/5 may be important to coordinate the mechanical movement of RNAPII through the nucleosome with co-transcriptional chromatin modifications during transcription, which is affected by the strength of histone-DNA interactions.

  8. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  9. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRANS-4,5-DIHYDROXY-4,5-DIHYDROBENZO[A]PYRENE TO BENZO[A]PYRENE-BIS-DIOLS AND DNA ADDUCTS BY INDUCED RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of (+)-trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol), the K-region dihydrodiol of B[a]P, by B-naphthoflavone (BNF)-induced rat liver microsomes was studied. Trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol was metabolized to six major products as characterized by...

  10. Highly Dynamic and Specific Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Septin, and Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Responses Correlate with Caspofungin Activity against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] activates the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. Candida albicans exposure to caspofungin results in the rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins to plasma membrane foci and subsequent fungicidal effects. We studied C. albicans PI(4,5)P2 and septin dynamics and protein kinase C (PKC)-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway activation following exposure to caspofungin and other drugs. PI(4,5)P2 and septins were visualized by live imaging of C. albicans cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and red fluorescent protein-Cdc10p, respectively. PI(4,5)P2 was also visualized in GFP-PH domain-expressing C. albicans mkc1 mutants. Mkc1p phosphorylation was measured as a marker of PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation. Fungicidal activity was assessed using 20-h time-kill assays. Caspofungin immediately induced PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10p colocalization to aberrant foci, a process that was highly dynamic over 3 h. PI(4,5)P2 levels increased in a dose-response manner at caspofungin concentrations of ≤4× MIC and progressively decreased at concentrations of ≥8× MIC. Caspofungin exposure resulted in broad-based mother-daughter bud necks and arrested septum-like structures, in which PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10 colocalized. PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation was maximal within 10 min, peaked in response to caspofungin at 4× MIC, and declined at higher concentrations. The caspofungin-induced PI(4,5)P2 redistribution remained apparent in mkc1 mutants. Caspofungin exerted dose-dependent killing and paradoxical effects at ≤4× and ≥8× MIC, respectively. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, calcofluor white, and H2O2 did not impact the PI(4,5)P2 or Cdc10p distribution like caspofungin did. Caspofungin exerts rapid PI(4,5)P2-septin and PKC-Mkc1 responses that correlate with the extent of C. albicans killing, and the responses are not induced by other antifungal agents. PI(4,5)P2-septin regulation is crucial in early

  11. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  12. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  13. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  14. Pharmacological Potential and Synthetic Approaches of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and Imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Krause, Malwina; Foks, Henryk; Gobis, Katarzyna

    2017-03-04

    The structural resemblance between the fused imidazopyridine heterocyclic ring system and purines has prompted biological investigations to assess their potential therapeutic significance. They are known to play a crucial role in numerous disease conditions. The discovery of their first bioactivity as GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators divulged their medicinal potential. Proton pump inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors, and NSAIDs were also found in this chemical group. Imidazopyridines have the ability to influence many cellular pathways necessary for the proper functioning of cancerous cells, pathogens, components of the immune system, enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, etc. The collective results of biochemical and biophysical properties foregrounded their medicinal significance in central nervous system, digestive system, cancer, inflammation, etc. In recent years, new preparative methods for the synthesis of imidazopyridines using various catalysts have been described. The present manuscript to the best of our knowledge is the complete compilation on the synthesis and medicinal aspects of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines and imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines reported from the year 2000 to date, including structure-activity relationships.

  15. Regulation of gene expression via retrotransposon insertions and the noncoding RNA 4.5S RNAH.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Kimura, Yuko; Mito, Mari; Okada, Shunpei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) comprise a significant portion of mammalian genomes and regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. Here, we show that Myodonta clade-specific 4.5S RNAH (4.5SH), an abundant nuclear noncoding RNA that is highly homologous to the retrotransposon SINE B1, controls the expression of reporter gene that contains the antisense insertion of SINE B1 via nuclear retention. The depletion of endogenous 4.5SH with antisense oligonucleotides neutralizes the nuclear retention and changes the subcellular distribution of the reporter transcripts containing the antisense SINE B1 insertion. Importantly, endogenous transcripts with antisense SINE B1 were increased in the cytoplasm after knockdown of 4.5SH, leading to a decrease in cellular growth. We propose a tentative hypothesis that the amplification of the 4.5SH cluster in specific rodent species might delineate their evolutionary direction via the regulation of genes containing the antisense insertion of SINE B1.

  16. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ran expression during simulated and real microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, B; Theisen, R; Schnabl, H

    2006-12-01

    In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate dynamically regulates the K2P background K+ channel TASK-2

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L. Pablo; Paulais, Marc; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.

    2017-01-01

    Two-pore domain K2P K+ channels responsible for the background K+ conductance and the resting membrane potential, are also finely regulated by a variety of chemical, physical and physiological stimuli. Hormones and transmitters acting through Gq protein-coupled receptors (GqPCRs) modulate the activity of various K2P channels but the signalling involved has remained elusive, in particular whether dynamic regulation by membrane PI(4,5)P2, common among other classes of K+ channels, affects K2P channels is controversial. Here we show that K2P K+ channel TASK-2 requires PI(4,5)P2 for activity, a dependence that accounts for its run down in the absence of intracellular ATP and its full recovery by addition of exogenous PI(4,5)P2, its inhibition by low concentrations of polycation PI scavengers, and inhibition by PI(4,5)P2 depletion from the membrane. Comprehensive mutagenesis suggests that PI(4,5)P2 interaction with TASK-2 takes place at C-terminus where three basic aminoacids are identified as being part of a putative binding site. PMID:28358046

  18. RNA polymerase and transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brianna J.; Bose, Daniel; Baker, Kevin J.; Yusoff, Zahirah M.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2011-01-01

    Spt4/5 in archaea and eukaryote and its bacterial homolog NusG is the only elongation factor conserved in all three domains of life and plays many key roles in cotranscriptional regulation and in recruiting other factors to the elongating RNA polymerase. Here, we present the crystal structure of Spt4/5 as well as the structure of RNA polymerase-Spt4/5 complex using cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction and single particle analysis. The Spt4/5 binds in the middle of RNA polymerase claw and encloses the DNA, reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp and ring helicases. The transcription elongation complex model reveals that the Spt4/5 is an upstream DNA holder and contacts the nontemplate DNA in the transcription bubble. These structures reveal that the cellular RNA polymerases also use a strategy of encircling DNA to enhance its processivity as commonly observed for many nucleic acid processing enzymes including DNA polymerases and helicases. PMID:21187417

  19. Synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, R J; Kaiser, S L; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate using a water-soluble carbodiimide. We obtained 1-1.5 mumol of the inositol cyclic trisphosphate starting with 5 mumol of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The cyclized product was isolated by HPLC on Partisil SAX. The identity of the cyclic product was verified by its hydrolysis to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in acid and by its conversion to 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate by a specific 5-phosphomonoesterase from platelets. We also identified the product by 31P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a peak at 17.2 ppm, characteristic of a five-membered cyclic phosphodiester ring, and peaks at 4.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, indicative of phosphomonoesters. This relatively simple method for producing inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate will facilitate studies of the physiology of this compound in signal transduction. PMID:3469663

  20. (+/-)-4-Aryl-4,5-dihydro-3H-1,3-benzodiazepines. 2. Nuclear-substituted analogues of (+/-)-4,5-dihydro-2,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-3H-1,3-benzodiazepine and (+/-)-4,5-dihydro-2-ethyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-3H-1,3-benzodiazepine as potential antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, L L; Setescak, L L; Worm, M; Crichlow, C A; Geyer, H M; Wilker, J C

    1982-04-01

    Antidepressant-like activity, as evidenced by marked inhibition of tetrabenazine-induced ptosis, was previously reported for (+/-)-4,5-dihydro-4-phenyl-3H-1,3-benzodiazepine derivatives. Since optimal antitetrabenazine activity was associated with (+/-)-4,5-dihydro-2,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-3H-1,3-benzodiazepine (9k, HRP 543) and the 2-ethyl-3-methyl analogue (10k), the synthesis and evaluation of nuclear-substituted derivatives of these two compounds was also investigated. The initial synthesis involved Friedel-Crafts acylation of substituted benzenes with 2-nitrophenylacetyl chloride to afford 1-aryl-2-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanones 2, which were converted in five steps to (+/-)-alpha-aryl-N-methyl-2-nitrobenzeneethanamines 7. Greater flexibility with respect to the introduction of nuclear substituents was achieved by conversion of 2-nitrotoluene derivatives to 2 via acylation of intermediate beta-(dimethylamino)-2-nitrostyrenes with various aroyl chlorides and hydrolysis. Reductive amination of 2 with methylamine and sodium cyanoborohydride afforded 7 directly and significantly reduced the number of synthetic steps. Reduction of 7a-j to diamines 8a-j and cyclization with appropriate ortho esters gave nuclear-substituted analogues of 9k and 10k. Marked antitetrabenazine activity was associated with many of these compounds. Significant enhancement of activity with respect to the unsubstituted analogues 9k and 10k was not observed, with the exception of 9c which appeared to be slightly more potent than 9k.

  1. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  2. Developmental Expression of Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate Receptor in the Post-Natal Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. J.; Yang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) has been established to be essential for hearing. However, the expression of IP3R in the cochlea in the period of auditory development remains unknown. We investigated the expression of IP3R in the developing rat cochlea using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed its presence in the developing rat cochlea, and changes in IP3R protein expressions from the early post-natal period to adult. At birth (postnatal day 0, P0), IP3R expression was only found in Hensen’s cell. IP3R immunoreactivity first appeared in the sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti at P2. This localization was confirmed by means of double-labeling experiments with Myosin VIIA, a marker for cochlear hair cells. Colocalization of IP3R and Myosin VIIA from P2 to the second post-natal week suggested early expression of IP3R in developing inner and outer hair cells. Claudius’ cells near the spiral ligament were labelled for IP3R from P8 onwards. Transient IP3R expression was observed in the stria vascularis in early post-natal rat from P4 to P8. Spiral ganglion neurons also exhibited weaker IP3R fluorescence signals during post-natal development. The results of RT-PCR demonstrated that all three IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) were present in rat cochlea during four different developmental stages of cochlea, from P0 to P28. Present immunohistochemical evidence for both change and maintenance of expression of IP3R during post-natal development of the rat cochlea indicated the possible involvement of IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in cochlear development. PMID:26150157

  3. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  4. Human erythrocyte membrane proteins of zone 4.5 exist as families of related proteins.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C F; Coleman, D B; Kay, M M; Shiffer, K A; Miller, J; Goodman, S R

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the polypeptide composition of zone 4.5 of human erythrocyte membranes has been done by immunoautoradiographic and two-dimensional peptide mapping techniques. Results of these studies demonstrated that the Coomassie blue profile was constant, with 14 well-resolved bands present. Zone 4.5 polypeptides existed as at least four families of two or more components with closely related polypeptide backbones. The families could be distinguished on the basis of their extraction characteristics, immunological cross-reactivity, and two-dimensional peptide maps. One family was related to protein 4.1, one family was related to band 3, and two families were independent and not similar to other larger membrane proteins. The data show that all of the visualized bands in zone 4.5 do not have the same protein composition and that several closely related forms of some polypeptides are present.

  5. A new calmodulin-binding motif for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Baños-Sanz, Jose I; Monterroso, Begoña; Round, Adam; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; González, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    IP3-3K [Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase] is a key enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, using Ins(1,4,5)P3 and ATP as substrates. Both inositides, substrate and product, present crucial roles in the cell. Ins(1,4,5)P3 is a key point in Ca2+ metabolism that promotes Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and together with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates Ca2+ homoeostasis. In addition, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is involved in immune cell development. It has been proved that Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) regulates the activity of IP3-3K, via direct interaction between both enzymes. Although we have extensive structural knowledge of the kinase domains of the three IP3-3K isoforms, no structural information is available about the interaction between IP3-3K and Ca2+/CaM. In the present paper we describe the crystal structure of the complex between human Ca2+/CaM and the CaM-binding region of human IP3-3K isoform A (residues 158-183) and propose a model for a complex including the kinase domain. The structure obtained allowed us to identify all of the key residues involved in the interaction, which have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, pull-down and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. The results allowed the identification of a new CaM-binding motif, expanding our knowledge about how CaM interacts with its partners.

  6. Calcium Directly Regulates Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Headgroup Conformation and Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The orchestrated recognition of phosphoinositides and concomitant intracellular release of Ca2+ is pivotal to almost every aspect of cellular processes, including membrane homeostasis, cell division and growth, vesicle trafficking, as well as secretion. Although Ca2+ is known to directly impact phosphoinositide clustering, little is known about the molecular basis for this or its significance in cellular signaling. Here, we study the direct interaction of Ca2+ with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), the main lipid marker of the plasma membrane. Electrokinetic potential measurements of PI(4,5)P2 containing liposomes reveal that Ca2+ as well as Mg2+ reduce the zeta potential of liposomes to nearly background levels of pure phosphatidylcholine membranes. Strikingly, lipid recognition by the default PI(4,5)P2 lipid sensor, phospholipase C delta 1 pleckstrin homology domain (PLC δ1-PH), is completely inhibited in the presence of Ca2+, while Mg2+ has no effect with 100 nm liposomes and modest effect with giant unilamellar vesicles. Consistent with biochemical data, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal how Ca2+ binding to the PI(4,5)P2 headgroup and carbonyl regions leads to confined lipid headgroup tilting and conformational rearrangements. We rationalize these findings by the ability of calcium to block a highly specific interaction between PLC δ1-PH and PI(4,5)P2, encoded within the conformational properties of the lipid itself. Our studies demonstrate the possibility that switchable phosphoinositide conformational states can serve as lipid recognition and controlled cell signaling mechanisms. PMID:28177616

  7. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  8. Cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and skin irritation of 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate and di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate.

    PubMed

    Monhaphol, Thitinun; Yibchok-Anun, Sirinthorn; Banlunara, Wijit; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Palaga, Tanapat; Asawanonda, Pravit; Wanichweacharungruang, Supason

    2008-01-01

    Safety of two new ultraviolet (UV) filters, 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (E8) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (B8), has been evaluated through the human melanoma cytotoxicity test and seven-day acute oral toxicity studies in rats. At 2.5 mg/mL, both compounds gave similar cell viability to the control. LD50 values for E8 and B8 are more than 5000 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. No significant difference in body weight and hematological parameters among the 0, 5, 50, 500, and 5000 mg/Kg E8-treated animals could be detected. Pathological examination of rat tissues collected at the end of the study period revealed no significant difference between the control and all E8-administered rats. There was no significant difference in all clinical blood chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cholesterol), except alanine aminotransferase (ALT), between the control and the E8-treated animals. All ALT values were, however, in the normal range of SD rats. E8 showed negative results for the skin irritation study on human volunteers, using patch and photopatch tests. Excitation of respiratory signs of dypsnea in 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated rats could be observed during 1-24 h. All groups were, however, normal during the second to the seventh day. Hematological parameters of the 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated animals showed no significant difference. Pathological examination revealed no significant difference between the control and all B8-administered rats. However, significant differences in some clinical blood chemistry parameters and body weights between the control and some B8-treated animals could be detected. All values, however, were in the normal ranges of the SD rats.

  9. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  10. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume I: The Basic Functions of the Navigator Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This first of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on the basic functions of the Navigator component. Lesson 1 covers terminology and methods to connect to the World Wide Web, hardware needed, and a Netscape Communicator overview. Lesson 2 introduces the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus, and how to change the default…

  11. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  12. Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, K L; Kirchner, M; Guerra, B; Granier, S A; Lucarelli, C; Porrero, M C; Jakubczak, A; Threlfall, E J; Mevius, D J

    2010-06-03

    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s.

  13. Median CBO Salary Rises by 4.5 Percent, Annual Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    An annual national survey of college and university salaries found chief business officers' salaries rose 4.5 percent in 1996-97, less than the previous year. Salaries of women and minority CBOs continued to gain equity with that of men. Rates of increase varied by institution type. Salary gains for all administrative job types were less than in…

  14. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  15. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  16. 60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Bottom of swing span and top of center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  17. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  18. Dynamic NHERF interaction with TRPC4/5 proteins is required for channel gating by diacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Ursula; Forst, Anna-Lena; Pardatscher, Franziska; Erdogmus, Serap; Philipp, Maximilian; Gregoritza, Manuel; Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Gudermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The activation mechanism of the classical transient receptor potential channels TRPC4 and -5 via the Gq/11 protein-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway has remained elusive so far. In contrast to all other TRPC channels, the PLC product diacylglycerol (DAG) is not sufficient for channel activation, whereas TRPC4/5 channel activity is potentiated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion. As a characteristic structural feature, TRPC4/5 channels contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif allowing for binding of the scaffolding proteins Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and 2. PKC inhibition or the exchange of threonine for alanine in the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif conferred DAG sensitivity to the channel. Altogether, we present a DAG-mediated activation mechanism for TRPC4/5 channels tightly regulated by NHERF1/2 interaction. PIP2 depletion evokes a C-terminal conformational change of TRPC5 proteins leading to dynamic dissociation of NHERF1/2 from the C terminus of TRPC5 as a prerequisite for DAG sensitivity. We show that NHERF proteins are direct regulators of ion channel activity and that DAG sensitivity is a distinctive hallmark of TRPC channels. PMID:27994151

  19. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5,5\\'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 007F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' - HEXABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 153 ) ( CAS No . 68631 - 49 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washingt

  20. Photooxygenation of alkynylperylenes. Formation of dibenzo[jk,mn]phenanthrene-4,5-diones.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Nanai, Yasuaki; Mizuno, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Junya; Takeshima, Sakiko; Inouye, Masahiko

    2007-11-09

    3-(1-Alkynyl)perylenes undergo oxygenation when subjected to irradiation with visible light under aerated conditions. The structures of novel oxygenated products formed in this manner are assigned as regioisomeric dibenzo[jk,mn]phenanthrene-4,5-diones.

  1. Mathematics Pentathlon. A Manual of Directions and Official Tournament Rules. Division III. Grades 4-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Regato, John C.; And Others

    The Mathematics Pentathlon is a tournament of mathematics games held each spring since 1979 to promote the development of mathematical concepts and skills while fostering interaction among the educational community. There are five games in each of four divisions, for grades K-1, 2-3, 4-5, and 6-7. The focus is on active problem solving and…

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  3. Preparation of 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2002-01-01

    The compound of the structure ##STR1## where a, b, c, d and e are 0 or 1 and a+b+c+d+e is from 0 to 5 is disclosed together with the species 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) and a process of preparing such compounds.

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a)...

  6. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  7. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  8. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  9. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  10. Degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1993-01-01

    Under secondary metabolic conditions the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium rapidly mineralizes 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The pathway for degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by purified lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). The multistep pathway involves cycles of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination reactions followed by quinone reduction reactions to yield the key intermediate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene, which is presumably ring cleaved. In the first step of the pathway, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol is oxidized to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone by either MnP or Lip. 2,5-Dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is then reduced to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone. The 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone is oxidized by MnP to generate 5-chloro-4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone. The orthoquinone is in turn reduced to 5-chloro-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. Finally, the 5-chlorotrihydroxybenzene undergoes another cycle of oxidative dechlorination and reduction reactions to generate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene. The latter is presumably ring cleaved, with subsequent degradation to CO2. In this pathway, the substrate is oxidatively dechlorinated by LiP or MnP in a reaction which produces a quinone. The quinone intermediate is recycled by a reduction reaction to regenerate an intermediate which is again a substrate for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination. This pathway apparently results in the removal of all three chlorine atoms before ring cleavage occurs. PMID:8328802

  11. Picomolar, selective and subtype specific small-molecule inhibition of TRPC1/4/5 channels.

    PubMed

    Rubaiy, Hussein N; Ludlow, Melanie J; Henrot, Matthias; Gaunt, Hannah J; Miteva, Katarina; Cheung, Sin Yin; Tanahashi, Yasuyuki; Hamzah, Nurasyikin; Musialowski, Katie E; Blythe, Nicola M; Appleby, Hollie L; Bailey, Marc A; McKeown, Lynn; Taylor, Roger; Foster, Richard; Waldmann, Herbert; Nussbaumer, Peter; Christmann, Mathias; Bon, Robin S; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J

    2017-03-21

    The concentration of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and the voltage across the plasma membrane are major determinants of cell function. Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels are known to regulate these parameters but understanding of these channels remains inadequate. Here we focus on Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 4 and 5 proteins (TRPC4 and TRPC5) which assemble as homomers or heteromerize with TRPC1 to form Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels in many mammalian cell types. Multiple roles have been suggested including in epilepsy, innate fear, pain and cardiac remodeling but limitations in tools to probe these channels have restricted progress. A key question is whether we can overcome these limitations and develop tools which are high-quality, reliable, easy to use and readily accessible for all investigators. Here, through chemical synthesis and studies of native and over-expressed channels by Ca(2+) and patch-clamp assays, we describe compound 31 (C31), a remarkable small-molecule inhibitor of TRPC1/4/5 channels. Its potency ranged from 9 to 1300 pM, depending on the TRPC1/4/5 subtype and activation mechanism. Other channel types investigated were unaffected, including TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1, TRPM2, TRPM8 and store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by Orai1. These findings suggest identification of an important experimental tool compound which has much higher potency for inhibiting TRPC1/4/5 channels than previously reported agents, impressive specificity, and graded subtype selectivity within the TRPC1/4/5 channel family. The compound should greatly facilitate future studies of these ion channels. We suggest naming this TRPC1/4/5-inhibitory compound Pico145.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3).

  13. The mass function of black holes 14.5: comparison of models with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada; Volonteri, Marta

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we compare the observationally derived black hole mass function (BHMF) of luminous (>1045-1046 erg s-1) broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) at 1 < z < 4.5 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) presented by Kelly et al., with models of merger-driven black hole (BH) growth in the context of standard hierarchical structure formation models. In these models, we explore two distinct black hole seeding prescriptions at the highest redshifts: 'light seeds'- remnants of Population III stars and 'massive seeds' that form from the direct collapse of pre-galactic discs. The subsequent merger triggered mass build-up of the black hole population is tracked over cosmic time under the assumption of a fixed accretion rate as well as rates drawn from the distribution derived by Merloni & Heinz. Four model snapshots at z= 1.25, 2, 3.25 and 4.25 are compared with the SDSS-derived BHMFs of BLQSOs. We find that the light seed models fall short of reproducing the observationally derived mass function of BLQSOs at MBH > 109 M⊙ throughout the redshift range; the massive seed models with a fixed accretion rate of 0.3 Edd, or with accretion rates drawn from the Merloni & Heinz distribution provide the best fit to the current observational data at z > 2, although they overestimate the high-mass end of the mass function at lower redshifts. At low redshifts, a drastic drop in the accretion rate is observed and this is explained as arising due to the diminished gas supply available due to consumption by star formation or changes in the geometry of the inner feeding regions. Therefore, the overestimate at the high-mass end of the black hole mass function for the massive seed models can be easily modified, as the accretion rate is likely significantly lower at these epochs than what we assume. For the Merloni & Heinz model, examining the Eddington ratio distributions fEdd, we find that they are almost uniformly sampled from fEdd= 10-2 to 1 at z≃ 1, while at high redshift

  14. Hybrid Modified K-Means with C4.5 for Intrusion Detection Systems in Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Laftah Al-Yaseen, Wathiq; Ali Othman, Zulaiha; Ahmad Nazri, Mohd Zakree

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the processing time and performance of intrusion detection systems are of great importance due to the increased speed of traffic data networks and a growing number of attacks on networks and computers. Several approaches have been proposed to address this issue, including hybridizing with several algorithms. However, this paper aims at proposing a hybrid of modified K-means with C4.5 intrusion detection system in a multiagent system (MAS-IDS). The MAS-IDS consists of three agents, namely, coordinator, analysis, and communication agent. The basic concept underpinning the utilized MAS is dividing the large captured network dataset into a number of subsets and distributing these to a number of agents depending on the data network size and core CPU availability. KDD Cup 1999 dataset is used for evaluation. The proposed hybrid modified K-means with C4.5 classification in MAS is developed in JADE platform. The results show that compared to the current methods, the MAS-IDS reduces the IDS processing time by up to 70%, while improving the detection accuracy. PMID:26161437

  15. Photometry of Scattered Disk Objects at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Chad A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Mommert, Michael; Lejoly, Cassandra; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Scattered disk objects (SDO) are some of the most intriguing of the estimated 100,000 icy bodies located in the outer Solar System. SDOs have been gravitationally disturbed and scattered by the orbital migration of Neptune. The surface compositions of these objects provide a window into formation conditions and dynamics of the outer Solar System. Characterization of volatiles and organic materials, in particular, provide important constraints on formation conditions and subsequent surface processing of these objects. We measured fluxes of 38 SDOs at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in order to characterize volatiles, silicates, and complex organics on their surfaces. Albedos calculated from these fluxes are combined with broadband albedos from ground-based observations at shorter wavelengths (spanning 0.55 - 2.22 μm) to provide spectrophotometry from 0.5 to 4.5 μm. Much of those ground-based data are from previously published literature. However, we have also conducted new ground-based Y, J, H, K observations of several of the targets. Sizes and visible geometric albedos, which are required to convert IRAC fluxes to geometric albedos, were extracted from published literature when available and computed from absolute magnitudes otherwise. Data were available to construct complete 0.55 to 4.5 μm spectrophotometric curves for 14 SDOs and partial curves for the remaining 24 SDOs. The resulting spectrophotometry of these 38 SDOs indicates a wide range of surface compositions. Several of the SDOs we observed show red visible and near-infrared spectral slopes and strong absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. These absorption features suggest the presence of complex organics. Other SDOs appear red as well, but show only moderate absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Moderate absorption features at these wavelengths may indicate a mixture of H2O ice and refractory material on the surface. Finally, some objects show no

  16. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  17. Bcl-2 functionally interacts with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors to regulate calcium release from the ER in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Valencia, Ignacio; Zhong, Fei; McColl, Karen S.; Roderick, H. Llewelyn; Bootman, Martin D.; Berridge, Michael J.; Conway, Stuart J.; Holmes, Andrew B.; Mignery, Gregory A.; Velez, Patricio; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are channels responsible for calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (either wild type or selectively localized to the ER) significantly inhibited InsP3-mediated calcium release and elevation of cytosolic calcium in WEHI7.2 T cells. This inhibition was due to an effect of Bcl-2 at the level of InsP3Rs because responses to both anti-CD3 antibody and a cell-permeant InsP3 ester were decreased. Bcl-2 inhibited the extent of calcium release from the ER of permeabilized WEHI7.2 cells, even at saturating concentrations of InsP3, without decreasing luminal calcium concentration. Furthermore, Bcl-2 reduced the open probability of purified InsP3Rs reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Bcl-2 and InsP3Rs were detected together in macromolecular complexes by coimmunoprecipitation and blue native gel electrophoresis. We suggest that this functional interaction of Bcl-2 with InsP3Rs inhibits InsP3R activation and thereby regulates InsP3-induced calcium release from the ER. PMID:15263017

  18. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans strain E4-5 enzymatic hydrolysis of curdlan for production of (1 → 3)-linked β-D-glucan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunbin; Cheng, Likun; Meng, Yanyu; Li, Shuguang; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yuguang; Yin, Heng

    2015-12-10

    In order to find an efficient enzymatic tool for curdlan degradation to produce (1 → 3)-linked β-D-glucan oligosaccharides, strain E4-5 (registration number JN089883, Genbank) was isolated from seaside soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing classified it as Cellulosimicrobium cellulans. It was the first reported microorganism that succeeded in degrading high-set heated curdlan blocks. The ferments of strain E4-5 also showed good degradation effects on laminaran and alkali-neutralized curdlan. Due to the products with less amount of glucose, it was assumed that endo-1,3-β-glucanases of strain E4-5 had a greater hydrolyzing effect than exo-1,3-β-glucanases. This indicated that strain E4-5 was a promising microorganism to hydrolyze (1 → 3)-linked β-D-glucan. Moreover, alkali-neutralization pretreatment was effective for promoting a more diversified degree of polymerization (DP) of (1 → 3)-linked β-D-glucan oligosaccharides under enzymatic hydrolysis and will pave the way for making full use of curdlan for production of glucan oligosaccharides.

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA protein, and nucleic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, F.K.; Omer, V.E.V.

    1988-02-01

    The opportunity of maternal exposure to various chemicals in the work place and the general environments have increased, and the fetus and neonate may be at greater risk than the adult. However, the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of the chlorinated phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), the main chemicals in Agent Orange, are well documented only in laboratory animals. The brain of the developing fetus is vulnerable to the toxic effects of the phenoxy herbicides which readily cross the placental barrier and distribute into fetal tissues, including brain. Although the neurochemical basis for the behavioral teratogenicity of the phenoxy herbicides is not know, it was recently reported that non-teratogenic doses of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T delayed the ontogeny of dopamine and serotonin in the brain of the developing rate. This communication provides further descriptive information about the ontogeny of rat brain nucleic acid, protein, glutamate and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) following in utero exposure to non-teratogenic levels of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D/2,4,5-T.

  20. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Yuqian; Yan, Yi; Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2017-02-01

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing.

  1. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hille, Bertil

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ir)) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P(2). Wide expression of K(V) channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of K(V) channels by PI(4,5)P(2), we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (M(1)R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P(2) with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited K(V)7.1, K(V)7.2/7.3, and K(ir)2.1 channel current by 90-95%. Activation of M(1)R inhibited K(V)7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P(2) regulation of activity of K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1, K(V)1.3, K(V)1.4, and K(V)1.5/K(V)β1.3, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.4, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1 and K(V)3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M(1)R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested K(V) channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the K(V)7 and K(ir) families.

  2. Molecular typing of monophasic Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- strains isolated in Belgium (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Wattiau, Pierre

    2014-01-31

    To assess the distribution of Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- subtypes in the Belgian food chain and compare it to the subtypes associated with human infections, a molecular assessment was initiated. Two hundred fifty-three Salmonella isolates serotyped as 4,[5]:i:- during the period 2008-2011 in Belgium and originating from animal productions, food or human clinical samples were analysed by a specific duplex PCR. One hundred ninety-four isolates (76.7%) fit the profile of a S. Typhimurium monophasic variant as defined by the European Food Safety Authority. The other isolates possessed but did not express the phase II flagellin gene (23.3%). Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) revealed many but closely related profiles in the fljB-negative S. Typhimurium monophasic variant isolates. Some MLVA types were associated with both human and animal isolates but no unique source of human contamination could be demonstrated.

  3. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; Blichert-Toft, J; Müller, W; Albarede, F; Holden, P; Mojzsis, S J

    2005-12-23

    The long-favored paradigm for the development of continental crust is one of progressive growth beginning at approximately 4 billion years ago (Ga). To test this hypothesis, we measured initial 176Hf/177Hf values of 4.01- to 4.37-Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia. epsilonHf (deviations of 176Hf/177Hf from bulk Earth in parts per 10(4)) values show large positive and negative deviations from those of the bulk Earth. Negative values indicate the development of a Lu/Hf reservoir that is consistent with the formation of continental crust (Lu/Hf approximately 0.01), perhaps as early as 4.5 Ga. Positive epsilon(Hf) deviations require early and likely widespread depletion of the upper mantle. These results support the view that continental crust had formed by 4.4 to 4.5 Ga and was rapidly recycled into the mantle.

  4. Backside optimization for improving avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV IGBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Tian; Jiang, Lu; Yuan, Teng; Wenliang, Zhang; Shuojin, Lu; Yangjun, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The static avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV high-voltage IGBT is studied by theory analysis and experiment. The avalanche breakdown behaviors of the 4.5 kV IGBTs with different backside structures are investigated and compared by using the curve tracer. The results show that the snap back behavior of the breakdown waveform is related to the bipolar PNP gain, which leads to the deterioration of the breakdown voltage. There are two ways to optimize the backside structure, one is increasing the implant dose of the N+ buffer layer, the other is decreasing the implant dose of the P+ collector layer. It is found that the optimized structure is effective in suppressing the snap back behavior and improving the breakdown characteristic of high voltage IGBT. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project of China (No. 2011ZX02503-003).

  5. N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-performance energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hao; Gao, Haixiang; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-12-15

    One route to high density and high performance energetic materials based on 1,2,4,5-tetrazine is the introduction of 2,4-di-N-oxide functionalities. Based on several examples and through theoretical analysis, the strategy of regioselective introduction of these moieties into 1,2,4,5-tetrazines has been developed. Using this methodology, various new tetrazine structures containing the N-oxide functionality were synthesized and fully characterized using IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Hydrogen peroxide (50 %) was used very effectively in lieu of the usual 90 % peroxide in this system to generate N-oxide tetrazine compounds successfully. Comparison of the experimental densities of N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine compounds with their 1,2,4,5-tetrazine precursors shows that introducing the N-oxide functionality is a highly effective and feasible method to enhance the density of these materials. The heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with Gaussian 03 (revision D.01) and these values were combined with measured densities to calculate detonation pressures (P) and velocities (νD ) of these energetic materials (Explo 5.0 v. 6.01). The new oxygen-containing tetrazines exhibit high density, good thermal stability, acceptable oxygen balance, positive heat of formation, and excellent detonation properties, which, in some cases, are superior to those of 1,3,5-tritnitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrotriazacyclohexane (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

  6. [Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl].

    PubMed

    Koga, N; Kanamaru, T; Oishi, N; Kato, Y; Kimura, R; Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y

    2001-05-01

    In vitro Metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB138) was studied using liver microsomes from rats, hamsters and guinea pigs. Guinea pig liver microsomes formed four metabolites named as M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 and these metabolites were all increased to about 4-5 fold of untreated microsomes by pretreatment of phenobarbital. Liver microsomes of rats and hamsters showed much less activity to metabolize CB138 than those of guinea pigs. Only phenobarbital-treated microsomes produced very small amounts of M-3 in rats and M-1, M-2 and M-3 in hamsters, but untreated and MC-treated microsomes did not. When mass spectra of the methylated derivatives of M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 were measured in GC/MS, the former two possess the molecular ion of 354 and the latter two had the molecular ion of 388. In addition, the mass fragmentation pattern indicated that M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 are 2-OH-4,5,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 5-OH-2,4,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3-OH-CB138 and 2-OH-3,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl, respectively. Of four metabolites, the chemical structures of M-3 and M-4 were supported by the synthesized authentic compounds. From these results, it is suggested that the metabolism of CB138 in guinea pig liver proceeds mainly via 2,3-epoxide as an intermediate and a PB-inducible P450, CYP2B18, is the most important isozyme in CB138 metabolism.

  7. Long-life vibration-free 4.5 K sorption cooler for space applications.

    PubMed

    Burger, J F; ter Brake, H J M; Holland, H J; Meijer, R J; Veenstra, T T; Venhorst, G C F; Lozano-Castelló, D; Coesel, M; Sirbi, A

    2007-06-01

    A breadboard 4.5 K helium sorption cooler for use in vibration-sensitive space missions was developed and successfully tested. This type of cooler has no moving parts and is, therefore, essentially vibration-free. The absence of moving parts also simplifies scaling down of the cooler to small sizes, and it contributes to achieving a very long lifetime. In addition, the cooler operates with limited dc's so that hardly any electromagnetic interference is generated. This cooler is a favorite option for future missions such as ESA's Darwin mission, a space interferometer in which the sensitive optics and detectors can hardly accept any vibration. The system design consists of a hydrogen stage cooling from 80 to 14.5 K and a helium stage establishing 5 mW at 4.5 K. Both stages use microporous activated carbon as the adsorption material. The two cooler stages need about 3.5 W of total input power and are heat sunk at two passive radiators at temperatures of about 50 and 80 K-radiators which are constructed at the cold side of the spacecraft. We developed, built, and tested a demonstrator of the helium cooler. This demonstrator has four sorption compressor cells in two compressor stages. Test experiments on this cooler showed that it performs within all specifications imposed by ESA. The cooler delivered 4.5 mW at 4.5 K with a long-term temperature stability of 1 mK and an input power of 1.96 W. So far, the cooler has operated continuously for a period of 2.5 months and has not shown any sign of performance degradation.

  8. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4-5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A. F.; Roussin, R. W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  9. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4--5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  10. Development of a 4.5 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, Ted; Olson, Jeff; Champagne, Patrick; Mix, Jack; Evtimov, Bobby; Roth, Eric; Collaco, Andre

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's (LM) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed a four stage pulse tube cryocooler (stirling-type pulse tube system) to provide cooling at 4.5 K for superconducting digital electronics communications programs. These programs utilize superconducting niobium integrated circuits [1, 2]. A prior ATC 4 stage unit has provided cooling to 3.8 K. [3] The relatively high cooling loads for the present program led us to a new design which improves the 4.5 K power efficiency over prior systems. This design includes a unique pulse tube approach using both He-3 and He-4 working gas in two compression spaces. The compressor utilizes our standard moving magnet linear motor, clearance seal and flexure bearing system. The system is compact, lightweight and reliable and utilizes our aerospace cooler technology to provide unlimited lifetime. The unit is a proof of concept, but the construction is at an engineering model level. Follow on activities for improvements of performance and more compact packaging and future production for ground based communication systems is anticipated. This paper presents the experimental results at various cooling conditions. Primary results are shown for HYPRES cooling requirements and data is also included at lower cooling loads that may be required for future space missions. The system provides a maximum of 42 mW @ 4.5 K and a no load temperature of 3 K. The majority of this work was subcontracted by HYPRES and funded by the Army and Navy. A small part of this effort to obtain data at lower cooling loads (1-10 mW @ 4.5 K) was funded by LM internal funds.

  11. The effect of gamma irradiation on the fluorescence properties of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurak, Zbigniew; Wanic, Andrzej; Domański, Marian; Jarząbek, Bożena; Kaczmarczyk, Bożena; Konefał, Adam; Kądziołka-Gaweł, Mariola; Czaja, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The subject of our investigation was the intensity of the fluorescence of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides subjected to gamma radiation (the absorbed doses were 242 Gy, 1 kGy and 2.242 kGy). Dynamic changes of fluorescence intensity have been observed; the greatest relative increase of fluorescence intensity (and simultaneously, the least durable increase) occurs as a result of structural isomerisation.

  12. Molecular design of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-energy density materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Zhu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Yu-Fang; Xiao, Heming

    2009-08-20

    The heats of formation (HOFs) for a series of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT), Hartree Fork (HF), and Møller-Plesset (MP2) as well as semiempirical methods. The effects of different basis bets on HOFs were also considered. Our results show that the -CN or -N3 group plays a very important role in increasing the HOF values of the 1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives. An analysis of the bond dissociation energies for the weakest bonds indicates that substitutions of the -N3, -NH2, -CN, -OH, or -Cl group are favorable for enhancing the thermal stability of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine, but the -NHNH2, -NHNO2, -NO2, -NF2, or -COOH group produces opposite effects. The calculated detonation velocities and pressures indicate that the -NF2 or -NO2 group is very helpful for enhancing the detonation performance for the derivatives, but the case is quite the contrary for the -CN, -NH2, or -OH group. Considered the detonation performance and thermal stability, three derivatives may be regarded as potential candidates of high-energy density materials (HEDMs).

  13. Distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, P400, in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, J; Suburo, A M; Bentura, M L; Fernández, T; Nakade, S; Mikoshiba, K; Martínez-Murillo, R; Polak, J M

    1993-11-15

    The distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein, P400, was investigated in adult rat brain by immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody 4C11 raised against mouse cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein. Immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the cerebral cortex, the claustrum, the endopiriform nucleus, the corpus callosum, the anterior olfactory nuclei, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus, the caudate-putamen, the fundus striatum, the amygdaloid complex, the thalamus, the caudolateral part of the hypothalamus, the supramammillary nuclei, the substantia nigra, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the ventrotegmental area, the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the subnucleus oralis and caudalis of trigeminal nerve, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immunoreactive fibres were found in the medial forebrain bundle, the globus pallidus, the stria terminalis, the pyramidal tract, the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, and the ventral horn of spinal cord. Nerve fibres forming a dense plexus ending in terminal-like boutons were detected in relation to nonimmunoreactive neurons of the dentate, interpositus, and fastigial nuclei of the cerebellum and around neurons of the vestibular nuclei. This receptor protein binds a specific second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which produces a mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and a modulation of transmitter release.

  14. Relationship between 4,5-epoxymorphinan structure and in vitro modulation of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2004-06-28

    Morphine belongs to the class of compounds known as 4,5-epoxymorphinans, which can alter immune function directly via receptors expressed by immune cells. However, the opioid characteristics of these receptors are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of 24 structurally related 4,5-epoxymorphinans to allow further characterisation of the receptor that mediates the immunomodulation and to ascertain if there is any structure-effect relationship. The immunomodulation of 4,5-epoxymorphinans using isolated mouse splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A resulted in five types of responses: an inverted bell shaped curve (oxycodone, inhibitory EC(50)=1.6 nM), an inhibitory concentration response curve (buprenorphine, inhibitory EC(50)=12.6 microM), an inverted bell-shaped curve with induction (morphine, induction EC(50)=1.7 microM), an induction concentration response curve (oxymorphone, induction EC(50)=20 nM), and the lack of any response (e.g. noroxycodone). Non-stereoselectivity, naloxone-insensitivity, naloxone-sensitivity and non-classical opioid rank order of effect were all observed. A structure-effect relationship was developed and significant evidence for non-classical opioid receptor function on immune cells was concluded.

  15. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z > 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; Frey, Sándor; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-12-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early Universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here, we report on observations of an additional ten z > 4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network, thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50 per cent. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z > 4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis (unbeamed) radio sources with rest-frame self-absorption peaks at or below GHz frequencies and that these sources can be classified as gigahertz peaked-spectrum and megahertz peaked-spectrum sources.

  16. Photoactivation and calcium sensitivity of the fluorescent NO indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2): implications for cellular NO imaging.

    PubMed

    Broillet, M; Randin, O; Chatton, J

    2001-03-02

    The fluorescent indicator of nitric oxide (NO), 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2), and its membrane-permeable derivative (DAF-2 diacetate) have been recently developed to perform real-time biological imaging of NO. In this study, we show that DAF-2 is strongly influenced by factors other than the concentration of NO itself. Using measurements with a fluorimeter as well as fluorescence microscopy, we found that the divalent cation concentration in the medium, as well as the incident light, strongly affects the ability of DAF-2 to detect NO. Calcium, in particular, enhanced the signal detection of NO released by NO donors by up to 200 times. With multiple and longer exposures to light, no bleaching of the dye was observed but, instead, a potentiation of the fluorescence response could be measured. While these two properties will affect the use and interpretation of the hitherto acquired data with this fluorescent compound, they may also open up new possibilities for its application.

  17. Identification of in vivo and in vitro metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaolei; Wang, Junjun; Chen, Liang; Peng, Zhihong; Chen, Yong

    2016-05-01

    4,5-Dimthexycanthin-6-one and 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one are the main active ingredients of Picrasma quassioides, which is a widely used herbal medicine for the treatment of gastroenteritis, snakebite, infection and hypertension in China. In the present study, the in vitro metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one in rat, mouse, dog and human liver microsomes, as well as the in vivo metabolites in rat plasma and urine following a single oral dose of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with triple TOF mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS/MS). The metabolites were elucidated based on an accurate mass measurement, the MS/MS fragmentation patterns, the retention times of the parent drug and its metabolites, and the relevant drug biotransformation rules. After incubation in liver mcrosomes for 50 min, 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one produced 8 phase I metabolites including 2 mono-demethylated metabolites (M1, M2), 3 mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3-M5), and 3 mono-demethylated and mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M6-M8) in rat and mouse liver microsomes, 7 phase I metabolites (without M7) in dog and human liver microsomes. After a single oral administration of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one to rats, there were 3 phase I metabolites (M1, M2 and M5) detected in rat plasma and 5 phase I metabolites (M1-M5) in rat urine. Phase II metabolites were not detected in rat plasma and urine. Among these metabolites, mono-demethylated metabolites (M1 and M2) were the major metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3-M5) were the minor metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one.

  18. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  19. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  20. Research and Development Toward a 4.5-1.5 {Angstrom} Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at SLAC to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 A) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation in a minimal time include: (1) a peak current in the 7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of {lt}0.05%, and (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}[r-m], approximating the diffraction limit condition {epsilon} = {lambda} / 4{pi}, where lambda(m) is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.02% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 8 m/rad for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress has been made in developing individual components and beam processing techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to approx. 20 A, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 A LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas.

  1. One step conversion of toxic beta-asarone from Acorus calamus into 1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydroxypropane and asaronaldehyde occurring in Piper clusii.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A K; Joshi, B P; Dogra, R

    2001-01-01

    1-(2,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydroxypropane (2), a natural phenylpropanoid occurring in Piper clusii, has been synthesized for the first time from toxic beta-asarone (1) of Acorus calamus with osmium tetroxide, while 1 with osmium tetroxide (catalytic amount) in presence of sodium metaperiodate furnished the asaronaldehyde (3) in high yield.

  2. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie A.

    2016-06-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976-2005), mid-century, and end-century time periods for the December-February and June-August seasons. The December-February regional wave climate is dominated by strong winds and large swell from extratropical cyclones in the north Pacific while the June-August season brings smaller waves generated by the trade winds and swell from Southern Hemisphere extratropical storms. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~ 10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing RCP 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing RCP 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-century June-August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December-February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June-August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds' influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell. The results of this study underscore that December-February large wave events will become smaller and less frequent in most regions, reducing the likelihood and magnitude of wave

  3. 4,5-Substituted 3-Isoxazolols with Insecticidal Activity Act as Competitive Antagonists of Housefly GABA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Genyan; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Furuta, Kenjiro; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2015-07-22

    The insect GABA receptor (GABAR), which is composed of five RDL subunits, represents an important target for insecticides. A series of 4,5-disubstituted 3-isoxazolols, including muscimol analogues, were synthesized and examined for their activities against four splice variants (ac, ad, bc, and bd) of housefly GABARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Muscimol was a more potent agonist than GABA in all four splice variants, whereas synthesized analogues did not exhibit agonism but rather antagonism in housefly GABARs. The introduction of bicyclic aromatic groups at the 4-position of muscimol and the simultaneous replacement of the aminomethyl group with a carbamoyl group at the 5-position to afford six 4-aryl-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolols resulted in compounds that exhibited significantly enhanced antagonism with IC50 values in the low micromolar range in the ac variant. The inhibition of GABA-induced currents by 100 μM analogues was approximately 1.5-4-fold greater in the ac and bc variants than in the ad and bd variants. 4-(3-Biphenylyl)-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolol displayed competitive antagonism, with IC50 values of 30, 34, 107, and 96 μM in the ac, bc, ad, and bd variants, respectively, and exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against houseflies, with an LD50 value of 5.6 nmol/fly. These findings suggest that these 3-isoxazolol analogues are novel lead compounds for the design and development of insecticides that target the orthosteric site of housefly GABARs.

  4. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  5. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  6. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  7. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  8. Spectroscopic Properties of the z ~ 4.5 Lyα Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Wang, JunXian; Landes, Emily

    2004-12-01

    We present Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer optical spectra of 17 Lyα-emitting galaxies and one Lyman break galaxy at z~4.5 discovered in the Large Area Lyman Alpha survey. The survey has identified a sample of ~350 candidate Lyα-emitting galaxies at z~4.5 in a search volume of 1.5×106 comoving Mpc3. We targeted 25 candidates for spectroscopy; hence, the 18 confirmations presented herein suggest a selection reliability of 72%. The large equivalent widths (median Wrestλ~80 Å) but narrow physical widths (Δv<500 km s-1) of the Lyα emission lines, along with the lack of accompanying high-ionization state emission lines, suggest that these galaxies are young systems powered by star formation rather than by active galactic nucleus activity. Theoretical models of galaxy formation in the primordial universe suggest that a small fraction of Lyα-emitting galaxies at z~4.5 may still be nascent, metal-free objects. Indeed, we find with 90% confidence that three to five of the confirmed sources show Wrestλ>240 Å, exceeding the maximum Lyα equivalent width predicted for normal stellar populations. Nonetheless, we find no evidence for He II λ1640 emission in either individual or composite spectra, indicating that although these galaxies are young, they are not truly primitive, Population III objects. Based in part on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Radio spectra of bright compact sources at z>4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; van Velzen, Sjoert; Intema, Huib T.; Müller, Cornelia; Frey, Sándor; Coppejans, Deanne L.; Cseh, Dávid; Williams, Wendy L.; Falcke, Heino; Körding, Elmar G.; Orrú, Emanuela; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift quasars are important to study galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution, test cosmological models, and study supermassive black hole growth. Optical searches for high-redshift sources have been very successful, but radio searches are not hampered by dust obscuration and should be more effective at finding sources at even higher redshifts. Identifying high-redshift sources based on radio data is, however, not trivial. Here we report on new multi-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations of eight z > 4.5 sources previously studied at high angular resolution with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Combining these observations with those from the literature, we construct broad-band radio spectra of all 30 z > 4.5 sources that have been observed with VLBI. In the sample we found flat, steep and peaked spectra in approximately equal proportions. Despite several selection effects, we conclude that the z > 4.5 VLBI (and likely also non-VLBI) sources have diverse spectra and that only about a quarter of the sources in the sample have flat spectra. Previously, the majority of high-redshift radio sources were identified based on their ultra-steep spectra (USS). Recently a new method has been proposed to identify these objects based on their megahertz-peaked spectra (MPS). Neither method would have identified more than 18 per cent of the high-redshift sources in this sample. More effective methods are necessary to reliably identify complete samples of high-redshift sources based on radio data.

  10. Sr[sub 2]UO[sub 4. 5]: A new perovskite-type strontium uranate

    SciTech Connect

    Cordfunke, E.H.P. ); IJdo, D.J.W. )

    1994-04-01

    A new strontium uranate with the formal composition Sr[sub 2]UO[sub 4.5] has been found. Its perovskite-type crystal structure has been studied with neutron diffraction from which it is found that there is a statistical distribution of Sr and U (2:1) on one octahedral position and one U on the other, leading to the formula Sr[sub 2](Sr[sub 2/3]U[sub 1/3])UO[sub 6]. Its thermal stability has been determined, and its relation with other perovskite-type structures is discussed.

  11. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2016-07-12

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  12. Accurate labeling of the light-actinide O4,5 ionization edges

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v

    2006-08-23

    In this short article the accurate labeling of the O4,5 edges of the light actinides is addressed. The O4 and O5 edges are both contained in what is termed the ''giant resonance'' and the smaller ''pre-peak'' that is observed is a consequence of first-order perturbation by the 5d spin-orbit interaction. Thus, the small prepeak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O5 peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak.

  13. Photophysics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro styrene) film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Donald B.; Scott, Gary W.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The temperature-dependent steady-state emission, emission polarization anisotropy, and fluorescence-kinetics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro styrene) film are reported. Two interconverting excited-state conformations of the chromophore have been identified. The fluorescence of the higher energy conformation results from excitation on the red edge of the polymer absorption band at temperatures below 180 K. The energy barrier for conversion of the high energy conformer to the lower energy conformer is estimated to be E/hc = 27 + or - 7/cm. Electronic energy migration is not evident in this polymer.

  14. Design, fabrication and characterization of an AWG at 4.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Barritault, Pierre; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Boulila, Fahem; Carras, Mathieu; Nicoletti, Sergio

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, we present the design, the fabrication and the characterization of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) based on a SiGe graded index waveguide platform, operating at 4.5 µm. These devices were specifically designed to work together with an array of Distributed Feedback Bragg Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB-QCL) emitting at different wavelengths. The AWG enables to combine the different light sources into a single output and the design adopted allows to maximize transmission over the entire spectral range defined by the array of DFB-QCLs.

  15. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2009-01-16

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  16. An opiate binding site in the rat brain is highly selective for 4,5-epoxymorphinans.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Sadée, W

    1983-09-16

    In vitro binding studies have demonstrated the existence of multiple opiate receptor types. An additional site in the rat brain (termed the lambda site) is distinct from the established types by its selectivity for 4,5-epoxymorphinans (such as naloxone and morphine). While the lambda site displays a high affinity for naloxone in vivo and in vitro in fresh brain membrane homogenates, these sites rapidly convert in vitro to a state of low affinity. The regional distribution of the lambda site in the brain is strikingly different from that of the classic opiate receptor types.

  17. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD{sub 30/50} values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  18. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD[sub 30/50] values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  19. Size evolution of star-forming galaxies with 2 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Tresse, L.; Dunlop, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The size of a galaxy encapsulates the signature of the different physical processes driving its evolution. The distribution of galaxy sizes in the Universe as a function of cosmic time is therefore a key to understand galaxy evolution. Aims: We aim to measure the average sizes and size distributions of galaxies as they are assembling before the peak in the comoving star formation rate density of the Universe to better understand the evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Methods: We used a sample of ~1200 galaxies in the COSMOS and ECDFS fields with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ zspec ≤ 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), representative of star-forming galaxies with iAB ≤ 25. We first derived galaxy sizes by applying a classical parametric profile-fitting method using GALFIT. We then measured the total pixel area covered by a galaxy above a given surface brightness threshold, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring sizes of galaxies with irregular shapes. We then compared the results obtained for the equivalent circularized radius enclosing 100% of the measured galaxy light r100T ~2.2 to those obtained with the effective radius re,circ measured with GALFIT. Results: We find that the sizes of galaxies computed with our non-parametric approach span a wide range but remain roughly constant on average with a median value r100T ~2.2 kpc for galaxies with 2 4.5. This is in stark contrast with the strong downward evolution of re with increasing redshift, down to sizes of <1 kpc at z ~ 4.5. We analyze the difference and find that parametric fitting of complex, asymmetric, multicomponent galaxies is severely underestimating their sizes. By comparing r100T with physical parameters obtained through fitting the spectral energy distribution we find that the star-forming galaxies that are the largest at any redshift are, on average, more massive and form more stars. We discover that galaxies present more concentrated light profiles with

  20. Satellite observations of the spatial extent and structure of Pc 3, 4, 5 pulsations near the magnetospheric equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, H. J.; Russell, C. T.; Kivelson, M. G.; Fritz, T. A.; Lennartsson, W.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of Pc 3, 4, 5 pulsations by five satellites in the pre-noon local time sector at and near synchronous orbit are examined. The periods of these simultaneous pulsations are not the same at the different observation points. This difference is attributed to site dependent resonant conditions. The spatial properties of the temporal phenomenon are demonstrated with observations by ISEE-1 and -2 as they pass through oscillations in a spatially limited region. Fundamental and second harmonic standing Alfven waves are observed simultaneously on the same field line. The periods are consistent with model predictions when the measured plasma composition, which by mass consists mainly of singly ionized oxygen, is taken into account.

  1. Enantiopure 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles from carbohydrates: applications of organoselenium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Atanu; Samanta, Supravat; Pathak, Tanmaya

    2014-08-01

    A wide range of stable vinyl selenone-modified furanosides has been synthesized for the first time. These 2π-partners undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with a wide range of organic azides to afford enantiopure trisubstituted triazoles. Furanosyl rings opened up during triazole synthesis to generate polyfunctionalized molecules, ready to undergo further transformations. This strategy is one of the most convenient methods for the synthesis of enantiopure 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles where the chiral components are attached to C-4 or C-5 position of triazole ring. These triazoles are formed in a regioselective manner, and several pairs of regioisomeric triazoles have also been synthesized. The approach affords densely functionalized triazoles, which are amenable to further modifications because of the presence of aldehyde and hydroxyl groups. This powerful and practical route adds to the arsenals of chemists and biologists interested in the synthesis and applications of triazoles.

  2. 3,3',4',5,7-Pentamethylquercetin reduces angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhangfan; Liang, Yuanxin; Du, Xinling; Sun, Zongquan

    2009-09-01

    Quercetin has been shown to possess beneficial pharmacological properties in treatment of heart disease, but lack of stability and bioavailability limits its clinical use. In this study, we investigated for the first time the effect of a methylated form of quercetin, 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethylquercetin (PMQ), on myocardial protection in rats. Angiotensin II was delivered to Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously, while PMQ (5 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage; blood pressure was monitored daily. The production of NADPH oxidase was measured, and cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis were detected. The results revealed that PMQ could downregulate the expression of the NADPH oxidase gene and reduce angiotensin II- induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in rats. Therefore, we believe that PMQ showed beneficial effects on myocardium in angiotensin II-administered rats, and its potential to be used for treatment of cardiovascular disease deserves further attention.

  3. Expression and Distribution Pattern of Aquaporin 4, 5 and 11 in Retinas of 15 Different Species

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Barbara; Kleinwort, Kristina J. H.; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Sekundo, Walter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins with 13 members in mammals and are essential for water transport across membranes. They are found in many different tissues and cells. Currently, there are conflicting results regarding retinal aquaporin expression and subcellular localization between genome and protein analyses and among various species. AQP4, 7, 9 and 11 were described in the retina of men; whereas AQP6, 8 and 10 were earlier identified in rat retinas and AQP4, 5 and 11 in horses. Since there is a lack of knowledge regarding AQP expression on protein level in retinas of different animal models, we decided to analyze retinal cellular expression of AQP4, 5 and 11 in situ with immunohistochemistry. AQP4 was detected in all 15 explored species, AQP5 and AQP11 in 14 out of 15. Interestingly, AQP4 was unambiguously expressed in Muller glial cells, whereas AQP5 was differentially allocated among the species analyzed. AQP11 expression was Muller glial cell-specific in 50% of the animals, whereas in the others, AQP11 was detected in ganglion cell layer and at photoreceptor outer segments. Our data indicate a disparity in aquaporin distribution in retinas of various animals, especially for AQP5 and 11. PMID:27438827

  4. Genotoxicity of chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene and its sulfone derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Sinsheimer, J.E.; Hooberman, B.H.; Das, S.K.; Savla, P.M.; Ashe, A.J. III )

    1992-01-01

    The authors' recent syntheses of cryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene together with its potential sulfone metabolite, chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene-4,4-dioxide, have made these compounds available for genotoxicity testing. Such toxicity testing is of interest as this thiophene is an isoster of the established carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is one of the thiaarenes which are potential environmental contaminants found in fossil fuels. Although the thiophene was less mutagenic than benzo[a]pyrene in Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 after S9 activation, it exhibited in vivo chromosomal aberration activity equal to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the bone-marrow cells of mice. A reduced activity with Salmonella as well as in the bone-marrow cell assay for the sulfone does not support its role as the key active metabolic intermediate for the genotoxicity of the thiophene. Molecular orbital calculations would be consistent with the concept of activation through a diol-epoxide mechanism and offers an explanation for the reduced genotoxicity of the sulfone via this mechanism. These genotoxicity studies support the concern that sulfur isosters of established carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could themselves be toxic. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Cytotoxic 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones as mitotic arresters and cell migration inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Salum, Lívia B.; Altei, Wanessa F.; Chiaradia, Louise D.; Cordeiro, Marlon N.S.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Melo, Carolina P.S.; Winter, Evelyn; Mattei, Bruno; Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Yunes, José A.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.; Day, Billy W.; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays. PMID:23524161

  6. Effect of azadirachtin of neemix-4.5 on SWR/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Tarboush, F.M.; El-Ashmaoui, H.M.; Hussein, H.I.; Al-Rajhy, D.; Al-Assiry, M.

    2009-01-01

    Inbred normal SWR/J male and female mice, 8–10 weeks old and weighing 22.55–26.72 g, were used throughout the study. A total of 100 males and 100 females were used and were divided into 20 groups, 10 animals in each group. Azadirachtin of neemix-4.5, a commercial botanical pesticide derived from the neem tree, orally administered to male and female SWR/J mice at a dose level 9.0 mg/kg (1/10 LD50) for different treatment periods (2, 4, 6, 8 or 11.5 weeks) has produced signs of toxicity, mortality and changes in body and tissue weights of both sexes at almost all treated periods used in the present study. Moreover the oral administration of this dose level for 11.5 weeks has also resulted in some histopathological changes in the livers, kidneys and testes of treated animals compared with the control group, and the degree of these changes ranged from mild to severe in these organs of treated males. However, conflicting results have been reported concerning the toxicity of azadirachtin in mammalian species using different formulations of neem-based pesticides. It appears, therefore, that the toxicity produced by neemix-4.5 in the present study may be due to factors other than azadirachtin in this formulation. PMID:23961045

  7. Investigation of water assisted phase transformation process from AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Zhi; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-01

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  8. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  9. Crystal structure of phenyl 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean; Staples, Richard J.; Biros, Shannon M.; Ngassa, Felix N.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C12H7Cl3O3S, was synthesized via a nucleophilic substitution reaction between phenol and 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonyl chloride. The two aryl rings are oriented gauche to one another around the sulfonate S—O bond, with a C—S—O—C torsion angle of −70.68 (16)°, and the two rings are inclined to one another by 72.40 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via various C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming ribbons propagating along [100]. Neighboring ribbons are linked by a weak C—Cl⋯π inter­action, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:27308043

  10. Local 4/5-law and energy dissipation anomaly in turbulence of incompressible MHD Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanshan; Tan, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we establish the longitudinal and transverse local energy balance equation of distributional solutions of the incompressible three-dimensional MHD equations. In particular, we find that the functions D_L^ɛ (u,B) and D_T^ɛ (u,B) appeared in the energy balance, all converging to the defect distribution (in the sense of distributions) D(u,B) which has been defined in Gao et al. (Acta Math Sci 33:865-871, 2013). Furthermore, we give a simpler form of defect distribution term, which is similar to the relation in turbulence theory, called the "4 / 3-law." As a corollary, we give the analogous "4 / 5-law" holds in the local sense.

  11. Fifth dimension of life and the 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Brain cells are not spherical. The basal metabolic rate (B) of a spherical cell scales as B approximately r2, where r is the radius of the cell; that of a brain cell scales as B approximately r(d), where r is the characteristic radius of the cell and d is the fractal dimensionality of its contour. The fractal geometry of the cell leads to a 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain, uniquely endowing humans with a 5th dimension and successfully explains why the scaling exponent varies during rest and exercise. A striking analogy between Kleiber's 3/4 law and Newton's second law is heuristically illustrated. A physical explanation is given for the 4th dimension of life for three-dimensional organisms and the 5th dimension for human brain.

  12. Dependence of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen photoaddition on the conformation of ribonucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Bachellerie, J.P.; Hall, K.; Hearst, J.E.

    1982-03-16

    The photoaddition of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) to different conformational states of RNA was studied. Poly(U), poly(A,U) (random copolymer), poly(A-U) (alternating copolymer), poly(A)-poly(U) (double stranded), and poly(U)-poly(A)-poly(U) (triple stranded) were reacted with HMT at different temperatures and salt concentrations. The conformation of the polymers was monitored by UV absorption and circular dichroism. It was found that the rate of HMT photoaddition changed dramatically at structural transitions in the RNA. The alternating copolymer poly(A-U) was found to have the highest rate of addition. Low salt and temperature produced maximal incorporation.

  13. DANGER, a novel regulatory protein of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor activity.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L; Cheung, King-Ho; Barrow, Roxanne K; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Gessell, Gregory S; Burkholder, Scott G; Watkins, D Neil; Foskett, J Kevin; Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-12-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of DANGER, a novel protein which physiologically binds to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R). DANGER is a membrane-associated protein predicted to contain a partial MAB-21 domain. It is expressed in a wide variety of neuronal cell lineages where it localizes to membranes in the cell periphery together with IP(3)R. DANGER interacts with IP(3)R in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with IP(3)R from cellular preparations. DANGER robustly enhances Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition of IP(3) RCa(2+) release without affecting IP(3) binding in microsomal assays and inhibits gating in single-channel recordings of IP(3)R. DANGER appears to allosterically modulate the sensitivity of IP(3) RtoCa(2+) inhibition, which likely alters IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) dynamics in cells where DANGER and IP(3)R are co-expressed.

  14. Covariantly constant curvature tensors and D=3, N=4, 5, 8 Chern-Simons matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fa-Min

    2012-03-01

    We construct some examples of D=3, N=4 GW theory and N=5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory by using the covariantly constant curvature of a quaternionic-Kahler manifold to construct the symplectic 3-algebra in the theories. Comparing with the previous theories, the N=4, 5 theories constructed in this way possess a local Sp(2n) symmetry and a diffeomorphism symmetry associated with the quaternionic-Kahler manifold. We also construct a generalized N=8 BLG theory by utilizing the dual curvature operator of a maximally symmetric space of dimension 4 to construct the Nambu 3-algebra. Comparing with the previous N=8 BLG theory, the theory has a diffeomorphism invariance and a local SO(4) invariance associated with the symmetric space.

  15. Effect of clinical death on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1993-01-01

    Changes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content in the rat brain have been evaluated by means of the radioimmunologic method during 5-min clinical death and up to 2 hrs after resuscitation. Ischemia produced a decrease of IP3 content in the brain on the average to 63% of the control values. IP3 concentration in the brain increased on the average to 197% of the control values at the 15th min after resuscitation, and decreased to 127% at the 60 min. Two hours after resuscitation the IP3 content in the brain again increased on the average to 187%. The new data on brain metabolism in the ischemic conditions and the role of IP3 as the second messenger and mediator of neuromodulation processes are discussed.

  16. Ethanol stimulates phospholipid turnover and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, A; Kuin, H; Jongen, M; de Wildt, P; Schuring, F; Klerk, H; van den Ende, H

    1992-02-01

    Alcohols induce mating-structure activation in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. From the effect of ethanol on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides, we conclude that the synthesis of these lipids is stimulated. Biologically inactive concentrations of ethanol (<6%) had no effect on synthesis, but 6-8% ethanol stimulated synthesis for upto 60 min. The (32)P incorporated into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid during ethanol treatment was readily chased out when 1 mM unlabelled Na3PO4 was added. Using a binding assay for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, we show that the production of this phospholipid constituent is dramatically increased after ethanol treatment. This effect, coupled to a rise in intracellular calcium concentration, could explain gamete activation. The significance of these results in explaining other ethanol-induced phenomena in algae is discussed.

  17. Theoretical and vibrational studies of 4,5-diphenyl-2-2 oxazole propionic acid (oxaprozin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdinc, Seda G.; Esme, Aslı

    2010-04-01

    The molecular structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties, and electronic properties of 4,5-diphenyl-2-2 oxazole propionic acid (oxaprozin) as a monomer were investigated by using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations that used 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability of oxaprozin (OXA) was found to be 1.117 × 10 -30 esu. The structure of oxaprozin dimer with HF/6-31G(d) level caused by the shifts of O-H and C dbnd O bands in the vibrational spectra of oxaprozin were also studied. Moreover, these calculated frequencies of oxaprozin dimer were compared with the solid FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The theoretical frequencies and infrared intensities were showed a good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives: synthesis and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Xue, Jia-Yu; Song, Bao-An; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Microwave irradiation promotes the rapid O,N-acylation-cyclodehydration cascade reaction of oximes and acid chloride. Twenty novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives containing heterocycle moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. The twenty compounds are all first reported and their structures were established by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The bioassay tests showed that compounds 2-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)benzo[d]thiazole (6af), 2-(2-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)pyrimidine (6bg) and 2-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6cf) displayed good antiproliferative activity in vitro, which were comparable to the positive control (5-fluorouracil).

  19. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  20. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  1. Inhibition of rat intestinal Cl- secretion by 4,5-dimethylresorcinol.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio; Shibata, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    Wood creosote, a mixture of phenolic compounds, inhibits enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion, suggesting that one of its constituents suppresses transepithelial Cl- secretion from the intestinal mucosa. To identify an active constituent in wood creosote that inhibits intestinal Cl- secretion through Cl- channels, we first examined its effect on Cl- secretion using a cultured cell line transfected with complementary DNA encoding a Cl- channel and a Cl- -sensitive fluorescent dye. We next assayed chromatographic fractions of wood creosote for the inhibitory activity on Cl- secretion using a Ussing chamber. We found that 4,5-dimethylresorcinol, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inhibited intestinal Cl- secretion dose-dependently when added to a serosal, but not mucosal, surface of rat jejunum, a half-inhibitory concentration being 3.8 microg/ml (28 micromol/l). It was strongly suggested that this effect was due to inhibition of Cl- channels.

  2. A 4.5-megabase YAC contig and physical map over the hemochromatosis gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, M.J.; Smit, D.J.; Pyper, W.R.; Powell, L.W.; Jazwinska, E.C.

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig over the candidate hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises 16 YACs from the CEPH, Washington University, and ICI YAC libraries and covers 4.5 Mb at 6p21.3-6p22. The complete contig has been restriction mapped, enabling the precise relationship between the YACs to be determined and the mapping of a total of 12 STSs. Nine of these are highly polymorphic STSs that are closely linked to hemochromatosis; this series includes D6S265 and D6S1260, which comprise the most proximal and distal markers linked to HC. This is the first YAC contig that spans the hemochromatosis candidate region, and it provides valuable resource material for the cloning of this and other genes in the region distal to the MHC class I complex. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R

    1993-01-01

    Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201

  4. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  5. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  6. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  7. Cooperative binding of annexin A2 to cholesterol- and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-containing bilayers.

    PubMed

    Drücker, Patrick; Pejic, Milena; Grill, David; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Gerke, Volker

    2014-11-04

    Biological membranes are organized into dynamic microdomains that serve as sites for signal transduction and membrane trafficking. The formation and expansion of these microdomains are driven by intrinsic properties of membrane lipids and integral as well as membrane-associated proteins. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a peripherally associated membrane protein that can support microdomain formation in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and has been implicated in membrane transport processes. Here, we performed a quantitative analysis of the binding of AnxA2 to solid supported membranes containing the annexin binding lipids phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylserine in different compositions. We show that the binding is of high specificity and affinity with dissociation constants ranging between 22.1 and 32.2 nM. We also analyzed binding parameters of a heterotetrameric complex of AnxA2 with its S100A10 protein ligand and show that this complex has a higher affinity for the same membranes with Kd values of 12 to 16.4 nM. Interestingly, binding of the monomeric AnxA2 and the AnxA2-S100A10 complex are characterized by positive cooperativity. This cooperative binding is mediated by the conserved C-terminal annexin core domain of the protein and requires the presence of cholesterol. Together our results reveal for the first time, to our knowledge, that AnxA2 and its derivatives bind cooperatively to membranes containing cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, thus providing a mechanistic model for the lipid clustering activity of AnxA2.

  8. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Moissinac, K

    2001-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.

  9. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  10. Homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system at ER-PM junctions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Lun; Liou, Jen

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-Ca(2+) signaling system is important for cell activation in response to various extracellular stimuli. This signaling system is initiated by receptor-induced hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane (PM) to generate the soluble second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 subsequently triggers the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store to the cytosol to activate Ca(2+)-mediated responses, such as secretion and proliferation. The consumed PM PI(4,5)P2 and ER Ca(2+) must be quickly restored to sustain signaling responses, and to maintain the homeostasis of PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+). Since phosphatidylinositol (PI), the precursor lipid for PM PI(4,5)P2, is synthesized in the ER membrane, and a Ca(2+) influx across the PM is required to refill the ER Ca(2+) store, efficient communications between the ER and the PM are critical for the homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. This review describes the major findings that established the framework of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system, and recent discoveries on feedback control mechanisms at ER-PM junctions that sustain the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. Particular emphasis is placed on the characterization of ER-PM junctions where efficient communications between the ER and the PM occur, and the activation mechanisms of proteins that dynamically localize to ER-PM junctions to provide the feedback control during PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling, including the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1, the extended synaptotagmin E-Syt1, and the PI transfer protein Nir2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  11. Influence of Solar and Thermal Radiation on Future Heat Stress Using CMIP5 Archive Driving the Community Land Model Version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer of 2015 has experienced major heat waves on 4 continents, and heat stress left ~4000 people dead in India and Pakistan. Heat stress is caused by a combination of meteorological factors: temperature, humidity, and radiation. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)—an empirical metric this is calibrated with temperature, humidity, and radiation—for determining labor capacity during heat stress. Unfortunately, most literature studying global heat stress focuses on extreme temperature events, and a limited number of studies use the combination of temperature and humidity. Recent global assessments use WBGT, yet omit the radiation component without recalibrating the metric.Here we explicitly calculate future WBGT within a land surface model, including radiative fluxes as produced by a modeled globe thermometer. We use the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), which is a component model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), and is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). To drive our CLM4.5 simulations, we use greenhouse gasses Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (business as usual), and atmospheric output from the CMIP5 Archive. Humans work in a variety of environments, and we place the modeled globe thermometer in a variety of environments. We modify CLM4.5 code to calculate solar and thermal radiation fluxes below and above canopy vegetation, and in bare ground. To calculate wet bulb temperature, we implemented the HumanIndexMod into CLM4.5. The temperature, wet bulb temperature, and radiation fields are calculated at every model time step and are outputted 4x Daily. We use these fields to calculate WBGT and labor capacity for two time slices: 2026-2045 and 2081-2100.

  12. HERPUD1 protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through downregulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Felipe; Parra, Valentina; Torrealba, Natalia; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; Gatica, Damian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pennanen, Christian; Quiroga, Clara; Chiong, Mario; Caesar, Christa; Taylor, W Robert; Molgó, Jordi; Martin, Alejandra San; Jaimovich, Enrique; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1 (HERPUD1), an ER resident protein, is upregulated in response to ER stress and Ca2+ homeostasis deregulation. HERPUD1 exerts cytoprotective effects in various models, but its role during oxidative insult remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HERPUD1 contributes to cytoprotection in response to redox stress and participates in mediating the stress-dependent signaling pathways. Our data showed that HERPUD1 protein levels increased in HeLa cells treated for 30 min with H2O2 or angiotensin II and in aortic tissue isolated from mice treated with angiotensin II for 3 weeks. Cell death was higher in HERPUD1 knockdown (sh-HERPUD1) in HeLa cells treated with H2O2 in comparison with control (sh-Luc) HeLa cells. This effect was abolished by the intracellular Ca2+ chelating agent BAPTA-AM or the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) antagonist xestospongin B, suggesting that the response to H2O2 was dependent on intracellular Ca2+ stores and the ITPR. Ca2+ kinetics showed that sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells exhibited greater and more sustained cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ increases than sh-Luc HeLa cells. This higher sensitivity of sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells to H2O2 was prevented with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. We concluded that the HERPUD1-mediated cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress depends on the ITPR and Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria. PMID:26616647

  13. HERPUD1 protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through downregulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Felipe; Parra, Valentina; Torrealba, Natalia; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; Gatica, Damian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pennanen, Christian; Quiroga, Clara; Chiong, Mario; Caesar, Christa; Taylor, W Robert; Molgó, Jordi; San Martin, Alejandra; Jaimovich, Enrique; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1 (HERPUD1), an ER resident protein, is upregulated in response to ER stress and Ca(2+) homeostasis deregulation. HERPUD1 exerts cytoprotective effects in various models, but its role during oxidative insult remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HERPUD1 contributes to cytoprotection in response to redox stress and participates in mediating stress-dependent signaling pathways. Our data showed that HERPUD1 protein levels increased in HeLa cells treated for 30 min with H2O2 or angiotensin II and in aortic tissue isolated from mice treated with angiotensin II for 3 weeks. Cell death was higher in HERPUD1 knockdown (sh-HERPUD1) HeLa cells treated with H2O2 in comparison with control (sh-Luc) HeLa cells. This effect was abolished by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelating agent BAPTA-AM or the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) antagonist xestospongin B, suggesting that the response to H2O2 was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) stores and the ITPR. Ca(2+) kinetics showed that sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells exhibited greater and more sustained cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases than sh-Luc HeLa cells. This higher sensitivity of sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells to H2O2 was prevented with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. We concluded that the HERPUD1-mediated cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress depends on the ITPR and Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to mitochondria.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate regulates the formation of the basolateral plasma membrane in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gassama-Diagne, Ama; Yu, Wei; ter Beest, Martin; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Kierbel, Arlinet; Engel, Joanne; Mostov, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Polarity is a central feature of eukaryotic cells and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) has a central role in the polarization of neurons and chemotaxing cells. In polarized epithelial cells, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is stably localized at the basolateral plasma membrane, but excluded from the apical plasma membrane, as shown by localization of GFP fused to the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding pleckstrin-homology domain of Akt (GFP-PH-Akt), a fusion protein that indicates the location of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Here, we ectopically inserted exogenous PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 into the apical plasma membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Within 5 min many cells formed protrusions that extended above the apical surface. These protrusions contained basolateral plasma membrane proteins and excluded apical proteins, indicating that their plasma membrane was transformed from apical to basolateral. Addition of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells grown as cysts caused basolateral protrusions. MDCK cells grown in the presence of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor had abnormally short lateral surfaces, indicating that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates the formation of the basolateral surface.

  15. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate from inositol phosphates generated by receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T; Barker, C J; Downes, C P

    1988-01-01

    myo-[3H]Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate can be made from myo-[3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in a rat brain homogenate or soluble fraction. Although D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate can be phosphorylated by a soluble rat brain enzyme to give myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, it is not an intermediate in the pathway from myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The intermediates in the above pathway are myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate [Shears, Parry, Tang, Irvine, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 246, 139-147; Balla, Guillemette, Baukal & Catt (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9952-9955], and it is catalysed by soluble kinase activities of similar anion-exchange mobility and Mr value. Compounds with chromatographic and chemical properties consistent with the structures myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate and myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate are present in avian erythrocytes, human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells and primary-cultured murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The amounts of these inositol tetrakisphosphates rise upon muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the astrocytoma cells or stimulation of macrophages with platelet-activating factor. PMID:2845930

  16. Regioselective Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Reactions of N-Acyl 6-Amino-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines.

    PubMed

    Boger, Dale L.; Schaum, Robert P.; Garbaccio, Robert M.

    1998-09-04

    The regioselective inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions of 6-[(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)amino]-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (2), 6-(acetylamino)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (3), and 6-(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (4) are disclosed. All three underwent regioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition with electron-rich dienophiles to form the corresponding functionalized 1,2-diazines in excellent yields. An order of reactivity with electron-rich dienophiles was observed with both 2 and 3 being more reactive than 3,6-bis(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1, i.e. 3 > 2 > 1), and both 3 and 4 were shown to be more robust than 2 at the higher temperatures necessary for [4 + 2] cycloaddition with less reactive dienophiles. The cycloaddition regioselectivity is consistent with the polarization of the diene and the ability of the methylthio group to stabilize a partial negative charge at C-3, and the N-acylamino group to stabilize a partial positive charge at C-6. While intermolecular reactions of unactivated alkynes either did not proceed or required high temperatures and long reaction times, intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions utilizing tethered unactivated acetylenes led to five- and six-membered bicyclic 1,2-diazines under mild conditions.

  17. Effect on fast neutron irradiation to 4 dpa at 400{degrees}C on the properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Robertson, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    Tensile, Charpy impact and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed at ORNL on V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti specimens that were prepared at ANL and irradiated in the lithium-bonded X530 experiment in the EBR-II fast reactor. All of the specimens were irradiated to a damage level of about 4 dpa at a temperature of {approximately}400{degrees}C. A significant amount of radiation hardening was evident in both the tensile and Charpy impact tests. The irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti yield strength measured at {approximately}390{degrees}C was >800 MPa, which is more than three times as high as the unirradiated value. The uniform elongations of the irradiated tensile specimens were typically {approximately}1%, with corresponding total elongations of 4-6%. The ductile to brittle transition temperature of the irradiated specimens was less than the unirradiated resistivity, which suggests that hardening associated with interstitial solute pickup was minimal.

  18. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMOSOMAL DNA REGION REQUIRED FOR GROWTH ON 2,4,5-T BY PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC1100

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of spontaneous 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) nonmetabolizing mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 were characterized to be defective in either 2,4,5-T uptake or conversion of this compound to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP). Two of these mutants, RHC22 a...

  19. A distinct pool of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in caveolae revealed by a nanoscale labeling technique

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Akikazu; Cheng, Jinglei; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple functionally independent pools of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] have been postulated to occur in the cell membrane, but the existing techniques lack sufficient resolution to unequivocally confirm their presence. To analyze the distribution of PI(4,5)P2 at the nanoscale, we developed an electron microscopic technique that probes the freeze-fractured membrane preparation by the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-δ1. This method does not require chemical fixation or expression of artificial probes, it is applicable to any cell in vivo and in vitro, and it can define the PI(4,5)P2 distribution quantitatively. By using this method, we found that PI(4,5)P2 is highly concentrated at the rim of caveolae both in cultured fibroblasts and mouse smooth muscle cells in vivo. PI(4,5)P2 was also enriched in the coated pit, but only a low level of clustering was observed in the flat undifferentiated membrane. When cells were treated with angiotensin II, the PI(4,5)P2 level in the undifferentiated membrane decreased to 37.9% within 10 sec and then returned to the initial level. Notably, the PI(4,5)P2 level in caveolae showed a slower but more drastic change and decreased to 20.6% at 40 sec, whereas the PI(4,5)P2 level in the coated pit was relatively constant and decreased only to 70.2% at 10 sec. These results show the presence of distinct PI(4,5)P2 pools in the cell membrane and suggest a unique role for caveolae in phosphoinositide signaling. PMID:19470488

  20. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  1. A spectroscopic investigation of the binding interactions between 4,5-dihydroxyxanthone and heme.

    PubMed

    Xu Kelly, J; Winter, R; Riscoe, M; Peyton, D H

    2001-09-01

    In order to investigate one possible mechanism by which xanthones inhibit growth of malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites, optical and NMR spectroscopic studies were performed on a prototypic xanthone, 4,5-dihydroxyxanthone (45X2), upon its complexation to heme. The 45X2 x heme complex stoichiometry in aqueous solution was found to be 1:2; this interaction was non-cooperative, and exhibited a very similar heme complex dissociation constant (K(d)=5.1 x 10(-6)) as observed for the common antimalarial agents, chloroquine and quinine. The 45X2 x heme(2) complex formation was found to be both pH- and solvent-dependent, with clear evidence of the xanthone carbonyl moiety coordinating with the iron of heme. Hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of 45X2 and the propionate side chains of heme, as well as pi-pi stacking between both aromatic systems appeared to contribute to the overall stability of the 45X2 x heme(2) complex, as judged by 1H NMR. It was concluded that 45X2 forms a complex with a heme dimer in aqueous solution, and that this interaction can be generalized to account for its in vivo detrimental effect of parasite growth through an effective inhibition of hemozoin aggregate formation.

  2. Photophysical Properties of a 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexasubstituted Fullerene Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Khin K.; Chuang, Shih-Ching; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias; Foote, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a novel 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexasusbstituted fullerene derivative (1) are examined in this study. In addition to the ground state absorption spectrum of 1 we report its triplet-triplet absorption spectrum and molar extinction coefficient (ΔεT-T), as well as the triplet quantum yield (ΦT), lifetime (τT), and energy (ET). The saturation of a single six-member ring on the fullerene cage results in significant changes in the triplet state properties as compared to that of pristine C60. The triplet-triplet absorption spectrum shows a hypsochromic shift in long wavelength absorption and both the triplet state lifetime and triplet quantum yield are decreased. The triplet energy was found to be similar to that of C60. In addition, the quantum yield (ΦΔ) of singlet oxygen generated by 1 was calculated and is found to be significantly less than in the case of C60. PMID:17181318

  3. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  4. Geological Mapping Uses Landsat 4-5TM Satellite Data in Manlai Soum of Omnogovi Aimag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Author: Bayanmonkh N1, Undram.G1, Tsolmon.R2, Ariunzul.Ya1, Bayartungalag B31 Environmental Research Information and Study Center 2NUM-ITC-UNESCO Space Science and Remote Sensing International Laboratory, National University of Mongolia 3Geology and Hydrology School, Korea University KEY WORDS: geology, mineral resources, fracture, structure, lithologyABSTRACTGeologic map is the most important map for mining when it does exploration job. In Mongolia geological map completed by Russian geologists which is done by earlier technology. Those maps doesn't satisfy for present requirements. Thus we want to study improve geological map which includes fracture, structural map and lithology use Landsat TM4-5 satellite data. If we can produce a geological map from satellite data with more specification then geologist can explain or read mineralogy very easily. We searched all methodology and researches of every single element of geological mapping. Then we used 3 different remote sensing methodologies to produce structural and lithology and fracture map based on geographic information system's softwares. There can be found a visible lithology border improvement and understandable structural map and we found fracture of the Russian geological map has a lot of distortion. The result of research geologist can read mineralogy elements very easy and discovered 3 unfound important elements from satellite image.

  5. T cells deficient in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, T; Marks, A R

    1997-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) calcium release channel is present on the endoplasmic reticulum of most cell types. T lymphocytes which have been made deficient in IP3R1 lack detectable IP3-induced intracellular calcium release and exhibit defective signaling via the T-cell receptor (TCR) (T. Jayaraman, E. Ondriasova, K. Ondrias, D. Harnick, and A. R. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:6007-6011, 1995). We now show that IP3R1-deficient T cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, TCR stimulation, ionizing radiation, and Fas. Resistance to TCR-mediated apoptosis in IP3R1-deficient cells is reversed by pharmacologically raising cytoplasmic calcium levels. TCR-mediated apoptosis can be induced in calcium-free media, indicating that extracellular calcium influx is not required. These findings suggest that intracellular calcium release via the IP3R1 is a critical mediator of apoptosis. PMID:9154798

  6. Interactions of antagonists with subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Tovey, Stephen C; Molinski, Tedeusz F; Taylor, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+ channels. Interactions of the commonly used antagonists of IP3Rs with IP3R subtypes are poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R was measured using a luminal Ca2+ indicator. The effects of commonly used antagonists on IP3-evoked Ca2+ release and 3H-IP3 binding were characterized. KEY RESULTS Functional analyses showed that heparin was a competitive antagonist of all IP3R subtypes with different affinities for each (IP3R3 > IP3R1 ≥ IP3R2). This sequence did not match the affinities for heparin binding to the isolated N-terminal from each IP3R subtype. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and high concentrations of caffeine selectively inhibited IP3R1 without affecting IP3 binding. Neither Xestospongin C nor Xestospongin D effectively inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via any IP3R subtype. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Heparin competes with IP3, but its access to the IP3-binding core is substantially hindered by additional IP3R residues. These interactions may contribute to its modest selectivity for IP3R3. Practicable concentrations of caffeine and 2-APB inhibit only IP3R1. Xestospongins do not appear to be effective antagonists of IP3Rs. PMID:24628114

  7. Expression, purification, and properties of the Ubc4/5 family of E2 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lorick, Kevin L; Jensen, Jane P; Weissman, Allan M

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play a central role in ubiquitylation. They function to bridge the first, nonspecific step of ubiquitin activation by E1 with the transfer of activated ubiquitin to substrates by substrate-specific E3s. While sharing a common core UBC domain, members of this family exhibit significant specificity in their physical and functional interactions with E3s. Among the families of E2s, members of the yeast Ubc4/5 family are particularly well conserved in higher metazoans. In humans, these are represented by the UbcH5 family. Members of this ubiquitously expressed family show a capacity to interact with a wide range of E3s from both HECT and RING finger families, making them particularly useful tools in the laboratory. Using the UbcH5 family as a prototype, this chapter describes methods for the expression, purification, and characterization of E2 enzymes in vitro and some of the basics for their use in experiments in cells.

  8. Pheromone regulated production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate in the mammalian vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, K S; Anholt, R R

    1997-08-01

    Social behaviors of most mammals are profoundly affected by chemical signals, pheromones, exchanged between conspecifics. Pheromones interact with dendritic microvilli of bipolar neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). To investigate vomeronasal signal transduction pathways, microvillar membranes from porcine VNO were prepared. Incubation of such membranes from prepubertal females with boar seminal fluid or urine results in an increase in production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate (IP3). The dose response for IP3 production is biphasic with a GTP-dependent component at low stimulus concentrations and a nonspecific increase in IP3 at higher stimulus concentrations. The GTP-dependent stimulation is mimicked by GTPgammaS and blocked by GDPbetaS. Furthermore, the GTP-dependent component of the stimulation of IP3 production is sex specific and tissue dependent. Studies with monospecific antibodies reveal a G alpha(q/11)-related protein in vomeronasal neurons, concentrated at their microvilli. Our observations indicate that pheromones in boar secretions act on vomeronasal neurons in the female VNO via a receptor mediated, G protein-dependent increase in IP3. These observations set the stage for further investigations on the regulation of stimulus-excitation coupling in vomeronasal neurons. The pheromone-induced IP3 response also provides an assay for future purification of mammalian reproductive pheromones.

  9. Investigations of shot reproducibility for the SMP diode at 4.5 MV.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, Marlon D.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Lare, Gregory A.; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Rafael; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Welch, Dale Robert; Cordova, Steve Ray; Gallegos, M.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Daniel Scott; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Renk, Timothy Jerome; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy Jay; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2013-11-01

    In experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator, the SMP diode exhibits sig- ni cant shot-to-shot variability. Speci cally, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. To remove knob emission as a source, only data from a shot series conducted with a 4.5-MV peak voltage are considered. The scope of this report is limited to sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as power ow emission and trajectory changes, variations in pulsed power, dustbin and transmission line alignment, and di erent knob shapes. We nd no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we nd that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance pro les. This result forms the basis of a follow-on study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics. 3

  10. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo S.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Araújo Neto, João H.; Medina, Ana Carolina Q. D.; Menezes, Antonio C. S.; Sousa, José E. F.; Oliveira, Solemar S.; Camargo, Ademir J.; Napolitano, Hamilton B.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA) is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic P1¯ space group (Z' = 1) and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical R22(4) ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes PMID:27355378

  11. Optimization and In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of G4.5 Pamam Dendrimer-Risperidone Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Maria Jimena; del Rio Zabala, Nahuel Eduardo; Marotta, Cristian Hernán; Carreño Gutierrez, Hector; Arévalo Arévalo, Rosario; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Alonso, Silvia del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%). Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer) was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex. PMID:24587349

  12. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  13. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates autophagy through its interaction with Beclin 1.

    PubMed

    Vicencio, J M; Ortiz, C; Criollo, A; Jones, A W E; Kepp, O; Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Vitale, I; Morselli, E; Tailler, M; Castedo, M; Maiuri, M C; Molgó, J; Szabadkai, G; Lavandero, S; Kroemer, G

    2009-07-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) is a major regulator of apoptotic signaling. Through interactions with members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, it drives calcium (Ca(2+)) transients from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria, thereby establishing a functional and physical link between these organelles. Importantly, the IP(3)R also regulates autophagy, and in particular, its inhibition/depletion strongly induces macroautophagy. Here, we show that the IP(3)R antagonist xestospongin B induces autophagy by disrupting a molecular complex formed by the IP(3)R and Beclin 1, an interaction that is increased or inhibited by overexpression or knockdown of Bcl-2, respectively. An effect of Beclin 1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis was discarded as siRNA-mediated knockdown of Beclin 1 did not affect cytosolic or luminal ER Ca(2+) levels. Xestospongin B- or starvation-induced autophagy was inhibited by overexpression of the IP(3)R ligand-binding domain, which coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin 1. These results identify IP(3)R as a new regulator of the Beclin 1 complex that may bridge signals converging on the ER and initial phagophore formation.

  14. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  15. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media.

  16. Ensemble perception of size in 4-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-07-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) controls magnesium gatekeeper TRPM6 activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia; Sun, Baonan; Du, Jianyang; Yang, Wenzhong; Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Overton, Jeffrey D; Runnels, Loren W; Yue, Lixia

    2011-01-01

    TRPM6 is crucial for human Mg2+ homeostasis as patients carrying TRPM6 mutations develop hypomagnesemia and secondary hypocalcemia (HSH). However, the activation mechanism of TRPM6 has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophate (PIP2) controls TRPM6 activation and Mg2+ influx. Stimulation of PLC-coupled M1-receptors to deplete PIP2 potently inactivates TRPM6. Translocation of over-expressed 5-phosphatase to cell membrane to specifically hydrolyze PIP2 also completely inhibits TRPM6. Moreover, depolarization-induced-activation of the voltage-sensitive-phosphatase (Ci-VSP) simultaneously depletes PIP2 and inhibits TRPM6. PLC-activation induced PIP2-depletion not only inhibits TRPM6, but also abolishes TRPM6-mediated Mg2+ influx.Furthermore, neutralization of basic residues in the TRP domain leads to nonfunctional or dysfunctional mutants with reduced activity by PIP2, suggesting that they are likely to participate in interactions with PIP2.Our data indicate that PIP2 is required for TRPM6 channel function; hydrolysis of PIP2 by PLC-coupled hormones/agonists may constitute an important pathway for TRPM6 gating, and perhaps Mg2+ homeostasis.

  18. Shot reproducibility of the self-magnetic-pinch diode at 4.5Â MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, M. Dale; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Lare, Greg; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Robert; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale R.; Cordova, Steve; Gallegos, Manuel L.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Nielsen, Dan; Renk, Timothy J.; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy J.; Ziska, Derek

    2014-05-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' RITS-6 accelerator, the self-magnetic-pinch diode exhibits significant shot-to-shot variability. Specifically, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. The scope of this report is limited to data collected at 4.5-MV peak voltage and sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as sheath electron emission and trajectories, variations in pulsed power, load and transmission line alignment, and different field shapers. We find no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we find that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance profiles. In poor shots, the sheath current in the load region falls from 16%-30% of the total current to less than 10%. This result will form the basis of a follow-up study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics.

  19. Electron delocalization in a rigid cofacial naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) dimer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilei; Frasconi, Marco; Gardner, Daniel M; McGonigal, Paul R; Schneebeli, Severin T; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-09-01

    Investigating through-space electronic communication between discrete cofacially oriented aromatic π-systems is fundamental to understanding assemblies as diverse as double-stranded DNA, organic photovoltaics and thin-film transistors. A detailed understanding of the electronic interactions involved rests on making the appropriate molecular compounds with rigid covalent scaffolds and π-π distances in the range of ca. 3.5 Å. Reported herein is an enantiomeric pair of doubly-bridged naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) cyclophanes and the characterization of four of their electronic states, namely 1) the ground state, 2) the exciton coupled singlet excited state, 3) the radical anion with strong through-space interactions between the redox-active NDI molecules, and 4) the diamagnetic diradical dianion using UV/Vis/NIR, EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies in addition to X-ray crystallography. Despite the unfavorable Coulombic repulsion, the singlet diradical dianion dimer of NDI shows a more pronounced intramolecular π-π stacking interaction when compared with its neutral analog.

  20. Functional architecture of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in restricted spaces of myoendothelial projections.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Taylor, Mark S; Bonev, Adrian D; Hannah, Rachael M; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Shui, Bo; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Nelson, Mark T

    2008-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) regulates the function of virtually every mammalian cell. Unlike ryanodine receptors, which generate local Ca(2+) events ("sparks") that transmit signals to the juxtaposed cell membrane, a similar functional architecture has not been reported for IP(3)Rs. Here, we have identified spatially fixed, local Ca(2+) release events ("pulsars") in vascular endothelial membrane domains that project through the internal elastic lamina to adjacent smooth muscle membranes. Ca(2+) pulsars are mediated by IP(3)Rs in the endothelial endoplasmic reticulum of these membrane projections. Elevation of IP(3) by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, increased the frequency of Ca(2+) pulsars, whereas blunting IP(3) production, blocking IP(3)Rs, or depleting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) inhibited these events. The elementary properties of Ca(2+) pulsars were distinct from ryanodine-receptor-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in smooth muscle and from IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) puffs in Xenopus oocytes. The intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (K(Ca)3.1) channel also colocalized to the endothelial projections, and blockage of this channel caused an 8-mV depolarization. Inhibition of Ca(2+) pulsars also depolarized to a similar extent, and blocking K(Ca)3.1 channels was without effect in the absence of pulsars. Our results support a mechanism of IP(3) signaling in which Ca(2+) release is spatially restricted to transmit intercellular signals.

  1. A map of dust reddening to 4.5 kpc from Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Jurić, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.

    2014-07-01

    We present a map of the dust reddening to 4.5 kpc derived from Pan-STARRS1 stellar photometry. The map covers almost the entire sky north of declination –30° at a resolution of 7'-14', and is based on the estimated distances and reddenings to more than 500 million stars. The technique is designed to map dust in the Galactic plane, where many other techniques are stymied by the presence of multiple dust clouds at different distances along each line of sight. This reddening-based dust map agrees closely with the Schlegel et al. (SFD) far-infrared emission-based dust map away from the Galactic plane, and the most prominent differences between the two maps stem from known limitations of SFD in the plane. We also compare the map with Planck, finding likewise good agreement in general at high latitudes. The use of optical data from Pan-STARRS1 yields reddening uncertainty as low as 25 mmag E(B – V).

  2. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media. PMID:25406424

  3. Expression of Spgatae, the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ortholog of vertebrate GATA4/5/6 factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei Yun; Davidson, Eric H

    2004-12-01

    Spgatae is the sea urchin ortholog of the vertebrate gata4/5/6 genes, as confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The accumulation of Spgatae transcripts during embryonic development and the spatial pattern of expression are reported here. Expression was first detected in the 15 h blastula. The number of Spgatae RNA molecules increases steadily during blastula stages, with expression peaking during gastrulation. After gastrulation is complete, the level of expression decreases until the end of embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that Spgatae transcripts were first detected in a ring of prospective mesoderm cells in the vegetal plate. Spgatae expression then expands to include the entire vegetal plate at the mesenchyme blastula stage. During gastrulation Spgatae is expressed at the blastopore, and at prism stage strongly in the hindgut and midgut but not foregut, and also in mesoderm cells at the tip of the archenteron. Towards the end of embryogenesis, expression in the hindgut decreases. The terminal pattern of expression is in midgut plus coelomic pouches.

  4. Design of a 4.5 MJ/1 MW sectored toroidal superconducting energy storage magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Akhter, Javed; Nandi, Chinmay; Pal, Gautam; Saha, Subimal

    2014-09-01

    A 4.5 MJ/1 MW superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is being developed at VECC centre, Kolkata. The magnet system consists of the cryostat and coil assembly comprising eight superconducting solenoid coils made of custom-made NbTi based Rutherford-type cable and arranged in toroidal fashion with finite inter-sector gap. Since the strong electromagnetic force distributed to the coil is asymmetric and non-uniform in nature, a precise 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) has been carried out to design a mechanically stable coil and support structure under various operational scenarios. The results reveal that maximum stress developed on coil and its support structure is below allowable stress limit. Extensive transient analysis has also been carried out to evaluate transient loss and assess the feasibility of using helium re-condensation technology with commercially available cryo-refrigerators. Finally, quench protection scenario has also been discussed suitable for this toroidal-type SMES system. The article investigates the design concept of the cryostat and coil assembly.

  5. A Reducing Milieu Renders Cofilin Insensitive to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PIP2) Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Bianca; John, Isabel; Simon, Bernd; Brockmann, Christoph; Oelmeier, Stefan A.; Jahraus, Beate; Kirchgessner, Henning; Riplinger, Selina; Carlomagno, Teresa; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Samstag, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to T cell hyporesponsiveness. A reducing micromilieu (e.g. provided by dendritic cells) can rescue T cells from such oxidant-induced dysfunction. However, the reducing effects on proteins leading to restored T cell activation remained unknown. One key molecule of T cell activation is the actin-remodeling protein cofilin, which is dephosphorylated on serine 3 upon T cell costimulation and has an essential role in formation of mature immune synapses between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Cofilin is spatiotemporally regulated; at the plasma membrane, it can be inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we show by NMR spectroscopy that a reducing milieu led to structural changes in the cofilin molecule predominantly located on the protein surface. They overlapped with the PIP2- but not actin-binding sites. Accordingly, reduction of cofilin had no effect on F-actin binding and depolymerization and did not influence the cofilin phosphorylation state. However, it did prevent inhibition of cofilin activity through PIP2. Therefore, a reducing milieu may generate an additional pool of active cofilin at the plasma membrane. Consistently, in-flow microscopy revealed increased actin dynamics in the immune synapse of untransformed human T cells under reducing conditions. Altogether, we introduce a novel mechanism of redox regulation: reduction of the actin-remodeling protein cofilin renders it insensitive to PIP2 inhibition, resulting in enhanced actin dynamics. PMID:24003227

  6. Acoustic Receptivity of Mach 4.5 Boundary Layer with Leading- Edge Bluntness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows where second mode instability is dominant. Computations are performed to investigate the effect of leading-edge thickness and it is found that bluntness tends to stabilize the boundary layer. Furthermore, the relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle.

  7. Synaptojanin 1-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis is modulated by membrane curvature and facilitates membrane fission

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Ileto, Belle; Frere, Samuel G.; Chan, Robin B.; Voronov, Sergey V.; Roux, Aurélien; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] plays a fundamental role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, precisely how PI(4,5)P2 metabolism is spatially and temporally regulated during membrane internalization and the functional consequences of endocytosis-coupled PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation remain to be explored. Using cell free assays with liposomes of varying curvatures, we show that the major synaptic phosphoinositide phosphatase, synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), acts with membrane curvature generators/sensors, such as the BAR protein endophilin, to preferentially remove PI(4,5)P2 from curved membranes as opposed to relatively flat ones. Moreover, in vivo recruitment of Synj1’s inositol 5-phosphatase domain to endophilin-induced membrane tubules results in fragmentation and condensation of these structures largely in a dynamin-dependent fashion. Our study raises the possibility that geometry-based mechanisms may contribute to spatially restricting PI(4,5)P2 elimination during membrane internalization and suggests that the PI(4,5)P2-to-PI4P conversion achieved by Synj1 at sites of high curvature may cooperate with dynamin to achieve membrane fission. PMID:21316588

  8. Removal of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by bacterial isolates from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kr; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-09-01

    2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) mineralizing bacteria were isolated from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper industry. These isolates used 2,4,5-TCP as a source of carbon and energy and were capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichimetric release of chloride and biomass formation. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these bacteria were identified as Kocuria sp. (CL2), Bacillus pumillus (CL5), Pseudomonas stutzeri (CL7). HPLC analysis revealed that these isolates were able to degrade 2,4,5-TCP at higher concentrations (600 mg/l or 3.0 mM). A consortia of these isolates completely removed 2,4,5-TCP from the sludge obtained from pulp and paper mill within 2 weeks when supplemented at a rate of 100 mg l(-1) . Bacterial consortium also significantly reduced absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) by 61% and 63%, respectively from the sludge. These isolates have high potential to remove 2,4,5-TCP and may be used for remediation of pulp paper mill waste containing 2,4,5-TCP.

  9. Assessment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of 2,4,5-TP in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sergi; Casino, Patricia; Marín, M Luisa; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2002-09-01

    A highly sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described for Silvex, 2-(2,4,5 trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, (2,4,5-TP). One specific feature of the immunoassay is the use of simple chemical activation of chlorophenoxy acids to prepare both the immunizing and coating conjugates. The assay is based on the use of polyclonal antibodies raised against 2,4,5-TP, and a peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody for colorimetric detection. The effect of different chemical conditions (pH, and salt and detergent concentration) on immunoassay performance has been studied. Under the best conditions the least detectable dose and the sensitivity (IC(50)) for 2,4,5-TP were 0.05 micro g L(-1) and 0.80 micro g L(-1), respectively. The optimized immunoassay was also highly specific, showing little (6.9% for 2,4,5-T) or no cross-reactivity with other similar herbicides. The assay was used to determine 2,4,5-TP in water and soils. The excellent recoveries obtained (mean values ranging between 89% and 104%) make this immunoassay a suitable screening method for either environmental monitoring or laboratory quantification of 2,4,5-TP.

  10. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 is required for Syntaxin1A clustering and neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Khuong, Thang Manh; Habets, Ron L P; Kuenen, Sabine; Witkowska, Agata; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Swerts, Jef; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert; Verstreken, Patrik

    2013-03-20

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find the lipid in membrane domains at neurotransmitter release sites, where it concentrates with Syntaxin1A, a protein essential for vesicle fusion. Reducing PI(3,4,5)P3 availability disperses Syntaxin1A clusters and increasing PI(3,4,5)P3 levels rescues this defect. In artificial giant unilamellar vesicles, PI(3,4,5)P3 also induces Syntaxin1A domain formation and this clustering, in vitro and in vivo, is dependent on positively charged residues in the Syntaxin1A-juxtamembrane domain. Functionally, reduced PI(3,4,5)P3 causes temperature-sensitive paralysis and reduced neurotransmitter release, a phenotype also seen in animals expressing a Syntaxin1A with a mutated juxtamembrane domain. Thus, our data indicate that PI(3,4,5)P3, based on electrostatic interactions, clusters Syntaxin1A at release sites to regulate neurotransmitter release.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of epithelial sodium channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianing; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Huibin; Zhang, Bingkun; Zhao, Ying; Ma, Ke; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Qiushi; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Zhiren

    2013-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO ) was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS). Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC P(O); however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO . Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5)P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5)P3. Moreover, BPV(pic), a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5)P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway.

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Activation of Epithelial Sodium Channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5)P3 Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianing; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Huibin; Zhang, Bingkun; Zhao, Ying; Ma, Ke; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Qiushi; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Zhiren

    2013-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO) was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS). Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC PO; however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO. Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5)P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5)P3. Moreover, BPV(pic), a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5)P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway. PMID:23741314

  13. Relativistic orbits around spinning supermassive black holes: Secular evolution to 4.5 post-Newtonian order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.; Maitra, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    We derive the secular evolution of the orbital elements of a stellar-mass object orbiting a spinning massive black hole. We use the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation in harmonic coordinates, with test-body equations of motion for the conservative dynamics that are valid through 3PN order, including spin-orbit, quadrupole and (spin) 2 effects, and with radiation-reaction contributions linear in the mass of the body that are valid through 4.5PN order, including the 4PN damping effects of spin-orbit coupling. The evolution equations for the osculating orbit elements are iterated to high PN orders using a two-time-scale approach and averaging over orbital time scales. We derive a criterion for terminating the orbit when its Carter constant drops below a critical value, whereupon the body plunges across the event horizon at the next closest approach. The results are valid for arbitrary eccentricities and arbitrary inclinations. We then analyze numerically the orbits of objects injected into high-eccentricity orbits via interactions within a surrounding star cluster, obtaining the number of orbits and the elapsed time between injection and plunge, and the residual orbital eccentricity at plunge as a function of inclination. We derive an analytic approximation for the time to plunge in terms of initial orbital variables. We show that, if the black hole is spinning rapidly, the flux of gravitational radiation during the final orbit before plunge may be suppressed by as much as 3 orders of magnitude if the orbit is retrograde on the equatorial plane compared to its prograde counterpart.

  14. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  15. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  16. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  17. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  18. Antibodies to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 in patients with cerebellar disease

    PubMed Central

    Fouka, Penelope; Alexopoulos, Harry; Chatzi, Ioanna; Dedos, Skarlatos G.; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Politis, Panagiotis; Tzioufas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe newly identified autoantibodies associated with cerebellar disorders. Design/Methods: We first screened the sera of 15 patients with cerebellar ataxia, without any known associated autoantibodies, with immunocytochemistry on mouse brain. After characterization and validation of a newly identified antibody, 85 additional patients with suspected autoimmune cerebellar disease were screened using a cell-based assay. Results: Immunoglobulin G from one of the first 15 patients demonstrated a distinct staining pattern on Purkinje neurons. This autoantibody, as characterized further by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, was binding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1), an intracellular channel that mediates the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Anti-IP3R1 specificity was then validated with a cell-based assay. On this basis, screening of 85 other patients with cerebellar disease revealed 2 additional IP3R1-positive patients. All 3 patients presented with cerebellar ataxia; the first was eventually diagnosed with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, the second had a homozygous CAG insertion at the gene TBP, and the third was thought to have a neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions: We independently identified an autoantibody against IP3R1, a protein highly expressed in Purkinje neurons, confirming an earlier report. Because a mouse knockout model for IP3R1 exhibits ataxia and epilepsy, this autoantibody may have a functional role. The heterogeneity of the antibody-positive patients suggests that this antibody may either have a direct involvement in disease pathogenesis or it is a surrogate marker secondary to cerebellar injury. Anti-IP3R1 antibodies should be further explored in various ataxic and epileptic syndromes as they may denote a marker of response to immunotherapies. PMID:27957507

  19. Use of the 4/5 Kolmogorov equation for describing some characteristics of fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarskii, V. I.

    2005-03-01

    The Kolmogorov equation, which relates the second-order structure function Dll(r ) and the third-ordrer structure function Dlll(r ), may be presented as a closed linear integrodifferential equation for the probability distribution function W(U ,r) of longitudinal velocity difference U. In general, without any restrictions, the function of two variables W(U ,r) may be presented as [Dll(r )]-1/2F(U/√Dll(r ) ,r). As a first approximation, we neglect dependence of F on the second argument r. In this approximation (self-similarity of the probability density function), the integrodifferential equation for W reduces to the ordinary nonlinear differential equation for Dll(r ). It follows from this equation that for r →∞ the function Dll(r )˜r2/3. This consideration does not use the 1941 Kolmogorov hypothesis that is based on dimension analysis. Any deviations from the 2/3 law, including intermittency effects, must be related to the violation of the above-mentioned self-similarity of W, i.e., with the additional dependence of F on the second argument r. On the basis of experimental data, we suggest a simple model of W, which allows us to describe deviations from the 2/3 law, caused by intermittency, and describe the local exponents κ in the structure functions ⟨∣U(r)∣ρ⟩˜rκ(ρ ) for moderate ρ. The so called "bottleneck effect" also can be described by 4/5 Kolmogorov equation.

  20. Morphological evaluation of eccentric sets guide-plates of dcp-l 4.5 mm

    PubMed Central

    Borges, José Humberto de Souza; da Silva Filho, Antonio Lisboa; Pereira Neto, Francisco; Daher, Walter Rodrigo; de Mesquita, Alessandro Queiroz; Freitas, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Objective To carry out isolated and comparative evaluations of the measurements of the set eccentric guide plates used in 4.5mm surgical implants, and to determine the effect of these measurements on compression strength. Methods Four eccentric guides, four large dynamic compression plates (L-DCP) from four local manufacturers, and a Vonder® 200 mm caliper brand were used. Five standard parameter measurements were created for the set eccentric guide-plate, which were identified as A to E. Four sets were made, using materials of the same factory, and identified as groups I to IV. The analyses were performed by measuring all the parameters from a ventral view of the plate, with the eccentric guide placed in the plate hole. Results Groups I and II showed the same values for all the parameters. All the groups showed the same measurements for E = 8.15 e B = 3.60. Group III: A = 8.10mm, C = 3.25mm, D = 1.25mm. Group IV: A = 7.00mm, C = 3.10mm, D = 0.30mm. Maximum compression force was (F Max.): Group I 80.58 N, Group. II: F Max. 81.63 N, Group. III: F Max. 36.32N, Group. IV: F Max. 37.52N Conclusion The measurements evaluated show a lack of standardization in the manufacture of orthopedic instruments and its effects on the values for compression strength. Level of Evidence: Level III, analytical study. PMID:24453573

  1. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in fasting and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguo; Li, Gang; Goode, Jason; Paz, Jose C; Ouyang, Kunfu; Screaton, Robert; Fischer, Wolfgang H; Chen, Ju; Tabas, Ira; Montminy, Marc

    2012-04-08

    In the fasted state, increases in circulating glucagon promote hepatic glucose production through induction of the gluconeogenic program. Triggering of the cyclic AMP pathway increases gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation of the CREB co-activator CRTC2 (ref. 1). Glucagon promotes CRTC2 dephosphorylation in part through the protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of the CRTC2 kinase SIK2. A number of Ser/Thr phosphatases seem to be capable of dephosphorylating CRTC2 (refs 2, 3), but the mechanisms by which hormonal cues regulate these enzymes remain unclear. Here we show in mice that glucagon stimulates CRTC2 dephosphorylation in hepatocytes by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores and activating the calcium/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr-phosphatase calcineurin (also known as PP3CA). Glucagon increased cytosolic calcium concentration through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs), which associate with CRTC2. After their activation, InsP(3)Rs enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting the calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of CRTC2. During feeding, increases in insulin signalling reduced CRTC2 activity via the AKT-mediated inactivation of InsP(3)Rs. InsP(3)R activity was increased in diabetes, leading to upregulation of the gluconeogenic program. As hepatic downregulation of InsP(3)Rs and calcineurin improved circulating glucose levels in insulin resistance, these results demonstrate how interactions between cAMP and calcium pathways at the level of the InsP(3)R modulate hepatic glucose production under fasting conditions and in diabetes.

  2. Detection and quantification of 4(5)-methylimidazole in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound found in class III and IV ammoniated caramel colors, a group of additives widely used in the food industry. A suspected carcinogen and neurotoxin and efforts are underway to limit its presence in foods. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantitate 4-MeI in different food matrices, including roasted coffee, beer, soft drinks, and soy sauce; however, no methods are available to measure 4-MeI in cooked meat and meat products containing lipids and high levels of interfering nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and peptides. A rapid method using 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) as an extraction solvent followed by derivatization with isobutylchloroformate and gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry was developed to quantify 4-MeI in cooked meat products with added caramel colors containing 4-MeI. Selected ion monitoring mode was used to monitor 4-MeI ions fragments. In the 8 commercial meat products tested, 4-MeI levels ranged from 0.041 to 1.015 mg/kg, with recovery of 94.76% to 103.94%. In addition, a matrix-matched calibration performed by analyzing a spiked cooked meat sample indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05), which means the meat matrix had no effect on the developed method. This method proved useful in analyzing 4-MeI in meat products with added caramel color containing 4-MeI.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters synaptotagmin 1 membrane docking and drives opposing bilayers closer together.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Weiwei; Herrick, Dawn Z; Cafiso, David S

    2011-04-05

    Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) is a synaptic vesicle-anchored membrane protein that acts as the calcium sensor for the synchronous component of neuronal exocytosis. Using site-directed spin labeling, the position and membrane interactions of a fragment of syt1 containing its two C2 domains (syt1C2AB) were assessed in bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Addition of 1 mol % PIP(2) to a lipid mixture of PC and PS results in a deeper membrane penetration of the C2A domain and alters the orientation of the C2B domain so that the polybasic face of C2B comes into the proximity of the bilayer interface. The C2B domain is found to contact the membrane interface in two regions, the Ca(2+)-binding loops and a region opposite the Ca(2+)-binding loops. This suggests that syt1C2AB is configured to bridge two bilayers and is consistent with a model generated previously for syt1C2AB bound to membranes of PC and PS. Point-to-plane depth restraints, obtained by progressive power saturation, and interdomain distance restraints, obtained by double electron-electron resonance, were obtained in the presence of PIP(2) and used in a simulated annealing routine to dock syt1C2AB to two membrane interfaces. The results yield an average structure different from what is found in the absence of PIP(2) and indicate that bilayer-bilayer spacing is decreased in the presence of PIP(2). The results indicate that PIP(2), which is necessary for bilayer fusion, alters C2 domain orientation, enhances syt1-membrane electrostatic interactions, and acts to drive vesicle and cytoplasmic membrane surfaces closer together.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate competitively inhibits phorbol ester binding to protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A.; Cauhan, V.P.S.; Deshmukh, D.S.; Brokerhoff, H. )

    1989-06-13

    Calcium phospholipid dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diacylglycerol (DG) and by phorbol esters and is recognized to be the phorbol ester receptor of cells; DG displaces phorbol ester competitively from PKC. A phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), can also activate PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and Ca{sup 2+} with a K{sub PIP{sub 2}} of 0.04 mol %. Preliminary experiments have suggested a common binding site for PIP{sub 2} and DG on PKC. Here, the authors investigate the effect of PIP{sub 2} on phorbol ester binding to PKC in a mixed micellar assay. In the presence of 20 mol % PS, PIP{sub 2} inhibited specific binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in a dose-dependent fashion up to 85% at 1 mol %. Inhibition of binding was more pronounced with PIP{sub 2} than with DG. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in binding of PDBu in the presence of PIP{sub 2} is the result of an altered affinity for the phorbol ester rather than of a change in maximal binding. The plot of apparent dissociation constants (K{sub d{prime}}) against PIP{sub 2} concentration was linear over a range of 0.01-1 mol % with a K{sub i} of 0.043 mol % and confirmed the competitive nature of inhibition between PDBu and PIP{sub 2}. Competition between PIP{sub 2} and phorbol ester could be determined in a liposomal assay system also. These results indicate that PIP{sub 2}, DG, and phorbol ester all compete for the same activator-receiving region on the regulatory moiety of protein kinase C, and they lend support to the suggestion that PIP{sub 2} is a primary activator of the enzyme.

  5. Mechanism of protein kinase C activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myungho; Bell, R.M. )

    1991-01-29

    The mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) was investigated by using Triton X-100 mixed micellar methods. The activation of PKC by PIP{sub 2}, for which maximal activity was 60% of that elicited by sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), was similar to activation by DAG in several respects: (1) activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG required phosphatidylserine (PS) as a phospholipid cofactor, (2) PIP{sub 2} and DAG reduced the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} and PS required for activation, (3) the concentration dependences of activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG depended on the concentration of PS, and (4) PIP{sub 2} and DAG complemented one another to achieve maximal activation. On the other hand, PIP{sub 2} activation of the PKC differed from activation by DAG in several respects. With increasing concentrations of PIP{sub 2}, (1) the optimal concentration of PS required was constant at 12 mol%, (2) the maximal activity at 12 mol% PS increased, and (3) the cooperativity for PS decreased. PIP{sub 2} did not inhibit ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding of PKC at saturating levels of PS; however, at subsaturating levels of PS, PIP{sub 2} enhanced ({sup 3}H)PDBu binding by acting as a phospholipid cofactor. PIP did not function as an activator but served as a phospholipid cofactor in the presence of PS. These data establish that PIP{sub 2}, PIP, and PI can function to spare, in part, the PS phospholipid cofactor requirement of PKC, and they demonstrate that PIP{sub 2} but not PIP and PI can function as a lipid activator of PKC by mechanisms distinct from those of DAG and phorbol esters.

  6. Formation of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in Aqueous d-Glucose-Amino Acids Model System.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IRAC) has classified 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MeI) as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. Thus, how 4-MeI forms in a D-glucose (Glu) amino acids (AA) model system is important, as it is how browning is affected. An aqueous solution of Glu was mixed individually in equimolar amounts at 3 concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 M) with aqueous solutions of L-Alanine (Ala), L-Arginine (Arg), Glycine (Gly), L-Lysine (Lys), and L-Serine (Ser). The Glu-AA mixtures were reacted at 60, 120, and 160 °C for 1 h. The 4-MeI levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with isobutylchloroformate. No 4-MeI was formed at 60 °C for any treatment combination; however, at 120 °C and 0.05 M, Glu-Arg and Glu-Lys produced 0.13 and 0.14 mg/kg of 4-MeI. At 160 °C and 0.05 M all treatment combinations formed 4-MeI. At 160 °C and 0.15 M, the observed levels of Glu-Ala, Glu-Arg, Glu-Gly, Glu-Lys, and Glu-Ser were 0.21, 1.00, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.16 mg/kg. The AA type, reactant concentrations, and temperature significantly affected (P < 0.001) formation of 4-MeI as well as browning. Glu-Lys treatment in all combinations produced the most browning, but Glu-Arg produced the most 4-MeI. This method showed that foods processed using low temperatures may have reduced levels of 4-MeI.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  8. Interconversion of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate to inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate and (1,3,4)-trisphosphate in permeabilized adrenal glomerulosa cells is calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, M.F.; Dentand, I.A.; Lew, P.D.; Capponi, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.

    1986-08-29

    The metabolism of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate was followed in permeabilized bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. At low Ca++ concentration (pCa = 7.2), more than 90% of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate had disappeared within 2 min, while two other metabolites, (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate appeared progressively. At higher Ca++ concentrations (pCa = 5.7 and 4.8), the formation of these two metabolites was markedly increased, but completely abolished if the medium was ATP-depleted. The peak levels for the generation of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate (1 min) preceded those of (3H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and were closely correlated. These results suggest that, in adrenal glomerulosa cells, the isomer inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate is generated from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate via a calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway involving the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate.

  9. Bacterial communities predominant in the degradation of 13C(4)-4,5,9,10-pyrene during composting.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Jianqiang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Jia, Zhongjun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-09-01

    An in-vessel composting bioremediation of (13)C4-4,5,9,10-pyrene and unlabeled pyrene spiked soil amended with fresh wastes was investigated by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) of active bacteria involved. Highest dissipation of (13)C4-pyrene was detected at 55 °C after 42 days composting. The active bacterial communities in the composting changed over time, showing a distinct difference among different stages. α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were detected mainly involving in pyrene degradation at 38 °C over 14 days composting. Streptomyces appeared to dominate the pyrene degradation at 55 °C. β- and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant pyrene degraders at 70 °C after 42 days composting and at 38 °C after 60 days composting. The results of this study suggest the pyrene degradation was performed by phylogenetically distinct bacterial guilds from the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria during in-vessel composition processes.

  10. The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A in regulating emotional behavior and amygdala function

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Kyungjoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, June-seek; Son, Gi Hoon; Sun, Woong; Shin, Ki Soon; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A) is a molecule enriched in the brain and neurons that regulates intracellular calcium levels via signaling through the inositol trisphosphate receptor. In the present study, we found that IP3K-A expression is highly enriched in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which plays a pivotal role in the processing and expression of emotional phenotypes in mammals. Genetic abrogation of IP3K-A altered amygdala gene expression, particularly in genes involved in key intracellular signaling pathways and genes mediating fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. In agreement with the changes in amygdala gene expression profiles, IP3K-A knockout (KO) mice displayed more robust responses to aversive stimuli and spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, indicating high levels of innate fear and anxiety. In addition to behavioral phenotypes, decreased excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic current and reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the CeA of IP3K-A KO mice suggest that IP3K-A has a profound influence on the basal activities of fear- and anxiety-mediating amygdala circuitry. In conclusion, our findings collectively demonstrate that IP3K-A plays an important role in regulating affective states by modulating metabotropic receptor signaling pathways and neural activity in the amygdala. PMID:27053114

  11. DISCOVERY OF A PROBABLE 4-5 JUPITER-MASS EXOPLANET TO HD 95086 BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Delorme, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Girard, J. H.; Dumas, C.; Desidera, S.; Bonavita, M.

    2013-08-01

    Direct imaging has only begun to inventory the population of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars in the solar neighborhood. Following this approach, we carried out a deep imaging survey in the near-infrared using VLT/NaCo to search for substellar companions. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion orbiting the young (10-17 Myr), dusty, early-type (A8) star HD 95086 at 56 AU in L' (3.8 {mu}m) images. This discovery is based on observations with more than a year time lapse. Our first epoch clearly revealed the source at {approx_equal} 10{sigma}, while our second epoch lacks good observing conditions, yielding a {approx_equal} 3{sigma} detection. Various tests were thus made to rule out possible artifacts. This recovery is consistent with the signal at the first epoch but requires cleaner confirmation. Nevertheless, our astrometric precision suggests that the companion is comoving with the star with a 3{sigma} confidence level. The planetary nature of the source is reinforced by a non-detection in the Ks-band (2.18 {mu}m) images according to its possible extremely red Ks-L' color. Conversely, background contamination is rejected with good confidence level. The luminosity yields a predicted mass of about 4-5 M{sub Jup} (at 10-17 Myr) using ''hot-start'' evolutionary models, making HD 95086 b the exoplanet with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star.

  12. Self assembly of HIV-1 Gag protein on lipid membranes generates PI(4,5)P2/Cholesterol nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Yandrapalli, Naresh; Lubart, Quentin; Tanwar, Hanumant S.; Picart, Catherine; Mak, Johnson; Muriaux, Delphine; Favard, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein at the inner leaflet of the cell host plasma membrane is the key orchestrator of virus assembly. The binding between Gag and the plasma membrane is mediated by specific interaction of the Gag matrix domain and the PI(4,5)P2 lipid (PIP2). It is unknown whether this interaction could lead to local reorganization of the plasma membrane lipids. In this study, using model membranes, we examined the ability of Gag to segregate specific lipids upon self-assembly. We show for the first time that Gag self-assembly is responsible for the formation of PIP2 lipid nanoclusters, enriched in cholesterol but not in sphingomyelin. We also show that Gag mainly partition into liquid-disordered domains of these lipid membranes. Our work strongly suggests that, instead of targeting pre-existing plasma membrane lipid domains, Gag is more prone to generate PIP2/Cholesterol lipid nanodomains at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane during early events of virus assembly. PMID:28008947

  13. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  14. Characterization of recombinant Beta vulgaris 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase active in the biosynthesis of betalains.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Betalains are water-soluble pigments with high antiradical capacity which bestow bright colors to flowers, fruits and other parts of most plants of the order Caryophyllales. The formation of the structural unit of all betalains, betalamic acid from the precursor amino acid 4,5-dihydroxyphenylalanine is catalyzed by the enzyme 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase followed by intramolecular cyclization of the 4,5-secodopa intermediate. This paper describes the purification and the molecular and functional characterization of an active 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase from the best-known source of betalains-Beta vulgaris-after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa characterized by chromatography, electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. Enzyme kinetic properties are characterized in the production of betalamic acid, the structural, chromophoric and bioactive unit of plant pigment betalains.

  15. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia.

    PubMed

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  16. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  17. Rapid redistribution of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and septins during the Candida albicans response to caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Blankenship, Jill R; Cheng, Shaoji; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2012-09-01

    We previously showed that phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and septin regulation play major roles in maintaining Candida albicans cell wall integrity in response to caspofungin and other stressors. Here, we establish a link between PI(4,5)P2 signaling and septin localization and demonstrate that rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins is part of the natural response of C. albicans to caspofungin. First, we studied caspofungin-hypersusceptible C. albicans irs4 and inp51 mutants, which have elevated PI(4,5)P2 levels due to loss of PI(4,5)P2-specific 5'-phosphatase activity. PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in discrete patches, rather than uniformly, along surfaces of mutants in yeast and filamentous morphologies, as visualized with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology domain. The patches also contained chitin (calcofluor white staining) and cell wall protein Rbt5 (Rbt5-GFP). By transmission electron microscopy, patches corresponded to plasma membrane invaginations that incorporated cell wall material. Fluorescently tagged septins Cdc10 and Sep7 colocalized to these sites, consistent with well-described PI(4,5)P2-septin physical interactions. Based on expression patterns of cell wall damage response genes, irs4 and inp51 mutants were firmly positioned within a group of caspofungin-hypersusceptible, septin-regulatory protein kinase mutants. irs4 and inp51 were linked most closely to the gin4 mutant by expression profiling, PI(4,5)P2-septin-chitin redistribution and other phenotypes. Finally, sublethal 5-min exposure of wild-type C. albicans to caspofungin resulted in redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a manner similar to those of irs4, inp51, and gin4 mutants. Taken together, our data suggest that the C. albicans Irs4-Inp51 5'-phosphatase complex and Gin4 function upstream of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a pathway that helps govern responses to caspofungin.

  18. Purification and Properties of Component B of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetate Oxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100

    PubMed Central

    Xun, L.; Wagnon, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 degrades 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4,5-T), an herbicide and chlorinated aromatic compound. Although some progress has been made in understanding 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 by molecular analysis, little is known about the biochemistry involved. Enzymatic activity converting 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol in the presence of NADH and O(inf2) was detected in cell extracts of AC1100. Phenyl agarose chromatography of the ammonium sulfate-fractionated cell extracts yielded no active single fractions, but the mixing of two fractions, named component A and component B, resulted in the recovery of enzyme activity. Component B was further purified to homogeneity by hydroxyapatite and DEAE chromatographies. Component B had a native molecular weight of 140,000, and it was composed of two 49-kDa (alpha)-subunits and two 24-kDa (beta)-subunits. Component B was red, and its spectrum in the visible region had maxima at 430 and 560 nm (shoulder), whereas upon reduction it had maxima at 420 (shoulder) and 530 nm. Each mole of (alpha)(beta) heterodimer contained 2.9 mol of iron and 2.1 mol of labile sulfide. These properties suggest strong similarities between component B and the terminal oxygenase components of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Component A was highly purified but not to homogeneity. The reconstituted 2,4,5-T oxygenase, consisting of components A and B, converted 2,4,5-T quantitatively into 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and glyoxylate with the coconsumption of NADH and O(inf2). PMID:16535134

  19. cAMP generation inhibits inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Schramm, C M; Chuang, S T; Grunstein, M M

    1995-11-01

    Agonist-induced airway contraction involves the generation and subsequent binding of the phosphoinositide-derived second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], to its Ca(2+)-mobilizing intracellular receptor. To the extent that regulatory cross-talk is known to exist between different signal transduction pathways, the present study examined whether activation of the adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway induces altered binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor in membrane homogenates of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). In control TSM, monophasic binding curves provided mean +/- SE values for Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor density (Bmax) and binding affinity (Kd) amounting to 940 +/- 43 fmol/mg protein and 10.7 +/- 1.2 nM, respectively. Relative to control, binding of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 was significantly reduced in paired TSM separately treated with isoproterenol, forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP. Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding was inhibited to a level averaging 60% of control binding by maximal concentrations of each agonist, an effect attributed to a reduction in Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding sites rather than altered ligand affinity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway is associated with inhibition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor binding and implicate a novel mechanism of action of beta-adrenergic agents in preventing and/or reversing airway contraction.

  20. Phospholipase Cζ binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 requires the XY-linker region

    PubMed Central

    Nomikos, Michail; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Calver, Brian L.; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) is a strong candidate for the mammalian sperm-derived factor that triggers the Ca2+ oscillations required for egg activation at fertilization. PLCζ lacks a PH domain, which targets PLCδ1 to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) substrate in the plasma membrane. Previous studies failed to detect PLCζ in the plasma membrane, hence the means of PLCζ binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 is unclear. We find that the PLCζ XY linker, but not the C2 domain, exhibits robust binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 or to liposomes containing near-physiological levels of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The role of positively charged residues within the XY linker was addressed by sequentially substituting alanines for three lysine residues, K374, K375 and K377. Microinjection of these mutants into mouse eggs enabled their Ca2+ oscillation-inducing activities to be compared with wild-type PLCζ. The XY-linker mutant proteins were purified and the in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis and binding properties were monitored. Successive reduction of net positive charge within the PLCζ XY linker significantly affects both in vivo Ca2+-oscillation-inducing activity and in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 interaction of mouse PLCζ. Our data suggest that positively charged residues within the XY linker play an important role in the PLCζ interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2, a crucial step in generating the Ca2+ activation signal that is essential for fertilization in mammals. PMID:21730019

  1. Sprouty2 Regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ Signaling and HIV-1 Gag Release

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Carter, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that activation of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is required for efficient HIV-1 Gag trafficking and viral particle release (Ehrlich 2010). IP3R activation requires phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to IP3 and diacylglycerol. Here we show that Sprouty2 (Spry2), which binds PI(4,5)P2 and PLCγ, interfered with PI(4,5)P2 in a manner similar to U73122, an inhibitor of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, suggesting that Spry2 may negatively regulate IP3R by preventing formation of its activating ligand, IP3. Mutation to Asp of R252, a critical determinant of PI(4,5)P2 binding in the C-terminal domain of Spry2, prevented the interference completely, indicating that binding to the phospholipid is required. In contrast, deletion of the PLCγ binding region or mutation of a critical Tyr residue in the region did not prevent the interference but Spry2-PI(4,5)P2 colocalization was not detected, suggesting that PLC binding is required for their stable association. Like U73122, Spry2 over-expression inhibited WT Gag release as virus-like particles. The inhibition was relieved by disrupting either binding determinant. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling, in turn, was found to influence Spry2 subcellular distribution and ERK, a Spry2 regulator. Our findings suggest that Spry2 influences IP3R function through control of PI(4,5)P2 and IP3R influences Spry2 function by controlling its distribution and ERK activation. PMID:21762810

  2. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors selectively localized to the acrosomes of mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Calcium flux is required for the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction, an exocytotic event triggered by egg binding, which results in a dramatic rise in sperm intracellular calcium. Calcium-dependent membrane fusion results in the release of enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration through the zona pellucida during fertilization. We have characterized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated calcium channels and upstream components of the phosphoinositide signaling system in mammalian sperm. Peptide antibodies colocalized G alpha q/11 and the beta 1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLC beta 1) to the anterior acrosomal region of mouse sperm. Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody directed against purified brain IP3 receptor (IP3R) identified a specific 260 kD band in 1% Triton X-100 extracts of rat, hamster, mouse and dog sperm. In each species, IP3R immunostaining localized to the acrosome cap. Scatchard analysis of [3H]IP3 binding to rat sperm sonicates revealed a curvilinear plot with high affinity (Kd = 26 nM, Bmax = 30 pmol/mg) and low affinity (Kd = 1.6 microM, Bmax = 550 pmol/mg) binding sites, reflecting among the highest receptor densities in mammalian tissue. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the acrosomal localization in rat sperm. The IP3R fractionated with acrosomes by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation and was enriched in the medium of acrosome- reacted sperm. ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ loading of digitonin permeabilized rat sperm was decreased by 45% in the presence of 10 microM IP3. The IP3-mediated release of calcium was blocked by heparin. Thapsigargin, a sequiterpene lactone inhibitor of the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase, stimulated the acrosome reaction of mouse sperm to the same extent as the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. The failure of caffeine and ryanodine to affect calcium accumulation suggested that thapsigargin acted through an IP3-sensitive store. The presence of G alpha q/11, PLC beta 1 and a functional IP3R in the anterior acrosomal region

  3. Gas Phase Chromatography of some Group 4, 5, and 6 Halides

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, Eric Robert

    1998-10-01

    Gas phase chromatography using The Heavy Element Volatility Instrument (HEVI) and the On Line Gas Apparatus (OLGA III) was used to determine volatilities of ZrBr4, HfBr4, RfBr4, NbBr5, TaOBr3, HaCl5, WBr6, FrBr, and BiBr3. Short-lived isotopes of Zr, Hf, Rf, Nb, Ta, Ha, W, and Bi were produced via compound nucleus reactions at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and transported to the experimental apparatus using a He gas transport system. The isotopes were halogenated, separated from the other reaction products, and their volatilities determined by isothermal gas phase chromatography. Adsorption Enthalpy (ΔHa) values for these compounds were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation program modeling the gas phase chromatography column. All bromides showed lower volatility than molecules of similar molecular structures formed as chlorides, but followed similar trends by central element. Tantalum was observed to form the oxybromide, analogous to the formation of the oxychloride under the same conditions. For the group 4 elements, the following order in volatility and ΔHa was observed: RfBr4 > ZrBr4 > HfBr4. The ΔHa values determined for the group 4, 5, and 6 halides are in general agreement with other experimental data and theoretical predictions. Preliminary experiments were performed on Me-bromides. A new measurement of the half-life of 261Rf was performed. 261Rf was produced via the 248Cm(18O, 5n) reaction and observed with a half-life of 74-6+7 seconds, in excellent agreement with the previous measurement of 78-6+11 seconds. We recommend a new half-life of 75±7 seconds for 261Rf based on these two measurements. Preliminary studies in transforming HEVI from an isothermal (constant

  4. Bimodal regulation of an Elk subfamily K+ channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Anishkin, Andriy; Liu, Hansi; van Rossum, Damian B; Chintapalli, Sree V; Sassic, Jessica K; Gallegos, David; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates Shaker K+ channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in a bimodal fashion by inhibiting voltage activation while stabilizing open channels. Bimodal regulation is conserved in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, but voltage activation is enhanced while the open channel state is destabilized. The proposed sites of PIP2 regulation in these channels include the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and conserved regions of the proximal cytoplasmic C terminus. Relatively little is known about PIP2 regulation of Ether-á-go-go (EAG) channels, a metazoan-specific family of K+ channels that includes three gene subfamilies, Eag (Kv10), Erg (Kv11), and Elk (Kv12). We examined PIP2 regulation of the Elk subfamily potassium channel human Elk1 to determine whether bimodal regulation is conserved within the EAG K+ channel family. Open-state stabilization by PIP2 has been observed in human Erg1, but the proposed site of regulation in the distal C terminus is not conserved among EAG family channels. We show that PIP2 strongly inhibits voltage activation of Elk1 but also stabilizes the open state. This stabilization produces slow deactivation and a mode shift in voltage gating after activation. However, removal of PIP2 has the net effect of enhancing Elk1 activation. R347 in the linker between the VSD and pore (S4-S5 linker) and R479 near the S6 activation gate are required for PIP2 to inhibit voltage activation. The ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state also requires these residues, suggesting an overlap in sites central to the opposing effects of PIP2 on channel gating. Open-state stabilization in Elk1 requires the N-terminal eag domain (PAS domain + Cap), and PIP2-dependent stabilization is enhanced by a conserved basic residue (K5) in the Cap. Our data shows that PIP2 can bimodally regulate voltage gating in EAG family channels, as has been proposed for Shaker and HCN channels. PIP2 regulation

  5. Iapetus: 4.5 Billion Years of Contamination by Phoebe Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1997-07-01

    accreted there. Since the distribution of Iapetus' dark material depends on the flux of Phoebe dust over 4.5 billion years, it is not surprising that the distribution does not precisely match predictions which consider only the present dynamical configurations of the two satellites.

  6. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v).

  7. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  8. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  9. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  10. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  11. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  12. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  13. Learning curves of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy in transforaminal approach at the L4/5 and L5/S1 levels: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin-bo; Fan, Guo-xin; Gu, Xin; Shen, Tu-gang; Guan, Xiao-fei; Hu, An-nan; Zhang, Hai-long; He, Shi-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the learning curves of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) in a transforaminal approach at the L4/5 and L5/S1 levels. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the first 60 cases at the L4/5 level (Group I) and the first 60 cases at the L5/S1 level (Group II) of PELD performed by one spine surgeon. The patients were divided into subgroups A, B, and C (Group I: A cases 1–20, B cases 21–40, C cases 41–60; Group II: A cases 1–20, B cases 21–40, C cases 41–60). Operation time was thoroughly analyzed. Results: Compared with the L4/5 level, the learning curve of transforaminal PELD at the L5/S1 level was flatter. The mean operation times of Groups IA, IB, and IC were (88.75±17.02), (67.75±6.16), and (64.85±7.82) min, respectively. There was a significant difference between Groups A and B (P<0.05), but no significant difference between Groups B and C (P=0.20). The mean operation times of Groups IIA, IIB, and IIC were (117.25±13.62), (109.50±11.20), and (92.15±11.94) min, respectively. There was no significant difference between Groups A and B (P=0.06), but there was a significant difference between Groups B and C (P<0.05). There were 6 cases of postoperative dysesthesia (POD) in Group I and 2 cases in Group IIA (P=0.27). There were 2 cases of residual disc in Group I, and 4 cases in Group II (P=0.67). There were 3 cases of recurrence in Group I, and 2 cases in Group II (P>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the L5/S1 level, the learning curve of PELD in a transforaminal approach at the L4/5 level was steeper, suggesting that the L4/5 level might be easier to master after short-term professional training. PMID:27381732

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Sébastien; Orsato, Alexandre; Mologni, Luca; Bisson, William H; Donadoni, Carla; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gueyrard, David; Goekjian, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    Chromosomal translocations involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are the driving mutations for a range of cancers and ALK is thus considered an attractive therapeutic target. We synthesized a series of functionalized benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines by an aza-Graebe-Ullman reaction, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. A sequential regioselective cross-coupling route is reported for the synthesis of unsymmetrically disubstituted benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines. The inhibition of ALK was evaluated and compound 19 in particular showed good activity against both the wild type and crizotinib-resistant L1196M mutant in vitro and in ALK-transfected BaF3 cells.

  15. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazol-2-yl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R P

    2015-01-25

    The reaction of semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide with 2-arylidene-1-tetralones under alkaline condition affords 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazole-2-carbo(thio)amides as a mixture of cis and trans diastereoisomers of 3-H and 3a-H. The synthesis of new indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones from the condensation of cis isomer and α-halo acids is reported. A DFT study along with X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented. All the eight newly synthesised indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and some compounds have shown promising activities.

  16. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazol-2-yl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide with 2-arylidene-1-tetralones under alkaline condition affords 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazole-2-carbo(thio)amides as a mixture of cis and trans diastereoisomers of 3-H and 3a-H. The synthesis of new indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones from the condensation of cis isomer and α-halo acids is reported. A DFT study along with X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented. All the eight newly synthesised indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and some compounds have shown promising activities.

  17. 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m PHASE CURVES AND EVIDENCE FOR NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET HD 189733b

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, Heather A.; Lewis, Nikole; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Aigrain, Suzanne; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Henry, Gregory W.; Langton, Jonathan

    2012-07-20

    We present new, full-orbit observations of the infrared phase variations of the canonical hot Jupiter HD 189733b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. When combined with previous phase curve observations at 8.0 and 24 {mu}m, these data allow us to characterize the exoplanet's emission spectrum as a function of planetary longitude and to search for local variations in its vertical thermal profile and atmospheric composition. We utilize an improved method for removing the effects of intrapixel sensitivity variations and robustly extracting phase curve signals from these data, and we calculate our best-fit parameters and uncertainties using a wavelet-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis that accounts for the presence of time-correlated noise in our data. We measure a phase curve amplitude of 0.1242% {+-} 0.0061% in the 3.6 {mu}m band and 0.0982% {+-} 0.0089% in the 4.5 {mu}m band, corresponding to brightness temperature contrasts of 503 {+-} 21 K and 264 {+-} 24 K, respectively. We find that the times of minimum and maximum flux occur several hours earlier than predicted for an atmosphere in radiative equilibrium, consistent with the eastward advection of gas by an equatorial super-rotating jet. The locations of the flux minima in our new data differ from our previous observations at 8 {mu}m, and we present new evidence indicating that the flux minimum observed in the 8 {mu}m is likely caused by an overshooting effect in the 8 {mu}m array. We obtain improved estimates for HD 189733b's dayside planet-star flux ratio of 0.1466% {+-} 0.0040% in the 3.6 {mu}m band and 0.1787% {+-} 0.0038% in the 4.5 {mu}m band, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1328 {+-} 11 K and 1192 {+-} 9 K, respectively; these are the most accurate secondary eclipse depths obtained to date for an extrasolar planet. We compare our new dayside and nightside spectra for HD 189733b to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer models from

  18. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Leavitt Law at 3.6 microns and 4.5 microns in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focuses on the period-luminosity relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly-sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. Period- luminosity and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 micron band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]-[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid s atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 micron flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  19. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  20. Annexin 2 Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate on Endocytic Vesicles Is Regulated by the Stress Response Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Matthew J.; Merrifield, Christien J.; Shao, Dongmin; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus; Schorey, Crislyn D’Souza; Levine, Tim P.; Proust, Jezabel; Curran, Julie; Bailly, Maryse; Moss, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Annexin 2 is a Ca2+-binding protein that has an essential role in actin-dependent macropinosome motility. We show here that macropinosome rocketing can be induced by hyperosmotic shock, either alone or synergistically when combined with phorbol ester or pervanadate. Rocketing was blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(s), p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and calcium, suggesting the involvement of phosphoinositide signaling. Since various phosphoinositides are enriched on inwardly mobile vesicles, we examined whether or not annexin 2 binds to any of this class of phospholipid. In liposome sedimentation assays, we show that recombinant annexin 2 binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5P2) but not to other poly- and mono-phosphoinositides. The affinity of annexin 2 for PtdIns-4,5P2 (KD ~5 μm) is comparable with those reported for a variety of PtdIns-4,5P2-binding proteins and is enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. Although annexin 1 also bound to PtdIns-4,5P2, annexin 5 did not, indicating that this is not a generic annexin property. To test whether annexin 2 binds to PtdIns-4,5P2 in vivo, we microinjected rat basophilic leukemia cells stably expressing annexin 2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) with fluorescently tagged antibodies to PtdIns-4,5P2. Annexin 2-GFP and anti-PtdIns-4,5P2 IgG co-localize at sites of pinosome formation, and annexin 2-GFP relocalizes to intracellular membranes in Ptk cells microinjected with Arf6Q67L, which has been shown to stimulate PtdIns-4,5P2 synthesis on pinosomes through activation of phosphatidylinositol 5 kinase. These results establish a novel phospholipid-binding specificity for annexin 2 consistent with a role in mediating the interaction between the macropinosome surface and the polymerized actin tail. PMID:14734570

  1. Regulation of histamine- and UTP-induced increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins (1,3,4,5)P4 and Ca2+ by cyclic AMP in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sipma, H; Duin, M; Hoiting, B; den Hertog, A; Nelemans, A

    1995-01-01

    1. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors with UTP or histamine H1-receptors with histamine gave rise to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4) in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. 2. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors or histamine H1-receptors caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, consisting of an initial peak, representing the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and a sustained phase representing Ca2+ influx. 3. The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry mechanism was more sensitive to UTP than Ca(2+)-mobilization (EC50: 3.3 microM +/- 0.4 microM vs 55.1 microM +/- 9.2 microM), in contrast to these processes activated by histamine H1-receptors (EC50: 5.8 microM +/- 0.6 microM vs 3.1 microM +/- 0.5 microM). 4. Pre-stimulation of cells with several adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) elevating agents, reduced the histamine H1-receptor-mediated formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. Forskolin completely inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation (IC50: 158 +/- 24 nM) whereas Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 formation was inhibited by only 45% (IC50: 173 +/- 16 nM). The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated production of these inositol phosphates was not affected by cyclic AMP. 5. Forskolin and isoprenaline reduced the histamine-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, as measured in Ca2+ containing medium and in nominally Ca(2+)-free medium but did not change the UTP-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+. 6. These results clearly demonstrate that cyclic AMP differentially regulates components of the histamine induced phospholipase C signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, cyclic AMP does not affect the phospholipase C pathway activated by stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

  2. Small chemicals with inhibitory effects on PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding of Btk PH domain.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Youngdae

    2014-05-15

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-5-triphosphates (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) formed by phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) had been known as a signaling molecule that plays important roles in diverse cellular processes such as cell signaling, metabolism, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates diverse cellular processes by recruiting effector proteins to the specific cellular locations for correct functions. In this study, we reported the inhibitory effect of small chemicals on the interaction between PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-Btk PH domain. Small chemicals were synthesized based on structural similarity of PtdInsP head-groups, and tested the inhibitory effects in vitro via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). As a result, the chemical 8 showed highest inhibitory effect with 17μM of IC50 value. To elucidate diverse inhibitory effects of different small chemicals we employed in silico docking experiment using molecular modeling and simulation. The result of docking experiments showed chemical 8 has more hydrogen bonding with the residues in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site of Btk PH domain than others. Overall, our studies demonstrate the efficient approach to develop lipid binding inhibitors, and further we can use these chemicals to regulate effector proteins. In addition, our study would provide new insight that lipid binding domain may be the attractive therapeutic targets to treat severe human diseases.

  3. 5-Stabilized phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate analogues bind Grp1 PH, inhibit phosphoinositide phosphatases, and block neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglu; He, Ju; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Sakai, Takahiro; Sasaki, Takehiko; Markadieu, Nicolas; Erneux, Christophe; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2010-02-15

    Metabolically stabilized analogues of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 have shown long-lived agonist activity for cellular events and selective inhibition of lipid phosphatase activity. We describe an efficient asymmetric synthesis of two 5-phosphatase-resistant analogues of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, the 5-methylene phosphonate (MP) and 5-phosphorothioate (PT). Furthermore, we illustrate the biochemical and biological activities of five stabilized PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 analogues in four contexts. First, the relative binding affinities of the 3-MP, 3-PT, 5-MP, 5-PT, and 3,4,5-PT3 analogues to the Grp1 PH domain are shown, as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Second, the enzymology of the five analogues is explored, showing the relative efficiency of inhibition of SHIP1, SHIP2, and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), as well as the greatly reduced ability of these phosphatases to process these analogues as substrates as compared to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Third, exogenously delivered analogues severely impair complement factor C5a-mediated polarization and migration of murine neutrophils. Finally, the new analogues show long-lived agonist activity in mimicking insulin action in sodium transport in A6 cells.

  4. Southeast Asia: Problems and Prospects Held at Washington, DC on 4-5 December 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    coca cola there! What are the issues and prospects within this family? We have a very strong solidarity. When we talk about Cambodia and Vietnam, you...magnitude of shocks thus become the key ingredients . In Thailand the depth of the current evolution depends on time for n:urturing and on the abeyance

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization, single crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT studies of 4-((2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, R.; Kamaraj, A.; Bharanidharan, S.; Saleem, H.; Krishnasamy, K.

    2015-03-01

    We have synthesized a series of novel 4-((2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine derivatives. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, HR-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The compound 5g was also confirmed by single crystal XRD. The geometry of the synthesized compounds 5a-5g were examined by density functional theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculation are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The HOMO-LUMO energies describes charge transfer takes place within the molecule. Furthermore, Mulliken and NBO charges were also calculated. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule were also studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Compound 5g exhibited good non linear optical activity and was 20 times greater than that of urea. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) was studied for predicting the reactive sites.

  6. Phosphatidic acid increases inositol-1,4,5,-trisphosphate and [Ca2+]i levels in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Xu, Y; Hopfner, R L; Gopalakrishnan, V

    1999-08-25

    Phosphatidic acid (PA), which can be synthesized de novo, or as a product of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and/or phosphorylation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), mediates diverse cellular functions in various cell types, including cardiomyocytes. We set out to characterize the effect of PA on intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels in primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Addition of PA led to rapid, concentration and time dependent increases in both IP(3) and [Ca2+]i levels in adherent cells. There was strong correlation in the concentration-response relationships between IP(3) and [Ca2+]i increases evoked by PA. Incubation with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), significantly attenuated the PA evoked [Ca2+]i increase but had no significant effect on IP(3) accumulation. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, D-609, attenuated both IP(3) and [Ca2+]i elevations evoked by PA whereas staurosporine (STS), a potent and non-selective PKC inhibitor, had no significant effect on either. Another PLC inhibitor, U73122, but not its inactive analog, U73343, also inhibited PA evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. Depletion of extracellular calcium attenuated both basal and PA evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. The PLA(2) inhibitors, bromophenylacyl-bromide (BPB) and CDP-choline, had no effect on PA evoked [Ca2+]i responses. Neither the DAG analog, dioctanoylglycerol, nor the DAG kinase inhibitor, R59949, affected PA evoked changes in [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these data indicate that PA, in a manner independent of PKC, DAG, or PLA(2), may enhance Ca2+ release from IP(3) sensitive SR Ca(2+) stores via activation of PLC in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

  7. Kinetics and Threshold Level of 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorobiphenyl Dechlorination by an Organohalide Respiring Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The time required for a PCB-contaminated site to recover cannot yet be predicted due in part to lack of quantitative information on rates of PCB dechlorination in the porewater phase. We developed a method to measure rate of dechlorination in the aqueous phase at very low PCB concentrations. This approach utilizes a polymer functioning concurrently as a passive dosing system for maintaining a steady-state PCB substrate concentration in the water phase and as a passive equilibrium sampler to monitor the dechlorination product. Rates of dechlorination of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 61) to 2,3,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 23) by an organohalide respiring bacterium, Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF-1, were measured over an environmentally relevant range of 1 to 500 ng L–1 in sediment-free medium using a high concentration of cells (>106 cells mL–1). The results indicate that rate of dechlorination is a linear function of PCB substrate concentration below the maximum aqueous solubility of PCB 61 and occurs at concentrations as low as 1 ng L–1. Demonstration of PCB 61 dechlorination at environmentally relevant concentrations suggests that low numbers of organohalide respiring bacteria rather than bioavailability accounts for low rates of dechlorination typically observed in sediments. Using passive samplers to measure the concentration of dissolved PCBs in the porewater combined with knowledge of congener-specific rates for organohalide respirer(s), it will be possible to project the in situ rate and final concentration of PCBs for a specific site after treatment by bioaugmentation. PMID:24625226

  8. Multilayer coated grazing incidence condenser for large numerical aperture objective at wavelength of 4.5 nm.

    PubMed

    Ejima, T; Hatano, T; Ohno, K; Fukayama, T; Aihara, S; Yanagihara, M; Tsuru, T

    2014-10-10

    A grazing incidence condenser is developed for objectives with large numerical aperture working in Carbon-window wavelength region (λ=4.4-5.0  nm) with the use of a point light source. The condenser is composed of four pieces of toroidal mirrors and a piece of the mirror was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the mirror. The radii of the toroidal mirror are determined by ray-trace calculation, and each radius of the mirror substrate and the roughness of the polished surface were evaluated to satisfy the designed parameter. A Co/C reflection multilayer is also designed to reflect soft x-ray light at 4.5 nm wavelength, and the reflection multilayer was deposited on the mirror surface. Measured reflectance of the toroidal mirror with the reflection multilayer is higher than 0.32 at 4.5 nm wavelength.

  9. Multivalent benzene polyphosphate derivatives are non-Ca(2+)-mobilizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Luyten, Tomas; Erneux, Christophe; Parys, Jan B; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-12-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P31] mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) through the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor [InsP3R]. Although some progress has been made in the design of synthetic InsP3R partial agonists and antagonists, there are still few examples of useful small molecule competitive antagonists. A "multivalent" approach is explored and new dimeric polyphosphorylated aromatic derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The established weak InsP3R ligand benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4)P32] is dimerized through its 5-position in two different ways, first directly as the biphenyl derivative biphenyl 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate, [BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P68] and with its regioisomeric biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P611]. Secondly, a linker motif is introduced in a flexible ethylene-bridged dimer (9) with its corresponding 1,2-bisphosphate dimer (10), both loosely analogous to the very weak antagonist 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA 7). In permeabilized L15 fibroblasts overexpressing type 1 InsP3R, BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8) inhibits Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca(2+) release in a apparently competitive fashion [IC50 187 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 dimer (9) is only slightly weaker [IC50 380 nM]. Compounds were also evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. All compounds are resistant to dephosphorylation, with BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8), being the most effective inhibitor of any biphenyl derivative synthesized to date [IC50 480 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 ethylene dimer (9) weaker [IC50 3.55 μM]. BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 (11) also inhibits 5-phosphatase [IC50 730 nM] and exhibits unexpected Ca(2+) releasing activity [EC50 800 nM]. Thus, relocation of only a single mirrored phenyl phosphate group in (11) from that of antagonist (8) does not markedly change enzyme inhibitory activity, but elicits a dramatic switch in Ca(2+)-releasing activity. Such new agents demonstrate the

  10. Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-4.5wt% Cu reinforced with alumina nanoparticles by stir casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valibeygloo, N.; Azari Khosroshahi, R.; Taherzadeh Mousavian, R.

    2013-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-4.5wt% Cu alloy reinforced with different volume fractions (1.5vol%, 3vol%, and 5vol%) of alumina nanoparticles, fabricated using stir casting method, were investigated. Calculated amounts of alumina nanoparticles (about ϕ50 nm in size) were ball-milled with aluminum powders in a planetary ball mill for 5 h, and then the packets of milled powders were incorporated into molten Al-4.5wt% Cu alloy. Microstructural studies of the nanocomposites reveal a uniform distribution of alumina nanoparticles in the Al-4.5wt% Cu matrix. The results indicate an outstanding improvement in compression strength and hardness due to the effect of nanoparticle addition. The aging behavior of the composite is also evaluated, indicating that the addition of alumina nanoparticles can accelerate the aging process of the alloy, resulting in higher peak hardness values.

  11. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  12. Lipotoxic disruption of NHE1 interaction with PI(4,5)P2 expedites proximal tubule apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shenaz; Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Goel, Monu; Schilling, William P; Parker, Mark D; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Yadav, Satya P; Harris, Raymond C; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; Hoshi, Malcolm; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Deschênes, Isabelle; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease progression can be predicted based on the degree of tubular atrophy, which is the result of proximal tubule apoptosis. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulates proximal tubule cell survival through interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], but pathophysiologic triggers for NHE1 inactivation are unknown. Because glomerular injury permits proximal tubule luminal exposure and reabsorption of fatty acid/albumin complexes, we hypothesized that accumulation of amphipathic, long-chain acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) metabolites stimulates lipoapoptosis by competing with the structurally similar PI(4,5)P2 for NHE1 binding. Kidneys from mouse models of progressive, albuminuric kidney disease exhibited increased fatty acids, LC-CoAs, and caspase-2-dependent proximal tubule lipoapoptosis. LC-CoAs and the cytosolic domain of NHE1 directly interacted, with an affinity comparable to that of the PI(4,5)P2-NHE1 interaction, and competing LC-CoAs disrupted binding of the NHE1 cytosolic tail to PI(4,5)P2. Inhibition of LC-CoA catabolism reduced NHE1 activity and enhanced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of proximal tubule LC-CoA generation preserved NHE1 activity and protected against apoptosis. Our data indicate that albuminuria/lipiduria enhances lipotoxin delivery to the proximal tubule and accumulation of LC-CoAs contributes to tubular atrophy by severing the NHE1-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, thereby lowering the apoptotic threshold. Furthermore, these data suggest that NHE1 functions as a metabolic sensor for lipotoxicity.

  13. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

  14. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  15. Synthesis of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives containing 4,5-dihydropyrazole moiety to scavenge radicals and to protect DNA.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan; Luo, Xu-Yang; Li, De-Jun; Lu, Hang; Liu, Zai-Qun; Song, Zhi-Guang; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2012-07-01

    A series of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives containing 4,5-dihydropyrazole moiety were synthesized and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride))-induced oxidation of DNA, and in trapping DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS(+•) (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical), respectively. Among coumarin derivatives, 3a-d and 4a-c exhibited the termination of radical propagation-chains in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA. The ortho dihydroxyphenyl substitution at 5 position and 1-unsubstitution of the 4,5-dihydroxylpyrazole was found enhancing the antioxidant activities of these coumarin derivatives.

  16. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75-80K and 4.5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Yehia; Zimmerman, George O.; Powers, Jr., Robert E.; McConeghy, Randy J.; Kaplan, Alvaro

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K. and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizationl arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained.

  17. OH-radical induced degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA): A pulse radiolysis and gamma-radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Robert; Solar, Sonja; Sehested, Knud

    2012-02-01

    The reactions of rad OH, H rad and e aq- with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were studied by pulse radiolysis. The site of rad OH-radicals addition to the aromatic ring of 2,4,5-T was found to be—C1: ˜18%, C2/C4/C5: total ˜28% and C3/C6: total ˜41%. The overall rate constants with OH-radicals were k( rad OH+2,4,5-T)=6.4 (±0.5)×10 9 mol dm -3 s -1 and k( rad OH+MCPA)=8.5 (±0.8)×10 9 mol dm -3 s -1. The radiation induced decomposition of the pesticides, chloride- and product formation (phenolic compounds, aliphatic acids) was studied by gamma radiolysis as a function of dose. A mechanism for acetate formation is discussed. The presence of oxygen during irradiation affected the decomposition rate only indiscernibly, however, chloride elimination, ring fragmentation (formation of aliphatic acids), TOC- and toxicity reduction were strongly enhanced. For complete removal of 500 μmol dm -3 herbicides a dose of ˜4 kGy was required. Using air saturation during irradiation a reduction of 37-40% of the TOC was observable at 5 kGy, detoxification (luminescence inhibition <20%) was achieved with 10 kGy.

  18. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol mimic bradykinin effects on mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D A; Higashida, H

    1988-01-01

    1. The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) as possible mediators of the membrane current responses of NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells to bradykinin (BK, Brown & Higashida, 1988b) has been tested using intracellular ionophoresis of InsP3 and external application of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG). 2. Intracellular ionophoresis of InsP3 into cells clamped at -30 to -50 mV produced (i) a transient outward current, (ii) a transient outward current followed by an inward current, or (iii) an inward current. All currents were accompanied by an increased input conductance. 3. The transient outward current reversed at between -80 and -90 mV. The reversal potential was shifted to more positive potentials on raising extracellular [K+], suggesting that it resulted from an increased K+ conductance. 4. The outward current was inhibited by apamin (0.4 microM) or d-tubocurarine (0.2-0.5 mM); these drugs also inhibit the outward current produced by BK or by intracellular Ca2+ injections (Brown & Higashida, 1988 a, b). The outward current was also slowly reduced in 0 mM [Ca2+] or 0.5 mM [Cd2+] plus 2 mM [Co2+] solution. 5. Ionophoretic injection of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, guanosine trisphosphate or inorganic phosphate did not evoke an outward current but produced only an inward current with an increased conductance, reversing at between -10 and -20 mV. 6. Bath application of PDBu (10 nM-1 microM) or OAG (1-10 microM) produced an inward current with a fall in input conductance. The inward current was voltage dependent and was accompanied by an inhibition of the time-dependent current relaxations associated with activation or deactivation of the voltage-dependent K+ current, IM. 7. PDBu did not clearly reduce the Ca2+ current or the Ca2+-dependent K+ current recorded in these cells. During superfusion with PDBu, the outward current produced by intracellular

  19. Biochemical Analysis of Yeast Suppressor of Ty 4/5 (Spt4/5) Reveals the Importance of Nucleic Acid Interactions in the Prevention of RNA Polymerase II Arrest.

    PubMed

    Crickard, J Brooks; Fu, Jianhua; Reese, Joseph C

    2016-05-06

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) undergoes structural changes during the transitions from initiation, elongation, and termination, which are aided by a collection of proteins called elongation factors. NusG/Spt5 is the only elongation factor conserved in all domains of life. Although much information exists about the interactions between NusG/Spt5 and RNA polymerase in prokaryotes, little is known about how the binding of eukaryotic Spt4/5 affects the biochemical activities of RNAPII. We characterized the activities of Spt4/5 and interrogated the structural features of Spt5 required for it to interact with elongation complexes, bind nucleic acids, and promote transcription elongation. The eukaryotic specific regions of Spt5 containing the Kyrpides, Ouzounis, Woese domains are involved in stabilizing the association with the RNAPII elongation complex, which also requires the presence of the nascent transcript. Interestingly, we identify a region within the conserved NusG N-terminal (NGN) domain of Spt5 that contacts the non-template strand of DNA both upstream of RNAPII and in the transcription bubble. Mutating charged residues in this region of Spt5 did not prevent Spt4/5 binding to elongation complexes, but abrogated the cross-linking of Spt5 to DNA and the anti-arrest properties of Spt4/5, thus suggesting that contact between Spt5 (NGN) and DNA is required for Spt4/5 to promote elongation. We propose that the mechanism of how Spt5/NGN promotes elongation is fundamentally conserved; however, the eukaryotic specific regions of the protein evolved so that it can serve as a platform for other elongation factors and maintain its association with RNAPII as it navigates genomes packaged into chromatin.

  20. Mutagenesis of the lac promoter region in M13 mp10 phage DNA by 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, J.; Decuyper-Debergh, D.; Gamper, H.

    1985-11-01

    Double-stranded M13 phage DNA (M13 mp10 replicative form) was photoreacted with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, using light of wavelength greater than 320 nm or greater than 390 nm to generate predominantly crosslinks or monoadducts, respectively. The damaged DNAs were scored for inactivation and mutagenesis after transfection into Escherichia coli. The appearance of light-blue or colorless plaques on indicator medium showed that mutation had occurred in the lac insert of the viral DNA. A comparison of the consequences of the two phototreatments with psoralen supports the idea that crosslinks are both more lethal and more mutagenic than monoadducts. Numerous mutant clones partially or totally deficient in beta-galactosidase were plaque-purified and amplified. The viral DNA of each clone was sequenced by the dideoxy chain-terminating procedure. All of the observed base-pair changes were mapped to the lac promoter region and consisted of 3 transition, 14 transversion, and 6 single base-pair frame-shift mutations. The predominant mutation was a T.A----G.C transversion.

  1. [3H]inositol polyphosphate metabolism in muscarinic cholinoceptor-stimulated airways smooth muscle: accumulation of [3H]inositol 4,5 bisphosphate via a lithium-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lynch, B J; Muqit, M M; Walker, T R; Chilvers, E R

    1997-02-01

    Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis is the principal mechanism underlying pharmacomechanical coupling in airways smooth muscle. In bovine tracheal smooth muscle, activation of muscarinic cholinoceptors results in sustained phospholipase C-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis but transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation, which implies agonist-stimulated metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3. To investigate the metabolic fate of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in bovine tracheal smooth muscle, we developed a [3H]inositol-labeling protocol wherein more than 98% of the [3H]inositol polyphosphates that accumulated over a 0 to 30-min incubation with 100 microM carbachol in the presence of 5 mM LiCl were derived from [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and wherein the Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.127) and 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) pathways generated a set of mutually exclusive [3H]-inositol polyphosphate isomers. Under these conditions, the 5-phosphatase pathway was shown to be the dominant route for [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism at all time intervals measured, especially at early times (0-300 sec), where it accounted for more than 85% of [H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism. We also observed accumulation of a novel agonist and LiCl-sensitive [3H]InsP2 isomer identified as [3H]Ins(4,5)P2. The presence of a LiCI-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.57) was demonstrated, and high LiCl concentrations (30 mM) caused a significant enhancement of [3H]Ins(1,4)P2 accumulation and a corresponding decline in [3H]Ins4P levels. Because nearly identical bell-shaped LiCl concentration-response curves were obtained for [H]Ins4P and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation, and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 was not generated under conditions expected to stimulate phospholipase D, these data suggest that the most likely precurser of [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 is [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3. This is the first demonstration of Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation in a non-neuronal cell type, and the foregoing data suggest a novel route of formation via an Ins(1,4,5)P3 1-phosphatase

  2. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  3. Teachers' Evaluation of KBSM Form 4, 5 English Textbooks Used in the Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Hooi Shyan; Knight, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the suitability of Form 4, 5 KBSM English textbooks used in Penang public secondary schools, Malaysia. It aims to investigate the relevance of the current textbooks to the needs of learners and the requirement of public examinations. A checklist is used to gauge teachers' viewpoints while subsequent interview…

  4. 5,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxine-2-thione

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-nan; Xiao, Xun-wen; Cai, Tongjiang; Huang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C5H4O2S3, consists of a planar [mean deviation = 0.020 (1) Å] 1,3-dithiole-2-thione unit with an ethyl­enedi­oxy group in the 4,5-positions. The dioxine ring is in a twist-chair conformation. PMID:21754789

  5. 5,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxine-2-thione.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Xiao, Xun-Wen; Cai, Tongjiang; Huang, Qin

    2011-06-01

    The title mol-ecule, C(5)H(4)O(2)S(3), consists of a planar [mean deviation = 0.020 (1) Å] 1,3-dithiole-2-thione unit with an ethyl-enedi-oxy group in the 4,5-positions. The dioxine ring is in a twist-chair conformation.

  6. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  7. A global analysis of transcription reveals two modes of Spt4/5 recruitment to archaeal RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Smollett, Katherine; Blombach, Fabian; Reichelt, Robert; Thomm, Michael; Werner, Finn

    2017-03-01

    The archaeal transcription apparatus is closely related to the eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) II system, while archaeal genomes are more similar to bacteria with densely packed genes organized in operons. This makes understanding transcription in archaea vital, both in terms of molecular mechanisms and evolution. Very little is known about how archaeal cells orchestrate transcription on a systems level. We have characterized the genome-wide occupancy of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii transcription machinery and its transcriptome. Our data reveal how the TATA and BRE promoter elements facilitate recruitment of the essential initiation factors TATA-binding protein and transcription factor B, respectively, which in turn are responsible for the loading of RNAP into the transcription units. The occupancies of RNAP and Spt4/5 strongly correlate with each other and with RNA levels. Our results show that Spt4/5 is a general elongation factor in archaea as its presence on all genes matches RNAP. Spt4/5 is recruited proximal to the transcription start site on the majority of transcription units, while on a subset of genes, including rRNA and CRISPR loci, Spt4/5 is recruited to the transcription elongation complex during early elongation within 500 base pairs of the transcription start site and akin to its bacterial homologue NusG.

  8. Impaired permeability to Ins(1,4,5)P3 in a mutant connexin underlies recessive hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Beltramello, Martina; Piazza, Valeria; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Pozzan, Tullio; Mammano, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Connexins are membrane proteins that assemble into gap-junction channels and are responsible for direct, electrical and metabolic coupling between connected cells. Here we describe an investigation of the properties of a recombinantly expressed recessive mutant of connexin 26 (Cx26), the V84L mutant, associated with deafness. Unlike other Cx26 mutations, V84L affects neither intracellular sorting nor electrical coupling, but specifically reduces permeability to the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)). Both the permeability to Lucifer Yellow and the unitary channel conductance of V84L-mutant channels are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type Cx26. Injection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) into supporting cells of the rat organ of Corti, which abundantly express Cx26, ensues in a regenerative wave of Ca(2+) throughout the tissue. Blocking the gap junction communication abolishes wave propagation. We propose that the V84L mutation reduces metabolic coupling mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3) to an extent sufficient to impair the propagation of Ca(2+) waves and the formation of a functional syncytium. Our data provide the first demonstration of a specific defect of metabolic coupling and offer a mechanistic explanation for the pathogenesis of an inherited human disease.

  9. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  10. OCRL controls trafficking through early endosomes via PtdIns4,5P2-dependent regulation of endosomal actin

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Di Campli, Antonella; Polishchuk, Elena; Santoro, Michele; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Godi, Anna; Levtchenko, Elena; De Leo, Maria Giovanna; Polishchuk, Roman; Sandoval, Lisette; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome, which is characterised by congenital cataracts, central hypotonia, and renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that OCRL interacts with components of the endosomal machinery; however, its role in endocytosis, and thus the pathogenic mechanisms of Lowe syndrome, have remained elusive. Here, we show that via its 5-phosphatase activity, OCRL controls early endosome (EE) function. OCRL depletion impairs the recycling of multiple classes of receptors, including megalin (which mediates protein reabsorption in the kidney) that are retained in engorged EEs. These trafficking defects are caused by ectopic accumulation of PtdIns4,5P2 in EEs, which in turn induces an N-WASP-dependent increase in endosomal F-actin. Our data provide a molecular explanation for renal proximal tubular dysfunction in Lowe syndrome and highlight that tight control of PtdIns4,5P2 and F-actin at the EEs is essential for exporting cargoes that transit this compartment. PMID:21971085

  11. Using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 Program, to Teach Single-Subject Experimentation with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermer, Marshall Lev

    2004-01-01

    Students enrolled in a single-subject design course studied the repeated acquisition of response sequences by using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 program, which runs in DOS or Windows. For about 2 months, students examined the learning of such sequences as a function of various treatments. Each week students graphed their data, discussed their…

  12. Climate-vegetation interactions in the coupled RegCM4 - CLM4.5 CNDV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Luca; Giuliani, Graziano; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    We use the latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) including a dynamic vegetation model to study biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system related to vegetation composition and structure. Sets of parallel experiments are conducted over the Africa and South America CORDEX domains using the RegCM4-CLM4.5 in its standard configuration and with the CNDV activated (CLM 4.5 with both the Carbon Nitrogen and the Dynamic Vegetation Model activated). The potential role of regional vegetation feedbacks within the climate system and the impact of climate variability and change on the ecosystem dynamics is assessed for both domains. In addition, the sensitivity to initial vegetation conditions and different idealized climate forcings is investigated. Preliminary results show that the changes in the climate forcing can have substantial effects on the dynamics and evolution of different vegetation types over both domains, and that the vegetation coupling can have a substantial effect on the simulated regional climate regimes. Our results thus indicate on the one hand that climate change can have profound effects on the evolution of important ecosystems for the two regions, and on the other that vegetation dynamics can indeed affect the climate response at the regional scale.

  13. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid in cultured cells of lettuce leaves.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Akioka, Takashi; Ueno, Koichi; Chujyo, Takeshi; Okazaki, Katsu-ichiro; King, Peter J; Robinson, W Edward

    2006-04-01

    3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) that is not found in intact plant of lettuce leaves was isolated from the cultured cells. The intact plant produced chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid: L-CCA) as well as chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid: 3-CQA) as the major metabolites. After subculturing of the cells for 40 days, the amount of 3,4,5-TCQA reached to 0.14 mg/g fresh weight. The inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type 1 integrase was assayed. Anti-HIV activity using HIV and MT-2 cells was 1.15 microM and IC(50) against HIV integrase was 0.063 microM whereas cell toxicity of this chemical was expressed as 5% death of all living cells to be 18.4 microM. The HIV inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA was the highest in values among L-CCA, and other dicaffeoylquinic acids. This data will provide a new possibility for creating a new drug design for HIV.

  14. Synthesis of 3-Substituted Aryl[4,5]isothiazoles through an All-Heteroatom Wittig-Equivalent Process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fanghui; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Erkang; Sun, Zhihua

    2016-06-03

    Extending the previous use of tert-butyl sulfoxide as the sulfinyl source, intramolecular sulfinylation of sulfonamides was successfully performed. The resulting sulfinimides were not isolated and instead were believed to go through an all-heteroatom Wittig-equivalent process to eventually afford aryl[4,5]isothiazoles in high yields.

  15. Motion Popout in Selective Visual Orienting at 4.5 but Not at 2 Months in Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemiller, James L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of element density on selective orienting was examined in 2 experiments with 2- and 4.5-month-old infants. Selective visual orienting to a singleton oscillating target that appeared with other static bars was used to study the effects of element density. Increasing the set size and density of the static bars decreased selective…

  16. Bioinjection Performance Review for the Building 100 Area and 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Survochak, Scott; Daniel, Joe

    2016-05-01

    This document provides a summary of a review of the performance of bioinjection activities at the Building 100 Area and the 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site since 2010, determines how best to optimize future injection events, and identifies the approach for the bioinjection event in 2016 at (1) the 4.5 Acre Site and (2) the Essentra property at the Building 100 Area. Because this document describes the next bioinjection event at the 4.5 Acre Site, it also serves as an addendum to the Interim Remedial Action Plan for Emulsified Edible Oil Injection at the 4.5 Acre Site (DOE 2013). In addition, this document revises the injection layout and injection intervals for the Essentra property that were originally described in the Interim Corrective Measure Work Plan for Source and Plume Treatment at the Building 100 Area (DOE 2014), and is a de facto update of that document. Bioinjection consists of injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DHM; formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface to enhance biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE), dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). VC is the only contaminant that exceeds its maximum contaminant level (10 micrograms per liter onsite and 1 microgram per liter onsite) on the 4.5 Acre Site and the Essentra property. Bioinjection was conducted at the 4.5 Acre Site in 2010 and 2013. Approximately 49,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 95 injection points in February 2010, and approximately 22,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 46 injection points in July 2013. The injection locations are shown on Figure 1. The goal of bioinjection at the 4.5 Acre Site is to decrease contaminant concentrations to maximum contaminant levels along the west and southwest property boundaries (to meet risk–based corrective action requirements) and to minimize the extent of the contaminant plume in the interior of the site. Bioinjection was

  17. Defining the functional domain of programmed cell death 10 through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Christopher F; Horst, Jeremy A; Malone, Michael H; Park, Kun; Temple, Brenda; Cheeseman, Holly; Barbaro, Justin R; Johnson, Gary L; Bencharit, Sompop

    2010-07-23

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system predisposing blood vessels to leakage, leading to hemorrhagic stroke. Three genes, Krit1 (CCM1), OSM (CCM2), and PDCD10 (CCM3) are involved in CCM development. PDCD10 binds specifically to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and OSM. Using threading analysis and multi-template modeling, we constructed a three-dimensional model of PDCD10. PDCD10 appears to be a six-helical-bundle protein formed by two heptad-repeat-hairpin structures (alpha1-3 and alpha4-6) sharing the closest 3D homology with the bacterial phosphate transporter, PhoU. We identified a stretch of five lysines forming an amphipathic helix, a potential PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site, in the alpha5 helix. We generated a recombinant wild-type (WT) and three PDCD10 mutants that have two (Delta2KA), three (Delta3KA), and five (Delta5KA) K to A mutations. Delta2KA and Delta3KA mutants hypothetically lack binding residues to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 at the beginning and the end of predicted helix, while Delta5KA completely lacks all predicted binding residues. The WT, Delta2KA, and Delta3KA mutants maintain their binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Only the Delta5KA abolishes binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Both Delta5KA and WT show similar secondary and tertiary structures; however, Delta5KA does not bind to OSM. When WT and Delta5KA are co-expressed with membrane-bound constitutively-active PI3 kinase (p110-CAAX), the majority of the WT is co-localized with p110-CAAX at the plasma membrane where PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is presumably abundant. In contrast, the Delta5KA remains in the cytoplasm and is not present in the plasma membrane. Combining computational modeling and biological data, we propose that the CCM protein complex functions in the PI3K signaling pathway through the interaction between PDCD10 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3.

  18. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  19. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) data management guide, version 1.4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) information resources are described in this FEMIS Data Management Guide. To comprehend what types of data are present, where the data is located, and how it is managed during the life span of the system, a basic understanding of the FEMIS architecture is necessary. The system is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). The capability to connect to remote CSEPP sites and share information will be present in a future release. Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide efficient EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links. FEMIS is a client/server system where much of the application software is located in the client PC. This client software integrates the FEMIS application, government furnished dispersion and evacuation models, and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software tools such as the ArcView geographic information system (GIS) and Microsoft Project (electron planning). A UNIX server provides data management services, ARC/INFO GIS capabilities, evacuation (Evac) modeling, electron main (E-mail), and meteorological (Met) input processing. A PC communication utility is available to interface with external subsystems. At this time, the weather collection system (Handar Met System) is the only external subsystem.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ischebeck, Till; Werner, Stephanie; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Lerche, Jennifer; Meijón, Mónica; Stenzel, Irene; Löfke, Christian; Wiessner, Theresa; Im, Yang Ju; Perera, Imara Y.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Busch, Wolfgang; Boss, Wendy F.; Teichmann, Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Persson, Staffan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. PMID:24326589

  1. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several “physiological” manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells. PMID:27217553

  2. Dynamic stabilization for L4-5 spondylolisthesis: comparison with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with more than 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the past decade, dynamic stabilization has been an emerging option of surgical treatment for lumbar spondylosis. However, the application of this dynamic construct for mild spondylolisthesis and its clinical outcomes remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the management of single-level spondylolisthesis at L4-5. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive patients with Meyerding Grade I spondylolisthesis at L4-5 who were managed with surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: DDS and MI-TLIF. The DDS group was composed of patients who underwent standard laminectomy and the DDS system. The MI-TLIF group was composed of patients who underwent MI-TLIF. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores at each time point of evaluation. Evaluations included radiographs and CT scans for every patient for 2 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with L4-5 spondylolisthesis completed the follow-up of more than 2 years and were included in the analysis (follow-up rate of 94.5%). There were 64 patients in the DDS group and 22 patients in the MI-TLIF group, and the overall mean follow-up was 32.7 months. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in demographic data (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) or preoperative clinical evaluations (e.g., visual analog scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores). The mean estimated blood loss of the MI-TLIF group was lower, whereas the operation time was longer compared with the DDS group (both p < 0.001). For both groups, clinical outcomes were significantly improved at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery compared with preoperative clinical status. Moreover, there were no differences between the 2

  3. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  4. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  5. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  6. Inframolecular acid–base and coordination properties towards Na+ and Mg2+ of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate: a structural approach to biologically relevant species† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Application of the Cluster Expansion Method (Table S1); 31P NMR spectra (Fig. S1); Structural details of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5–Mg2+ interaction (Fig. S2); Comparative fit of alternative chemical models for the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5–Na+ system (Fig. S3). See DOI: 10.1039/c2dt31807e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; Godage, Himali Y.; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs) are specific signalling metabolites ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. Although Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 is the second most abundant member of the InsPs family, its certain biological roles are far from being elucidated, in part due to the large number of species formed by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 in the presence of metal ions. In light of this, we have strived in the past to make a complete and at the same time “biological-user-friendly” description of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 chemistry with mono and multivalent cations. In this work we expand these studies focusing on the inframolecular aspects of its protonation equilibria and the microscopic details of its coordination behaviour towards biologically relevant metal ions. We present here a systematic study of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 intrinsic acid–base processes, in a non-interacting medium, and over a wide pH range, analyzing the 31P NMR curves by means of a model based on the Cluster Expansion Method. In addition, we have used a computational approach to analyse the energetic and structural features of the protonation and conformational changes of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5, and how they are influenced by the presence of two physiologically relevant cations, Na+ and Mg2+. PMID:23183928

  7. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes. 2: Evidence for thermal dehydration occurring in the cure process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Olshavsky, Michael A.; Meador, Michael A.; Ahn, Myong-Ku

    1988-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers appear, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), to undergo dehydration at elevated temperatures. This would produce thermally stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone, and render the polymers incapable of unzipping through a retro-Diels-Alder pathway. High resolution solid 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of one formulation of the polymer system before and after heating at elevated temperatures, shows this to indeed be the case. NMR spectra of solid samples of the polymer before and after heating correlated well with those of the parent pentiptycene model compound before and after acid-catalyzed dehydration. Isothermal gravimetric analyses and viscosities of the polymer before and after heat treatment support dehydration as a mechanism for the cure reaction.

  8. The excitation energies and term energies of the excited states 1s2ns (n=3,4,5) and 1s2nf (n=4,5) of lithium-like systems of Z=11-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zi-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhou, Ya-Jun; He, Li-Ming; Liu, Guo-Guang

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, the full-core plus correlation (FCPC) and the Ritz method is extended to calculate the non-relativistic energies of 1s2ns (n=3,4,5) and 1s2nf (n=4,5) states and the wavefunctions of the lithium-like systems from Z=11-20. The mass-polarization and the relativistic correction including the kinetic-energy correction, the Darwin term, the electron-electron contact term and the orbit-orbit interaction are evaluated perturbatively as the first-order correction. The contribution from quantum electrodynamic is also included by using the effective nuclear charge formula. The excited energies, the term-energy and fine structure, are given and compared with the other theoretical calculation and experimental results. It is shown that the correlative wave in the FCPC method embodies well the strong correlation between the 1s2 core and the valence electron.

  9. Study and optimization of negative polarity rod pinch diode as flash radiography source at 4.5 MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchessahar, Bertrand; Bernigaud, Virgile; Caron, Michel; Cartier, Frédéric; Cartier, Stéphanie; Hourdin, Laurent; Magnin, Laurent; Nicolas, Rémi; Poulet, Frédéric; Rosol, Rodolphe; Tailleur, Yaël; Toury, Martial; Compant La Fontaine, Antoine; Bicrel, Béatrice; Cassany, Bruno; Desanlis, Thierry; Voisin, Luc; Hébert, David; Delbos, Christophe; Garrigues, Alain; Soleilhavoup, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    The negative polarity rod pinch diode (NPRPD) is a potential millimeter spot size radiography source for high voltage generators (4 to 8 MV) [Cooperstein et al., "Considerations of rod-pinch diode operation in negative polarity for radiography," in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 2003, pp. 975-978]. The NPRPD consists of a small diameter (few mm) cylindrical anode extending from the front end of the vacuum cell through a thin annular cathode, held by a central conductor. The polarity has been inverted when compared to the original rod pinch diode [Cooperstein et al., "Theoretical modeling and experimental characterization of a rod-pinch diode," Phys. Plasmas 8(10), 4618-4636 (2001)] in order to take advantage from the maximal x-ray emission toward the anode holder at such a voltage [Swanekamp et al., "Evaluation of self-magnetically pinched diodes up to 10 MV as high resolution flash X-ray sources," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32(5), 2004-2016 (2004). We have studied this diode at 4.5 MV, driven by the ASTERIX generator [Raboisson et al., "ASTERIX, a high intensity X-ray generator," in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 1989, pp. 567-570.]. This generator, made up of a capacitor bank and a Blumlein line, was initially designed to test the behavior of electronic devices under irradiation. In our experiments, the vacuum diode has been modified in order to set up flash a radiographic diode [Etchessahar et al., "Negative polarity rod pinch diode experiments on the ASTERIX generator," in Conference Records-Abstracts, 37th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 2010]. The experiments and numerical simulations presented here allowed the observation and analysis of various physical phenomena associated with the diode operation. Also, the influence of several experimental parameters, such as cathode and anode diameters, materials and surface states, was examined. In order to achieve the most comprehensive characterization of the

  10. Study and optimization of negative polarity rod pinch diode as flash radiography source at 4.5 MV

    SciTech Connect

    Etchessahar, Bertrand; Bicrel, Beatrice; Cassany, Bruno; Desanlis, Thierry; Voisin, Luc; Hebert, David; Bernigaud, Virgile; Magnin, Laurent; Nicolas, Remi; Poulet, Frederic; Tailleur, Yaeel; Caron, Michel; Cartier, Frederic; Cartier, Stephanie; Hourdin, Laurent; Rosol, Rodolphe; Toury, Martial; Delbos, Christophe; Garrigues, Alain; Soleilhavoup, Isabelle; and others

    2012-09-15

    The negative polarity rod pinch diode (NPRPD) is a potential millimeter spot size radiography source for high voltage generators (4 to 8 MV) [Cooperstein et al., 'Considerations of rod-pinch diode operation in negative polarity for radiography,' in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 2003, pp. 975-978]. The NPRPD consists of a small diameter (few mm) cylindrical anode extending from the front end of the vacuum cell through a thin annular cathode, held by a central conductor. The polarity has been inverted when compared to the original rod pinch diode [Cooperstein et al., 'Theoretical modeling and experimental characterization of a rod-pinch diode,' Phys. Plasmas 8(10), 4618-4636 (2001)] in order to take advantage from the maximal x-ray emission toward the anode holder at such a voltage [Swanekamp et al., 'Evaluation of self-magnetically pinched diodes up to 10 MV as high resolution flash X-ray sources,' IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32(5), 2004-2016 (2004). We have studied this diode at 4.5 MV, driven by the ASTERIX generator [Raboisson et al., 'ASTERIX, a high intensity X-ray generator,' in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 1989, pp. 567-570.]. This generator, made up of a capacitor bank and a Blumlein line, was initially designed to test the behavior of electronic devices under irradiation. In our experiments, the vacuum diode has been modified in order to set up flash a radiographic diode [Etchessahar et al., 'Negative polarity rod pinch diode experiments on the ASTERIX generator,' in Conference Records-Abstracts, 37th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 2010]. The experiments and numerical simulations presented here allowed the observation and analysis of various physical phenomena associated with the diode operation. Also, the influence of several experimental parameters, such as cathode and anode diameters, materials and surface states, was examined. In order to achieve the most comprehensive characterization of the

  11. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Showman, Adam P.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y. Katherina

    2017-02-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet’s highly irradiated dayside to its eternally dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a positive correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b (P = 0.813 days) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The first 3.6 μm visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our cloud-free atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day–night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within the planet’s cool, nearly retrograde mid-latitude flows before dispersing across its nightside at high altitudes. Since mid-latitude flows only materialize in fast-rotating (≲ 1 day) planets, this may explain an observed trend connecting measured day–night contrast with planet rotation rate that matches all current Spitzer phase curve results. Combining independent planetary emission measurements from multiple phases, we obtain a precise dayside hemisphere H2O abundance (2.5× {10}-5{--}1.1× {10}-4 at 1σ confidence) and, assuming chemical equilibrium and a scaled solar abundance pattern, we derive a corresponding metallicity estimate that is consistent with being solar (0.4–1.7). Using the retrieved global CO+CO2 abundance under the same assumptions, we estimate a comparable metallicity of 0.3–1.7× solar. This is the first time that precise abundance and metallicity constraints have been determined from multiple

  12. Mechanosensitive activation of K+ channel via phospholipase C-induced depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo Hyun; Lee, Hoo-Se; Nguyen, Yen Hoang; Kang, Tong Mook; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sang Jeong; Earm, Yung E; Kim, Sung Joon

    2007-08-01

    In various types of cells mechanical stimulation of the plasma membrane activates phospholipase C (PLC). However, the regulation of ion channels via mechanosensitive degradation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is not known yet. The mouse B cells express large conductance background K(+) channels (LK(bg)) that are inhibited by PIP(2). In inside-out patch clamp studies, the application of MgATP (1 mm) also inhibited LK(bg) due to the generation of PIP(2) by phosphoinositide (PI)-kinases. In the presence of MgATP, membrane stretch induced by negative pipette pressure activated LK(bg), which was antagonized by PIP(2) (> 1 microm) or higher concentration of MgATP (5 mm). The inhibition by PIP(2) was partially reversible. However, the application of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol scavenger disrupting lipid rafts, induced the full recovery of LK(bg) activity and facilitated the activation by stretch. In cell-attached patches, LK(bg) were activated by hypotonic swelling of B cells as well as by negative pressure. The mechano-activation of LK(bg) was blocked by U73122, a PLC inhibitor. Neither actin depolymerization nor the inhibition of lipid phosphatase blocked the mechanical effects. Direct stimulation of PLC by m-3M3FBS or by cross-linking IgM-type B cell receptors activated LK(bg). Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy showed that the hypotonic swelling of WEHI-231 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 and PIP(2) hydrolysis of plasma membrane. The time dependence of PIP(2) hydrolysis and LK(bg) activation were similar. The presence of LK(bg) and their stretch sensitivity were also proven in fresh isolated mice splenic B cells. From the above results, we propose a novel mechanism of stretch-dependent ion channel activation, namely, that the degradation of PIP(2) caused by stretch-activated PLC releases LK(bg) from the tonic inhibition by PIP(2).

  13. Revisiting the Ullmann-ether reaction: a concise and amenable synthesis of novel dibenzoxepino[4,5-d]pyrazoles by intramolecular etheration of 4,5-(o,o'-halohydroxy)arylpyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Roberto; SanMartin, Raul; Churruca, Fátima; Domínguez, Esther

    2002-10-18

    A concise synthesis of a series of novel dibenzoxepino[4,5-d]pyrazoles was accomplished by implementation of an intramolecular Ullmann-ether reaction on o,o'-halohydroxy-4,5-diarylpyrazoles mediated by CuBr.DMS. An alternative useful approach based on the palladium-catalyzed biaryl-ether linkage formation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) was also successfully applied, offering limitations with regard to the steric demand of the substituents. The synthesis of the key o,o'-halohydroxy-4,5-diarylpyrazole intermediates proceeds through the construction of the heterocyclic ring by a tandem amine-exchange/heterocyclization sequence of 3-N,N-(dimethylamino)-1,2-diarylpropenones with phenylhydrazine followed by basic hydrolysis for deprotection. The enamino ketone precursors were conveniently prepared from the corresponding O-sulfonyloxy and O-benzoyloxy ortho-substituted 1,2-diarylethanones, starting from inexpensive salicylaldehyde or phenylacetic derivatives. Preliminary binding affinity experiments against peripheral and central nervous system receptors have been done with negative results.

  14. Secretory carrier membrane protein SCAMP2 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate interactions in the regulation of dense core vesicle exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haini; Ellena, Jeff; Liu, Lixia; Szabo, Gabor; Cafiso, David; Castle, David

    2007-09-25

    Secretory carrier membrane protein 2 (SCAMP2) functions in late steps of membrane fusion in calcium-dependent granule exocytosis. A basic/hydrophobic peptide segment within SCAMP2 (SCAMP2 E: CWYRPIYKAFR) has been implicated in this function and shown to bind and sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2] within membranes through an electrostatic mechanism. We now show that alanine substitution of tryptophan W2 within SCAMP2 E substantially weakens peptide binding to negatively charged liposomes; other substitutions for arginine R4 and lysine K8 have only limited effects on binding. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of liposomes containing spin-labeled PIP2 shows that R4 but not K8 is critical for SCAMP E binding to PIP2. The interfacial locations of SCAMP E and its structural variants within lipid bicelles measured by oxygen enhancement of nuclear relaxation are all similar. Corresponding point mutations within full-length SCAMP2 (SC2-R204A, SC2-K208A, and SC2-W202A) have been analyzed for biological effects on dense core vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. With the same level of overexpression, SC2-R204A but not SC2-K208A inhibited secretion of cotransfected human growth hormone and of noradrenalin. Inhibition by SC2-R204A was the same as or greater than previously observed for SC2-W202A. Analysis of noradrenalin secretion by amperometry showed that inhibitory mutants of SCAMP2 decrease the probability of fusion pore opening and the stability of initially opened but not yet expanded fusion pores. The strong correlation between SCAMP2 E interactions with PIP2 and inhibition of exocytosis, particularly by SC2-R204A, led us to propose that SCAMP2 interaction with PIP2 within the membrane interface regulates fusion pore formation during exocytosis.

  15. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  16. Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in nicotinic calcium responses in dystrophic myotubes assessed by near-plasma membrane calcium measurement.

    PubMed

    Basset, Olivier; Boittin, François-Xavier; Dorchies, Olivier M; Chatton, Jean-Yves; van Breemen, Cornelis; Ruegg, Urs T

    2004-11-05

    In skeletal muscle cells, plasma membrane depolarization causes a rapid calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors triggering contraction. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal disease that is caused by the lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, the cytosolic calcium concentration is known to be increased, and this increase may lead to cell necrosis. Here, we used myotubes derived from control and mdx mice, the murine model of DMD, to study the calcium responses induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. The photoprotein aequorin was expressed in the cytosol or targeted to the plasma membrane as a fusion protein with the synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25, thus allowing calcium measurements in a restricted area localized just below the plasma membrane. The carbachol-induced calcium responses were 4.5 times bigger in dystrophic myotubes than in control myotubes. Moreover, in dystrophic myotubes the carbachol-mediated calcium responses measured in the subsarcolemmal area were at least 10 times bigger than in the bulk cytosol. The initial calcium responses were due to calcium influx into the cells followed by a fast refilling/release phase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition and unexpectedly, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor pathway was involved in these calcium signals only in the dystrophic myotubes. This surprising involvement of this calcium release channel in the excitation-contraction coupling could open new ways for understanding exercise-induced calcium increases and downstream muscle degeneration in mdx mice and, therefore, in DMD.

  17. Photospheric Acne at The Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Doppler Images of M4.5 - M9V Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, John R.; Haswell, Carole A.; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Lohr, Marcus E.; Jenkins, James S.

    2016-07-01

    Starspots are an important manifestation of stellar activity and yet their distribution patterns on the lowest mass stars is notwell known. Time series spectra of fullyconvective M dwarfs taken in the red-optical with UVES reveal numerous line profiledistortions which are interpreted as starspots. New Doppler images of HU Del (GJ 791.2A; M4.5V), BL Ceti (GJ 65A; M5.5V)and UV Ceti (GJ 65B; M6V) attwoepochs separated by three nights are presented. We find that contrastratioscorrespondingto photosphere-spot temperature differences of only 100-400 Kare sufficient to model the time series spectra of M4.5V - M9Vstars. Starspotsare reconstructed at a range of phases and latitudes with mean spot filling factors of only a few per cent.The distribution and low-contrast of the spots/spot-groups that we recover are likely to be responsible for the low amplitudephotometric variability seen in late-M dwarfs. The stability of the spot patterns in the two sets of timeseries observationsenables us to measure the latitude dependent differential rotation, which we find to be consistent with zero.

  18. Understanding the role of land management for carbon and climate mitigation under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 using the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), land cover change and wood harvest were prescribed as major climate forcings for historical and future Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections. Lawrence et al. (2012) described how land cover change was prescribed in all of these simulations and how the climate system and carbon cycle responded to the land cover change in concert to other transient forcing in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The attribution of carbon cycle and climate changes directly due to land cover change however, were not possible due to the design of the CMIP5 experiments. Through a series of new CESM simulations we have attributed the land cover change impacts for the historical time series as well as RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 with and without land cover change. These simulations show that the direct land cover change fluxes to the atmosphere found in the CMIP5 simulations did not account for the lost uptake of carbon that would have been possible in the absence of land cover change and wood harvest. Once these losses are taken into account, the historical losses of terrestrial carbon increased from 61.2 PgC to 129.6 PgC, the RCP 4.5 uptake of 62.8 PgC changed to a loss of 5.8 PgC, and the RCP 8.5 loss of 49.0 PgC increased to 168.8 PgC. In order to assess the potential of land management to mitigate carbon and climate consequences we extended the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 experiments with large scale global afforestation compared to maximum agricultural expansion scenarios. In these experiments we found that afforestation was able to take up 220 PgC over the next 85 years, while large scale crop expansion could release the same amount of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems. Figure 1 shows the time series for global ecosystem carbon along with the spatial distribution of gains and losses under the maximum afforestation and agricultural expansion simulations. In comparison to fossil fuel emissions the land cover

  19. An experimental and theoretical study on a novel donor-π-acceptor bridge type 2, 4, 5-trimethoxy-4‧-chlorochalcone for optoelectronic applications: A dual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkir, Mohd.; Patil, P. S.; Arora, M.; AlFaify, S.; Algarni, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this article the authors aim is to investigate and analyze the various key parameters of an organic D-π-A type novel nonlinear optical material 2, 4, 5-trimethoxy-4‧-chlorochalcone (2,4,5TMCC) through experimental and quantum chemical studies. The Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction mechanism was applied to synthesize the 2,4,5TMCC compound and its single crystal was grown by a slow evaporation solution growth (low cost) technique. The crystal structure was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The robust vibrational study has been done using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra and its NLO activity was discussed. The factor group analysis was also performed. The optical absorption spectrum was recorded and the band gap was calculated to be 2.8 eV. In photoluminescence spectrum, an intense emission band at 540 nm has been observed which shows that the grown crystals can be used in green organic light emitting diodes and laser applications. To achieve the stable ground state molecular geometry of 2,4,5TMCC, the computational techniques were applied at different levels of theory using 6-31G* basis set. The calculated geometrical parameters and vibrational spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. To probe the optical properties of the title compound the time dependent density functional theory was applied. The excitation wavelength was observed at 398.63 nm calculated at B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory and found close to experimental value (i.e. 396 nm). The static first hyperpolarizability value is found to be 136 times higher than prototype urea molecule. Additionally, the molecular level approach was attained as HOMO-LUMO gap and electrostatic potential maps. The DSC study reveals that the titled material is stable up to 149 °C. The photophysical and nonlinear optical properties suggest that the titled material could be a better choice for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  20. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} facilitates ATP accumulation via phosphocreatine/creatine kinase in the endoplasmic reticulum extracted from MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jing; Ogata, Shigenori; Segawa, Masaru; Usune, Sadaharu; Zhao, Yumei; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-07-02

    So far, the content and accumulation of ATP in isolated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are little understood. First, we confirmed using electron microscopic and Western blotting techniques that the samples extracted from MDCK cells are endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The amounts of ATP in the extracted ER were measured from the filtrate after a spinning down of ultrafiltration spin column packed with ER. When the ER sample (5 {mu}g) after 3 days freezing was suspended in intracellular medium (ICM), 0.1% Triton X and ultrapure water (UPW), ATP amounts from the ER with UPW were the highest and over 10 times compared with that from the control with ICM, indicating that UPW is the most effective tool in destroying the ER membrane. After a 10-min-incubation with ICM containing phosphocreatine (PCr)/creatine kinase (CK) of the fresh ER. ATP amounts in the filtrate obtained by spinning down were not changed from that in the control (no PCr/CK). However, ATP amounts in the filtrate from the second spinning down of the ER (treated with PCr/CK) suspended in UPW became over 10-fold compared with the control. When 1 {mu}M inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) was added in the incubation medium (ICM with PCr/CK), ATP amounts from the filtrate after the second spinning down were further enhanced around three times. This enhancement was almost canceled by Ca{sup 2+}-removal from ICM and by adding thapsigargin, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase inhibitor, but not by 2-APB and heparin, Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} receptor antagonists. Administration of 500 {mu}M adenosine to the incubation medium (with PCr/CK) failed to enhance the accumulation of ATP in the ER. These findings suggest that the ER originally contains ATP and ATP accumulation in the ER is promoted by PCr/CK and Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}.

  1. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  2. Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Lessard, M.; Takahashi, K.; Ali, A.; Malaspina, D.; Michell, R.; Spanswick, E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Cully, C. M.; Donovan, E.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G. D.; Samara, M.; Spence, H. E.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10's keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10's keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using THEMIS. In the current study, we present simultaneous in-situ observations of structured chorus waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4-5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with ground-based observations of pulsating aurora. We demonstrate the likely scenario being one of substorm-driven Pc4-5 ULF pulsations modulating chorus waves, and thus providing the driver for pulsating particle precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere. Interestingly, the modulated chorus wave and ULF wave periods are well correlated, with chorus occurring at half the periodicity of the ULF waves. We also show, for the first time, a particular few-Hz modulation of individual chorus elements that coincides with the same modulation in a nearby pulsating aurora patch. Such modulation has been noticed as a high-frequency component in ground-based camera data of pulsating aurora for decades, and may be a result of nonlinear chorus wave interactions in the equatorial region. This work illustrates the significant understanding of magnetospheric processes that can be gained through use of conjunctive ground- and space-based observations.

  3. Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congsheng; Wang, Guiling; Goulden, Michael L.; Scott, Russell L.; Bible, Kenneth; Cardon, Zoe G.

    2016-05-01

    Effects of hydraulic redistribution (HR) on hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes have been demonstrated in the field, but the current generation of standard earth system models does not include a representation of HR. Though recent studies have examined the effect of incorporating HR into land surface models, few (if any) have done cross-site comparisons for contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types via the integration of measurement and modeling. Here, we incorporated the HR scheme of Ryel et al. (2002) into the NCAR Community Land Model Version 4.5 (CLM4.5), and examined the ability of the resulting hybrid model to capture the magnitude of HR flux and/or soil moisture dynamics from which HR can be directly inferred, to assess the impact of HR on land surface water and energy budgets, and to explore how the impact may depend on climate regimes and vegetation conditions. Eight AmeriFlux sites with contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types were studied, including the Wind River Crane site in Washington State, the Santa Rita Mesquite savanna site in southern Arizona, and six sites along the Southern California Climate Gradient. HR flux, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture were properly simulated in the present study, even in the face of various uncertainties. Our cross-ecosystem comparison showed that the timing, magnitude, and direction (upward or downward) of HR vary across ecosystems, and incorporation of HR into CLM4.5 improved the model-measurement matches of evapotranspiration, Bowen ratio, and soil moisture particularly during dry seasons. Our results also reveal that HR has important hydrological impact in ecosystems that have a pronounced dry season but are not overall so dry that sparse vegetation and very low soil moisture limit HR.

  4. Incorporating root hydraulic redistribution in CLM4.5: Effects on predicted site and global evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Niu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    We implemented the Amenu-Kumar model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to simulate plant Root Hydraulic Redistribution (RHR) and analyzed its influence on CLM hydrology from site to global scales. We evaluated two numerical implementations: the first solved the coupled equations of root and soil water transport concurrently, while the second solved the two equations sequentially. Through sensitivity analysis, we demonstrate that the sequentially coupled implementation (SCI) is numerically incorrect, whereas the tightly coupled implementation (TCI) is numerically robust with numerical time steps varying from 1 to 30 min. At the site-level, we found the SCI approach resulted in better agreement with measured evapotranspiration (ET) at the AmeriFlux Blodgett Forest site, California, whereas the two approaches resulted in equally poor agreement between predicted and measured ET at the LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site in Amazon, Brazil. Globally, the SCI approach overestimated annual land ET by as much as 3.5 mm d-1 in some grid cells when compared to the TCI estimates. These comparisons demonstrate that TCI is a more robust numerical implementation of RHR. However, we found, even with TCI, that incorporating RHR resulted in worse agreement with measured soil moisture at both the Blodgett Forest and Tapajos sites and degraded the agreement between simulated terrestrial water storage anomaly and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations. We find including RHR in CLM4.5 improved ET predictions compared with the FLUXNET-MTE estimates north of 20° N but led to poorer predictions in the tropics. The biases in ET were robust and significant regardless of the four different pedotransfer functions or of the two meteorological forcing data sets we applied. We also found that the simulated water table was unrealistically sensitive to RHR. Therefore, we contend that further structural and data improvements are warranted to improve the hydrological

  5. Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Congsheng; Wang, Guiling; Goulden, Michael L.; Scott, Russell L.; Bible, Kenneth; G. Cardon, Zoe

    2016-05-17

    Effects of hydraulic redistribution (HR) on hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes have been demonstrated in the field, but the current generation of standard earth system models does not include a representation of HR. Though recent studies have examined the effect of incorporating HR into land surface models, few (if any) have done cross-site comparisons for contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types via the integration of measurement and modeling. Here, we incorporated the HR scheme of Ryel et al. (2002) into the NCAR Community Land Model Version 4.5 (CLM4.5), and examined the ability of the resulting hybrid model to capture the magnitude of HR flux and/or soil moisture dynamics from which HR can be directly inferred, to assess the impact of HR on land surface water and energy budgets, and to explore how the impact may depend on climate regimes and vegetation conditions. Eight AmeriFlux sites with contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types were studied, including the Wind River Crane site in Washington State, the Santa Rita Mesquite savanna site in southern Arizona, and six sites along the Southern California Climate Gradient. HR flux, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture were properly simulated in the present study, even in the face of various uncertainties. Our cross-ecosystem comparison showed that the timing, magnitude, and direction (upward or downward) of HR vary across ecosystems, and incorporation of HR into CLM4.5 improved the model-measurement matches of evapotranspiration, Bowen ratio, and soil moisture particularly during dry seasons. Lastly, our results also reveal that HR has important hydrological impact in ecosystems that have a pronounced dry season but are not overall so dry that sparse vegetation and very low soil moisture limit HR.

  6. Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Congsheng; Wang, Guiling; Goulden, Michael L.; ...

    2016-05-17

    Effects of hydraulic redistribution (HR) on hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes have been demonstrated in the field, but the current generation of standard earth system models does not include a representation of HR. Though recent studies have examined the effect of incorporating HR into land surface models, few (if any) have done cross-site comparisons for contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types via the integration of measurement and modeling. Here, we incorporated the HR scheme of Ryel et al. (2002) into the NCAR Community Land Model Version 4.5 (CLM4.5), and examined the ability of the resulting hybrid model to capture themore » magnitude of HR flux and/or soil moisture dynamics from which HR can be directly inferred, to assess the impact of HR on land surface water and energy budgets, and to explore how the impact may depend on climate regimes and vegetation conditions. Eight AmeriFlux sites with contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types were studied, including the Wind River Crane site in Washington State, the Santa Rita Mesquite savanna site in southern Arizona, and six sites along the Southern California Climate Gradient. HR flux, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture were properly simulated in the present study, even in the face of various uncertainties. Our cross-ecosystem comparison showed that the timing, magnitude, and direction (upward or downward) of HR vary across ecosystems, and incorporation of HR into CLM4.5 improved the model-measurement matches of evapotranspiration, Bowen ratio, and soil moisture particularly during dry seasons. Lastly, our results also reveal that HR has important hydrological impact in ecosystems that have a pronounced dry season but are not overall so dry that sparse vegetation and very low soil moisture limit HR.« less

  7. Synthesis and antiviral activity of new phenylimidazopyridines and N-benzylidenequinolinamines derived by molecular simplification of phenylimidazo[4,5-g]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Loddo, Roberta; Briguglio, Irene; Corona, Paola; Piras, Sandra; Loriga, Mario; Paglietti, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonio; Sanna, Giuseppina; Giliberti, Gabriele; Ibba, Cristina; Farci, Pamela; La Colla, Paolo

    2014-09-12

    Continuing our program of research concerning the antiviral activity of a wide series of new angular and linear azolo bicyclic and tricyclic derivatives, now we have simplified and modified the 4-chloro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-g]quinoline 1, which previously resulted the most active derivative, through either the elimination of the central ring or the opening of the imidazole ring, obtaining various imidazopyridines and N-benzylidenequinolinamines respectively. Title compounds were tested in cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against representatives of two DNA virus families as wells as against representatives of RNA virus families containing single-stranded, either positive-sense (ssRNA(+)) or negative-sense (ssRNA(-)), and double-stranded genomes (dsRNA). Some imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines emerged as new derivatives endowed with antiviral activity against Vaccinia Virus (VV) at concentrations ranging from 2 to 16 μM. In particular, compound 2b demonstrate to be about 10 times more potent than Cidofovir, used as reference drug. Similarly, the imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines and N-benzylidenequinolinamines derivatives resulted active against Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), at concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 28 μM. Above all compounds 1, 3a and 3f showed an EC50 of the same order of magnitude of the reference drug, the 2'-C-methyl-guanosine. Moreover, several N-benzylidenequinolinamines showed an interesting activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) at concentrations between 12 and 26 μM.

  8. Outlook on the phase equilibria of the innovative system of "protected glycerol": 1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanol and alternative solvents.

    PubMed

    Melo, Catarina I; Rodrigues, Ana I; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał; Bogel-Łukasik, Ewa

    2012-02-23

    Fundamental data on 1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanol are scarce. This work presents the foremost systematic data on the solubility of 1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanol in sustainable solvents such as water and ionic liquids accompanied by the interpretation of interactions occurring in such binary systems. 1,4-Dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanol, here called protected glycerol, has been synthesized in order to protect the two hydroxyl groups of glycerol, thus avoiding the formation of side products in a specific process. A series of imidazolium salts accompanied by pyridinium, phosphonium, and ammonium ones with various types of counterions were used in this study. The liquid-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium measurements in binary systems were carried out by using a dynamic method at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range from 273.00 to 378.30 K or below the boiling point of the solvent. Among all tested sustainable solvents, protected glycerol exhibited limited solubility, with only a few of them in the temperature range studied. The majority of the examined ionic liquids, either hydrophilic or hydrophobic, showed complete miscibility with this monohydroxyol. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of solute and solvents showing a miscibility gap and of their mixtures were performed to obtain insight into major inter- and intramolecular interactions in the investigated systems. Furthermore, the differential scanning calorimetry was used for the first time to determine the melting point, the enthalpy of melting, and the temperature and enthalpy of the solid-solid phase transition of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Amim][Cl]. The results for the solubility of protected glycerol in sustainable solvents can be used to design future alternative reactions, such as telomerization with protected glycerol in ionic liquids for more specific building blocks and extraction/or separation that involves these mixtures.

  9. An Efficient Solution-Phase Synthesis of 4,5,7-Trisubstituted Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihe; Liu, Jing; Stashko, Michael A.; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and robust route to synthesize 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines as potent kinase inhibitors. This solution-phase synthesis features a SNAr substitution reaction, cross-coupling reaction, one-pot reduction/reductive amination and N-alkylation reaction. These reactions occur rapidly with high yields and have broad substrate scopes. A variety of groups can be selectively introduced into the N5 and C7 positions of 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolopyrimidines at a late stage of the synthesis, thereby providing a highly efficient approach to explore the structure-activity relationships of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives. Four synthetic analogs have been profiled against a panel of 48 kinases and a new and selective FLT3 inhibitor 9 is identified. PMID:23181516

  10. Cavitation behavior of coarse-grained Al-4.5 Mg alloy exhibiting superplastic-like elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, H.; Mori, T.; Hosokawa, H.; Tagata, T.; Mabuchi, M.; Higashi, K.

    2000-07-01

    Cavitation behaviors related to ferrous primary crystals have been investigated at a temperature of 653 K and a strain rate of 10{sup {minus}3}/s for Al-4.5% Mg-0.05%FE and Al-4.5% Mg-0.2%Fe alloys which have a grain size of 50 {micro}m. The alloys constantly exhibited a large elongation-to-failure above 300% at the temperature of 653 K and strain rate of 10{sup {minus}3}/s. Cavitation was increased by increasing the iron content. Most cavities were nucleated at the interface between the ferrous primary crystal and matrix and elongated parallel to the tensile direction. The experimental critical diameter of the primary crystal, above which cavity is nucleated, was 1.5 {micro}m at the grain boundary and 0.5 {micro}m at grain interior, which were very close to double the critical diffusion length.

  11. Self-Immolative Poly(4,5-dichlorophthalaldehyde) and its Applications in Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Macroscopic Plastics.

    PubMed

    DiLauro, Anthony M; Lewis, Gregory G; Phillips, Scott T

    2015-05-18

    End-capped poly(4,5-dichlorophthalaldehyde) (PCl2PA), which is a new self-immolative CD(r) polymer with the unique capability of depolymerizing continuously and completely in the solid state when an end cap is cleaved from the polymer by reaction with a specific molecular signal, is described. End-capped poly(4,5-dichlorophthalaldehyde) is sufficiently stable to enable patterning of three-dimensional macroscopic polymeric materials by selective laser sintering. These unique materials are capable of 1) autonomously amplifying macroscopic changes in the material in response to specific molecular inputs, and 2) altering their responses depending on the identity of the applied signal. Thus, not only does end-capped PCl2PA provide new and unique capabilities compared to the small subset of existing CD(r) polymers, but it also provides access to a new class of stimuli-responsive materials.

  12. The ALMA Patchy Deep Survey: A Blind Search for [CII] Emitters at z˜ 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; APDS Team

    2015-12-01

    We present an initial result of a blind search for [CII] emitters at z˜ 4.5 using ALMA archival data. We used extra-galactic, band 7 data from eight Cycle 0 projects and searched for line emitters in the continuum-subtracted data cubes. However, we could not detect any new line emitters above a 6-σ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the z˜ 4.5 [CII] luminosity function down to L([CII])˜108 L⊙ (or SFR˜10 M⊙ yr-1). This work demonstated that we will be able to constrain the cosmic star-formation rate density by collecting archival data of Cycle 1 and 2 as the ALMA Patchy Deep Survey.

  13. Psoralen-deoxyribonucleic acid photoreaction. Characterization of the monoaddition products from 8-methoxypsoralen and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, D.; Straub, K.; Rapoport, H.; Hearst, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The isolation and structural characterization are described of the major monoaddition products formed in the photoreaction of two naturally occurring psoralens, 8-methoxypsoralen and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, with high molecular weight, double-stranded DNA. Hydrolysis of the psoralen-modified DNA and subsequent chromatography resulted in the isolation of four modified nucleosides from each psoralen. Structural characterization was accomplished by mass spectrometry and /sup 1/H NMR analysis. The major products, accounting for 44 to 52% of the covalently bound psoralen, are two diastereomeric thymidine adducts formed by cycloaddition between the 5,6 double bond of the pyrimidine and the 4',5' (furan) double bond of the psoralen. All of the isolated adducts have cis-syn stereochemistry. The stereochemistry and product distribution of the adducts are determined in part by the constraints imposed by the DNA helix on the geometry of the noncovalent intercalation complex formed by psoralen and DNA prior to irradiation.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-substituted and 4,5-disubstituted-2-arylamino oxazole TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Perner, Richard J; Koenig, John R; Didomenico, Stanley; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Schmidt, Robert G; Lee, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Margaret C; McDonald, Heath A; Gauvin, Donna M; Joshi, Shailen; Turner, Teresa M; Reilly, Regina M; Kym, Philip R; Kort, Michael E

    2010-07-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of 5-monosubstituted and 4,5-disubstituted 2-arylaminooxazoles as novel antagonists of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor are described. The 7-hydroxy group of the tetrahydronaphthyl moiety on the 2-amino substituent of the oxazole ring was important for obtaining excellent in vitro potency at the human TRPV1 receptor, while a variety of alkyl and phenyl substituents at the 4- and 5-positions of the oxazole ring were well tolerated and yielded potent TRPV1 antagonists. Despite excellent in vitro potency, the 5-monosubstituted compounds suffered from poor pharmacokinetics. It was found that 4,5-disubstitution on the oxazole ring was critical to the improvement of the overall pharmacokinetic profile of these analogues, which led to the discovery of compound (R)-27, a novel TRPV1 antagonist with good oral activity in preclinical animal models of pain.

  15. Synthesis and odor description of both enantiomers of methyl 4,5-didehydrojasmonate, a component of jasmin absolute.

    PubMed

    Asamitsu, Yuko; Nakamura, Yoko; Ueda, Minoru; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2006-06-01

    Synthesis of both enantiomers of methyl 4,5-didehydrojasmonate (1, Delta(4,5)-MJA; >99.8% ee), a constituent of jasmin absolute, established the absolute configuration of the natural product, and their odor quality was evaluated. The fragrance of the natural (3S,7R)-enantiomer (a fresh natural, sweet floral fruity odor, reminiscent of Jasmin and Ylang Ylang flower, more intensive and tenacious) was superior to that of the unnatural (3R,7S)-enantiomer (a floral green odor with slight metallic green aspect, less intensive than the natural form) and the racemate (green-floral note, having weak and less volume than methyl jasmonate). Odor difference between natural and unnatural enantiomers of methyl jasmonate (2) is also reported.

  16. Projected and Observed Aridity and Climate Change in the East Coast of South India under RCP 4.5.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A; Praveen, Dhanya; Jaganathan, R; Palanivelu, K

    2015-01-01

    In the purview of global warming, the present study attempts to project changes in climate and quantify the changes in aridity of two coastal districts in south India under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. Projected climate change output generated by RegCM 4.4 model, pertaining to 14 grid points located within the study area, was analyzed and processed for this purpose. The meteorological parameters temperature and precipitations were used to create De Martonne Aridity Index, to assess the spatial distribution of aridity. The original index values ranged from 13.7 to 16.4 mm/°C, characterizing this area as a semidry climate. The outcome from the changed scenario analysis under RCP 4.5 showed that, during the end of the 21st century, the aridity may be increased more as the index values tend to reduce. The increasing trend in the drying phenomenon may be attributed to the rising of mean annual temperatures.

  17. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE DETERMINATION OF A REPEAT ELEMENT ISOLATED FROM A 2,4,5,-T DEGRADING STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100, capable of growth on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), was mutated to the 2,4,5-T− strain PT88 by a ColE1 :: Tn5 chromosomal insertion. Using cloned DNA from the region flanking the insertion, a 1477-bp sequence (designated RS1100) wa...

  19. Selective Tsuji-Trost type C-allylation of hydrazones: a straightforward entry into 4,5-dihydropyrazoles.

    PubMed

    El Mamouni, El Hachemia; Cattoen, Martin; Cordier, Marie; Cossy, Janine; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Ilitki, Hocine; El Kaïm, Laurent

    2016-12-13

    The 4,5-dihydropyrazole motif has drawn considerable attention over the years as it was shown to exhibit a plethora of biological and pharmacological properties, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. As such, it has been the target of a number of methods and drug discovery programs. We report here a straightforward and highly selective approach featuring a key palladium-catalysed Tsuji-Trost type C-allylation and subsequent intramolecular 1,4-addition of hydrazones.

  20. Population Structure of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:b:− Strains and Likely Sources of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Junker, Ernst; Fruth, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− is a monophasic serovar not able to express the second-phase flagellar antigen (H2 antigen). In Germany, the serovar is occasionally isolated from poultry, reptiles, fish, food, and humans. In this study, a selection of 67 epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− strains isolated in Germany between 2000 and 2011 from the environment, animal, food, and humans was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods to better understand the population structure and to identify potential sources of human infections. Strains of this monophasic serovar were highly diverse. Within the 67 strains analyzed, we identified 52 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles, 12 different multilocus sequence types (STs), and 18 different pathogenicity array types. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was in good agreement with grouping by MLST. S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− is distributed across multiple unrelated eBurst groups and consequently is highly polyphyletic. Two sequence types (ST88 and ST127) were linked to S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (d-tartrate positive), two single-locus variants of ST1583 were linked to S. enterica serovar Abony, and one sequence type (ST1484) was associated with S. enterica serovar Mygdal, a recently defined, new serovar. From the characterization of clinical isolates and those of nonhuman origin, it can be concluded that the potential sources of sporadic human infections with S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− most likely are mushrooms, shellfish/fish, and poultry. PMID:23793625

  1. Biotransformation of the bladder carcinogen N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)formamide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Bryan, G.T.

    1984-06-01

    The biotransformation of N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)formamide (FANFT), a potent urinary bladder carcinogen, was studied in mice. About 82% of radioactivity was excreted as /sup 14/CO2 within 36 hr after intragastric administration of N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)-(/sup 14/C)formamide, suggesting its deformylation to 2-amino-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole (ANFT). The latter was formed in vitro as a product following incubation of FANFT with mouse liver homogenates. Chromatographic analysis of mouse urine obtained 24 hr after the i.p. administration of N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-(2-/sup 14/C)thiazolyl)formamide revealed excretion of ANFT and unmetabolized FANFT, suggesting the prevalence of the deformylation reaction in vivo. One of two additional metabolites present exhibited chromatographic properties similar to those exhibited by a compound derived from the in vitro nitroreduction of ANFT . This metabolite was isolated from urine or FANFT-fed animals and from in vitro enzymatic reduction of ANFT with mouse liver homogenates. The isolated products had chromatographic and spectral properties and a mass spectral fragmentation pattern similar to that of a compound obtained by catalytic reduction of ANFT with palladium and activated carbon. Spectroscopic analyses established the structural identity of the chemical reduction product as 1-(4-(2-aminothiazolyl))-3-cyano-1-propanone (ATCP). Since the chromatographic properties of the enzymatically derived product and the urinary metabolite were identical to those of a compound obtained by chemical reduction, they must be structurally the same and thus correspond to ATCP . About 5% of the urinary metabolites of FANFT is ATCP , and thus ATCP is quantitatively a minor excretory product. ATCP was far less active than was ANFT of FANFT in the Ames mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium TA.

  2. Solution and solid-supported synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-based peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Boeglin, Damien; Cantel, Sonia; Heitz, Annie; Martinez, Jean; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain

    2003-11-13

    [reaction: see text] 3,4,5-Trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles were synthesized in solution from various thioamides and hydrazides in smooth experimental conditions leading to peptidomimetic scaffolds. This strategy was found to be compatible with the usual peptide synthesis protecting groups. This methodology was then applied on solid support by anchoring alpha-amino acids through their amino function to an activated carbonate resin.

  3. Comment on "Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 Ga".

    PubMed

    Valley, John W; Cavosie, Aaron J; Fu, Bin; Peck, William H; Wilde, Simon A

    2006-05-26

    Harrison et al. (Reports, 23 December 2005, p. 1947) proposed that plate tectonics and granites existed 4.5 billion years ago (Ga), within 70 million years of Earth's formation, based on geochemistry of >4.0 Ga detrital zircons from Australia. We highlight the large uncertainties of this claim and make the more moderate proposal that some crust formed by 4.4 Ga and oceans formed by 4.2 Ga.

  4. Calorimetric and computational study of enthalpy of formation of 3,6-dibutanoic-1,2,4,5-tetroxane.

    PubMed

    Romero, J M; Ayala, D A; Jorge, N L; Gómez-Vara, M E; Castro, E A; Jubert, A H

    2005-10-15

    A thermochemical a rather simple experimental technique method, is used to determine the enthalpy of the formation of 3,6-dibutanoic-1,2,4,5-tetroxane. The study is complemented with suitable theoretical calculations at the semiempirical and ab initio levels. A particular satisfactory agreement between both ways is found for the ab initio calculation at the 6-311G basis set level. Some possible extensions of the present procedure are pointed out.

  5. Experimental preparation and UV/IR spectroscopic characterization of 1,3-dibutanal-1,2,4,5-tetroxane.

    PubMed

    Ayala, D A; Romero, J M; Jorge, N L; Gómez-Vara, M E; Jubert, A H; Castro, E A

    2006-06-01

    We report the experimental preparation of the 1,3-butanal-1,2,4,5-tetroxane by oxidation of glutataldehyde with oxygen peroxide in presence of concentrated sulfuric acid, following the Bayer and Viller method modified by Jorge et al. The UV and IR spectra are studied from the experimental and theoretical standpoint. A rather complete vibrational assignment was performed and the nature of the electronic transitions was discussed in detail.

  6. A Method for the Synthesis of Tetranitroglycoluril from Imidazo-[4,5-d]-imidazoles with Loss of Dinitrogen Oxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    imidazoles are nitrated with the elimination of N2O to generate TNGU. This method of TNGU synthesis results in material that is less sensitive than...using known literature procedures [6] and attempts were made to further nitrate them in an effort to produce a novel material 8 (Figure 3). 2 Results...Abstract : A new method for the preparation of tetranitro- glycoluril (TNGU, Sorguyl) is described, in which imidazo- [4,5-d]-imidazoles are nitrated

  7. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  8. Substrate diversity and expression of the 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid oxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100.

    PubMed Central

    Danganan, C E; Shankar, S; Ye, R W; Chakrabarty, A M

    1995-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 uses the chlorinated aromatic compound 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. The genes encoding the proteins involved in the first step (tftA and tftB [previously designated tftA1 and tftA2, respectively]) have been cloned and sequenced. The oxygenase, TftAB, is capable of converting not only 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol but also a wide range of chlorinated aromatic phenoxyacetates to their corresponding phenolic derivatives, as shown by whole-cell and cell-free assays. The rate of substrate utilization by TftAB depends upon the extent of chlorination of the substrate, the positions of the chlorines, and the phenoxy group. These results indicate a mechanistic similarity between TftAB and the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, TfdA, from Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. The promoter of the oxygenase genes was localized by promoter-probe analysis, and the transcriptional start site was identified by primer extension. The beta-galactosidase activity of the construct containing the promoter region cloned upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene in the promoter-probe vector pKRZ-1 showed that this construct is constitutively expressed in Escherichia coli and in AC1100. The -35 and -10 regions of the oxygenase genes show significant sequence identity to typical Escherichia coli sigma 70 promoters. PMID:8534119

  9. SIGIRR inhibits toll-like receptor 4, 5, 9-mediated immune responses in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Wu, Xueling; Zhao, Yunfeng; Deng, Zhaoxia; Qian, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    Human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) may contribute to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated molecular mechanisms. TLRs exist on the surface of HAEC where binding to their cognate ligands initiates airway inflammation. Single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related protein (SIGIRR) is a member of the toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family that can negatively modulate the immune response. We carried out studies to characterize SIGIRR modulation of TLR-mediated immune response in HAEC and to define its mechanisms of action. Following treatment with various concentrations of LPS, flagellin and CpG DNA, the levels of cognate TLRs 4, 5, and 9 were measured in the supernatants of HAEC over-expressing the SIGIRR molecule. Moreover, the interaction of the TLR adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) with SIGIRR in response to LPS-, flagellin- and CpG DNA-stimulation was examined by co-immunoprecipitation. The findings from this study revealed that overexpression of SIGIRR in HAEC stimulated by LPS, flagellin or CpG DNA resulted in attenuated production of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and TNF-α. This attenuation was not the result of decreased expression of TLR4, 5 or 9, but rather a sequestration of MyD88 to the TLRs. In conclusion, SIGIRR can inhibit TLR4, 5, and 9-mediated immune responses in HAEC and may be a valuable therapeutic target for the prevention of ALI/ARDS.

  10. Synthesis and chemistry of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one--a heteroindoxyl.

    PubMed

    Gaywood, Alexander P; McNab, Hamish

    2009-06-05

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of 2-acetyl-3-azidothiophene gives 3-methylthieno[3,2-c]isoxazole as the major product at a furnace temperature of 350 degrees C whereas at temperatures above 550 degrees C the new heteroindoxyl 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one is exclusively formed. The heteroindoxyl exists predominantly as the keto tautomer. It is O-protonated by TFA, N-acetylated by acetic anhydride, N-nitrosated by nitrous acid, and provides an N-methylene Meldrum's acid derivative on treatment with methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid. Reactions of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one with diazonium salts, with isatin, and with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate take place at the methylene position to provide a hydrazone, an indirubin analogue, and a succinate derivative, respectively. Oxidation of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one gives a heteroindigotin, which shows a hypsochromic shift in the UV spectrum, relative to indigotin itself.

  11. Synthesis and structures of ruthenium di- and tricarbonyl complexes derived from 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Chakraborty, Indranil; Mascharak, Pradip

    2015-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been shown to impart beneficial effects in mammalian physiology and considerable research attention is now being directed toward metal-carbonyl complexes as a means of delivering CO to biological targets. Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes, namely trans-dicarbonyldichlorido(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-κ(2)N,N')ruthenium(II), [RuCl2(C11H6N2O)(CO)2], (1), and fac-tricarbonyldichlorido(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-κN)ruthenium(II), [RuCl2(C11H6N2O)(CO)3], (2), have been isolated and structurally characterized. In the case of complex (1), the trans-directing effect of the CO ligands allows bidentate coordination of the 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (dafo) ligand despite a larger bite distance between the N-donor atoms. In complex (2), the cis disposition of two chloride ligands restricts the ability of the dafo molecule to bind ruthenium in a bidentate fashion. Both complexes exhibit well defined (1)H NMR spectra confirming the diamagnetic ground state of Ru(II) and display a strong absorption band around 300 nm in the UV.

  12. Hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structures of three related 4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,4-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Antonio; Argüello, Jacqueline; Squella, Juan A; Wardell, James L; Low, John N; Glidewell, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In ethyl 5-cyano-2,6-dimethyl-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate, C15H15N3O5, the molecules are linked into chains by a single N-H...O hydrogen bond. The molecules in diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate, C17H20N2O7, are linked by a combination of one N-H...O hydrogen bond and two C-H...O hydrogen bonds into sheets built from equal numbers of R(2)(2)(17) and R(4)(4)(18) rings. In 2,6-dimethyl-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile, C13H10N4O3, the molecules are linked by a combination of a three-centre N-H...(O)2 hydrogen bond and two independent two-centre C-H...O hydrogen bonds into complex sheets containing four types of ring.

  13. Dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole: a highly luminescent electron-accepting building block.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Woo, Alva Y Y; Borau-Garcia, Javier; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2013-06-03

    A family of highly emissive dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes has been designed and synthesized. The structures of two trivalent P species, as well as their corresponding P oxides, have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The parent dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole oxide exhibits strong blue photoluminescence at λem = 442 nm, with an excellent quantum yield efficiency of ϕPL = 0.81. The photophysical properties of these compounds can be easily tuned by extension of the conjugation and modification of the phosphorus center. Compared with the established dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]phosphole system, the incorporation of electronegative nitrogen atoms leads to significantly lowered frontier orbital energy levels, as validated by both electrochemistry and theoretical calculations, thus suggesting that the dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes are valuable, air-stable, n-type conjugated materials. These new building blocks have been further applied to the construction of an extended oligomer with fluorene. Extension of the dithiazolophosphole core with triazole units through click reactions also provides a suitable N,N-chelating moiety for metal binding and a representative molecular species was successfully used as a selective colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for Cu(II) ions.

  14. Superspace formulation in a three-algebra approach to D=3, N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Famin; Wu Yongshi

    2010-11-15

    We present a superspace formulation of the D=3, N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons Matter theories, with matter supermultiplets valued in a symplectic 3-algebra. We first construct an N=1 superconformal action and then generalize a method used by Gaitto and Witten to enhance the supersymmetry from N=1 to N=5. By decomposing the N=5 supermultiplets and the symplectic 3-algebra properly and proposing a new superpotential term, we construct the N=4 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories in terms of two sets of generators of a (quaternion) symplectic 3-algebra. The N=4 theories can also be derived by requiring that the supersymmetry transformations are closed on-shell. The relationship between the 3-algebras, Lie superalgebras, Lie algebras, and embedding tensors (proposed in [E. A. Bergshoeff, O. Hohm, D. Roest, H. Samtleben, and E. Sezgin, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2008) 101.]) is also clarified. The general N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories in terms of ordinary Lie algebras can be re-derived in our 3-algebra approach. All known N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories can be recovered in the present superspace formulation for super-Lie algebra realization of symplectic 3-algebras.

  15. 57 Fe Mössbauer and magnetic studies of Nd3Fe24.5Cr4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Md Din, M. F.; Campbell, S. J.; Kennedy, S. J.; Yang, F. M.; Wu, G. H.; Dou, S. X.

    2015-04-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the rare earth transition metal compound Nd 3Fe 24.5Cr 4.5 have been investigated by variable temperature high resolution x-ray diffraction together with DC magnetization and 57Fe Mössbauer effect measurements. The magnetic ordering temperature has been found to be T C= 423(5) K with spin reorientation detected below room temperature around T sr= 158(5) K. Rietveld refinements indicate that Nd 3Fe 24.5Cr 4.5 crystallizes in the Nd 3(Fe,Ti) 29-type structure with the A2/m space group and a substantial magneto-volume effect is detected around T C. The Mössbauer spectra can be fitted well using five sub-spectra. The temperature dependence of the average hyperfine field has been analysed in terms of different power laws of the reduced temperature. The Debye temperature of Nd 3Fe 24.5Cr 4.5 has been determined as 𝜃 D= 400(± 30) K from a fit to the variable temperature isomer shift IS(T).

  16. Detectors (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  17. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  18. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Ions: Study of the Auger Decay of the 4 d →n f (n =4 ,5 ) Resonances in Xe5 + Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizau, J.-M.; Cubaynes, D.; Guilbaud, S.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Al Shorman, M. M.; Blancard, C.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied, for the first time by electron spectroscopy, the Auger decay of the 4 d →n f (n =4 ,5 ) resonances in Xe5 + ion. By detecting in coincidence the Auger electrons with the resulting Xe6 + ions, we unravel the contribution of the different final ionic states to the total cross section measured by ion spectroscopy. A strong intensity of 5 s 5 p satellite lines has been observed, up to 4 times stronger than the 5 s2 main lines. This unexpected behavior is confirmed by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. This technique provides the most stringent test for theoretical models and allows us to disentangle the contribution of ions in the ground and metastable states in the target beam.

  19. Effect of temperature on the spectral characteristics of 2-(4'-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Nihar; Krishnamoorthy, G.

    The photophysical behaviors of 2-(4'-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (DMAPIP-b) were studied as a function of temperature in six different solvents (cyclohexane, acetonitrile, ethanol, methanol, 1-proponal and glycerol), using absorption, steady-state emission and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The temperature strongly affects the fluorescence quantum yields and life times of both TICT and normal emissions of DMAPIP-b. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on all two isomers of DMAPIP-b. Solvent stabilization effects have also been studied based on integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum (IEF-PCM) model in four different solvents, cyclohexane, acetonitrile, ethanol and methanol. The calculations suggested that isomer I is more stable than isomer II of all these solvents. Both solvatochromic and thermochromic methods were used to calculate the dipole moment of the TICT state and the values obtained by both methods are in good agreement with each other.

  20. Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Oleson, K.; Huber, M.

    2015-02-01

    We implement and analyze 13 different metrics (4 moist thermodynamic quantities and 9 heat stress metrics) in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5), the land surface component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We call these routines the HumanIndexMod. We limit the algorithms of the HumanIndexMod to meteorological inputs of temperature, moisture, and pressure for their calculation. All metrics assume no direct sunlight exposure. The goal of this project is to implement a common framework for calculating operationally used heat stress metrics, in climate models, offline output, and locally sourced weather data sets, with the intent that the HumanIndexMod may be used with the broadest of applications. The thermodynamic quantities use the latest, most accurate and efficient algorithms available, which in turn are used as inputs to the heat stress metrics. There are three advantages of adding these metrics to CLM4.5: (1) improved moist thermodynamic quantities; (2) quantifying heat stress in every available environment within CLM4.5; and (3) these metrics may be used with human, animal, and industrial applications. We demonstrate the capabilities of the HumanIndexMod in a default configuration simulation using CLM4.5. We output 4× daily temporal resolution globally. We show that the advantage of implementing these routines into CLM4.5 is capturing the nonlinearity of the covariation of temperature and moisture conditions. For example, we show that there are systematic biases of up to 1.5 °C between monthly and ±0.5 °C between 4× daily offline calculations and the online instantaneous calculation, respectively. Additionally, we show that the differences between an inaccurate wet bulb calculation and the improved wet bulb calculation are ±1.5 °C. These differences are important due to human responses to heat stress being nonlinear. Furthermore, we show heat stress has unique regional characteristics. Some metrics have a strong dependency on regionally extreme

  1. Leukotriene B4 stimulation of phagocytes results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. A second messenger for Ca2+ mobilization.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, T; Schlegel, W; Monod, A; Krause, K H; Stendahl, O; Lew, D P

    1986-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) production and cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) elevations induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-receptor activation were studied in the human promyelocytic-leukaemia cell line HL60, induced to differentiate by retinoic acid. The myeloid-differentiated HL60 cells respond to LTB4 by raising their [Ca2+]i with a dose-response relationship similar to that shown by normal human neutrophils. The observations of the LTB4 transduction mechanism were compared with those of the transduction mechanism of the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe in HL60 cells differentiated with dimethyl sulphoxide. Both LTB4 and fMet-Leu-Phe triggered a rapid (less than 5 s) elevation of [Ca2+]i, which occurred in parallel with the InsP3 production from myo-[3H]inositol-labelled cells. The threshold concentrations of the agonists, for InsP3 production, were found at 10(-9) M, a slightly higher concentration than that required to detect [Ca2+]i elevations. No significant changes were noted in the phosphoinositide levels upon stimulation with LTB4. Exposure to Bordetella pertussis toxin before LTB4 stimulation abolished both the increased formation of InsP3 and the rise of [Ca2+]i. LTB4 and fMet-Leu-Phe elicited elevations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] with no detectable lag time, followed by slower and more sustained inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate elevations. Stimulation with various leukotriene analogues revealed a good correlation between both total InsP3 as well as Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation and elevations of [Ca2+]1. Thus LTB4 receptor activation results in an increased production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 via a transduction mechanism also involving a nucleotide regulatory protein, as previously described for the fMet-Leu-Phe transduction mechanism. PMID:3028373

  2. Vesicular PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and Rab7 are key effectors of sea urchin zygote nuclear membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Lete, Marta G; Byrne, Richard D; Alonso, Alicia; Poccia, Dominic; Larijani, Banafshé

    2017-01-15

    Regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics is an important example of the universal phenomena of membrane fusion. The signalling molecules involved in nuclear membrane fusion might also be conserved during the formation of both pronuclear and zygote nuclear envelopes in the fertilised egg. Here, we determine that class-I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are needed for in vitro nuclear envelope formation. We show that, in vivo, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is transiently located in vesicles around the male pronucleus at the time of nuclear envelope formation, and around male and female pronuclei before membrane fusion. We illustrate that class-I PI3K activity is also necessary for fusion of the female and male pronuclear membranes. We demonstrate, using coincidence amplified Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) monitored using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), a protein-lipid interaction of Rab7 GTPase and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 that occurs during pronuclear membrane fusion to create the zygote nuclear envelope. We present a working model, which includes several molecular steps in the pathways controlling fusion of nuclear envelope membranes.

  3. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 14/C-labeled 3H-imidazo(4,5-f)quinoline-2-amines in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, K.

    1985-03-01

    The highly mutagenic heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), are formed during heating of protein-rich foods. In order to gain information about the distribution and fate of IQ and MeIQ in vivo, a whole-body autoradiographic study of i.v.-injected /sup 14/C-labeled IQ and MeIQ has been performed in male NMRI, pregnant NMRI, and female C3H mice. IQ and MeIQ showed similar distribution patterns. At short survival times, the autoradiograms were characterized by an accumulation of radioactivity in metabolic and excretory organs (liver, kidney, bile, urine, gastric and intestinal contents, salivary glands, nasal mucosa, and Harder's gland), as well as in lymphomyeloid tissues (bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes) and in endocrine and reproductive tissues (adrenal medulla, pancreatic islets, thyroid, hypophysis, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and prostate). The liver and kidney cortex were identified as sites of retention of nonextractable radioactivity. IQ and MeIQ showed a strong affinity for melanin. IQ and MeIQ passed the placenta, but no radioactivity was retained in fetal tissues. The results pinpoint the liver as a site of IQ- and MeIQ-mediated toxicity. Future studies of IQ and MeIQ may be guided by and clarify the role of other tissue localizations in the toxicity of IQ and MeIQ.

  4. Non-additive hepatic gene expression elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) co-treatment in C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; D'Souza, Michelle L.; Mets, Bryan D.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Reese, Sarah E.; Archer, Kellie J.; Potter, Dave; Tashiro, Colleen; Sharratt, Bonnie; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2011-10-15

    Interactions between environmental contaminants can lead to non-additive effects that may affect the toxicity and risk assessment of a mixture. Comprehensive time course and dose-response studies with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), non-dioxin-like 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) and their mixture were performed in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice. Mice were gavaged once with 30 {mu}g/kg TCDD, 300 mg/kg PCB153, a mixture of 30 {mu}g/kg TCDD with 300 mg/kg PCB153 (MIX) or sesame oil vehicle for 4,12, 24,72 or 168 h. In the 24 h dose-response study, animals were gavaged with TCDD (0.3,1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30, 45 {mu}g/kg), PCB153 (3,10, 30, 60, 100, 150, 300, 450 mg/kg), MIX (0.3 + 3, 1 + 10, 3 + 30, 6 + 60, 10 + 100, 15 + 150, 30 + 300, 45 {mu}g/kg TCDD + 450 mg/kg PCB153, respectively) or vehicle. All three treatments significantly increased relative liver weights (RLW), with MIX eliciting significantly greater increases compared to TCDD and PCB153 alone. Histologically, MIX induced hepatocellular hypertrophy, vacuolization, inflammation, hyperplasia and necrosis, a combination of TCDD and PCB153 responses. Complementary lipid analyses identified significant increases in hepatic triglycerides in MIX and TCDD samples, while PCB153 had no effect on lipids. Hepatic PCB153 levels were also significantly increased with TCDD co-treatment. Microarray analysis identified 167 TCDD, 185 PCB153 and 388 MIX unique differentially expressed genes. Statistical modeling of quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Pla2g12a, Serpinb6a, Nqo1, Srxn1, and Dysf verified non-additive expression following MIX treatment compared to TCDD and PCB153 alone. In summary, TCDD and PCB153 co-treatment elicited specific non-additive gene expression effects that are consistent with RLW increases, histopathology, and hepatic lipid accumulation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > MIX (TCDD:PCB153 at 1:10,000 ratio) exposure leads to non-additive gene expression

  5. Inframolecular acid-base and coordination properties towards Na(+) and Mg(2+) of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate: a structural approach to biologically relevant species.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; Godage, Himali Y; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

    2013-05-07

    The myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs) are specific signalling metabolites ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. Although Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) is the second most abundant member of the InsPs family, its certain biological roles are far from being elucidated, in part due to the large number of species formed by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) in the presence of metal ions. In light of this, we have strived in the past to make a complete and at the same time "biological-user-friendly" description of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) chemistry with mono and multivalent cations. In this work we expand these studies focusing on the inframolecular aspects of its protonation equilibria and the microscopic details of its coordination behaviour towards biologically relevant metal ions. We present here a systematic study of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) intrinsic acid-base processes, in a non-interacting medium, and over a wide pH range, analyzing the (31)P NMR curves by means of a model based on the Cluster Expansion Method. In addition, we have used a computational approach to analyse the energetic and structural features of the protonation and conformational changes of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5), and how they are influenced by the presence of two physiologically relevant cations, Na(+) and Mg(2+).

  6. QUANTITATION OF PI[3,4,5]P3 DYNAMICS IN EGF-STIMULATED CARCINOMA CELLS: A comparison of PH domain-mediated versus immunological methods

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Shu-Chin; Eddy, Robert J.; Branch, Angie M.; Pang, Huan; Wu, Haiyan; Yan, Ying; Drees, Beth E.; Neilsen, Paul O.; Condeelis, John; Backer, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-kinase) generate the secondary messenger PI[3,4,5]P3, which plays an important role in many cellular responses. The accumulation of PI[3,4,5]P3 in cell membranes is routinely measured using GFP-labeled PH domains. However, the kinetics of membrane PI[3,4,5]P3 synthesis and turnover as detected by PH domains has not been validated using an independent method. In the present study, we measured EGF-stimulated membrane PI[3,4,5]P3 production using a specific monoclonal anti- PI[3,4,5]P3 antibody, and compared the results to those obtained using PH domain-dependent methods. Anti-PI[3,4,5]P3 staining rapidly accumulated at the leading edge of EGF-stimulated carcinoma cells. PI[3,4,5]P3 levels were maximal at 1 min, and returned to basal levels by 5 min. In contrast, membrane PI[3,4,5]P3 production, measured by the membrane translocation of either pSer473-Akt or an epitope-tagged PH domain from BTK (BTKPH), remained approximately 2-fold above basal level throughout 4-5 min of EGF-stimulation. To determine the reason for this disparity, we measured the rate of PI[3,4,5]P3 hydrolysis by measuring the decay of the PI[3,4,5]P3 signal after LY294002 treatment of EGF-stimulated cells. LY294002 abolished anti-PI[3,4,5]P3 membrane staining within 10 sec of treatment, suggesting that PI[3,4,5]P3 turnover occurs within seconds of synthesis. In contrast, BTKPH membrane recruitment, once initiated by EGF, was relatively insensitive to LY294002. These data suggest that sequestration of PI[3,4,5]P3 by PH domains may affect the apparent kinetics of PI[3,4,5]P3 accumulation and turnover; consistent with this hypothesis, we found that GRP1 PH domains (which like BTK are specific for PI[3,4,5]P3) inhibit PTEN dephosphorylation of PI[3,4,5]P3 in vitro. These data suggest that anti-PI[3,4,5]P3 antibodies are a useful tool to detect localized PI[3,4,5]P3, and illustrate the importance of using multiple approaches for the estimation of membrane

  7. Photophysical properties of ESIPT inspired fluorescent 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and its derivative: Experimental and DFT based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Mininath S.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-01-01

    The excited-state intramolecular proton transfer chromophores 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and 2-(4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione are synthesized from 4,5-diamino-N-methylphthalimide. The photophysical behavior of the synthesized chromophores was studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy in the polar and non-polar solvents. The synthesized o-hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole derivatives are fluorescent and very sensitive to the solvent polarity. These dyes are thermally stable up to 317 °C. Density Functional Theory computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical properties of the chromophores. The experimental absorption and emission wavelengths are in good agreement with the computed vertical excitation and theoretical emission obtained by Density Functional Theory and Time Dependant Density Functional Theory.

  8. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    minister of Greece, “neither race, nor language, nor skull could be used as the basis for determining the nationality and that national conscience...Serbia, in particular, has been very active in spreading propaganda about the danger posed by the prospect of Greater Albania. The term, alien to the...greater Albania plot.”62 However, for Albanians, despite of their living place, the term “Greater Albania” is alien .63 Instead, they use the term

  9. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  10. DFT study on energetic tetrazolo-[1,5-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and 1,2,4-triazolo-[4,3-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Zhu, Weihua; Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Heming

    2010-07-15

    The heats of formation (HOFs) for a series of tetrazolo-[1,5-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (TETZ) and 1,2,4-triazolo-[4,3-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (TTZ) derivatives were studied by using density functional theory. The results show that the substitution of the -N(3) or -N(NO(2))(2) group in the TETZ or TTZ ring extremely enhances its HOF values. For monosubstituted case, attachment of a substituent to position 8 in the TETZ or TTZ ring will increase its energy gaps except for the derivatives with the -NO(2) group. It is also found that the energy gap of TTZ can be tuned by incorporating a substituent into different positions in the parent ring. The substitution of the -NH(2) group in the TETZ ring is favorable for enhancing its thermal stability. For the TTZ ring, different substituted positions and number of the substituent might affect its thermal stability. The calculated detonation properties indicate that incorporating the -NO(2), -NF(2), -ONO(2), or -N(NO(2))(2) group into the TETZ or TTZ ring is very helpful for enhancing its detonation performance. Considered the detonation performance and thermal stability, four derivatives may be regarded as the promising candidates of high-energy density materials (HEDMs).

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray structure and DFT studies on 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ium chloride hydrate.

    PubMed

    Türkyılmaz, Murat; Özdemir, Namık; Baran, Yakup

    2011-11-01

    The title molecular salt, 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ium chloride hydrate (C(12)H(14)N(3)O(+)·Cl-·H(2)O), was synthesized and characterized by IR-NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the molecular geometry from X-ray experiment, the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values of the title compound in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets, and compared with the experimental data. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distribution and non-linear optical properties of the title compound were investigated by theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level.

  12. 11H-Pyrido[3',2':4,5]pyrrolo[3,2-c]cinnoline and pyrido[3',2':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-c][1,2,3]benzotriazine: two new ring systems with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Muscarella, Marina; Spanò, Virginia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Barraja, Paola; Salvador, Alessia; Vedaldi, Daniela; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Diana, Patrizia

    2014-11-26

    Derivatives of new ring systems 11H-pyrido[3',2':4,5]pyrrolo[3,2-c]cinnoline and pyrido[3',2':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-c][1,2,3]benzotriazine have been prepared from the key intermediates 2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)anilines in excellent yields (94-99%) and screened by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD) on about 60 human tumor cell lines derived from nine cancer cell types. The tested compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity against all the human cell lines, showing comparable MG_MID (mean graph midpoint) values in the range of 0.74-1.15 μM. A particular efficacy was observed against the leukemia subpanel (GI50 = 0.73-0.0090 μM). Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle demonstrated an increase in the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase. The compounds caused apoptosis of the cells, mitochondrial depolarization, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. Moreover, they acted as topoisomerase I inhibitors.

  13. Synthesis and Application of 1,3,4,5,7,8-Hexafluorotetracyanonaphthoquinodimethane (F6-TNAP): A Conductivity Dopant for Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Koech, Phillip K.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Darsell, Jens T.; Rainbolt, James E.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2010-07-13

    We report the synthesis, photophysical and organic light-emitting device (OLED) properties of an organic molecular p-dopant 1,3,4,5,7,8-hexafluorotetracyanonaphthoquinodimethane (F6-TNAP). F6-TNAP was obtained in a three step 2 pot synthesis from commercially available octafluoronaphthalene. Doping effect of F6-TNAP was evaluated using films of 1-5% F6-TNAP with N,N'-di-1-naphthyl-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'diamineα-NPD) co-evaporated on quartz. UV-vis analysis of these films showed an absorption peak at 950 nm corresponding to the charge transfer complex resulting from electron transfer from α-NPD to F6-TNAP. Hole only devices using α-NPD as the hole transport layer (HTL) doped with F6-TNAP show greater than 2V decrease in operating voltage compared to the undoped device. A decrease in operating voltage was also demonstrated in blue OLED devices using F6-TNAP doped HTL, with a slight decrease in external quantum efficiency (EQE), thus resulting in a net improvement in power efficiency.

  14. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The SPP model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  15. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  16. Incorporation of a dynamic root distribution into CLM4.5: Evaluation of carbon and water fluxes over the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Zhenghui; Jia, Binghao

    2016-09-01

    Roots are responsible for the uptake of water and nutrients by plants and have the plasticity to dynamically respond to different environmental conditions. However, most land surface models currently prescribe rooting profiles as a function only of vegetation type, with no consideration of the surroundings. In this study, a dynamic rooting scheme, which describes root growth as a compromise between water and nitrogen availability, was incorporated into CLM4.5 with carbon-nitrogen (CN) interactions (CLM4.5-CN) to investigate the effects of a dynamic root distribution on eco-hydrological modeling. Two paired numerical simulations were conducted for the Tapajos National Forest km83 (BRSa3) site and the Amazon, one using CLM4.5-CN without the dynamic rooting scheme and the other including the proposed scheme. Simulations for the BRSa3 site showed that inclusion of the dynamic rooting scheme increased the amplitudes and peak values of diurnal gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) for the dry season, and improved the carbon (C) and water cycle modeling by reducing the RMSE of GPP by 0.4 g C m-2 d-1, net ecosystem exchange by 1.96 g C m-2 d-1, LE by 5.0 W m-2, and soil moisture by 0.03 m3 m-3, at the seasonal scale, compared with eddy flux measurements, while having little impact during the wet season. For the Amazon, regional analysis also revealed that vegetation responses (including GPP and LE) to seasonal drought and the severe drought of 2005 were better captured with the dynamic rooting scheme incorporated.

  17. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  18. Saturated fatty acids activate caspase-4/5 in human monocytes, triggering IL-1β and IL-18 release.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Chan, Kenny L; Zhang, Shitian; Mejdani, Marios; Jacobson, Maya R; Ducos, Alexandre; Bilan, Philip J; Niu, Wenyan; Klip, Amira

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic tissue infiltration by monocyte-derived macrophages. Saturated fatty acids contribute to proinflammatory gene induction in tissue-embedded immune cells. However, it is unknown how circulating monocytes, the macrophage precursors, react to high-fat environments. In macrophages, saturated fatty acids activate inflammatory pathways and, notably, prime caspase-associated inflammasomes. Inflammasome-activated IL-1β contributes to type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that 1) human monocytes from obese patients show caspase activation, and 2) fatty acids trigger this response and consequent release of IL-1β/IL-18. Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted by flow cytometry, and caspase activity was measured with a FLICA dye-based assay. Blood monocytes from obese individuals exhibited elevated caspase activity. To explore the nature and consequence of this activity, human THP1 monocytes were exposed to saturated or unsaturated fatty acids. Caspase activity was revealed by isoform-specific cleavage and enzymatic activity; cytokine expression/release was measured by qPCR and ELISA. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, increased caspase activity in parallel to the release of IL-1β and IL-18. Palmitate induced eventual monocyte cell death with features of pyroptosis (an inflammation-linked cell death program involving caspase-4/5), scored through LDH release, vital dye influx, cell volume changes, and nuclear morphology. Notably, selective gene silencing or inhibition of caspase-4/5 reduced palmitate-induced release of IL-1β and IL-18. In summary, monocytes from obese individuals present elevated caspase activity. Mechanistically, palmitate activates a pyroptotic program in monocytes through caspase-4/5, causing inflammatory cytokine release, additional to inflammasomes. These caspases represent potential, novel, therapeutic targets to taper obesity-associated inflammation.

  19. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  20. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the