Science.gov

Sample records for 4-5 times higher

  1. 18 CFR 4.5 - Time for filing protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time for filing protest... protest. Thirty days after service thereof will be allowed to such licensee within which to file a protest to such reports. If no protest is filed within the time allowed, the Commission will issue such...

  2. Low-molecular-weight (4.5S) ribonucleic acid in higher-plant chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfeld, P R; Leaver, C J; Bottomley, W; Atchison, B

    1978-01-01

    A species of RNA that migrates on 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels between 5S and 4S RNA was detected in spinach chloroplasts. This RNA (referred to as 4.5 S RNA) was present in amounts equimolar to the 5S RNA and its molecular weight was estimated to be approx. 33 000. Fractionation of the chloroplast components showed that the 4.5S RNA was associated with the 50 S ribosomal subunit and that it could be removed by washing the ribosomes with a buffer containing 0.01 M-EDTA and 0.5 M-KCl. It did not appear to be a cleavage product of the labile 23 S RNA of spinach chloroplast ribosomes. When 125I-labelled 4.5 S RNA was hybridized to fragments of spinach chloroplast DNA produced by SmaI restriction endonuclease, a single fragment (mol.wt. 1.15 times 10(6)) became labelled. The same DNA fragment also hybridized to chloroplast 5 S RNA and part of the 23 S RNA. It was concluded that the coding sequence for 4.5 S RNA was part of, or immediately adjacent to, the rRNA-gene region in chloroplast DNA . A comparable RNA species was observed in chloroplasts of tobacco and pea leaves. Images Fig. 8. PMID:743229

  3. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Clancy, T. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Khater, H. Y.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2012-10-15

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator/photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y{sub n}) measurements from below 10{sup 9} (DD) to nearly 10{sup 15} (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y{sub n} precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of {+-}10% and precision of {+-}1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y{sub n} measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  4. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  5. Development of cellulose derivatives as novel enteric coating agents soluble at pH 3.5-4.5 and higher.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, H; Obara, S; Minemura, K; Tanaka, T

    1997-08-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was selected as a base polymer to develop novel enteric coating agents for acid protection which can dissolve at pH around 4, and was modified with trimellitic acid or maleic acid at various degrees of substitution. These carboxylic acids have higher dissociation constants and higher solubility in water than the carboxylic acids of existing enteric coating polymers. The synthesized polymers were micronized and dispersed in aqueous medium to determine their pKa values by potentiometric titration. The pH of dissolution and the water vapor permeability of the cast films prepared from organic solutions were also evaluated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose trimellitate (HPMCT) showed good acid resistance, and the pH at which it dissolves can be controlled in the range of pH 3.5 to 4.5 by varying the content of trimellityl groups and the methoxyl substitution of the base polymer. PMID:9301034

  6. Storm-time fingerprints of Pc 4-5 waves on energetic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Marina; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Zesta, Eftyhia; Balasis, George; Mann, Ian R.; Tsinganos, Kanaris

    2014-05-01

    Geospace magnetic storms, associated with either coronal mass ejections (CMEs) or high speed solar streams, involve global variations of the geomagnetic field as well as acceleration of charged particles in the magnetosphere. Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves with frequencies in the range of a few mHz (Pc 4-5 waves) can be generated externally by compressive variations in the solar wind or shear flow along the magnetopause unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect. Furthermore, low frequency instabilities of ring current ions are also considered as a possible internal driver of ULF wave growth. We examine power enhancements of ULF waves during four successive magnetic storms, which occurred in July 2004 and were characterized by a decreasing minimum of the Dst index, from -76 nT down to -197 nT. During the course of the magnetic storms, ULF wave power variations have been observed nearly simultaneously at different magnetic latitudes and longitudes by the ground-based CARISMA, IMAGE, 210 MM and SAMBA magnetometer networks. Nonetheless, stronger magnetic storms were accompanied by greater ULF wave power enhancements tending to be more pronounced at magnetic stations located at lower L shells. Furthermore, the generation and penetration of ULF wave power deep into the inner magnetosphere seems to be contributing to the energization and transport of relativistic electrons. Except for the magnetic storm on 25 July 2000, the three magnetic storms on 17, 23 and 27 July 2004 were characterized by a significant increase in the flux of electrons with energies higher than 1 MeV, as measured by GOES-10 and -12 during the recovery phase of each storm. On the other hand, when looking at the magnetic storm on 17 August 2001, the initial decrease was followed by an increase six days after the commencement of the storm. The electron flux decrease was more than two orders of magnitude and remained low after the recovery of the Dst index. These observations provided us the basis for

  7. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  8. Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159985.html Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans Post-traumatic stress disorder increases ... 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders are six times more likely among American military veterans than in ...

  9. Development and Validation of Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Nofs, Sally; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5 log10 concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness. PMID:22842286

  10. Strategies for Hard Times in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desfosses, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Planning and management strategies used in the private sector have practical applications for higher education in a period of systemic and organizational stress. Promising strategies include organizational delayering; employee empowerment; boundless thinking, problem-solving teams; accelerated processes; quality management and improvement; and…

  11. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  12. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  13. 4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of MRK 421 During the ARGO-YBJ and FERMI Common Operation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to

  14. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  15. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  16. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). I. A Neptune-sized Planet Orbiting an M4.5 Dwarf in the Hyades Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; LaCourse, Daryll; Jacobs, Thomas L.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.; Kaplan, Kyle F.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of young planetary systems can shed light on how the dynamics and structure of planets evolve during their most formative years. Recent K2 observations of nearby young clusters (10-800 Myr) have facilitated the discovery of such planetary systems. Here we report the discovery of a Neptune-sized planet transiting an M4.5 dwarf (K2-25) in the Hyades cluster (650-800 Myr). The light curve shows a strong periodic signal at 1.88 days, which we attribute to spot coverage and rotation. We confirm that the planet host is a member of the Hyades by measuring the radial velocity of the system with the high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer. This enables us to calculate a distance based on K2-25's kinematics and membership to the Hyades, which in turn provides a stellar radius and mass to ≃5%-10%, better than what is currently possible for most Kepler M dwarfs (12%-20%). We use the derived stellar density as a prior on fitting the K2 transit photometry, which provides weak constraints on eccentricity. Utilizing a combination of adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution spectra, we rule out the possibility that the signal is due to a bound or background eclipsing binary, confirming the transits’ planetary origin. K2-25b has a radius ({3.43}-0.31+0.95 R⊕) much larger than older Kepler planets with similar orbital periods (3.485 days) and host-star masses (0.29 M⊙). This suggests that close-in planets lose some of their atmospheres past the first few hundred million years. Additional transiting planets around the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters from K2 will help confirm whether this planet is atypical or representative of other close-in planets of similar age.

  17. Time Use Differences in Activity Participation among Children 4-5 Years Old with and without the Risk of Developing Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mong-Lin; Ziviani, Jenny; Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood are associated with the way in which children engage in daily activities. Research, to date, on conduct problems in relation to time use has primarily focused on school aged children and their participation in discrete activities such as watching TV and sport. The purpose of the present study is to determine if…

  18. Higher Education in Recessionary Times: A UK Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about a meeting on "Higher Education in Recessionary Times" on March 24, 2010, which was hosted by the Society for Higher Education Research Policy Network. Although the meeting did take place in the context of an expected General Election, and on budget day, there was a general sense on the day that whoever won the Election (or…

  19. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  20. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This investigation…

  1. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  2. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  3. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  4. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  5. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  6. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  7. Late-time acceleration in higher dimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Pahwa, Isha; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Seshadri, T.R. E-mail: debajyoti.choudhury@gmail.com

    2011-09-01

    We investigate late time acceleration of the universe in higher dimensional cosmology. The content in the universe is assumed to exert pressure which is different in the normal and extra dimensions. Cosmologically viable solutions are found to exist for simple forms of the equation of state. The parameters of the model are fixed by comparing the predictions with supernovae data. While observations stipulate that the matter exerts almost vanishing pressure in the normal dimensions, we assume that, in the extra dimensions, the equation of state is of the form P∝ρ{sup 1−γ}. For appropriate choice of parameters, a late time acceleration in the universe occurs with q{sub 0} and z{sub tr} being approximately -0.46 and 0.76 respectively.

  8. Improved Continuous-Time Higher Harmonic Control Using Hinfinity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Frank H.

    The helicopter is a versatile aircraft that can take-off and land vertically, hover efficiently, and maneuver in confined space. This versatility is enabled by the main rotor, which also causes undesired harmonic vibration during operation. This unwanted vibration has a negative impact on the practicality of the helicopter and also increases its operational cost. Passive control techniques have been applied to helicopter vibration suppression, but these methods are generally heavy and are not robust to changes in operating conditions. Feedback control offers the advantages of robustness and potentially higher performance over passive control techniques, and amongst the various feedback schemes, Shaw's higher harmonic control algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for attenuating harmonic disturbance in helicopters. In this thesis, the higher harmonic disturbance algorithm is further developed to achieve improved performance. One goal in this thesis is to determine the importance of periodicity in the helicopter rotor dynamics for control synthesis. Based on the analysis of wind tunnel data and simulation results, we conclude the helicopter rotor can be modeled reasonably well as linear and time-invariant for control design purposes. Modeling the helicopter rotor as linear time-invariant allows us to apply linear control theory concepts to the higher harmonic control problem. Another goal in this thesis is to find the limits of performance in harmonic disturbance rejection. To achieve this goal, we first define the metrics to measure the performance of the controller in terms of response speed and robustness to changes in the plant dynamics. The performance metrics are incorporated into an Hinfinity control problem. For a given plant, the resulting Hinfinity controller achieves the maximum performance, thus allowing us to identify the performance limitation in harmonic disturbance rejection. However, the Hinfinity controllers are of high order, and may

  9. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  10. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  11. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  12. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  13. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  14. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  15. California's "Gold Standard" for Higher Education Falls Upon Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    Few documents in higher education have enjoyed the influence or longevity of the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the 1960 law that transformed the state's public colleges and served as a blueprint for public systems across the country. Even today, almost 50 years after it was written, the master plan retains a mythic status in…

  16. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  17. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  18. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  19. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  20. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  1. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  2. Formation and metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, J L; Dangelmaier, C A; Smith, J B

    1987-01-01

    1. myo-[3H]Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], when added to lysed platelets, was rapidly converted into [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4], which was in turn converted into [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3]. This result demonstrates that platelets have the same metabolic pathways for interconversion of inositol polyphosphates that are found in other cells. 2. Labelling of platelets with [32P]Pi, followed by h.p.l.c., was used to measure thrombin-induced changes in the three inositol polyphosphates. Interfering compounds were removed by a combination of enzymic and non-enzymic techniques. 3. Ins(1,4,5)P3 was formed rapidly, and reached a maximum at about 4 s. It was also rapidly degraded, and was no longer detectable after 30-60 s. 4. Formation of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was almost as rapid as that of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and it remained detectable for a longer time. 5. Ins(1,3,4)P3 was formed after an initial lag, and this isomer reached its maximum, which was 10-fold higher than that of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at 30 s. 6. Comparison of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as measured with fura-2 indicates that agents other than Ins(1,4,5)P3 are responsible for the sustained maintenance of a high concentration of intracellular Ca2+. It is proposed that either Ins(1,3,4)P3 or Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 may also be Ca2+-mobilizing agents. PMID:3499898

  3. Part-Time Students and Their Experience of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom; And Others

    A questionnaire survey sought to determine the characteristics of part-time university students in Great Britain, the reasons why they choose part-time study, the difficulties they encounter, the extent and incidence of non-completion, and to identify examples of "good practice" in the provision and management of part-time degree courses.…

  4. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  5. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  6. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an…

  7. Time for Action to Bolster Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in America had its origins in New England more than 350 years ago. Since then, America's colleges and universities have been the incubators of great ideas, birthplaces of great inventions, and testing grounds of great individuals. For generations of New Englanders, a college education has provided the opportunity to fully embrace…

  8. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  9. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  10. Numerical Relativity in Higher-Dimensional Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Helvi

    2013-09-01

    Black holes are among the most exciting phenomena predicted by General Relativity and play a key role in fundamental physics. Many interesting phenomena involve dynamical black hole configurations in the high curvature regime of gravity. In these lecture notes I will summarize the main numerical relativity techniques to explore highly dynamical phenomena, such as black hole collisions, in generic D-dimensional space-times. The present notes are based on my lectures given at the NR/HEP2 spring school at IST/Lisbon (Portugal) from March 11-14, 2013.

  11. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  12. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  13. Ca(2+) signals mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels in rat ureteric myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, F X; Coussin, F; Morel, J L; Halet, G; Macrez, N; Mironneau, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized Ca(2+)-release signals (puffs) and propagated Ca(2+) waves were characterized in rat ureteric myocytes by confocal microscopy. Ca(2+) puffs were evoked by photorelease of low concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) from a caged precursor and by low concentrations of acetylcholine; they were also observed spontaneously in Ca(2+)-overloaded myocytes. Ca(2+) puffs showed some variability in amplitude, time course and spatial spread, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels exist in clusters containing variable numbers of channels and that within these clusters a variable number of channels can be recruited. Immunodetection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors revealed the existence of several spots of fluorescence in the confocal cell sections, supporting the existence of clusters of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors. Strong Ins(1,4,5)P(3) photorelease and high concentrations of acetylcholine induced Ca(2+) waves that originated from an initiation site and propagated in the whole cell by spatial recruitment of neighbouring Ca(2+)-release sites. Both Ca(2+) puffs and Ca(2+) waves were blocked selectively by intracellular applications of heparin and an anti-Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-receptor antibody, but were unaffected by ryanodine and intracellular application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody. mRNAs encoding for the three subtypes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor and subtype 3 of ryanodine receptor were detected in these myocytes, and the maximal binding capacity of [(3)H]Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was 10- to 12-fold higher than that of [(3)H]ryanodine. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels mediate a continuum of Ca(2+) signalling in smooth-muscle cells expressing a high level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors and no subtypes 1 and 2 of ryanodine receptors. PMID:10861244

  14. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  15. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  16. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  17. State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of higher education in state budgets. It empirically models and tests the balance wheel hypothesis in a robust framework. The balance wheel model posits that in good economic times, higher education is an attractive area for states to fund and tends to be funded at a higher rate than other state budget categories.…

  18. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but "blocking out time" and "time shifting" suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  19. Changing Times of Feminism and Higher Education: From Community to Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dorothy; Richter, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher…

  20. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  1. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  2. The Legal Rights of Tenured and Part-Time Faculty Members in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Sherie P.

    A review of faculty-related court decisions in the areas of status, compensation, and unit determination points out legal rights of part-time and full-time faculty in higher education. These rights have been tested and defined by many court cases. Litigation has occurred about the difference between part-time and full-time faculty. In regard to…

  3. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  4. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  5. Higher Education Students in Part-Time Work in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses students taking part-time work whilst studying higher education (HE). It suggests that cross-national trends can be observed in the purposes, types, benefits, negative aspects and outcomes of part-time work by HE students. The paper reviews literature on HE students working part-time in the UK and the US, and UNESCO studies…

  6. Creating Space for Learning: Conceptualizing Women and Higher Education through Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dot

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the strengths of giving visibility to the concepts of space and time in research related to women's lives and higher education. It is based on research that explores the everyday practice and experience of women higher education students at a community college in the north of England. It focuses on the ways in which space and…

  7. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  8. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.

    1998-05-04

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to 4.5 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigations successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen. These results are discussed in terms of future alloy development options.

  9. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  10. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Chung, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  11. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  12. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  13. Part-time Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Scott L.; Hoyt, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to inform researchers of those predictive factors of job satisfaction previously identified for part-time faculty in higher education. They used the information gathered to help develop a survey instrument that was administered to 700 part-time faculty at their own institution. The results of the study,…

  14. Preparation and Support for Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education: Case Studies of Departmental Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred, Comp.; Thompson, Sheila, Comp.

    This publication presents 14 departmental case studies of the preparation and support provided to part-time teachers in Scottish institutions of higher education. The case studies are grouped in four sections according to the category of part-time staff involved: practicing professionals (professional teaching assistants, lawyers, artists, and…

  15. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  16. QCD for Postgraduates (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Modern QCD - Lecture 4 We will consider some processes of interest at the LHC and will discuss the main elements of their cross-section calculations. We will also summarize the current status of higher order calculations.

  17. The NIF 4.5-m nTOF Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Y

    2012-05-07

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator/photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring DD and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield benchmarks from below 1E9 (DD) to nearly 1E15 (DT). The detectors demonstrated DT yield measurement precisions better than 5%, but the absolute accuracy relies on cross calibration with independent measurements of absolute neutron yield. The 4.5-m nTOF data have provided a useful testbed for testing improvements in nTOF data processing, especially with respect to improving the accuracies of the detector impulse response functions. The resulting improvements in data analysis methods have produced more accurate results. In summary, results from the NIF 4.5-m nTOF detectors have provided consistent measurements of DD and DT neutron yields from laser-fusion implosions.

  18. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J.; Chung, H.M.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  19. Predicting Hyper-Chaotic Time Series Using Adaptive Higher-Order Nonlinear Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Shu; Xiao, Xian-Ci

    2001-03-01

    A newly proposed method, i.e. the adaptive higher-order nonlinear finite impulse response (HONFIR) filter based on higher-order sparse Volterra series expansions, is introduced to predict hyper-chaotic time series. The effectiveness of using the adaptive HONFIR filter for making one-step and multi-step predictions is tested based on very few data points by computer-generated hyper-chaotic time series including the Mackey-Glass equation and four-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. A comparison is made with some neural networks for predicting the Mackey-Glass hyper-chaotic time series. Numerical simulation results show that the adaptive HONFIR filter proposed here is a very powerful tool for making prediction of hyper-chaotic time series.

  20. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626

  1. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  2. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  3. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  4. Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

  5. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the top 200…

  6. What Determines Employment of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangmin; Zhang, Liang

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a cross-section national sample of four-year colleges and universities in the United States to examine the variation of part-time faculty employment. Results of this study suggest that higher educational institutions actively design and adopt contingent work arrangements to save on labor costs and to manage their resource…

  7. Influence of lipolysis on the mobilization of 2,4,5,2'4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl from adipocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Epididymal adipocytes, isolated from rats pretreated with (/sup 14/C)-2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB), were utilized to examine the relationship between the mobilization of lipid and 6-CB and to determine whether 6-CB was differentially associated with subcellular organelles over time as has been demonstrated for newly synthesized lipid. Lipolysis, depleted approximately 1% of total cellular triacylglycerols (TG) regardless of time from treatment with 6-CB. The percentage of cellular 6-CB released from adipocytes to incubation buffer infranatants was not correlated with the magnitude of lipolysis produced over the 50-min incubation period; nor was the percentage of 6-CB released to the buffers correlated with the length of the incubation period, regardless of the presence of ISO. Although adipocytes responded similarly to lipolytic stimuli independent of time (days) since 6-CB treatment, significant decreases were found in the percentage of 6-CB released from adipocytes over time. The in vitro labeling of this newly synthesized TG in fat cells with (U-/sup 14/C)glucose or (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate demonstrated that TG was differentially distributed among adipocyte organelles. Newly synthesized TG was also the first to be mobilized under lipolytic stimulus. 6-CB was not released in a similar fashion, since radioactivity associated with the chemical levels of (/sup 14/C)-6-CB and glucose-derived /sup 14/C in buffers were not correlated over time.

  8. Degradation of 4,5-dichloroguaiacol by soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    González, B; Brezny, R; Herrera, M; Joyce, T W

    1995-09-01

    No microorganisms could be isolated from chemostats or from a soil column fed with 4,5-dichloroguaiacol as the only carbon source. If guaiacol was added to chemostats with 4,5-dichloroguaiacol, either soil microbial consortia or guaiacol-degrading bacteria could dechlorinate the 4,5-dichloroguaiacol provided it was <0.2MM. A microbial consortium from farm soil removed 4,5-dichloroguaiacol under aerobic or anoxic conditions, with or without chlorolignin. Dichlorocatechol was the only 4,5-dichloroguaiacol-derived metabolite detected. In aerobic incubations, 4,5-dichlorocatechol was further degraded whereas under anoxic conditions it accumulated. PMID:24414909

  9. MultiFacTV: module detection from higher-order time series biological data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying modules from time series biological data helps us understand biological functionalities of a group of proteins/genes interacting together and how responses of these proteins/genes dynamically change with respect to time. With rapid acquisition of time series biological data from different laboratories or databases, new challenges are posed for the identification task and powerful methods which are able to detect modules with integrative analysis are urgently called for. To accomplish such integrative analysis, we assemble multiple time series biological data into a higher-order form, e.g., a gene × condition × time tensor. It is interesting and useful to develop methods to identify modules from this tensor. Results In this paper, we present MultiFacTV, a new method to find modules from higher-order time series biological data. This method employs a tensor factorization objective function where a time-related total variation regularization term is incorporated. According to factorization results, MultiFacTV extracts modules that are composed of some genes, conditions and time-points. We have performed MultiFacTV on synthetic datasets and the results have shown that MultiFacTV outperforms existing methods EDISA and Metafac. Moreover, we have applied MultiFacTV to Arabidopsis thaliana root(shoot) tissue dataset represented as a gene×condition×time tensor of size 2395 × 9 × 6(3454 × 8 × 6), to Yeast dataset and Homo sapiens dataset represented as tensors of sizes 4425 × 6 × 6 and 2920×14×9 respectively. The results have shown that MultiFacTV indeed identifies some interesting modules in these datasets, which have been validated and explained by Gene Ontology analysis with DAVID or other analysis. Conclusion Experimental results on both synthetic datasets and real datasets show that the proposed MultiFacTV is effective in identifying modules for higher-order time series biological data. It provides, compared to traditional non

  10. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  11. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  12. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5 Section 4.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the complaint that is mailed to the...

  13. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  14. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  15. American Higher Education in 1975 and 1976: The Academy's Response to Continuing Kondratieff Recession as Reported in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, John B.; And Others

    Articles on American higher education that appeared in 1975 and 1976 in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London) are analyzed in connection with two statements about American society and its economy. These statements are Joseph A. Schumpeter's 1939 analysis of business cycles, and James B. Shuman's and Davis Rosenau's 1972 description of…

  16. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  17. Role of calcium in membrane interactions by PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marina E; Sarmento, Maria J; Fernandes, Fábio

    2014-10-01

    Ca²⁺ and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P₂] are key agents in membrane-associated signalling events. Their temporal and spatial regulation is crucial for activation or recruitment of proteins in the plasma membrane. In fact, the interaction of several signalling proteins with PI(4,5)P₂ has been shown to be tightly regulated and dependent on the presence of Ca²⁺, with co-operative binding in some cases. In these proteins, PI(4,5)P₂ and Ca²⁺ binding typically occurs at different binding sites. In addition, several PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins are known targets of calmodulin (CaM), which, depending on the presence of calcium, can compete with PI(4,5)P₂ for protein interaction, translating Ca²⁺ transient microdomains into variations of PI(4,5)P₂ lateral organization in time and space. The present review highlights different examples of calcium-dependent PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins and discusses the possible impact of this dual regulation on fine-tuning of protein activity by triggering target membrane binding in the presence of subtle changes in the levels of calcium or PI(4,5)P₂. PMID:25233429

  18. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  19. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.

  20. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  1. Highly Dynamic and Specific Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Septin, and Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Responses Correlate with Caspofungin Activity against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] activates the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. Candida albicans exposure to caspofungin results in the rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins to plasma membrane foci and subsequent fungicidal effects. We studied C. albicans PI(4,5)P2 and septin dynamics and protein kinase C (PKC)-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway activation following exposure to caspofungin and other drugs. PI(4,5)P2 and septins were visualized by live imaging of C. albicans cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and red fluorescent protein-Cdc10p, respectively. PI(4,5)P2 was also visualized in GFP-PH domain-expressing C. albicans mkc1 mutants. Mkc1p phosphorylation was measured as a marker of PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation. Fungicidal activity was assessed using 20-h time-kill assays. Caspofungin immediately induced PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10p colocalization to aberrant foci, a process that was highly dynamic over 3 h. PI(4,5)P2 levels increased in a dose-response manner at caspofungin concentrations of ≤4× MIC and progressively decreased at concentrations of ≥8× MIC. Caspofungin exposure resulted in broad-based mother-daughter bud necks and arrested septum-like structures, in which PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10 colocalized. PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation was maximal within 10 min, peaked in response to caspofungin at 4× MIC, and declined at higher concentrations. The caspofungin-induced PI(4,5)P2 redistribution remained apparent in mkc1 mutants. Caspofungin exerted dose-dependent killing and paradoxical effects at ≤4× and ≥8× MIC, respectively. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, calcofluor white, and H2O2 did not impact the PI(4,5)P2 or Cdc10p distribution like caspofungin did. Caspofungin exerts rapid PI(4,5)P2-septin and PKC-Mkc1 responses that correlate with the extent of C. albicans killing, and the responses are not induced by other antifungal agents. PI(4,5)P2-septin regulation is crucial in early

  2. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching. PMID:25900009

  3. Hearings on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965: Pell Grants. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Sessions. (June 4-5, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education.

    As part of a series of hearings on the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965, testimony was heard on the Pell Grant program, the largest student grant program. Witnesses from all sectors of the postsecondary education system offered suggestions for program changes. The witnesses included the following: Robert L. Albright,…

  4. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  5. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  6. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  7. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5... Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager, in collaboration with any cooperating agencies, BLM will consider all reasonable resource management...

  8. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5... Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager, in collaboration with any cooperating agencies, BLM will consider all reasonable resource management...

  9. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5... Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager, in collaboration with any cooperating agencies, BLM will consider all reasonable resource management...

  10. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  11. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  12. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  13. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  14. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.5..., provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as...

  15. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.5..., provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as...

  16. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.5..., provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as...

  17. 41 CFR 51-4.5 - Violations by nonprofit agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Violations by nonprofit agencies. 51-4.5 Section 51-4.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED...

  18. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  19. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  20. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  1. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  2. Renewing Quality Assurance at a Time of Turbulence: An Attempt to Reenergise Quality in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    The renewal of quality assurance in Australian higher education comes at a time when the higher education sectors in Australia and around the world are experiencing a number of key challenges. These include: ongoing decline in public funding of universities; the massification of higher education and demand for it during global recession;…

  3. 4,5-Dimethylangelicin effects on lymphocytes with and without UV-radiation.

    PubMed

    Gast, W; Rytter, M; Hofmann, C; Haustein, U F; Barth, J; Walther, T

    1987-03-01

    Compared to the linear derivative 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) the angular structured furocoumarin 4,5'-dimethylangelicin (4,5'-DMA) causes smaller photosensitization effects (loss of viability, inhibition of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation rate and E-rosette formation of T-cells, respectively) on cultured human lymphocytes. When 4,5'-DMA or 8-MOP are added to the cultures without additional UV-irradiation, increased or decreased PHA-stimulation rates are observed, respectively. In addition, 4,5'-DMA is able to reduce the binding of sheep erythrocytes to lymphocytes in a higher degree than 8-MOP. These findings suggest different action mechanisms on cytoplasma membranes and intracellular structures of lymphocytes by different furocoumarins. PMID:3653385

  4. Bouncebacks in Higher Education Funding: Patterns in Length of Time to Recovery following Cuts in State Appropriations. WISCAPE Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    State appropriations for higher education are highly cyclical, with downturns in funding during difficult financial times followed by increases in funding when state finances improve. This policy brief shares recent research about whether the duration of recoveries from cuts in appropriations for higher education has changed over time and which…

  5. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  6. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  7. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7..., or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on...

  8. 11 CFR 4.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... individual. (b) Whenever a request is made which involves access to records described in 11 CFR 4.5(a)(7..., or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on...

  9. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  10. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  12. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment…

  13. Troubled Times for American Higher Education: The 1990s and Beyond. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark; And Others

    This volume looks at the future of American higher education in 13 essays most of which were originally speeches to gatherings around the United States and the globe. The first series of essays in Part I looks at possible "contours" of the future and what choices should be made by higher education to advance the quality of future performance. One…

  14. Department Chairs' Perceptions of Part-Time Faculty Status in Maryland Public and Private Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of part-time, non-tenure track faculty in higher education has become a nationwide phenomenon. The college-teaching part-time instructor is one who is working for low pay, has little job security, and has few benefits. College part-time instructors' employment is in a contingent state. They do not have the job protection provided…

  15. Metabolic evidence for PtdIns(4,5)P2-directed phospholipase C in permeabilized plant protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Brearley, C A; Parmar, P N; Hanke, D E

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of the sequences of the genes encoding phospholipase C (PLC) which have been cloned to date in plants with their mammalian counterparts suggests that plant PLC is similar to PLCdelta of mammalian cells. The physiological role and mechanism of activation of PLCdelta is unclear. It has recently been shown that Ins(1,4,5)P3 may not solely be the product of PtdIns(4,5)P2-directed PLC activity. Enzyme activities capable of producing Ins(1,4,5)P3 from endogenous inositol phosphates are present in Dictyostelium and also in rat liver. Significantly it has not been directly determined whether Ins(1,4,5)P3 present in higher plants is the product of a PtdIns(4, 5)P2-directed PLC activity. Therefore we have developed an experimental strategy for the identification of d-Ins(1,4,5)P3 in higher plants. By the use of a short-term non-equilibrium labelling strategy in permeabilized plant protoplasts, coupled to the use of a 'metabolic trap' to prevent degradation of [32P]Ins(1,4,5)P3, we were able to determine the distribution of 32P in individual phosphate esters of Ins(1,4,5)P3. The [32]Ins(1,4,5)P3 identified showed the same distribution of label in individual phosphate esters as that of [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2 isolated from the same tissue. We thus provide in vivo evidence for the action of a PtdIns(4,5)P2-directed PLC activity in plant cells which is responsible for the production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 observed here. This observation does not, however, exclude the possibility that in other cells or under different conditions Ins(1,4,5)P3 can be generated by alternative routes. PMID:9164848

  16. Higher Education Enrollments and Student Success in Times of Budget Scarcity: Examining System-Level Impacts in Recessionary Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetstein, Matthew; Hays, Brianna; Nguyen, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to extend the literature on higher education enrollment patterns during times of recession by examining patterns of enrollment and successful course completion in one of the world's largest higher education systems--the California Community College system. The data are drawn from publicly available data sources on the web. CCC…

  17. Use of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education: Numbers and Impact. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ross

    Colleges and universities of all kinds rely on part-time faculty to teach students from the freshman year through graduate studies, although they are more likely to teach lower division students. Overall, 43% of postsecondary instructional faculty work part-time, while full-time tenure track positions are held by about 18% of faculty members.…

  18. 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole-based energetic salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiang; Guo, Yong; Joo, Young-Hyuk; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2010-09-17

    High-density energetic salts that are comprised of nitrogen-rich cations and the 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolate anion were synthesized in high yield by neutralization or metathesis reactions. The resulting salts were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, and IR spectroscopy; differential scanning calorimetry; and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structures of the 3,5-diaminotriazolium and triaminoguanidinium 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolates were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on the measured densities and calculated heats of formation, the detonation performances (pressure: 23.74-31.89 GPa; velocity: 7586-8543 ms(-1); Cheetah 5.0) of the 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolate salts are comparable with 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB; 31.15 GPa and 8114 ms(-1)). Impact sensitivities were determined to be no less than 35 J by hammer tests, which places these salts in the insensitive class. PMID:20661962

  19. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-06-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  20. Effects of Solution Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Mg-4.5Zn-4.5Sn-2Al-0.6Sr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanghao; Chen, Jihua; Yan, Hongge; Su, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the Mg-4.5Zn-4.5Sn-2Al-0.6Sr alloy are investigated both in the as-cast condition and after the different three-step solution heat treatments (a solution heat treatment of 310 °C × 4 h + 340 °C × 28 h followed by a high-temperature solution treatment) to explore the optimal solution treatment cycle. The as-cast alloy contains a microstructure consisting of the α-Mg matrix, Mg2Sn, Mg51Zn20, Mg32(Al, Zn)49, and MgSnSr phases. After the solution heat treatment, all the Mg51Zn20, the Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phases, and most of the Mg2Sn phase are dissolved into the matrix, only the MgSnSr phase and a minority of the Mg2Sn phase are remained in the granular form or the fine dot-like. The volume fraction of the residual second phases decreases from 5.61 to 1.84% with the increasing solution time from 0 to 4 h at 420 °C and it decreases from 2.9 to 0.4% with the increasing solution temperature from 420 to 480 °C for 2 h. The alloy that experiences the solution treatment of 310 °C × 4 h + 340 °C × 28 h + 460 °C × 2 h exhibits the highest strength and the best plasticity among all the solution-treated alloys. Therefore, the optimal solution treatment is 310 °C × 4 h + 340 °C × 28 h + 460 °C × 2 h. The residual second phases in the alloy that experiences the optimal solution treatment are confirmed to be the Mg2Sn phase and the MgSnSr phase which are related to their relatively high thermal stability. The ultimate tensile strength and the elongation to rupture of the as-solutionized alloy are 238 MPa and 12%, respectively, about 25 MPa and 2.4% higher than the counterparts of the as-cast alloy.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phospholipase C and phosphomonoesterase in Dunaliella salina membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.; Peeler, T.C.; Thompson, G.A. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    In comparison with other cell organelles, the Dunaliella salina plasma membrane was found to be highly enriched in phospholipase C activity toward exogenous ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Based on release of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates, the plasma membrane exhibited a PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C activity nearly tenfold higher than the nonplasmalemmal, nonchloroplast bottom phase (BP) membrane fraction and 47 times higher than the chloroplast membrane fraction. The majority of phospholipase activity was clearly of a phospholipase C nature since over 80% of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates released were recovered as ({sup 3}H)inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). These results suggest a plausible mechanism for the rapid breakdown of PIP{sub 2} and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) following hypoosmotic shock. The authors have also examined some of the in vitro characteristics of the plasma membrane phospholipase C activity and have found it to be calcium sensitive, reaching maximal activity at 10 micromolar free (Ca{sup 2+}). They also report here that 100 micromolar GTP{gamma}S stimulates phospholipase C activity over a range of free (Ca{sup 2+}). Together, these results provide evidence that the plasma membrane PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C of D. salina may be subject to Ca{sup 2+} and G-protein regulation.

  2. Examining a Higher Education Funding Formula in a Time of Shifting Currents: Kentucky's Benchmark Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew; Frost, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Keeling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Although datasets such as the Integrated Postsecondary Data System are available as inputs to higher education funding formulas, these datasets can be unreliable, incomplete, or unresponsive to criteria identified by state education officials. State formulas do not always match the state's economic and human capital goals. This article analyzes…

  3. Retention and Attrition of Students in Higher Education: Challenges in Modern Times to What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Marguerite; Macallister, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Retention and attrition rates in higher education have long been a focus of research. This paper presents findings of a single case study, undertaken in a School of Education, which identify important strategies that have led to attrition of five to eight per cent, compared with 18 per cent cross the education sector in Australia (Department of…

  4. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  5. Building a Strong Future for Higher Education: Strategies for Tough Economic Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Leo I., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is no ordinary recession. And, for leaders in higher education, its impact will resonate long after it has passed. In the years ahead, the author believes that the past thirty years will be viewed as a kind of golden age of academic prosperity that was brought to a crashing end by this recession. Yet, the end of the golden age has also…

  6. Time to Look Anew: Critical Pedagogy and Disciplines within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the attitudes of writers within the tradition of critical pedagogy towards disciplines in higher education. With particular focus on Henry Giroux's work, it contrasts his portrayal of disciplines as closed, limiting and elitist with an alternative one of disciplines as complex, permeable and contested spaces. Critical…

  7. The Challenge and Promise of Catholic Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Catholic colleges and universities face significant challenges in the present context of American higher education. Yet, there are opportunities to be found in the midst of this crisis when one carefully examines the intersections between the Catholic mission and objectives of an institution and current culture and academia. A return to the…

  8. Rural Education: A Field of Study Whose Time Has Come in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.; Kale, Karen E.

    Although professional educators and public school decision makers have attempted to respond to increased educational demands and a broader spectrum of students, the education of rural youth is a neglected area both in higher education and in educational legislation. The record indicates that policy decisions and the resulting legislation have…

  9. Challenges to Christian Higher Education at a Time of Increasing Emphasis on Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, both Christian and non-Christian higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced a rapidly changing external environment that is becoming more performance-driven, particularly in relation to faculty research. Academics working in Australian Christian HEIs often feel pressure to keep pace with their counterparts in non-Christian…

  10. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  11. Do Diligent Students Perform Better? Complex Relations between Student and Course Characteristics, Study Time, and Academic Performance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; Broeckmans, Jan; Doumen, Sarah; Groenen, Anne; Molenberghs, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Research has reported equivocal results regarding the relationship between study time investment and academic performance in higher education. In the setting of the active, assignment-based teaching approach at Hasselt University (Belgium), the present study aimed (a) to further clarify the role of study time in academic performance, while taking…

  12. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  13. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR SCIENCE, GRADES 4-5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAHAM, KATHRYN A.; AND OTHERS

    COURSE CONTENT, ACTIVITIES, AND REFERENCE INFORMATION FOR TEACHING SCIENCE IN GRADES 4, 5, AND 6 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS RELATE TO AN APPROACH TO TEACHING SCIENCE AND THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE SCIENCE PROGRAM. THE FIVE UNITS INCLUDED FOR GRADE 4 ARE (1) INSECTS AND SPIDERS, (2) LIVING THINGS OF SIMILAR AREAS, (3) THE…

  14. Multicultural Education Guide for Grades 4, 5, and 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millbrae School District, CA.

    This resource guide, prepared by teachers, is designed to incorporate minority group studies into the district's social studies curriculum at levels 4, 5, and 8 as a start toward goals specified in the state law. Introductory material discusses the California Education Code requirements, local district policy, and the work of the curriculum…

  15. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the complaint that is mailed to the invention promoter is returned undelivered, then the USPTO will primarily... in the Official Gazette and/or the Federal Register. The invention promoter will be given 30...

  16. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the complaint that is mailed to the invention promoter is returned undelivered, then the USPTO will primarily... in the Official Gazette and/or the Federal Register. The invention promoter will be given 30...

  17. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 4.5 Doses to Patients in Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.5 Doses to Patients in Diagnostics' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  19. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda. PMID:20382673

  20. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  1. VLF study of low magnitude Earthquakes (4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbang, Daniel; Biernat, Helfried; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Eichelberger, Hans; Prattes, Gustav; Besser, Bruno; Boudjada, Mohammed; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Friedrich, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the European VLF/LF radio receiver network (International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors, INFREP), radio signals in the frequency range from 10-50 kilohertz are received, continuously recorded (temporal resolution 20 seconds) and analyzed in the Graz/Austria knot. The radio signals are generated by dedicated distributed transmitters and detected by INFREP receivers in Europe. In case the signal is crossing an earthquake preparation zone, we are in principle able to detect seismic activity if the signal to noise ratio is high enough. The requirements to detect a seismic event with the radio link methods are given by the magnitude M of the Earthquake (EQ), the EQ preparation zone and the Fresnel zone. As pointed out by Rozhnoi et al. (2009), the VLF methods are suitable for earthquakes M>5.0. Furthermore, the VLF/LF radio link gets only disturbed if it is crossing the EQ preparation zone which is described by Molchanov et al. (2008). In the frame of this project I analyze low seismicity EQs (M≤5.6) in south/eastern Europe in the time period 2011-2013. My emphasis is on two seismic events with magnitudes 5.6 and 4.8 which we are not able to adequately characterize using our single parameter VLF method. I perform a fine structure analysis of the residua of various radio links crossing the area around the particular 2 EQs. Depending on the individual paths not all radio links are crossing the EQ preparation zone directly, so a comparative study is possible. As a comparison I analyze with the same method the already good described EQ of L'Aquila/Italy in 2009 with M=6.3 and radio links which are crossing directly the EQ preparation zone. In the course of this project we try to understand in more detail why it is so difficult to detect EQs with 4.5

  2. DNA replication timing and higher-order nuclear organization determine single nucleotide substitution patterns in cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide substitutions (SNS) are a defining characteristic of cancer genomes. Many SNS in cancer genomes arise due to errors in DNA replication, which is spatio-temporally stratified. Here we propose that DNA replication patterns help shape the mutational landscapes of normal and cancer genomes. Using data on five fully sequenced cancer types and two personal genomes, we determined that the frequency of intergenic SNS is significantly higher in late DNA replication timing regions, even after controlling for a number of genomic features. Furthermore, some substitution signatures are more frequent in certain DNA replication timing zones. Finally, integrating data on higher-order nuclear organization, we found that genomic regions in close spatial proximity to late replicating domains display similar mutation spectra as the late replicating regions themselves. These data suggest that DNA replication timing together with higher-order genomic organization contribute to the patterns of SNS in normal and cancer genomes. PMID:23422670

  3. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  4. Transformation or Decline? Using Tough Times to Create Higher-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley

    2011-01-01

    Instead of doing less with less during these fiscally challenging times, school districts can seize the moment to usher in school transformation that will leave the schools, families, and communities better off. They could follow the lead of districts such as Baltimore City, Syracuse, and Charlotte-Mecklenburg to think outside traditional cost…

  5. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  6. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  7. Using higher organisms in biological early warning systems for real-time toxicity detection.

    PubMed

    van der Schalie, W H; Shedd, T R; Knechtges, P L; Widder, M W

    2001-09-01

    Many biological early warning systems (BEWS) have been developed in recent years that evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of whole organisms to water quality. Using a fish ventilatory monitoring system developed at the US Army Centre for Environmental Health Research as an example, we illustrate the operation of a BEWS at a groundwater treatment facility. During a recent 12-month period, the fish ventilatory system was operational for 99% of the time that the treatment facility was on-line. Effluent-exposed fish responded as a group about 2.8% of the time. While some events were due to equipment problems or non-toxic water quality variations, the fish system did indicate effluent anomalies that were subsequently identified and corrected. The fish monitoring BEWS increased treatment facility engineers' awareness of effluent quality and provided an extra measure of assurance to regulators and the public. Many operational and practical considerations for whole organism BEWS are similar to those for cell- or tissue-based biosensors. An effective biomonitoring system may need to integrate the responses of several biological and chemical sensors to achieve desired operational goals. Future development of an 'electronic canary', analogous to the original canary in the coal mine, could draw upon advances in signal processing and communication to establish a network of sensors in a watershed and to provide useful real-time information on water quality. PMID:11544040

  8. New 4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate-bridged chained coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Juan; Wu, Di; Jia, Ming-Jun; Peng, Yu; Yu, Jie-Hui; Wang, Yu-Chang; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2011-03-01

    The hydrothermal self-assemblies of Pb 2+/Cd 2+ salt, 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid (dcpha), N 2H 4·H 2O together with 1,10-phenanthroline·H 2O (phen) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) generated two new monoacylhydrazidate-bridged 1-D chained coordination polymers [Pb 2(DCPTH) 4(phen) 2] 1 and [Cd 3(DCPTH) 2(dcph) 2(bpy) 2] 2 (DCPTH=4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate, dcph=4,5-dichlorophthalate). The monoacylhydrazidate ligand DCPTH originated from the hydrothermal in situ acylation reaction between dcpha and N 2H 4·H 2O. In compound 1, two types of coordination modes for DCPTH are found, which link alternately the Pb(II) centers into a 1-D chain structure of compound 1 with ancillary phen molecules. In compound 2, DCPTH and dcph as the mixed bridges extend the Cd(II) centers into a 1-D chain structure of compound 2 with auxiliary bpy molecules. DCPTH in compound 2 shows a different coordination mode from those observed in compound 1.

  9. PTEN interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes containing PI(4,5)P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, R.; Shenoy, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kalinowski, A.; Gericke, A.; Heinrich, F.; Loesche, M.

    2009-03-01

    Synthetic lipid membrane models are frequently used for the study of biophysical processes at cell membranes. We use a robust membrane model, the tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM), based on a (C14)2-(PEO)6-thiol anchor, WC14 [1]. Such membranes can be prepared to contain single phospholipids or complex lipid mixtures [2], including functional lipids involved in cell signaling, such as the highly charged phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs). To study the interaction between the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and model membranes we have incorporated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) in tBLMs and use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), neutron reflectometry (NR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for their characterization. NR shows that tBLMs formed with PI(4,5)P2 are complete. FCS of labeled PI(4,5)P2 shows that diffusion occurs at the time scale characteristic of membrane-incorporated lipid. Finally, SPR shows specific binding of PTEN to the model membrane thus confirming the incorporation of PI(4,5)P2 into the tBLM. [1] McGillivray et al, Biointerphases 2, 21-33 (2007) [2] Heinrich et al, Langmuir, submitted

  10. Identification of Impact Location in a Plate Based on Elastodynamics and Higher Order Time Frequency Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Kim, S. J.

    In a nuclear power plant, impact force due to loose part is related to the structural damage in the plant. In general, the steam generator of the nuclear power plant is structured by thick plate. The paper presents a novel approach to locate an impact load in a thick plate. The approach is based on the analysis of the acoustic waveforms measured by a sensor array located on the plate surface. For accurate estimation of the location of the impact source, the time differences in the arrival times of the waves at the sensors and their propagation velocities are determined. The dispersion curves for multi modes of Lamb wave are calculated by using exact plate theory and SDPT. It is difficult to measure directly the group velocity for Lamb mode of acoustic waveform in the thick plate because they are dispersive wave. However, most of the energy in the wave is carried by the flexural waves (A0 mode), the group velocity of this mode is extracted using the CHOTF technique for estimating the impact source location. The estimates are shown to be in excellent agreement with the actual locations and it is applied to the damage analysis due to the loose part in a nuclear power plant.

  11. The Transition from Higher Education to Employment in Europe: The Analysis of the Time to Obtain the First Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Velasco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the transition from higher education to work across Europe using various specifications of duration models and a one-time multi-country survey of university graduates from nine European countries. Results point to differences between the North and South of Europe in the difficulty of getting a first job.…

  12. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  13. Impact of the Headscarf Ban Policy on the Identity Development of Part-Time Unveilers in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Austin, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of the Turkish higher education headscarf ban policy on the plural self-identities (i.e., as Turkish citizens, as Muslims, and as females) of part-time unveilers, female students who cover their hair in their private life but who remove the headscarf (or conceal it to appear unveiled) while at a Turkish…

  14. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  15. Modern U-Pb chronometry of meteorites: advancing to higher time resolution reveals new problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J.; Zartman, R.E.; Chen, J.-H.; Gopel, C.; Neymark, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the factors that influence the accuracy of lead (Pb)-isotopic ages of meteorites, and may possibly be responsible for inconsistencies between Pb-isotopic and extinct nuclide timescales of the early Solar System: instrumental mass fractionation and other possible analytical sources of error, presence of more than one component of non-radiogenic Pb, migration of ancient radiogenic Pb by diffusion and other mechanisms, possible heterogeneity of the isotopic composition of uranium (U), uncertainties in the decay constants of uranium isotopes, possible presence of "freshly synthesized" actinides with short half-life (e.g. 234U) in the early Solar System, possible initial disequilibrium in the uranium decay chains, and potential fractionation of radiogenic Pb isotopes and U isotopes caused by alpha-recoil and subsequent laboratory treatment. We review the use of 232Th/238U values to assist in making accurate interpretations of the U-Pb ages of meteorite components. We discuss recently published U-Pb dates of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their apparent disagreement with the extinct nuclide dates, in the context of capability and common pitfalls in modern meteorite chronology. Finally, we discuss the requirements of meteorites that are intended to be used as the reference points in building a consistent time scale of the early Solar System, based on the combined use of the U-Pb system and extinct nuclide chronometers.

  16. A generative spike train model with time-structured higher order correlations

    PubMed Central

    Trousdale, James; Hu, Yu; Shea-Brown, Eric; Josić, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies are revealing the spiking activity in ever larger neural ensembles. Frequently, this spiking is far from independent, with correlations in the spike times of different cells. Understanding how such correlations impact the dynamics and function of neural ensembles remains an important open problem. Here we describe a new, generative model for correlated spike trains that can exhibit many of the features observed in data. Extending prior work in mathematical finance, this generalized thinning and shift (GTaS) model creates marginally Poisson spike trains with diverse temporal correlation structures. We give several examples which highlight the model's flexibility and utility. For instance, we use it to examine how a neural network responds to highly structured patterns of inputs. We then show that the GTaS model is analytically tractable, and derive cumulant densities of all orders in terms of model parameters. The GTaS framework can therefore be an important tool in the experimental and theoretical exploration of neural dynamics. PMID:23908626

  17. 3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity in Vitro: Potential Role of Free Radicals and Renal Biotransformation

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher; Ward, Dakota; Anestis, Dianne K.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Deborah; Rankin, Gary O.

    2014-01-01

    Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60–120 min. In some experiments, IRCC were pretreated with an antioxidant or a cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), cyclooxygenase or peroxidase inhibitor prior to incubation with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or TCA (0.5 mM) for 120 min. At 60 min, TCA did not induce cytotoxicity, but induced cytotoxicity as early as 90 min with 0.5 mM or higher TCA and at 120 min with 0.1 mM or higher TCA, as evidenced by increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Pretreatment with the CYP inhibitor piperonyl butoxide, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the peroxidase inhibitor mercaptosuccinate attenuated TCA cytotoxicity, while pretreatment with FMO inhibitors or the CYP inhibitor metyrapone had no effect on TCA nephrotoxicity. Pretreatment with an antioxidant (α-tocopherol, glutathione, ascorbate or N-acetyl-l-cysteine) also reduced or completely blocked TCA cytotoxicity. These results indicate that TCA is directly nephrotoxic to IRCC in a time and concentration dependent manner. Bioactivation of TCA to toxic metabolites by CYP, cyclooxygenase and/or peroxidase contributes to the mechanism of TCA nephrotoxicity. Lastly, free radicals play a role in TCA cytotoxicity, although the exact nature of the origin of these radicals remains to be determined. PMID:25402648

  18. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning. PMID:24011119

  19. Coordination polymer template synthesis of hierarchical MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 nanoparticles for electrochemical capacitors electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuaibing; Xu, Jiangyan; Lu, Aimin; Shi, Ying; Lin, Zixia

    2016-08-01

    Two types of ternary metal oxides, MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 nanoparticles have been separately synthesized through chemical transformation from the corresponding bimetallic coordination polymer particles precursor under high-heating conditions. Series of electrochemical measurements are performed to examine the MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 electrodes, and the result shows that MnCo2O4.5 structure, especially for Mn/Co-600, has much higher capacitance than that of MnNi6O8 nanoparticles, indicating MnCo2O4.5 electrode is more suitable for applying in neutral electrolyte system. The Mn/Co-600 electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 158 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1, good rate capability of 53.8% with a 20 times current density increase, good cycle performance (92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles) and high power density (a specific power of 5760 W kg-1 at 4.0 A g-1) with low charge transfer resistance value of 1.8 Ω.

  20. Photophysics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene) film

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, D.B.; Scott, G.W. ); Coulter, D.R.; Miskowski, V.M.; Yavrouian, A. )

    1990-08-09

    The temperature-dependent steady-state emission, emission polarization anisotropy, and fluorescence kinetics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene) film are reported. Two interconverting excited-state conformations of the chromophore have been identified. The fluorescence of the higher energy conformation results from excitation on the red edge of the polymer absorption band at temperatures below 180 K. The energy barrier for conversion of the higher energy conformer to the lower energy conformer is estimated to be E/hc = 27 {plus minus} 7 cm{sup {minus}1}. Electronic energy migration is not evident in this polymer.

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3). PMID:25981800

  2. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  3. Increasing Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-Bisphosphate Biosynthesis Affects Basal Signaling and Chloroplast Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Im, Yang Ju; Smith, Caroline M.; Phillippy, Brian Q.; Strand, Deserah; Kramer, David M.; Grunden, Amy M.; Boss, Wendy F.

    2014-01-01

    One challenge in studying the second messenger inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (InsP3) is that it is present in very low amounts and increases only transiently in response to stimuli. To identify events downstream of InsP3, we generated transgenic plants constitutively expressing the high specific activity, human phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Iα (HsPIPKIα). PIP5K is the enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2); this reaction is flux limiting in InsP3 biosynthesis in plants. Plasma membranes from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HsPIPKIα had 2–3 fold higher PIP5K specific activity, and basal InsP3 levels in seedlings and leaves were >2-fold higher than wild type. Although there was no significant difference in photosynthetic electron transport, HsPIPKIα plants had significantly higher starch (2–4 fold) and 20% higher anthocyanin compared to controls. Starch content was higher both during the day and at the end of dark period. In addition, transcripts of genes involved in starch metabolism such as SEX1 (glucan water dikinase) and SEX4 (phosphoglucan phosphatase), DBE (debranching enzyme), MEX1 (maltose transporter), APL3 (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and glucose-6-phosphate transporter (Glc6PT) were up-regulated in the HsPIPKIα plants. Our results reveal that increasing the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway affects chloroplast carbon metabolism and suggest that InsP3 is one component of an inter-organelle signaling network regulating chloroplast metabolism. PMID:27135490

  4. Software for the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment-4/5 (CanX-4/-5) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Matthew Leigh

    The CanX-4 and CanX-5 mission currently under development at The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies Space Flight Laboratory UTIAS/SFL is a challenging formation flying technology demonstration. Its requirements of sub-metre control accuracy have yet to be realized with nanosatellites. Many large technical challenges must be addressed in order to ensure the success of the CanX-4/5 mission. This includes the development of software for an intersatellite communication system, integration and optimization of key formation flying algorithms onto the Payload On-Board Computer as well as the development of a Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator for full on-orbit mission simulations. This thesis will provide background knowledge of the Space Flight Laboratory and its activities, the CanX-4/5 mission, and finally highlight the authors contributions to overcoming each of these technical challenges and ensuring the success of the CanX-4 and CanX-5 mission.

  5. ED case managers save $4.5 million.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    Emergency department case managers at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL saved more than $4.5 million by ensuring that patients were in the right status and transferring patients who did not meet admission criteria to a more appropriate level of care. Case managers and social workers cover the emergency department at peak hours, seven days a week. Case managers screen patients for admission criteria and make sure admission orders are complete and correct. Case managers and social workers coordinate community services and placement for patients who don't meet admission criteria. Social workers intervene when there are concerns about abuse and neglect, and they facilitate placement to other acute care facilities. PMID:21789904

  6. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced calcium waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, M.

    Traveling waves of high concentration of Ca2+ are observed in many different cells and have attracted great interest in experimental and theoretical biological research in recent years. They are created by the nonlinear dynamics of the release and uptake of Ca2+ by intracellular Ca2+ stores like the endoplasmatic or sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Their characteristics depend on other cellular organelles and components like mitochondria and Ca2+ buffers too. Here, we present some mathematical models and results of recent research on intracellular Ca2+ waves generated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channel including the modeling of Calcium induced Calcium release, buffer dynamics, impact of mitochondria on wave formation and the effect of the spatial discreteness of the channels releasing Ca2+. Modeling of the communication of Ca2+ waves to adjacent cells through gap junctions concludes this report.

  7. Removal of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by bacterial isolates from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kr; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-09-01

    2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) mineralizing bacteria were isolated from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper industry. These isolates used 2,4,5-TCP as a source of carbon and energy and were capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichimetric release of chloride and biomass formation. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these bacteria were identified as Kocuria sp. (CL2), Bacillus pumillus (CL5), Pseudomonas stutzeri (CL7). HPLC analysis revealed that these isolates were able to degrade 2,4,5-TCP at higher concentrations (600 mg/l or 3.0 mM). A consortia of these isolates completely removed 2,4,5-TCP from the sludge obtained from pulp and paper mill within 2 weeks when supplemented at a rate of 100 mg l(-1) . Bacterial consortium also significantly reduced absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) by 61% and 63%, respectively from the sludge. These isolates have high potential to remove 2,4,5-TCP and may be used for remediation of pulp paper mill waste containing 2,4,5-TCP. PMID:22961799

  8. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  9. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  10. State-Space Analysis of Time-Varying Higher-Order Spike Correlation for Multiple Neural Spike Train Data

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-ichi; Brown, Emery N.; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  11. State-space analysis of time-varying higher-order spike correlation for multiple neural spike train data.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Brown, Emery N; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  12. Less Time to Study, Less Well Prepared for Work, yet Satisfied with Higher Education: A UK Perspective on Links between Higher Education and the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Arthur, Lore

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores graduates' views on the relationship between higher education and employment. It draws on a major European study involving graduates five years after graduation and highlights similarities and differences between UK graduates' experiences and their European counterparts. Specifically, we address questions raised in the study…

  13. Metal complexes of 4,5-dimethylpyrazole-3-carboxaldehyde phenylthiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dissouky, Ali

    Several new transition metal complexes derived from 4,5-dimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde phenyl- thiosemicarbazone, LH, have been synthesized. The complexes are of stoichiometry, [CoL 2]X, X = Cl -, Br -, ClO -4 or NO -3, [MnL 2] and [CuX nL m], X = Cl -, Br -, NCS - or N -3; n = 1 or 0; m = 1 or 2 and L = the anion of LH. All complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (i.r., electronic, NMR, ESR) and magnetic measurements. The ligand acts as tridentate monobasic co-ordinated to the metal ion via azomethine, pyrazole (N 2) nitrogen atoms and the thiolo-sulphur. The ligand field and ESR parameters are used to interpret the nature of bonding of LH with the metal ion, ground state and the ligand field strength of LH and the various co-ordinated simple ions. The coupling constants of various co-ordinated nuclei with copper (II) are estimated from ESR spectra of copper (II) complexes.

  14. Intracellular calcium channels: inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Olena A.; Popugaeva, Elena; Enomoto, Masahiro; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are the major intracellular Ca2+-release channels in cells. Activity of InsP3Rs is essential for elementary and global Ca2+ events in the cell. There are three InsP3Rs isoforms that are present in mammalian cells. In this review review we will focus primarily on InsP3R type 1. The InsP3R1 is a predominant isoform in neurons and it is most extensively studied isoform. Combination of biophysical and structural methods revealed key mechanisms of InsP3R function and modulation. Cell biological and biochemical studies lead to identification of a large number of InsP3R-binding proteins. InsP3Rs are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological processes, including learning and memory, proliferation, differentiation, development and cell death. Malfunction of InsP3R1 play a role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and other disease states. InsP3Rs represent a potentially valuable drug target for treatment of these disorders and for modulating activity of neurons and other cells. Future studies will provide better understanding of physiological functions of InsP3Rs in health and disease. PMID:24300389

  15. 4.5-kW Hall Effect Thruster Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an Interagency Agreement with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), a space simulation test of a Russian SPT 140 Hall Effect Thruster was completed in September 1999 at Vacuum Facility 6 at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The thruster was subjected to a three-part test sequence that included thrust and performance characterization, electromagnetic interference, and plume contamination. SPT 140 is a 4.5-kW thruster developed under a joint agreement between AFRL, Atlantic Research Corp, and Space Systems/Loral, and was manufactured by the Fakal Experimental Design Bureau of Russia. All objectives were satisfied, and the thruster performed exceptionally well during the 120-hr test program, which comprised 33 engine firings. The Glenn testing provided a critical contribution to the thruster development effort, and the large volume and high pumping speed of this vacuum facility was key to the test s success. The low background pressure (1 10 6 torr) provided a more accurate representation of space vacuum than is possible in most vacuum chambers. The facility had been upgraded recently with new cryogenic pumps and sputter shielding to support the active electric propulsion program at Glenn. The Glenn test team was responsible for all test support equipment, including the thrust stand, power supplies, data acquisition, electromagnetic interference measurement equipment, and the contamination measurement system.

  16. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  17. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  18. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  19. Performance of three 4. 5 m dipoles for SSC reference design D

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Fernow, R.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three 4.5 m long dipoles for Reference Design D of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 to 2.4 K) liquid, 8T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated at eight times the required current without training.

  20. Understanding the O4,5 edge structure of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, M; Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Wall, M; Haire, D

    2007-12-12

    Using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, we examine the O{sub 4,5} (5d {yields} 5f) edge structure of the ground-state {alpha} phase of Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm metal. Results show that the dipole-allowed transitions are contained within the giant resonance and that the small pre-peak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O{sub 5} peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak. Lastly, we present for the first time the O{sub 4,5} EELS spectra for Np, Am, and Cm metal.

  1. The Relationship of Higher Education to Substance Use Trajectories: Variations as a Function of Timing of Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, KARA; HOMEL, JACQUELINE; LEADBEATER, BONNIE

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between time to enrollment into postsecondary education and trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and marijuana use using a prospective longitudinal study. Method Participants included 391 postsecondary students (55% female) drawn from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave, multi-cohort sample interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Using piecewise latent growth modeling, we compared changes in the trajectories of HED and marijuana use before and after postsecondary enrollment across three groups of young adults: (a) direct entrants (enrolled directly out of high school), (b) gap entrants (took a year off), and (c) delayed entrants (took longer than a year off). Results Heavy drinking increased after enrollment for direct entrants and gap entrants and decreased for delayed entrants. Marijuana use increased after enrollment for direct entrants, and decreased for gap entrants and delayed entrants. Yet, overall levels of marijuana use were significantly higher among the gap and delay entrants over time compared with direct entrants. Group differences in heavy drinking appeared to reflect age-related changes in drinking patterns. However, differences in marijuana use may reflect pre-existing inequities in access to higher education across groups. Conclusions The association between postsecondary education and increased substance use may be limited to students who enroll at a postsecondary institution directly out of high school. However, students who delay enrollment have higher levels of substance use before enrollment, as well as lower high school grades and socioeconomic status compared with direct entrants, and may be particularly vulnerable to long-term substance use problems and degree noncompletion. PMID:25486398

  2. Lower theta inter-trial phase coherence during performance monitoring is related to higher reaction time variability: a lifespan study.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Hämmerer, Dorothea; Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Trial-to-trial reaction time (RT) variability is consistently higher in children and older adults than in younger adults. Converging evidence also indicates that higher RT variability is (a) associated with lower behavioral performance on complex cognitive tasks, (b) distinguishes patients with neurological deficits from healthy individuals, and also (c) predicts longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults. However, so far the processes underlying increased RT variability are poorly understood. Previous evidence suggests that control signals in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) are reflected in theta band activity and may implicate the coordination of distinct brain areas during performance monitoring. We hypothesized that greater trial-to-trial variability in theta power during performance monitoring may be associated with greater behavioral variability in response latencies. We analyzed event-related theta oscillations assessed during a cued-Go/NoGo task in a lifespan sample covering the age range from middle childhood to old age. Our results show that theta inter-trial coherence during NoGo trials increases from childhood to early adulthood, and decreases from early adulthood to old age. Moreover, in all age groups, individuals with higher variability in medial frontal stimulus-locked theta oscillations showed higher trial-to-trial RT variability behaviorally. Importantly, this effect was strongest at high performance monitoring demands and independent of motor response execution as well as theta power. Taken together, our findings reveal that lower theta inter-trial coherence is related to greater behavioral variability within and across age groups. These results hint at the possibility that more variable MFC control may be associated with greater performance fluctuations. PMID:23876249

  3. Interconversion of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate to inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate and (1,3,4)-trisphosphate in permeabilized adrenal glomerulosa cells is calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, M.F.; Dentand, I.A.; Lew, P.D.; Capponi, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.

    1986-08-29

    The metabolism of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate was followed in permeabilized bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. At low Ca++ concentration (pCa = 7.2), more than 90% of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate had disappeared within 2 min, while two other metabolites, (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate appeared progressively. At higher Ca++ concentrations (pCa = 5.7 and 4.8), the formation of these two metabolites was markedly increased, but completely abolished if the medium was ATP-depleted. The peak levels for the generation of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate (1 min) preceded those of (3H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and were closely correlated. These results suggest that, in adrenal glomerulosa cells, the isomer inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate is generated from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate via a calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway involving the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate.

  4. Specific binding sites for inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate are located predominantly in the plasma membranes of human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, P J; Patel, Y; Kakkar, V V; Irvine, R F; Authi, K S

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we describe the characterization and localization of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-binding sites in human platelet membranes. Specific binding sites for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 have been identified on mixed, plasma and intracellular membranes from neuraminidase-treated platelets using highly purified carrier-free [32P]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The displacement of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 from these sites by Ins(1,4,5)P3 and InsP6 occurs at greater than two orders of magnitude higher concentrations and with Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 at about 40-fold higher concentrations than with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The membranes were further separated by free-flow electrophoresis into plasma and intracellular membranes. The Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-binding sites separated with plasma membranes, and showed similar affinities and specificities as mixed membranes, whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding sites were predominantly in the intracellular membranes. These results suggest a predominantly plasma membrane location for putative Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 receptors in human platelets. PMID:8141791

  5. A novel DNA intercalator, butylamino-pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, M S; Nambiar, Mridula; Choudhary, Bibha; Advirao, Gopal M; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2010-02-01

    DNA intercalators are one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Novel intercalating compounds of pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline series having a butylamino or piperazino group at fourth position (BPSQ and PPSQ, respectively) are studied. Our results showed that BPSQ induced cytotoxicity whereas PPSQ was cytostatic. The cytotoxicity induced by BPSQ was concentration- and time-dependent. Cell cycle analysis and tritiated thymidine assay revealed that BPSQ affects the cell cycle progression by arresting at S phase. The absence of p-histone H3 and reduction in the levels of PCNA in the cells treated with BPSQ further confirmed the cell cycle arrest. Further, annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and changes in the expression levels of BCL2/BAD confirmed the activation of apoptosis. Activation of caspase 8 and lack of cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP suggest the possibility of BPSQ triggering extrinsic pathway for induction of apoptosis, which is discussed. Hence, we have identified a novel compound which would have clinical relevance in cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:19142583

  6. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of 2-amino-3,4,5-trimethoxyaroylindole derivatives as novel anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vijay K; Rajak, Harish

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel 2-amino-3,4,5 trimethoxyaroylindole derivatives was synthesized and evaluated against selected human cancer cell lines of breast (MCF-7) and colon (HT-29). Introduction of an amino group at the C-2 position on ring A of 3,4,5-trimethoxyaroylindole derivatives resulted in novel compounds, i.e., 2-amino-3,4,5-trimethoxyaroylindole derivatives exhibiting excellent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. Substitution with methoxy group at R(6) in 2-amino-3,4,5-trimethoxyaroylindole 5d exhibited excellent cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (0.013μM) and colon HT-29 (0.143μM) indicating slightly higher potency than Combretastatin A-4. Molecular modeling studies of 2-amino-3,4,5-trimethoxyaroylindole derivatives have similar structural alignment as colchicine in protein (PDB code: 1SA0) and exhibited hydrogen bond interaction between para position of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring with CYS 241 and N-H molecule of indole ring with Val 315 of receptor molecule. PMID:27040661

  7. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  8. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting.

    PubMed

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries-conjoint analysis-which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  9. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  10. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  11. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  12. Pattern formations in miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Moubissi, Alain B.; Porsezian, K.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, we investigate the structure and dynamics of miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates confined within a time-independent anisotropic parabolic trap potential. In the zero-temperature mean-field approximation leading to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, we show that these equations can be mapped onto the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system up to a first-order of accuracy. Paying particular attention to two-species mixtures and looking forward deriving a panel of miscellaneous excitations to the above equations, we analyze the singularity structure of the system by means of Weiss et al.'s [J. Weiss, M. Tabor, and G. Carnevale, J. Math. Phys. 24, 522 (1983); 25, 13 (1984).] methodology and provide its general Lax representation. As a result, we unearth a typical spectrum of localized and periodic coherent patterns while depicting elastic and nonelastic interactions among such structures alongside the splitting and resonance phenomena occurring during their motion.

  13. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  14. Molecular Determinants of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) Binding to Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuñiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V.; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  15. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  16. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  17. Cooperative Binding of Annexin A2 to Cholesterol- and Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate-Containing Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Drücker, Patrick; Pejic, Milena; Grill, David; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Gerke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Biological membranes are organized into dynamic microdomains that serve as sites for signal transduction and membrane trafficking. The formation and expansion of these microdomains are driven by intrinsic properties of membrane lipids and integral as well as membrane-associated proteins. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a peripherally associated membrane protein that can support microdomain formation in a Ca2+-dependent manner and has been implicated in membrane transport processes. Here, we performed a quantitative analysis of the binding of AnxA2 to solid supported membranes containing the annexin binding lipids phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylserine in different compositions. We show that the binding is of high specificity and affinity with dissociation constants ranging between 22.1 and 32.2 nM. We also analyzed binding parameters of a heterotetrameric complex of AnxA2 with its S100A10 protein ligand and show that this complex has a higher affinity for the same membranes with Kd values of 12 to 16.4 nM. Interestingly, binding of the monomeric AnxA2 and the AnxA2-S100A10 complex are characterized by positive cooperativity. This cooperative binding is mediated by the conserved C-terminal annexin core domain of the protein and requires the presence of cholesterol. Together our results reveal for the first time, to our knowledge, that AnxA2 and its derivatives bind cooperatively to membranes containing cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, thus providing a mechanistic model for the lipid clustering activity of AnxA2. PMID:25418092

  18. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs—PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G.; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID

  19. Automated determination of P-phase arrival times at regional and local distances using higher order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Working Group, EGELADOS

    2010-05-01

    We present an algorithm for automatic P-phase arrival time determination for local and regional seismic events based on higher order statistics (HOS). Using skewness or kurtosis a characteristic function is determined to which a new iterative picking algorithm is applied. For P-phase identification we apply the Akaike Information Criterion to the characteristic function, while for a precise determination of the P-phase arrival time a pragmatic picking algorithm is applied to a recalculated characteristic function. In addition, an automatic quality estimate is obtained, based on the slope and the signal-to-noise ratio, both calculated from the characteristic function. To get rid of erroneous picks, a Jackknife procedure and an envelope function analysis is used. The algorithm is applied to a large data set with very heterogeneous qualities of P-onsets acquired by a temporary, regional seismic network of the EGELADOS-project in the southern Aegean. The reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm is tested by comparing more than 3000 manually derived P readings, serving as reference picks, with the corresponding automatically estimated P-wave arrival times. We find an average deviation from the reference picks of 0.26 +/- 0.64s when using kurtosis and 0.38 +/- 0.75s when using skewness. If automatically as excellent classified picks are considered only, the average difference from the reference picks is 0.07 +/- 0.31s and 0.07 +/- 0.41s, respectively. However, substantially more P-arrival times are determined when using kurtosis, indicating that the characteristic function derived from kurtosis estimation is to be preferred. Since the characteristic function is calculated recursively, the algorithm is very fast and hence suited for earthquake early warning purposes. Furthermore, a comparative study with automatically derived P-readings using Allen's and Baer & Kradolfer's picking algorithms applied to the same data set demonstrates better quantitative and

  20. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  1. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 2(2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)PROPIONIC ACID (2,4,5-TP) (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on 2,4,5-TP. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of 2,4,5-TP; Toxicokinetics and human expo...

  2. Synthesis of pyrimido[4,5-c]azepine- and pyrimido[4,5-c]oxepine-based γ-secretase modulators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jin; Zhang, Yunhui; Toyn, Jeremy H; Macor, John E; Thompson, Lorin A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter describes an efficient ring-closing metathesis approach to 2-chloro-4-amino-pyrimido[4,5-c]azepines and 2-chloro-4-amino-pyrimido[4,5-c]oxepines. These chlorides were applied to the synthesis of several potent γ-secretase modulators (GSMs). PMID:26898338

  3. Role of Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate Organization in Membrane Transport by the Unc104 Kinesin Motor

    PubMed Central

    Klopfenstein, Dieter R.; Tomishige, Michio; Stuurman, Nico; Vale, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Unc104 (KIF1A) kinesin transports membrane vesicles along microtubules in lower and higher eukaryotes. Using an in vitro motility assay, we show that Unc104 uses a lipid binding pleckstrin homology (PH) domain to dock onto membrane cargo. Through its PH domain, Unc104 can transport phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2)-containing liposomes with similar properties to native vesicles. Interestingly, liposome movement by monomeric Unc104 motors shows a very steep dependence on PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentration (Hill coefficient of ~20), even though liposome binding is noncooperative. This switch-like transition for movement can be shifted to lower PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentrations by the addition of cholesterol/sphingomyelin or GM1 ganglioside/cholera toxin, conditions that produce raft-like behavior of Unc104 bound to lipid bilayers. These studies suggest that clustering of Unc104 in PtdIns(4,5)P2-containing rafts provides a trigger for membrane transport. PMID:12015984

  4. Photocatalysis of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and its intermediates using various catalytical preparing methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Chen, Y L; Huang, C Y; Wu, M F

    2006-08-25

    Four etching solutions used on support materials and two coating methods of TiO(2) were conducted to investigate the effects of catalytical preparing methods on the photocatalysis of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB congener 138). The results of XRD analyses confirmed that various etching solutions used on support substrates did not influence the characteristics of titanium(IV) oxide. The XRD patterns of crystallization for the catalysts before and after purification remained unchanged. Hydrofluoric acid used as an etching solution for the support substrates provided the best adhesion stability for the catalysts that demonstrated the highest photocatalytic efficiency for congener 138. Xenon and ultraviolet lamps were used to compare the irradiation effect on photocatalysis. The shortest half-lives of congener 138 were 7.4 and 12.2 h using xenon and UV reactors, respectively. Lower chlorinated biphenyls (lower congener numbers) were identified through the continuous dechlorination of congener 138. PCB congeners 99, 87, 66, 49, 28, 17, 9, and 7 were detected as a result of dechlorination from higher chlorinated congeners to lower chlorinated congeners along with the extension of exposure times. The concentrations of chloride ion were increased with increasing exposure time through dechlorination, while the concentrations of organic chlorine of congener 138 were decreased. Meta-dechlorination was the most commonly found mechanism for the photocatalysis of PCB 138. The activation energy of the photocatalysis of congener 138 was 70.8 kJ mol(-1). PMID:16494999

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN THE MOUSE FETUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) readily crosses the placenta in the mouse on gestational day 13. Concentrations of 2,4,5-T in maternal tissues and fetuses were obvious at 30 min., highest at 8 h, diminished by 24 h and almost entirely eliminated by 48 h....

  6. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  7. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  8. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  9. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  10. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters...

  11. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.5 Use of materials from the collections. (a) Unrestricted...

  12. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.5 Use of materials from the collections. (a) Unrestricted...

  13. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.5 Use of materials from the collections. (a) Unrestricted...

  14. The Campus in Hard Times. New York's Higher Education Crisis. How It Happened. How It Can Be Resolved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Henry D.

    How did the New York State system of colleges and universities arrive at the brink of fiscal disaster? What is a possible new perception of higher education financing for New York? The radical shift in enrollment from independent to government-sponsored campuses, and the steep escalation in tax-levy burden for higher education resulted in the New…

  15. Higher Education in Russia: Traditions and Modern Times (Report at the Seventh Congress of the Russian Union of Rectors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovnichii, V.

    2004-01-01

    This article represents a speech delivered by the author at the Seventh Congress of the Russian Union of Rectors. In his address, the author describes the current higher educational trend in Russia. He explains how higher education's orientation toward the state, its openness to all social classes, and its fundamental character are the principles…

  16. Dendrite growth morphologies in rapidly solidified Al-4.5wt.%Cu droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedel, M.; Reinhart, G.; Bogno, A.-A.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Boller, E.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Henein, H.

    2016-03-01

    The impulse atomization process developed at the University of Alberta (Canada) enables metallic powders to be solidified with controlled process parameters and improved properties. In order to investigate the microstructure morphologies in droplets of Al- 4.5wt.%Cu alloys, three-dimensional reconstructions of several droplets are obtained by using synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography, allowing a visualization of the inner microstructure in three dimensions. The analysis of the reconstructed volumes reveals that a wide range of morphology, from highly branched to “finger-bundle”, can be obtained for different droplets of similar diameter and produced in the same batch. Unexpectedly for this alloy, microstructural features also indicate that the development of the dendrite arms (primary and of higher orders) occurs in most droplets along <111> crystallographic axes, instead of the usual <100> directions observed in conventional casting technologies.

  17. Control of diverse subcellular processes by a single multi-functional lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2].

    PubMed

    Kolay, Sourav; Basu, Urbashi; Raghu, Padinjat

    2016-06-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a multi-functional lipid that regulates several essential subcellular processes in eukaryotic cells. In addition to its well-established function as a substrate for receptor-activated signalling at the plasma membrane (PM), it is now recognized that distinct PI(4,5)P2 pools are present at other organelle membranes. However, a long-standing question that remains unresolved is the mechanism by which a single lipid species, with an invariant functional head group, delivers numerous functions without loss of fidelity. In the present review, we summarize studies that have examined the molecular processes that shape the repertoire of PI(4,5)P2 pools in diverse eukaryotes. Collectively, these studies indicate a conserved role for lipid kinase isoforms in generating functionally distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 in diverse metazoan species. The sophistication underlying the regulation of multiple functions by PI(4,5)P2 is also shaped by mechanisms that regulate its availability to enzymes involved in its metabolism as well as molecular processes that control its diffusion at nanoscales in the PM. Collectively, these mechanisms ensure the specificity of PI(4,5)P2 mediated signalling at eukaryotic membranes. PMID:27288030

  18. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  19. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  20. Potential GPS user architecture for the NASA Space Station based on Landsat 4/5 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korenstein, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat 4/5 GPS system is described which uses an inertial reference attitude control system and precision real-time ephemeris generation to achieve precision earth pointing. The system has application to the validation of the use of GPS for the low earth orbit navigation of the Space Station. The present system consists of a receiver/processor assembly (R/PA), an L-band GPS antenna, a precision oscillator, and the Landsat computer. The R/PA is integrated with a GPS receiver which selects, acquires, tracks, times, and decodes navigation signals from GPS satellites in order to derive ephemerides. Ephemeris estimates were found to be accurate to better than 50 meters.

  1. INTRAMOLECULAR MOTION AND REORIENTATIONAL BARRIERS IN 9-FLUORENONE, 4-METHYL-9-FLUORENONE AND 4,5-DIMETHYL-9-FLUORENONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancements were measured as functions of temperature for the hydrogen-bearing carbons in 9-fluorenone, 4-methyl-9-fluorenone, and 4,5-dimethyl-9-fluorenone. Reorientational diffusion const...

  2. Adsorption and photodegradation kinetics of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid with MgFeTi layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong; Beak, Min-wook; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-03-01

    The calcined layered double hydroxides (cLDHs) Ti-doped and undoped MgFe for this study were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) techniques and tested for adsorption and photodegradation (including photocatalytic and photo-Fenton-like) of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. In the range of studied operating conditions, the as-prepared samples exhibited excellent photo-Fenton-like activity, leading to more than 80-95% degradation of 2,4,5-T at initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with 4 g calcined LDHs per liter, was accomplished in 360 min, while 2,4,5-T half-life time was as short as 99-182 min. The kinetics of adsorption and photodegradation of 2,4,5-T were also discussed. These results offered a green, low cost and high efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation. PMID:26706931

  3. Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate Signaling in Cerebellar Purkinje Spines

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sherry-Ann; Morgan, Frank; Watras, James; Loew, Leslie M.

    2008-01-01

    A 3D model was developed and used to explore dynamics of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) signaling in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Long-term depression in Purkinje neurons depends on coincidence detection of climbing fiber stimulus evoking extracellular calcium flux into the cell and parallel fiber stimulus evoking inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-meditated calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Experimental evidence shows that large concentrations of IP3 are required for calcium release. This study uses computational analysis to explore how the Purkinje cell provides sufficient PIP2 to produce large amounts of IP3. Results indicate that baseline PIP2 concentration levels in the plasma membrane are inadequate, even if the model allows for PIP2 replenishment by lateral diffusion from neighboring dendrite membrane. Lateral diffusion analysis indicates apparent anomalous diffusion of PIP2 in the spiny dendrite membrane, due to restricted diffusion through spine necks. Stimulated PIP2 synthesis and elevated spine PIP2 mediated by a local sequestering protein were explored as candidate mechanisms to supply sufficient PIP2. Stimulated synthesis can indeed lead to high IP3 amplitude of long duration; local sequestration produces high IP3 amplitude, but of short duration. Simulation results indicate that local sequestration could explain the experimentally observed finely tuned timing between parallel fiber and climbing fiber activation. PMID:18487300

  4. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2. PMID:26476105

  5. 1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as emerging pronucleophiles in asymmetric catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric catalysis represents a very powerful tool for the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. In this context the main focus has been directed not only to the search for new efficient chiral catalysts, but also to the development of efficient pronucleophiles. This review highlights the utility and first examples of 1H-imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as pronucleophiles in catalytic asymmetric reactions. PMID:27340482

  6. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  7. Quality after the Cuts? Higher Education Practitioners' Accounts of Systemic Challenges to Teaching Quality in Times of "Austerity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Anna; Iqani, Mehita

    2015-01-01

    What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching staff perceive their teaching practices? What impact are funding cuts, increases in student fees and the concomitant increased workloads having on faculty morale? How might this influence "quality cultures" in teaching…

  8. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  9. Breaking the Mold: New Approaches for Higher Education in Tough Economic Times. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human capital is the key to economic development. Without highly-skilled workers, states and territories cannot attract the productive businesses they need. That makes higher education a key element of any governor's growth strategy. But many public colleges and universities are struggling to produce more graduates. Overall graduation rates often…

  10. Applying the Modality Principle to Real-Time Feedback and the Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Effectively presenting complex material is a crucial component of instructional design within simulation-based training (SBT) environments. One approach to facilitate the acquisition of higher-order knowledge is to embed instructional strategies within the systems themselves. Currently, however, there are few established guidelines to inform…

  11. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  12. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  13. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  14. Australian Higher Education Leaders in Times of Change: The Role of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Bell, Sharon; Coates, Hamish; Grebennikov, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses responses provided by 31 Pro Vice-Chancellors (PVCs) and Deputy Vice-Chancellors (DVCs) who were part of a larger study of more than 500 higher education leaders in roles ranging from DVC to head of programme in 20 Australian universities. Using both quantitative and qualitative data the paper gives an insider's perspective on…

  15. A Call to Action on New England's Innovation Economy: Will Business and Higher Education Answer This Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, William

    2003-01-01

    Mass Insight Corp, a public policy and communications firm that organizes public-private initiatives to support economic growth in Massachusetts, recently issued a new report, titled "An Economy at Risk," making the case for a Massachusetts economic development strategy organized around higher education and science and technology. Massachusetts,…

  16. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  17. Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times. Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education Annual Conference (2nd, Seattle, Washington, October 13-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education 1981 conference are summarized. Authors and the summarized papers are as follows: "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The University Perspective" (George M. Beckmann); "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The Community College Perspective" (Don A. Morgan); "Report from China"…

  18. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies,…

  19. Full-Time Employed Students as University Consumers--Consequences and Triggers of Marketisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mägi, Eve; Jaakson, Krista; Aidla, Anne; Kirss, Laura; Reino, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a qualitative study of student employment patterns among students who both study and work full-time. In the study, 17 employed bachelor students at state-commissioned study places in three Estonian universities, 12 lecturers from the same universities, and 13 employers supervising those full-time students, were interviewed.…

  20. Higher rank Wilson loops in the {N}=2{SU}(N)\\times {SU}(N) conformal quiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Benjo

    2016-01-01

    In this note we compute the expectation value of a circular supersymmetric Wilson loop in the ‘higher rank’ totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations of {SU}(N) in the {\\hat{A}}1 quiver {N}=2 conformal field theory, using a matrix model. We discuss the connection with a recent conjecture stating that expectation values of observables in this sector are obtained from {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory by a universal renormalization of the ’t Hooft coupling.

  1. Specific receptor for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeabilized rabbit neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.G.; Spat, A.; Rubin, R.P.

    1986-03-05

    Neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation are resultant, in part, from the mobilization of intracellular calcium by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP/sub 3/), one of the products of chemoattractant-stimulated phospholipase C activity. High specific activity (ca. 40 Ci/mmol) (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ was prepared from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts and was used in binding assays with saponin-permeabilized rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. At 4/sup 0/C and in the presence of inhibitors of the IP/sub 3/ 5-phosphomonoesterase, (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ rapidly associated with a specific binding component which saturated within 60s. Nonspecific binding, taken as the residual binding in the presence of 10 ..mu..M (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/, was 15% of the total. No specific binding was detected using intact cells. The specific binding to permeable cells was reversible (t/sup 1/2/ approx. 60s) and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ (EC/sub 50/ = 30 nM) and by other calcium mobilizing inositol phosphates ((2,4,5)IP/sub 3/) but not by inactive analogs ((1,4)IP/sub 2/, (4,5)IP/sub 2/, (1)IP). The dose-responses of (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ and (2,4,5)IP/sub 3/ in inhibiting (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ specific binding correlated well with their abilities to release Ca/sup 2 +/ from nonmitochondrial vesicular stores in the same preparation of cells, suggesting that the authors have identified the physiological receptor for (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/.

  2. Factors Associated with Higher Sitting Time in General, Chronic Disease, and Psychologically-Distressed, Adult Populations: Findings from the 45 & Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Short, Camille; Grunseit, Anne; James, Erica; Johnson, Natalie; Bauman, Adrian; D’Este, Catherine; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with higher sitting time in general, chronic disease, and psychologically-distressed, adult populations (aged ≥45 years). A series of logistic regression models examined potential socio-demographic and health factors associated with higher sitting (≥6hrs/day) in adults from the 45 and Up Study (n = 227,187), including four separate subsamples for analysis comprising those who had ever had heart disease (n = 26,599), cancer (n = 36,381), diabetes (n = 19,550) or psychological distress (n = 48,334). Odds of higher sitting were significantly (p<.01) associated with a number of factors across these groups, with an effect size of ORs≥1.5 observed for the high-income ≥$70,000AUD, employed full-time and severe physical limitations demographics. Identification of key factors associated with higher sitting time in this population-based sample will assist development of broad-based, public health and targeted strategies to reduce sitting-time. In particular, those categorized as being high-income earners, full-time workers, as well as those with severe physical limitations need to be of priority, as higher sitting appears to be substantial across these groups. PMID:26039739

  3. Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Oleson, K.; Huber, M.

    2014-08-01

    We implement and analyze 13 different metrics (4 moist thermodynamic quantities and 9 heat stress metrics) in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5), the land surface component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We call these routines the HumanIndexMod. These heat stress metrics embody three philosophical approaches: comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to CLM4.5 BareGroundFuxesMod, CanopyFluxesMod, SlakeFluxesMod, and UrbanMod modules in order to differentiate between the distinct regimes even within one gridcell. This allows CLM4.5 to calculate the instantaneous heat stress at every model time step, for every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity in moisture-temperature covariance. Secondary modules for initialization and archiving are modified to generate the metrics as standard output. All of the metrics implemented depend on the covariance of near surface atmospheric variables: temperature, pressure, and humidity. Accurate wet bulb temperatures are critical for quantifying heat stress (used by 5 of the 9 heat stress metrics). Unfortunately, moist thermodynamic calculations for calculating accurate wet bulb temperatures are not in CLM4.5. To remedy this, we incorporated comprehensive water vapor calculations into CLM4.5. The three advantages of adding these metrics to CLM4.5 are (1) improved thermodynamic calculations within climate models, (2) quantifying human heat stress, and (3) that these metrics may be applied to other animals as well as industrial applications. Additionally, an offline version of the HumanIndexMod is available for applications with weather and climate datasets. Examples of such applications are the high temporal resolution CMIP5 archived data, weather and research forecasting models, CLM4.5 flux tower simulations (or other land surface model validation studies), and local weather station data analysis. To demonstrate the capabilities of the HumanIndexMod, we

  4. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  5. QSAR studies on 3-(4-biphenylmethyl) 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] Pyridine derivatives as angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh C

    2015-06-01

    QSAR studies were performed for correlating the chemical composition of 3-(4-biphenylmethyl) 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] pyridines bearing aryl acetic acid esters and acetamides as angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist. Four different quantitative structure-property relationship (QSAR) methods namely two-dimensional (2D-QSAR), group-based QSAR, k-nearest neighbor and Pharmacophore Modeling were employed to obtain statistically significant models. The statistically significant best 2D-QSAR model having correlation coefficient r(2) = 0:8940 and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient q(2) = 0:7648 with external predictive ability of pred_r(2) = 0:8177,pred_r(2)se = 0.4119 and best group-based QSAR model having r(2) = 0:7392 and q(2) = 0:6710with pred_r(2) = 0:7503was developed by SA-principal component regression. The most predictive k-nearest neighbor model derived from the superposition of conformations has good cross-validated q(2) = 0:7637 and satisfied predictive ability r(2)_pred = 0.7143. Continuing with compounds of substituted 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] pyridine derivatives chemical feature-based pharmacophore models with lowest RMSD value (0.3292 Å) consists of two Hac (Hydrogen bond acceptor), negative ionizable, and two AroC (Aromatic) features are important for the activity. The study suggested that substitution of group at R, R 1, R 2 and Ar, and position on 4, 5-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-imidazo [4, 5-c] pyridine ring with more electronegative nature and low bulkiness are favorable for the antihypertensive activity. These theoretical results may provide a useful reference for understanding the action mechanism and designing potential angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonist. PMID:26215494

  6. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca2+ currents through TRPC channels controlled via the PI(4,5)P2-PLC signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masayuki X.; Itsuki, Kyohei; Hase, Hideharu; Sawamura, Seishiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Mori, Yasuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca2+ currents (ROCs) triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5)P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5)P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5)P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5)P2 on different ROCs. PMID:25717302

  7. Pulling Structured Inequality into Higher Education: The Impact of Part-Time Working on English University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the social and academic effects of term-time working on undergraduate students at an English university. Data initially collected via a survey of student social relationships were enhanced by the inclusion of end-of-year academic performance. Various inferential statistical techniques were used to identify these effects. Path…

  8. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  9. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  10. Part-Time Faculty Personnel Management Policies. American Council on Education/Macmillan Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biles, George E.; Tuckman, Howard P.

    A framework for integrating part-time college faculty into an existing institutional structure is presented. Suggestions are offered on ways that department and division heads can make personnel policies that meet both the part-timer's need for fairness, certainty, and structure, and the college's need for flexibility and order. Policies are…

  11. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  12. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  13. Time-variant fMRI activity in the brainstem and higher structures in response to acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali; Park, Kyungmo; Kim, Jieun; Makris, Nikos; Kwong, Kenneth K; Harris, Richard E; Purdon, Patrick L; Kettner, Norman; Hui, Kathleen K S

    2009-08-01

    Acupuncture modulation of activity in the human brainstem is not well known. This structure is plagued by physiological artifact in neuroimaging experiments. In addition, most studies have used short (<15 min) block designs, which miss delayed responses following longer duration stimulation. We used brainstem-focused cardiac-gated fMRI and evaluated time-variant brain response to longer duration (>30 min) stimulation with verum (VA, electro-stimulation at acupoint ST-36) or sham point (SPA, non-acupoint electro-stimulation) acupuncture. Our results provide evidence that acupuncture modulates brainstem nuclei important to endogenous monoaminergic and opioidergic systems. Specifically, VA modulated activity in the substantia nigra (SN), nucleus raphe magnus, locus ceruleus, nucleus cuneiformis, and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Activation in the ventrolateral PAG was greater for VA compared to SPA. Linearly decreasing time-variant activation, suggesting classical habituation, was found in response to both VA and SPA in sensorimotor (SII, posterior insula, premotor cortex) brain regions. However, VA also produced linearly time-variant activity in limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus, and SN), which was bimodal and not likely habituation--consisting of activation in early blocks, and deactivation by the end of the run. Thus, acupuncture induces different brain response early, compared to 20-30 min after stimulation. We attribute the fMRI differences between VA and SPA to more varied and stronger psychophysical response induced by VA. Our study demonstrates that acupuncture modulation of brainstem structures can be studied non-invasively in humans, allowing for comparison to animal studies. Our protocol also demonstrates a fMRI approach to study habituation and other time-variant phenomena over longer time durations. PMID:19345268

  14. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes differentially recognize regioisomers of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Takeuchi, H; Riley, A M; Mills, S J; Watanabe, Y; Potter, B V

    1997-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of

  15. 24 CFR 4.5 - Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a). 4.5 Section 4.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  16. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  17. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  18. A Sequential Linear Quadratic Approach for Constrained Nonlinear Optimal Control with Adaptive Time Discretization and Application to Higher Elevation Mars Landing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Amit

    A sequential quadratic programming method is proposed for solving nonlinear optimal control problems subject to general path constraints including mixed state-control and state only constraints. The proposed algorithm further develops on the approach proposed in [1] with objective to eliminate the use of a high number of time intervals for arriving at an optimal solution. This is done by introducing an adaptive time discretization to allow formation of a desirable control profile without utilizing a lot of intervals. The use of fewer time intervals reduces the computation time considerably. This algorithm is further used in this thesis to solve a trajectory planning problem for higher elevation Mars landing.

  19. Phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-Fused Subphthalocyanines: Synthesis, Structure, and Spectroscopic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Houhe; Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Chiming; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-07-01

    A series of four phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-fused subphthalocyanine derivatives 0-3 containing zero, one, two, and three phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline moieties, respectively, were isolated from the mixed cyclotrimerization reaction of 2,9-di-tert-butylphenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-5,6-dicarbonitrile with 4,5-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)phthalonitrile and characterized by a series of spectroscopic methods including MALDI-TOF mass, (1) H NMR, electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular structures for the compounds 0 and 2 were clearly revealed on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their electrochemical properties were also studied by cyclic voltammetry. In particular, theoretical calculations in combination with the electronic absorption and electrochemical analyses revealed the significant influence of the fused-phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline units on the electronic structures. PMID:27123546

  20. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridines: a review.

    PubMed

    Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Zambare, Abhay S; Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Gonjari, Indrajeet; Zaheer, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrothieno pyridine is an important class of heterocyclic nucleus. Various 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for various biological activities in different models with desired findings. Some analogs have shown potent biological activities and may be considered as lead molecule for the development of future drugs. Number of drug molecules are available in the market and many molecules are in clinical development containing 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine nucleus as an important core. This review is an attempt to organize the chemical and biological aspects of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine analogs reported in last 20 year to till date. Review mainly focuses on the important role of the core in synthesis of drug or drug intermediates giving emphasis on synthetic schemes and biological activities of the different 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno pyridine analogs. PMID:25373848

  1. Intercalative pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thieno(2,3-b)quinolines induce apoptosis in leukemic cells: a comparative study of methoxy and morpholino substitution.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, M S; Nambiar, Mridula; Advirao, Gopal M; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2011-10-01

    DNA intercalating molecules are promising anticancer agents. Polycyclic aromatic molecules such as ellipticine intercalate into double-stranded DNA and affect major physiological functions. In the present study, we have characterized two molecules with the same chemical backbone but different side chains, namely 8-methoxy pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thieno (2,3-b)quinoline-4(3H)-one (MPTQ) and 4-morpholino pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thieno(2,3-b)quinoline (morpho-PTQ) at the 8th and 4th position, respectively. Although both MPTQ and morpho-PTQ show similar biophysical properties with high DNA affinity, here we show that they differ in their biological activities. We find that MPTQ is many fold more potent than morpho-PTQ and is cytotoxic against different leukemic cell lines. IC(50) value of methoxy PTQ was estimated between 2-15 µM among the leukemic cells studied, while it was more than 200 µM when morpho-PTQ was used. Cell cycle analysis shows an increase in sub-G1 phase, without any particular cell cycle arrest. Annexin V staining in conjunction with comet assay and DNA fragmentation suggest that MPTQ induces cytotoxicity by activating apoptosis. Thus the observed low IC(50) value of MPTQ makes it a promising cancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:20424886

  2. The Distribution of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate in Acinar Cells of Rat Pancreas Revealed with the Freeze-Fracture Replica Labeling Method

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a phospholipid that has been implicated in multiple cellular activities. The distribution of PI(4,5)P2 has been analyzed extensively using live imaging of the GFP-coupled phospholipase C-δ1 pleckstrin homology domain in cultured cell lines. However, technical difficulties have prevented the study of PI(4,5)P2 in cells of in vivo tissues. We recently developed a method to analyze the nanoscale distribution of PI(4,5)P2 in cultured cells by using the quick-freezing and freeze-fracture replica labeling method. In principle, this method can be applied to any cell because it does not require the expression of artificial probes. In the present study, we modified the method to study cells of in vivo tissues and applied it to pancreatic exocrine acinar cells of the rat. We found that PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane is distributed in an equivalent density in the apical and basolateral domains, but exists in a significantly higher concentration in the gap junction. The intracellular organelles did not show labeling for PI(4,5)P2. The results are novel or different from the reported distribution patterns in cell lines and highlight the importance of studying cells differentiated in vivo. PMID:21858170

  3. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

  4. Acoustic Receptivity of Mach 4.5 Boundary Layer with Leading- Edge Bluntness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows where second mode instability is dominant. Computations are performed to investigate the effect of leading-edge thickness and it is found that bluntness tends to stabilize the boundary layer. Furthermore, the relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle.

  5. Superplasticity and the development of dislocation structures in an Al-4.5% Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Roberts, W.T.; Bate, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical behavior and development of microstructure in tension of an Al-4.5% Mg alloy at temperatures from 450 to 570C and strain rates from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} has been investigated. High strain rate sensitivities, up to m = 0.7, but relatively small elongations, between 120 and 280%, were observed. A single activation energy for deformation, close to reported values for self diffusion in aluminium, was obtained over the temperature and strain rate range used, and the strain rate and stress could be related using a hyperbolic sine function at constant strain. Tensile specimens were quenched and aged under stress to preserve the dislocation structures for examination by transmission electron microscopy. The dislocation structures observed showed a gradual and systematic change between regimes of power law creep at higher strain rates and diffusional creep at lower strain rates, and in the superplastic regime there was a tendency for small grains to be free of dislocations. Many of the dislocations had Burgers vectors inclined at about 45{degree} to the stress axis, which suggests that they were active directly in response to the applied stress rather than as the result of a relaxation process accommodating grain boundary sliding.

  6. Highly cooperative Ca2+ elevations in response to Ins(1,4,5)P3 microperfusion through a patch-clamp pipette.

    PubMed Central

    Schrenzel, J; Demaurex, N; Foti, M; Van Delden, C; Jacquet, J; Mayr, G; Lew, D P; Krause, K H

    1995-01-01

    To study the initial kinetics of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced [Ca2+]i elevations with a high time resolution and to avoid the problem of cell-to-cell heterogeneity, we have used the combined patch-clamp/microfluorimetry technique. The mathematical description of the microperfusion of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and the subsequent Ca2+ release consists of a monoexponential decay (cytosolic Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration) and a Hill equation (Ins(1,4,5)P3 dose-response curve). Two additional Hill equations and an integration were necessary to include a putative dependence of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release on [Ca2+]i. Best-fitting analysis assuming [Ca2+]i-independent Ca2+ release yielded Hill coefficients between 4 and 12. The high cooperativity was also observed with the poorly metabolizable analog Ins(2,4,5)P3 and was independent of extracellular [Ca2+]. Best-fitting analysis including a positive [Ca2+]i feedback suggested a cooperativity on the level of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced channel opening (n = 2) and an enhancement of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release by [Ca2+]i. In summary, the onset kinetics of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced [Ca2+]i elevations in single HL-60 granulocytes showed a very high cooperativity, presumably because of a cooperativity on the level of channel opening and a positive Ca2+ feedback, but not because of Ca2+ influx or Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism. This high cooperativity, acting in concert with negative feedback mechanisms, might play an important role in the fine-tuning of the cellular Ca2+ signal. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8599644

  7. Future Climate Data from RCP 4.5 and Occurrence of Malaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001–2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future. PMID:25321875

  8. Future climate data from RCP 4.5 and occurrence of malaria in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001-2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future. PMID:25321875

  9. Progress integrating ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology with accessory mineral geochemistry: towards better accuracy and higher precision time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly common that hand samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks contain zircon with dates that span between zero and >100 ka. This recognition comes from the increased application of U-series geochronology on young volcanic rocks and the increased precision to better than 0.1% on single zircons by the U-Pb ID-TIMS method. It has thus become more difficult to interpret such complicated datasets in terms of ashbed eruption or magma emplacement, which are critical constraints for geochronologic applications ranging from biotic evolution and the stratigraphic record to magmatic and metamorphic processes in orogenic belts. It is important, therefore, to develop methods that aid in interpreting which minerals, if any, date the targeted process. One promising tactic is to better integrate accessory mineral geochemistry with high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology. These dual constraints can 1) identify cogenetic populations of minerals, and 2) record magmatic or metamorphic fluid evolution through time. Goal (1) has been widely sought with in situ geochronology and geochemical analysis but is limited by low-precision dates. Recent work has attempted to bridge this gap by retrieving the typically discarded elution from ion exchange chemistry that precedes ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and analyzing it by ICP-MS (U-Pb TIMS-TEA). The result integrates geochemistry and high-precision geochronology from the exact same volume of material. The limitation of this method is the relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to in situ techniques, and thus averages potentially complicated trace element profiles through single minerals or mineral fragments. In continued work, we test the effect of this on zircon by beginning with CL imaging to reveal internal zonation and growth histories. This is followed by in situ LA-ICPMS trace element transects of imaged grains to reveal internal geochemical zonation. The same grains are then removed from grain-mount, fragmented, and

  10. RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-07-29

    Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

  11. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  12. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAh, a small noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yutaka; Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    4.5S RNAh is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAh is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAh-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAhin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAh-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAh recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAh was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. PMID:17971306

  13. Spectral approach to finite Reynolds number effects on Kolmogorov's 4/5 law in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoufag, J.; Sagaut, P.; Cambon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Kolmogorov's 4/5 law is often considered as the sole exact relationship of inertial range statistics. Its asymptotic character, however, has been evidenced, investigating the finite Reynolds number (FRN) effect for the third-order structure function S3(r) (e.g., for longitudinal velocity increments with r separation length) using variants of the Kármán-Howarth equation in physical space. Similar semi-empirical fits were proposed for the maximum of the normalized structure function, C3 = -maxrS3(r)/(ɛr), expressing C3 - 4/5 as a power law of the Taylor-based Reynolds number. One of the most complete studies in this domain is by Antonia and Burratini [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 175 (2006)]. Considering that these studies are based on a model for the unsteady second-order structure function S2(r,t), with no explicit model for the third-order structure function itself, we propose to revisit the FRN effect by a spectral approach, in the line of Qian [Phys. Rev. E 55, 337 (1997), Phys. Rev. E 60, 3409 (1999)]. The spectral transfer term T(k,t), from which S3(r,t) is derived by an exact quadrature, is directly calculated by solving the Lin equation for the energy spectrum E(k,t), closed by a standard triadic (or three-point) theory, here Eddy Damped Quasi Normal Markovian. We show that the best spectral approach to the FRN effect is found by separately investigating the negative (largest scales) and positive (smaller scales) bumps of the transfer term, and not only by looking at the maximum of the spectral flux or maxk ∫k∞T(p ,t)dp→ɛ. In the forced case, previous results are well reproduced, with Reynolds numbers as high as Reλ = 5 000 to nearly recover the 4/5 value. In the free decay case, the general trend is recovered as well, with an even higher value of Reλ = 50 000, but the EDQNM plots are systematically below those in Antonia and Burattini [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 175 (2006)]. This is explained by the sensitivity to initial data for E(k) in solving the Lin

  14. Role of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in the regulation of calcium transients in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng; Zhang, Heping; Lin, Na; Kang, Man; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Chen; Xu, Pingxiang; Wu, Yongquan; Luo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the regulatory effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) on the basal Ca(2+) transients in cardiomyocytes. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) at different densities, we used confocal microscopy to assess the effect of IP3Rs on the endogenous spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations through specific activation of IP3Rs with myo-IP3 hexakis (butyryloxymethyl) ester (IP3BM), a membrane permeable IP3, and interference of IP3R expression with shRNA. We found that NRVMs at the monolayer state displayed coordinated Ca(2+) transients with less rate, shorter duration, and higher amplitude compared to single NRVMs. In addition, monolayer NRVMs exhibited 4 or 10 times more increased Ca(2+) transients in response to phenylephrine, an α-adrenergic receptor agonist, or IP3BM than single NRVMs did, while the transient pattern remained unaltered, suggesting that the sensitivity of intracellular Ca(2+) response to IP3R activation is different between single and monolayer NRVMs. However, interference of IP3R expression with shRNA reduced the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous Ca(2+) fluctuates similarly in both densities of NRVMs, resembling the effects of ryanodine receptor inhibition by ryanodine or tetracaine. Our findings suggest that IP3Rs are involved, in part, in the regulation of native Ca(2+) transients, in profiles of their initiation and Ca(2+) release extent, in developing cardiomyocytes. In addition, caution should be paid in evaluating the behavior of Ca(2+) signaling in primary cultured cardiomyocytes at different densities. PMID:25242084

  15. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  16. LPS-induced clustering of CD14 triggers generation of PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Płóciennikowska, Agnieszka; Zdioruk, Mykola I; Traczyk, Gabriela; Świątkowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-15

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions after sequential binding to CD14 protein and TLR4 receptor. Here, we show that CD14 controls generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in response to LPS binding. In J774 cells and HEK293 cells expressing CD14 exposed to 10-100 ng/ml LPS, the level of PI(4,5)P2 rose in a biphasic manner with peaks at 5-10 min and 60 min. After 5-10 min of LPS stimulation, CD14 underwent prominent clustering in the plasma membrane, accompanied by accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and type-I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms Iα and Iγ (encoded by Pip5k1a and Pip5k1c, respectively) in the CD14 region. Clustering of CD14 with antibodies, without LPS and TLR4 participation, was sufficient to trigger PI(4,5)P2 elevation. The newly generated PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in rafts, which also accommodated CD14 and a large portion of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ. Silencing of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ, or application of drugs interfering with PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and availability, abolished the LPS-induced PI(4,5)P2 elevation and inhibited downstream pro-inflammatory reactions. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS induces clustering of CD14, which triggers PI(4,5)P2 generation in rafts that is required for maximal pro-inflammatory signaling of TLR4. PMID:26446256

  17. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  18. A series of 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazole: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Vinay S.; Shaikh, Saminaparwin G.; Patel, Arun L.

    2016-06-01

    A new series of 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole were synthesized with good yields using simple methodology. All the compounds were thoroughly characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry and structures of 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyloxazole (5b) and 4,5-dimethyl-2-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)oxazole(5e) were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidently, the crystal structures of these compounds showed C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions. The electronic structures of these compounds were also studied by DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ++ level of theory.

  19. Enantioselective synthesis and antioxidant activity of 3,4,5-substituted piperidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ho; Shyam, Pranab K; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jeong Tae; Jang, Hye-Young

    2016-07-01

    In this study, 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines were synthesized enantioselectively, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines containing TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and a spatially proximal hydroxy group showed good antioxidant activity. Some of these compounds showed IC50 values in a nanomolar range, comparable to that of TEMPO. Probably the TEMPO generated from the homolysis of the CON bond of 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines functions as a radical-scavenging entity, and the hydroxy group of piperidines has a synergistic effect to the antioxidant activity. PMID:27177825

  20. Energetic Trinitro- and Fluorodinitroethyl Ethers of 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Parrish, Damon A; Mitchell, Lauren

    2016-07-18

    Several new energetic ethyl ethers of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine have been synthesized. These molecules display good thermal stability, good oxygen balance, and high densities. Included in these studies are a 2,2,2-trinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and two fluorodinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazines. One of these compounds was converted into the di-N-oxide derivative. The sensitivity of these materials towards destructive stimuli was determined, and overall the materials show promising energetic performance properties. PMID:27273564

  1. 2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl-lipoprotein (LDL, HDL, VLDL) interaction and induced lipidosis in cultured skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, D.; Becker, M.M.; Kruth, H.S.; Gamble, W.

    1984-06-01

    2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) induced cytoplasmic inclusions and lipidosis in normal (AG1437) and hypercholesterolemic (GM488) human skin fibroblasts. Quantitative and qualitative microscopic fluorescence analysis showed that the cytoplasmic inclusions are formed as early as 3 hr after treatment with HCB. The inclusions contain lipids but no detectable nonesterified cholesterol or cholesteryl ester. High density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) facilitate the apparent uptake of HCB by skin fibroblasts. HDL and LDL appeared to reverse the induction of cytoplasmic inclusions and lipidosis when cells were pretreated with HCB, the HCB was removed from media, and the cells were incubated with LDL or HDL. The results suggest that lipoproteins participate in the uptake and egress of HCB from skin fibroblasts.

  2. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  3. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  4. Direct Alkynylation of 3H-Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines Using gem-Dibromoalkenes as Alkynes Source.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Jessy; Baladi, Tom; Piguel, Sandrine

    2016-05-20

    C2 direct alkynylation of 3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives is explored for the first time. Stable and readily available 1,1-dibromo-1-alkenes, electrophilic alkyne precursors, are used as coupling partners. The simple reaction conditions include an inexpensive copper catalyst (CuBr·SMe2 or Cu(OAc)2), a phosphine ligand (DPEphos) and a base (LiOtBu) in 1,4-dioxane at 120 °C. This C-H alkynylation method revealed to be compatible with a variety of substitutions on both coupling partners: heteroarenes and gem-dibromoalkenes. This protocol allows the straightforward synthesis of various 2-alkynyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines, a valuable scaffold in drug design. PMID:27111189

  5. Application of preprocessing filtering on Decision Tree C4.5 and rough set theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Joseph C. C.; Lin, Tsau Y.

    2001-03-01

    This paper compares two artificial intelligence methods: the Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory on the stock market data. The Decision Tree C4.5 is reviewed with the Rough Set Theory. An enhanced window application is developed to facilitate the pre-processing filtering by introducing the feature (attribute) transformations, which allows users to input formulas and create new attributes. Also, the application produces three varieties of data set with delaying, averaging, and summation. The results prove the improvement of pre-processing by applying feature (attribute) transformations on Decision Tree C4.5. Moreover, the comparison between Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory is based on the clarity, automation, accuracy, dimensionality, raw data, and speed, which is supported by the rules sets generated by both algorithms on three different sets of data.

  6. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Platen, Mitja; Junius, Meike; Diederichsen, Ulf; Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Honigmann, Alf; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a minor component of total plasma membrane lipids, but it has a substantial role in the regulation of many cellular functions, including exo- and endocytosis. Recently, it was shown that PI(4,5)P2 and syntaxin 1, a SNARE protein that catalyzes regulated exocytosis, form domains in the plasma membrane that constitute recognition sites for vesicle docking. Also, calcium was shown to promote syntaxin 1 clustering in the plasma membrane, but the molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, using a combination of superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, FRET, and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ca2+ acts as a charge bridge that specifically and reversibly connects multiple syntaxin 1/PI(4,5)P2 complexes into larger mesoscale domains. This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca2+ concentrations is likely to be important for Ca2+-regulated secretion. PMID:26884341

  7. A new FPGA with 4/5-input LUT and optimized carry chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidong, Mao; Liguang, Chen; Yuan, Wang; Jinmei, Lai

    2012-07-01

    A new LUT and carry structure embedded in the configurable logic block of an FPGA is proposed. The LUT is designed to support both 4-input and 5-input structures, which can be configured by users according to their needs without increasing interconnect resources. We also develop a new carry chain structure with an optimized critical path. Finally a newly designed configurable scan-chain is inserted. The circuit is fabricated in 0.13 μm 1P8M 1.2/2.5/3.3 V logic CMOS process. The test results show a correct function of 4/5-input LUT and scan-chain, and a speedup in carry performance of nearly 3 times over current architecture in the same technology at the cost of an increase in total area of about 72.5%. Our results also show that the logic utilization of this work is better than that of a Virtex II/Virtex 4/Virtex 5/Virtex 6/Virtex 7 FPGA when implemented using only 4-LUT and better than that of a Virtex II/Virtex 4 FPGA when implemented using only 5-LUT.

  8. Csátalja, the largest H4-5 chondrite from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, János; Sajó, István; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Jáger, Viktor; Hegedüs, Tibor; Berecz, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Gyenizse, Péter; Podobni, András

    2015-01-01

    We report here for the first time the composition and mineralogical studies on a new meteorite, which was found in August 2012 near the village of Csátalja, Hungary (46°0'21''N; 18°59'27'E). The Csátalja meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S2 and a degree of weathering W1 and the total mass is 15 kg. The Csátalja meteorite is characterized by well-defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. X-ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, kamacite, and albite. Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth taenite/kamacite. Raman spectra of forsterite indicate that Csátalja meteorite suffered from relatively low shock pressure regime. The texture of chondrules varies from nonporphyritic (e.g., barred olivine, radial pyroxene) to porphyritic ones (e.g., granular olivine as well as olivine pyroxene). The meteorite name has not yet approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society.

  9. Absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole in male mouse urine.

    PubMed

    Cavaggioni, Andrea; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2003-11-01

    The absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) in urine of adult male mice was determined through chiral trifluoroacetyl derivative capillary chromatography by comparing the retention time with synthetic standards. (S)-DHT was extracted from fresh urine, while neither (R)-DHT nor the racemization of (S)-DHT were detected. We can conclude that DHT in urine possesses the S configuration, although we cannot exclude a minor component in the R configuration. (S)-DHT was then characterized for binding to the complex of major urinary proteins of male mouse urine (MUP) and for a behavioral response, the competitive scent marking behavior (countermarking). The binding constant of (S)-DHT to MUP (determined by competitive displacement) was 8.2 +/- 0.6 microM (mean +/- SD) and was 10.5 +/- 0.6 microM for R-DHT, thus excluding a relevant difference in binding. (S)-DHT modified countermarking in a peculiar way. Male mice were slow in countermarking urinary spots streaked 2 days earlier and on top of which (S)-DHT was added shortly before the test. This response was not seen when adding (S)-DHT to freshly streaked urinary spots or to clean paper. Unlike (S)-DHT, (R)-DHT prompted countermarking rather than delaying it. We can further conclude that (S)-DHT in male mouse urine is an aversive chemosignal for countermarking. PMID:14654447

  10. Dislocation distributions in an Al-4. 5% Mg alloy during superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Roberts, W.T.; Bate, P.S. . IRC in Materials for High Performance Applications)

    1993-10-01

    Superplasticity has been studied actively for several decades. Many models of the phenomenon have been proposed, in most of which normal dislocation glide has either not been considered or been considered only as an accommodation process to maintain continuity during grain boundary sliding. Although evidence of dislocation activity during superplastic deformation has been observed several times by TEM studies following deformation, the published results appear to be inconsistent and occasionally contradict themselves, and so are unable to provide systematic and convincing evidence for the development of any theoretical model. A major experimental problem associated with those results is the delay between unloading and quenching the specimens from the high testing temperatures. Dislocations can be lost by relaxation and annealing during the unloading and also during the preparation of TEM thin foils. A facility was developed to preserve the high temperature deformation microstructure for consequent TEM examination by quenching and aging under constant stress. This technique and some preliminary results are given elsewhere. The work presented here is from a more comprehensive TEM study of the dislocation distributions in an Al-4.5%Mg alloy developed during deformation at an elevated temperature and a range of strain rates.

  11. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRANS-4,5-DIHYDROXY-4,5-DIHYDROBENZO[A]PYRENE TO BENZO[A]PYRENE-BIS-DIOLS AND DNA ADDUCTS BY INDUCED RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of (+)-trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol), the K-region dihydrodiol of B[a]P, by B-naphthoflavone (BNF)-induced rat liver microsomes was studied. Trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol was metabolized to six major products as characterized by...

  12. Signal-dependent Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate without Activation of Phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Shaya; Katz, Ben; Tzarfaty, Vered; Minke, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade, couples photo-excitation of rhodopsin to the opening of the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels. A lipid product of PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), and its metabolites, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may function as second messengers of channel activation. However, how can one separate between the increase in putative second messengers, change in pH, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) depletion when exploring the TRPL gating mechanism? To answer this question we co-expressed the TRPL channels together with the muscarinic (M1) receptor, enabling the openings of TRPL channels via G-protein activation of PLC. To dissect PLC activation of TRPL into its molecular components, we used a powerful method that reduced plasma membrane-associated PI(4,5)P2 in HEK cells within seconds without activating PLC. Upon the addition of a dimerizing drug, PI(4,5)P2 was selectively hydrolyzed in the cell membrane without producing DAG, inositol trisphosphate, or calcium signals. We show that PI(4,5)P2 is not an inhibitor of TRPL channel activation. PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis combined with either acidification or application of DAG analogs failed to activate the channels, whereas PUFA did activate the channels. Moreover, a reduction in PI(4,5)P2 levels or inhibition of DAG lipase during PLC activity suppressed the PLC-activated TRPL current. This suggests that PI(4,5)P2 is a crucial substrate for PLC-mediated activation of the channels, whereas PUFA may function as the channel activator. Together, this study defines a narrow range of possible mechanisms for TRPL gating. PMID:22065576

  13. Localized Biphasic Changes in Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate at Sites of Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Roberto J.; Teruel, Mary; Dierckman, Renee; Anderson, Richard; Wells, Alan; York, John D.; Meyer, Tobias; Grinstein, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Phagocytosis requires localized and transient remodeling of actin filaments. Phosphoinositide signaling is believed to play an important role in cytoskeletal organization, but it is unclear whether lipids, which can diffuse along the membrane, can mediate the focal actin assembly required for phagocytosis. We used imaging of fluorescent chimeras of pleckstrin homology and C1 domains in live macrophages to monitor the distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (4,5-PIP2) and diacylglycerol, respectively, during phagocytosis. Our results reveal a sequence of exquisitely localized, coordinated steps in phospholipid metabolism: a focal, rapid accumulation of 4,5-PIP2 accompanied by recruitment of type Iα phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase to the phagosomal cup, followed by disappearance of the phosphoinositide as the phagosome seals. Loss of 4,5-PIP2 correlated with mobilization of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) and with the localized formation of diacylglycerol. The presence of 4,5-PIP2 and active PLCγ at the phagosome was shown to be essential for effective particle ingestion. The temporal sequence of phosphoinositide metabolism suggests that accumulation of 4,5-PIP2 is involved in the initial recruitment of actin to the phagocytic cup, while its degradation contributes to the subsequent cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:11134066

  14. Analysis and risk assessment of 4(5)-methylimidazole in brown colored foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) levels in various 144 brown coloured foods and beverages were determined. The brown coloured foods and beverages were 62 processed sauces, 40 coffee, 9 caramel syrups, 18 red ginseng juice and 15 Japanese apricot fruit juice. The amount of 4(5)-MI in brewed coffee (1821.3 ng/g) was the highest level among the samples. The 4(5)-MI concentration in processed sauce (47.6 ng/g) was the lowest level among the samples. The levels of 4(5)-MI in various samples were found as follows: 47.6-1748.5 ng/g in processed sauces, 64.1-1821.3 ng/g in commercial coffee, 115.5-491.9 ng/g in caramel syrups, 91.0-854.1 ng/g in red ginseng juice and 137.6-587.4 ng/g in Japanese apricot fruit juice. Based on the 4(5)-MI levels, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and chronic daily intake (CDI) were calculated. EDI and CDI of red ginseng juice was the highest among all samples, and they were 1618.6 and 1256.8 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. PMID:26653824

  15. Chronic alteration in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate levels regulates capsaicin and mustard oil responses

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur J.; Belugin, Sergei; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    There is an agreement that acute (in minutes) hydrolysis and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) modulate TRPV1 and TRPA1 activities. Since inflammation results in PIP2 depletion, persisting for long periods (hours-to-days) in pain models and in clinic, we examined whether chronic depletion and accumulation of PIP2 affects capsaicin and mustard oil responses. In addition we also wanted to evaluate whether the effects of PIP2 depend on TRPV1 and TRPA1 co-expression, and whether the PIP2 actions vary in expression cells versus sensory neurons. Chronic PIP2 production was stimulated by over-expression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase, while PIP2-specific phospholipid 5′-phosphatase was selected to reduce plasma membrane levels of PIP2. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin (100 nM; CAP) responses and receptor tachyphylaxis are not significantly influenced by chronic changes in PIP2 levels in wild-type (WT) or TRPA1 null-mutant sensory neurons, as well as CHO cells expressing TRPV1 alone or with TRPA1. However, low concentrations of CAP (20 nM) produced a higher response after PIP2 depletion in cells containing TRPV1 alone, but not TRPV1 together with TRPA1. Mustard oil (25 μM; MO) responses were also not affected by PIP2 in WT sensory neurons and cells co-expressing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In contrast, PIP2 reduction leads to pronounced tachyphylaxis to MO in cells with both channels. Chronic effect of PIP2 on TRPA1 activity depends on presence of the TRPV1 channel and cell type (CHO vs. sensory neurons). In summary, chronic alterations in PIP2 levels regulate magnitude of CAP and MO responses, as well as MO-tachyphylaxis. This regulation depends on co-expression profile of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and cell type. PMID:21337373

  16. Chronic alteration in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate levels regulates capsaicin and mustard oil responses.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur J; Belugin, Sergei; Akopian, Armen N

    2011-06-01

    There is an agreement that acute (in minutes) hydrolysis and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2) ) modulate TRPV1 and TRPA1 activities. Because inflammation results in PIP(2) depletion, persisting for long periods (hours to days) in pain models and in the clinic, we examined whether chronic depletion and accumulation of PIP(2) affect capsaicin (CAP) and mustard oil (MO) responses. In addition, we wanted to evaluate whether the effects of PIP(2) depend on TRPV1 and TRPA1 coexpression and whether the PIP(2) actions vary in expression cells vs. sensory neurons. Chronic PIP(2) production was stimulated by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase, and PIP(2) -specific phospholipid 5'-phosphatase was selected to reduce plasma membrane levels of PIP(2) . Our results demonstrate that CAP (100 nM) responses and receptor tachyphylaxis are not significantly influenced by chronic changes in PIP(2) levels in wild-type (WT) or TRPA1 null-mutant sensory neurons as well as CHO cells expressing TRPV1 alone or with TRPA1. However, low concentrations of CAP (20 nM) produced a higher response after PIP(2) depletion in cells containing TRPV1 alone but not TRPV1 together with TRPA1. MO (25 μM) responses were also not affected by PIP(2) in WT sensory neurons and cells coexpressing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In contrast, PIP(2) reduction leads to pronounced tachyphylaxis to MO in cells with both channels. Chronic effect of PIP(2) on TRPA1 activity depends on presence of the TRPV1 channel and cell type (CHO vs. sensory neurons). In summary, chronic alterations in PIP(2) levels regulate magnitude of CAP and MO responses as well as MO tachyphylaxis. This regulation depends on coexpression profile of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and cell type. PMID:21337373

  17. Regulation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Function During Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Takuya; Vanderheyden, Veerle; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cheon, Banyoon; Zhang, Nan; Parys, Jan B.; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2011-01-01

    At the time of fertilization, an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) underlies egg activation and initiation of development in all species studied to date. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1), which is mostly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates the majority of this Ca2+ release. The sensitivity of IP3R1, i.e. its Ca2+ releasing capability, is increased during oocyte maturation so that the optimum [Ca2+]i response concurs with fertilization, which in mammals occurs at metaphase of second meiosis. Multiple IP3R1 modifications affect its sensitivity, including phosphorylation, sub-cellular localization and ER Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]ER). Here we evaluated using mouse oocytes how each of these factors affected IP3R1 sensitivity. The capacity for IP3-induced Ca2+ release markedly increased at the germinal vesicle breakdown stage, although oocytes only acquire the ability to initiate fertilization-like oscillations at later stages of maturation. The increase in IP3R1 sensitivity was underpinned by an increase in [Ca2+]ER and receptor phosphorylation(s) but not by changes in IP3R1 cellular distribution, as inhibition of the former factors reduced Ca2+ release, whereas inhibition of the latter had no impact. Therefore, the results suggest that the regulation of [Ca2+]ER and IP3R1 phosphorylation during maturation enhance IP3R1 sensitivity rendering oocytes competent to initiate oscillations at the expected time of fertilization. The temporal discrepancy between the initiation of changes in IP3R1 sensitivity and acquisition of mature oscillatory capacity suggest that other mechanisms that regulate Ca2+ homeostasis also shape the pattern of oscillations in mammalian eggs. PMID:21465476

  18. A WHITE LIGHT MEGAFLARE ON THE dM4.5e STAR YZ CMi

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hilton, Eric J.; Holtzman, Jon A.

    2010-05-01

    On UT 2009 January 16, we observed a white light megaflare on the dM4.5e star YZ CMi as part of a long-term spectroscopic flare-monitoring campaign to constrain the spectral shape of optical flare continuum emission. Simultaneous U-band photometric and 3350-9260 A spectroscopic observations were obtained during 1.3 hr of the flare decay. The event persisted for more than 7 hr and at flare peak, the U-band flux was almost 6 mag brighter than in the quiescent state. The properties of this flare mark it as one of the most energetic and longest-lasting white light flares ever to be observed on an isolated low-mass star. We present the U-band flare energetics and a flare continuum analysis. For the first time, we show convincingly with spectra that the shape of the blue continuum from 3350 A to 4800 A can be represented as a sum of two components: a Balmer continuum as predicted by the Allred et al. radiative hydrodynamic flare models and a T{approx} 10,000 K blackbody emission component as suggested by many previous studies of the broadband colors and spectral distributions of flares. The areal coverage of the Balmer continuum and blackbody emission regions vary during the flare decay, with the Balmer continuum emitting region always being significantly ({approx}3-16 times) larger. These data will provide critical constraints for understanding the physics underlying the mysterious blue continuum radiation in stellar flares.

  19. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  20. Temporal profiling of changes in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol allows comprehensive analysis of phospholipase C-initiated signalling in single neurons1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Carl P; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) fulfils vital signalling roles in an array of cellular processes, yet until recently it has not been possible selectively to visualize real-time changes in PIP2 levels within living cells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled Tubby protein (GFP-Tubby) enriches to the plasma membrane at rest and translocates to the cytosol following activation of endogenous Gαq/11-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in both SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and primary rat hippocampal neurons. GFP-Tubby translocation is independent of changes in cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and instead reports dynamic changes in levels of plasma membrane PIP2. In contrast, enhanced GFP (eGFP)-tagged pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C (PLCδ1) (eGFP-PH) translocation reports increases in cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Comparison of GFP-Tubby, eGFP-PH and the eGFP-tagged C12 domain of protein kinase C-γ [eGFP-C1(2); to detect diacylglycerol] allowed a selective and comprehensive analysis of PLC-initiated signalling in living cells. Manipulating intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in the nanomolar range established that GFP-Tubby responses to a muscarinic agonist were sensitive to intracellular Ca2+ up to 100–200 nM in SH-SY5Y cells, demonstrating the exquisite sensitivity of agonist-mediated PLC activity within the range of physiological resting Ca2+ concentrations. We have also exploited GFP-Tubby selectively to visualize, for the first time, real-time changes in PIP2 in hippocampal neurons. PMID:18665913

  1. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Triphosphate and Cellular Signaling: Implications for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Jain, Sushil K.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) is one of the most important phosphoinositides and is capable of activating a wide range of proteins through its interaction with their specific binding domains. Localization and activation of these effector proteins regulate a number of cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, intracellular vesicle trafficking, and cell metabolism. Phosphoinositides have been investigated as an important agonist-dependent second messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events depending upon the phosphorylation status of their inositol group. Dysregulation in formation as well as metabolism of phosphoinositides is associated with various pathophysiological disorders such as inflammation, allergy, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that the impaired metabolism of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a prime mediator of insulin resistance associated with various metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. This review examines the current status of the role of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in the regulation of various cellular functions and the implications of dysregulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in obesity, diabetes, and their associated complications. PMID:25721445

  2. Ab initio and molecular dynamics studies of crystalline TNAD (trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Xiao, He-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua; Xiao, Ji-Jun; Zhu, Wei

    2006-06-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the energetic crystal TNAD (trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8- tetraazadecalin) have been studied using plane-wave ab initio calculations based on the density function theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotentials. It is found that the predicted crystal structure is in good agreement with experimental data and there are strong inter- and intramolecular interactions in bulk TNAD. Band structure calculations indicate that TNAD is an insulator with the band gap of ca. 3.3 eV. The hydrostatic compression effect on TNAD has been studied in the pressure range of 0-600 GPa. The results show that a pressure less than 10 GPa does not significantly change the geometric parameters, charge distributions, and electronic bands. When the pressure is over 10 GPa, increasing the pressure determines significant changes of the geometrical and electronic structures and large broadening of the electronic bands together with a sharp decrease of the band gap. Isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations at atmospheric pressure were further performed on the TNAD crystal in the temperature range 5-500 K. Average equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic properties as functions of temperature were determined. The thermal expansion coefficients calculated for the crystal indicate anisotropic behavior with the largest expansion along the b axis. PMID:16771311

  3. Physical chemistry of binary organic eutectic and monotectic alloys; 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene-β-naphthol and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-succinonitrile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, U. S.; Pandey, Pinky; Rai, R. N.

    2000-12-01

    Phase diagrams of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene-β-naphthol and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-succinonitrile systems which are organic analogues of a nonmetal-nonmetal and a nonmetal-metal system, respectively, show the formation of a simple eutectic (melting point 103.7°C) with 0.71 mole fraction of β-naphthol in the former case and a monotectic (melting point 76.0°C) with 0.07 mole fraction of succinonitrile and a eutectic (melting point 52.5°C) with 0.97 mole fraction of succinonitrile in the latter case. The growth behaviour of the pure components, the eutectics and the monotectic studied by measuring the rate of movement of the solid-liquid interface in a capillary, suggests that the data obey the Hillig-Turnbull equation, v= u(Δ T) n, where v is the growth velocity, Δ T is the undercooling and u and n are constants depending on the nature of the materials involved. From the values of enthalpy of fusion determined by the DSC method using Mettler DSC-4000 system, entropy of fusion, interfacial energy, enthalpy of mixing and excess thermodynamic functions were calculated. The optical microphotographs of pure components and polyphase materials show their characteristic features.

  4. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  5. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.

  6. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  7. The 18 May 2012 (Ms 4.5) Chapala Lake, Jalisco, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The central part of Jalisco, Mexico has experienced at different times the occurrence of low magnitude earthquakes series. Although the effect of these earthquakes have been limited to relatively small areas have caused general alarm within the population and even in some cases true catastrophes (e.g. San Cristobal 1875). These groups of earthquakes that have lasted for weeks and even months have greater importance because they affect the most populous state area including the capital city of Guadalajara. An extraordinary example of these series of earthquakes occurred on 8 may 1912 that lasted until September. In the first 18 days 64 events were felt by residents of Guadalajara. Since then, there has been a relative seismic activity calm in the region. This paper analyzes the earthquake of May 18, 2012 (03:07 UT) occurred at the West edge of Lake Chapala. While it's an event of low magnitude (4.5 Ms) it has the importance of having occurred just 60 km to the South of Guadalajara and for which instrumental data of first quality is available. The focus of the earthquake was located at 20.30 ° N and 103.49 ° W at a depth of 0 km using arrivals of P and S waves at 16 regional seismic stations. However, by the errors of localization inherent in the method focus could be in a range of 0 to 5 km deep. The mechanism of failure using the polarities of the first arrivals favors a clear faulting of dip slip type along a plane with strike = 227 °, Dip = 80 °, and Rake = 93 °. Waveforms analysis is being used to corroborate these results.

  8. GROMACS 4.5: a high-throughput and highly parallel open source molecular simulation toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Sander; Páll, Szilárd; Schulz, Roland; Larsson, Per; Bjelkmar, Pär; Apostolov, Rossen; Shirts, Michael R.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Kasson, Peter M.; van der Spoel, David; Hess, Berk; Lindahl, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Molecular simulation has historically been a low-throughput technique, but faster computers and increasing amounts of genomic and structural data are changing this by enabling large-scale automated simulation of, for instance, many conformers or mutants of biomolecules with or without a range of ligands. At the same time, advances in performance and scaling now make it possible to model complex biomolecular interaction and function in a manner directly testable by experiment. These applications share a need for fast and efficient software that can be deployed on massive scale in clusters, web servers, distributed computing or cloud resources. Results: Here, we present a range of new simulation algorithms and features developed during the past 4 years, leading up to the GROMACS 4.5 software package. The software now automatically handles wide classes of biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, and comes with all commonly used force fields for these molecules built-in. GROMACS supports several implicit solvent models, as well as new free-energy algorithms, and the software now uses multithreading for efficient parallelization even on low-end systems, including windows-based workstations. Together with hand-tuned assembly kernels and state-of-the-art parallelization, this provides extremely high performance and cost efficiency for high-throughput as well as massively parallel simulations. Availability: GROMACS is an open source and free software available from http://www.gromacs.org. Contact: erik.lindahl@scilifelab.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23407358

  9. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  10. Molecular control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongbo R; Mondal, Subhanjan

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils play critical roles in innate immunity and host defense. However, excessive neutrophil accumulation or hyper-responsiveness of neutrophils can be detrimental to the host system. Thus, the response of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli needs to be tightly controlled. Many cellular processes in neutrophils are mediated by localized formation of an inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), at the plasma membrane. The PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling pathway is negatively regulated by lipid phosphatases and inositol phosphates, which consequently play a critical role in controlling neutrophil function and would be expected to act as ideal therapeutic targets for enhancing or suppressing innate immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review current understanding about the action of lipid phosphatases and inositol phosphates in the control of neutrophil function in infection and inflammation. PMID:25576302

  11. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion. PMID:26930513

  12. Immunogenicity of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5 produced in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Webster, Diane E; Campbell, Alison E; Dry, Ian B; Wesselingh, Steve L; Coppel, Ross L

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem for which effective control measures are urgently needed. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of effective vaccines against the causative parasite and protective vaccine trials are now being reported. Due to the relative poverty and lack of infrastructure in malaria-endemic areas, a successful immunisation strategy will depend critically on cheap and scaleable methods of vaccine production, distribution and delivery. One promising technology is transgenic plants, both as a bioreactor for the vaccine-manufacturing process as well as a matrix for oral immunisation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using transgenic plants to induce protective immunity against malaria infection using Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5 (PyMSP4/5) in a mouse model of malaria infection. Our data show that the PyMSP4/5 protein can be produced in plants in a configuration that reacts with protective antibodies. Optimisation of codon usage for the PyMSP4/5 gene resulted in significantly increased antigen expression in plants. PyMSP4/5 protein from the codon-optimised construct accumulated to 0.25% of total soluble protein, a sixfold increase over the native gene sequence. Tobacco-made PyMSP4/5 was able to induce antigen-specific antibodies in mice following parenteral delivery, as well as boost the antibody responses induced by DNA vaccination when delivered parenterally or orally. We believe this is the first report to show that plant-made malaria antigens are immunogenic. However, the antibody levels were not high enough to protect the immunised mice against a lethal challenge with P. yoelii. Further strategies are needed to achieve a protective dose, including improvements to antigen expression levels in plants and strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed antigen. PMID:17681344

  13. Dynamics of higher-order rational solitons for the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Yang, Yunqing

    2016-06-01

    The integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential [M. J. Ablowitz and Z. H. Musslimani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064105 (2013)] is investigated, which is an integrable extension of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Its novel higher-order rational solitons are found using the nonlocal version of the generalized perturbation (1,N-1)-fold Darboux transformation. These rational solitons illustrate abundant wave structures for the distinct choices of parameters (e.g., the strong and weak interactions of bright and dark rational solitons). Moreover, we also explore the dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rational solitons with some small noises on the basis of numerical simulations. PMID:27368788

  14. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Iliyan N.; Petrova, Svetlana P.; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Shivachev, Boris L.

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the synthesis of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. The combination of iodine and silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) reagents was used successfully for the iodination of 3,4,5-trimetoxybenzoic acid. To improve the efficiency of the synthetic process a significant modification on the experimental design was also performed. The main structural features of the obtained aryl iodide were investigated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New [1,3]Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazin-4(5H)-ones

    PubMed Central

    Demchenko, Anatoly; Bobkova, Ludmila; Yadlovskiy, Oleh; Buchtiarova, Tatiana; Demchenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 2-(N-pyrrolidino, N-piperidino or N-morpholino)-7-phenyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazinones 10a–c, 14–16a,b was synthesized in 78–87% yields via the reaction of methyl 5-benzoyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-2-aminosubstituted-thiazol-4-carboxylates 9a–c, 13a–e with hydrazine. These new compounds have been tested for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds have been characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. PMID:27222602

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New [1,3]Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazin-4(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Demchenko, Anatoly; Bobkova, Ludmila; Yadlovskiy, Oleh; Buchtiarova, Tatiana; Demchenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 2-(N-pyrrolidino, N-piperidino or N-morpholino)-7-phenyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazinones 10a-c, 14-16a,b was synthesized in 78-87% yields via the reaction of methyl 5-benzoyl(α-furoyl or α-thienyl)-2-aminosubstituted-thiazol-4-carboxylates 9a-c, 13a-e with hydrazine. These new compounds have been tested for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds have been characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:27222602

  18. Characteristics of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl distribution among lipoproteins in vitro. [Rats and human whole blood, plasma, and lipoprotein fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Vomachka, M.S.; Vodicnik, M.J.; Lech, J.J.

    1983-09-01

    The uptake, distribution, and transfer of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) were examined in vitro with human and rat whole blood, plasma, and lipoprotein fractions. 6-CB distribution between plasma and erythrocytes as well as among lipoproteins was determined following sedimentation of erythrocytes and ultracentrifugal fractionation of plasma. In both rat and human whole blood, 70 to 75% of 6-CB partitioned into plasma and 25 to 30% into erythrocytes. The uptake of 6-CB into plasma was extremely rapid and the rate of uptake was found to be dependent upon temperature. The distribution of 6-CB among lipoproteins was relatively homogeneous with 20 to 30% being distributed in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL, d . 0.95-1.006 g/ml), 15 to 20% in low-density lipoproteins (LDL, d . 1.006-1.063 g/ml), and 15 to 25% in high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d . 1.063-1.21 g/ml). Over 25% of 6-CB was found in the remaining bottom fraction. In addition, each isolated fraction when incubated alone with 6-CB was shown capable of uptake. The relative proportion of 6-CB among the lipoproteins was independent of the level taken up by plasma. 6-CB was also found to transfer among lipoproteins. This exchange of 6-CB proved to be dependent upon the concentrations of both protein and triacylglycerol in the incubations. Two proteins in the bottom fraction (Bf), albumin and a steroid binding globulin, were capable of competing with the lipoproteins for 6-CB uptake.

  19. Analysis of the Rotational Spectra of 2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROTOLUENE and 1-CHLORO-2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROBENZENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osthoff, Ashley A.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Grubbs, Garry S. Grubbs, II; Cooke, Stephen A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.

    2009-06-01

    The microwave spectra of two substituted pentafluorobenzenes have been obtained. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorotoluene was measured using the FTMW spectrometer at Eastern Illinois University and the chirped-pulse FTMW spectrometer at University of North Texas. The heavy atom structure has been obtained from the assigned ^{13}C transitions and is in reasonable agreement with ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level. The ground state rotational constants are A = 1036.61253(10) MHz, B = 1030.94126(10) MHz, and C = 516.92062(9) MHz, and the single dipole moment component is μ_b = 1.98(17) D. Very small splittings for many of the assigned transitions and multiple, as yet unassigned, lines were presumably due to excited torsional states of the methyl group. In a related study, the microwave spectrum of 1-chloro-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzene was obtained for both the ^{35}Cl and the ^{37}Cl isotopologues using the chirped-pulse microwave spectrometer at University of Virginia. The preliminary ground state rotational constants for this compound are A = 1028.5403(14) MHz, B = 751.8198(3) MHz and C = 434.3533(4) MHz for ^{35}Cl and A = 1028.5435(7) MHz, B = 734.4786(2) MHz and C = 428.5082(2) MHz for ^{37}Cl. Initial fits of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants give χ_{aa} = -79.512(15) MHz, χ_{bb} = 43.593(8) MHz, χ_{cc} = 35.92(2) MHz for the ^{35}Cl species and χ_{aa} = -62.68(2) MHz, χ_{bb} = 34.38(4) MHz, χ_{cc} = 28.29(17) MHz for the ^{37}Cl species. These results will be compared with pentafluorotoluene to observe the effects on the structure of the benzene ring when substituting a chlorine atom for a methyl group.

  20. 60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Bottom of swing span and top of center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a)...

  4. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-5 - Political contributions by certain investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investment adviser that has reported on its annual updating amendment to Form ADV (17 CFR 279.1) that it has... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Political contributions by....206(4)-5 Political contributions by certain investment advisers. (a) Prohibitions. As a...

  5. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-5 - Political contributions by certain investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investment adviser that has reported on its annual updating amendment to Form ADV (17 CFR 279.1) that it has... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Political contributions by....206(4)-5 Political contributions by certain investment advisers. (a) Prohibitions. As a...

  6. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-5 - Political contributions by certain investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment adviser that has reported on its annual updating amendment to Form ADV (17 CFR 279.1) that it has... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Political contributions by....206(4)-5 Political contributions by certain investment advisers. (a) Prohibitions. As a...

  7. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-5 - Political contributions by certain investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investment adviser that has reported on its annual updating amendment to Form ADV (17 CFR 279.1) that it has... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Political contributions by....206(4)-5 Political contributions by certain investment advisers. (a) Prohibitions. As a...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10584 - Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10584 Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10584 - Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10584 Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10433 - Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....80(f) and (j) (dry etching agent and chemical vapor deposition agent for the production of...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10433 Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-. (a) Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10433 - Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....80(f) and (j) (dry etching agent and chemical vapor deposition agent for the production of...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10433 Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-. (a) Chemical...

  12. Fragmentation of silicon nuclei at 4. 5 A GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, T.; Irfan, M. )

    1991-11-30

    1024 interactions caused by 4.5 A GeV/c {sup 28}Si in emulsion are studied. In this paper result on the mean free path is discussed and compared with the corresponding results obtained for the interactions initiated by other projectiles. Multiplicity distributions for Z = 1, 2 and {ge}3 fragments are also investigated.

  13. Spt4/5 stimulates transcription elongation through the RNA polymerase clamp coiled-coil motif

    PubMed Central

    Hirtreiter, Angela; Damsma, Gerke E.; Cheung, Alan C. M.; Klose, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; Vojnic, Erika; Martin, Andrew C. R.; Cramer, Patrick; Werner, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Spt5 is the only known RNA polymerase-associated factor that is conserved in all three domains of life. We have solved the structure of the Methanococcus jannaschii Spt4/5 complex by X-ray crystallography, and characterized its function and interaction with the archaeal RNAP in a wholly recombinant in vitro transcription system. Archaeal Spt4 and Spt5 form a stable complex that associates with RNAP independently of the DNA–RNA scaffold of the elongation complex. The association of Spt4/5 with RNAP results in a stimulation of transcription processivity, both in the absence and the presence of the non-template strand. A domain deletion analysis reveals the molecular anatomy of Spt4/5—the Spt5 Nus-G N-terminal (NGN) domain is the effector domain of the complex that both mediates the interaction with RNAP and is essential for its elongation activity. Using a mutagenesis approach, we have identified a hydrophobic pocket on the Spt5 NGN domain as binding site for RNAP, and reciprocally the RNAP clamp coiled-coil motif as binding site for Spt4/5. PMID:20197319

  14. Priming 4.5-Month-Old Infants to Use Height Information by Enhancing Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua

    2011-01-01

    How do infants select and use information that is relevant to the task at hand? Infants treat events that involve different spatial relations as distinct, and their selection and use of object information depends on the type of event they encounter. For example, 4.5-month-olds consider information about object height in occlusion events, but…

  15. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology. PMID:27560165

  16. The Role of PI(3,4,5)P3 Signaling During Axonal Growth Cone Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henle, Steven J.

    Development of the nervous system is a remarkably complex process that involves the birth of billions of neurons leading to the formation of trillions of synapses. Many biological programs underlie the formation of a functional nervous system. I focused on trying to understand the process by which a newly formed axon navigates a series of signals in the environment that guide it to a synaptic partner. At the tip of the extending neurite is a conical expansion known as the growth cone that primarily is responsible for performing this pathfinding process. In order to do so it senses the environment, and induces a program of intracellular signaling that in turn leads to directed axon extension. My work has focused on understanding this signaling machinery. I have aimed to understand the role the phosphoinositde PI(3,4,5)P3 due to the critical role it plays in amoeboid chemotaxis. I discovered that PI(3,4,5)P3 and its downstream kinase Akt define the leading edge during growth cone chemotaxis and lead to activation of a TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) channel. Furthermore, I found that the PI(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase PTEN appears to be exclusively linked to guiding growth cone migration in response to a gradient of chemorepellent. Taken together my data demonstrate that PI(3,4,5)P3 functions as a key instructive mediator of growth cone chemotaxis.

  17. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  18. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  19. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  20. 4,5-Disubstituted oxazolidinones: High affinity molecular effectors of RNA function.

    PubMed

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Nayek, Abhijit; Green, Nicholas J; Grundy, Frank J; Henkin, Tina M; Means, John A; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Hines, Jennifer V

    2008-06-15

    The T box transcription antitermination system is a riboswitch found primarily in Gram-positive bacteria which monitors the aminoacylation of the cognate tRNA and regulates a variety of amino acid-related genes. Novel 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinones were identified as high affinity RNA molecular effectors that modulate the transcription antitermination function of the T box riboswitch. PMID:18502126

  1. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5,5\\'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' - Hexabromodiphenyl ether ( BDE - 153 ) ; CASRN 68631 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I (

  2. 2,2\\',3,3\\',4,4\\',5,5\\',6,6\\'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2 ' , 3,3 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' , 6,6 ' - Decabromodiphenyl ether ( BDE - 209 ) ; CASRN 1163 - 19 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process

  3. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  4. Physical Education, Junior Division: Grades 4, 5, 6. Curriculum J.5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    This manual was prepared to give teachers assistance in carrying out programs in physical education in grades 4, 5, and 6. Because many schools have space and equipment deficiencies, some emphasis has been placed on improvisation and the fullest possible use of available space and equipment. The manual is divided into two sections: organization…

  5. Synthetic studies towards Zetekitoxin AB: preparation of 4,5-epi-11-hydroxy-saxitoxinol

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Aaron D.; Williams, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A concise synthesis of 4,5-epi-11-hydroxy-saxitoxinol utilizing D-ribose to direct an asymmetric Mannich reaction. This approach allows many modes of reactivity, which can be used to access various analogs of saxitoxin. PMID:25313264

  6. Synthesis of inositol phosphate-based competitive antagonists of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Konieczny, Vera; Stefanakis, John G; Sitsanidis, Efstratios D; Ioannidou, Natalia-Anastasia T; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos V; Fylaktakidou, Konstantina C; Taylor, Colin W; Koumbis, Alexandros E

    2016-02-16

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca(2+) channels that are widely expressed in animal cells, where they mediate the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores evoked by extracellular stimuli. A diverse array of synthetic agonists of IP3Rs has defined structure-activity relationships, but existing antagonists have severe limitations. We combined analyses of Ca(2+) release with equilibrium competition binding to IP3R to show that (1,3,4,6)IP4 is a full agonist of IP3R1 with lower affinity than (1,4,5)IP3. Systematic manipulation of this meso-compound via a versatile synthetic scheme provided a family of dimeric analogs of 2-O-butyryl-(1,3,4,6)IP4 and (1,3,4,5,6)IP5 that compete with (1,4,5)IP3 for binding to IP3R without evoking Ca(2+) release. These novel analogs are the first inositol phosphate-based competitive antagonists of IP3Rs with affinities comparable to that of the only commonly used competitive antagonist, heparin, the utility of which is limited by off-target effects. PMID:26818818

  7. Preparation of 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2002-01-01

    The compound of the structure ##STR1## where a, b, c, d and e are 0 or 1 and a+b+c+d+e is from 0 to 5 is disclosed together with the species 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) and a process of preparing such compounds.

  8. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ZNT1, 4, 5, 6, AND 7 IN THE MOUSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of five zinc transporters (ZnT1, 4, 5, 6, and 7) of the Slc30 family in the mouse gastrointestinal tract was studied by immunohistochemical analysis. The results demonstrated unique expression patterns, levels, and cellular localization among ZnT proteins in the mouse gastrointestinal tra...

  9. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume I: The Basic Functions of the Navigator Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This first of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on the basic functions of the Navigator component. Lesson 1 covers terminology and methods to connect to the World Wide Web, hardware needed, and a Netscape Communicator overview. Lesson 2 introduces the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus, and how to change the default…

  10. Median CBO Salary Rises by 4.5 Percent, Annual Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    An annual national survey of college and university salaries found chief business officers' salaries rose 4.5 percent in 1996-97, less than the previous year. Salaries of women and minority CBOs continued to gain equity with that of men. Rates of increase varied by institution type. Salary gains for all administrative job types were less than in…

  11. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  12. Degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1993-01-01

    Under secondary metabolic conditions the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium rapidly mineralizes 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The pathway for degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by purified lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). The multistep pathway involves cycles of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination reactions followed by quinone reduction reactions to yield the key intermediate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene, which is presumably ring cleaved. In the first step of the pathway, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol is oxidized to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone by either MnP or Lip. 2,5-Dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is then reduced to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone. The 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone is oxidized by MnP to generate 5-chloro-4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone. The orthoquinone is in turn reduced to 5-chloro-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. Finally, the 5-chlorotrihydroxybenzene undergoes another cycle of oxidative dechlorination and reduction reactions to generate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene. The latter is presumably ring cleaved, with subsequent degradation to CO2. In this pathway, the substrate is oxidatively dechlorinated by LiP or MnP in a reaction which produces a quinone. The quinone intermediate is recycled by a reduction reaction to regenerate an intermediate which is again a substrate for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination. This pathway apparently results in the removal of all three chlorine atoms before ring cleavage occurs. PMID:8328802

  13. Molecular structure and protonation trends in 6-methoxy- and 8-methoxy-2,4,5-tris(dimethylamino)quinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyablo, O. V.; Pozharskii, A. F.; Shmoilova, E. A.; Ozeryanskii, V. A.; Fedik, N. S.; Suponitsky, K. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Molecular structure and protonation trends of 6-methoxy- 7 and 8-methoxy- 8 derivatives of 2,4,5-tris(dimethylamino)quinoline were studied using X-ray measurements, NMR spectra and theoretical calculations. It has been found that while 8 in the solid state forms protic salts of a quinolinium type, its isomer 7 behaves as a typical proton sponge giving the anilinium cation with a proton chelated by peri-NMe2 groups. In solution, both compounds are simultaneously monoprotonated at two possible centers but again a tendency of 7 to form anilinium cation is much higher if compared to 8. It has been also shown that basicity of 7 is the largest among all known derivatives of 4,5-bis(dimethylamino)quinoline and even slightly exceeds that of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (parent proton sponge). This was attributed to the "buttressing effect" exhibited by the 6-MeO group. Stable double salts of 7 with picrate and perchlorate anions unprecedented for azines with conjugated aza and NMe2 groups were obtained and thoroughly studied.

  14. Insights of the Crystallization Process of Molecular Sieve AlPO4-5 Prepared by Solvent-Free Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Na; Chu, Yueying; Xin, Shaohui; Wang, Qiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Feng, Zhaochi; Meng, Xiangju; Liu, Xiaolong; Deng, Feng; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2016-05-18

    Crystallization of AlPO4-5 with AFI structure under solvent-free conditions has been investigated. Attention was mainly focused on the characterization of the intermediate phases formed at the early stages during the crystallization. The development in the long-range ordering of the solid phases as a function of crystallization time was monitored by XRD, SEM, IR, UV-Raman, and MAS NMR techniques. Particularly, the UV-Raman spectroscopy was employed to obtain the information on the formation process of the framework. J-HMQC (27)Al/(31)P double-resonance NMR experiments were used to identify the P-O-Al bonded species in the intermediate phases. For the first time the P-O-Al bonded species in the intermediate phases can be correctly described through using this advanced NMR technique. The crystallization under solvent-free conditions appears to follow the pathway: The initial amorphous raw material is converted to an intermediate phase which has four-/six-membered ring species, then gradually transformed into crystalline AlPO4-5. This observation is not consistent with the common idea that the intermediate phase is the semicrystalline intermediates with a three-dimensional structure. PMID:27116300

  15. An extraordinarily long larval duration of 4.5 years from hatching to metamorphosis for teleplanic veligers of Fusitriton oregonensis.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Megumi F; Strathmann, Richard R

    2007-10-01

    Veliger larvae of the NE Pacific snail Fusitriton oregonensis were reared in culture for 4.5 to 4.6 years from hatching to metamorphosis and through postlarval growth to reproduction. Larval shells grew in length from 0.20 to 3.9 mm. Late veligers grew slowly, but shell sizes increased even in the 4th and 5th years. Widths of larval shells at late stages equaled or exceeded those of the protoconchs of two juveniles from the field. Cultured larvae did not metamorphose until presented with subtidal rocks and associated biota. There was no indication of larval senescence: the first 2 years of postmetamorphic shell growth were slightly faster, and time from metamorphosis to first reproduction (3.3 years) was slightly less than for an individual that had developed to metamorphic competence in the plankton. A 4.5-year larval phase exceeds previous estimates for teleplanic larval durations and greatly exceeds estimates of the time for transport across oceans. This extraordinarily long larval period may exceed the usual duration in nature but shows that larval periods can be much longer than previously suspected without complete stasis in growth and with little if any loss of viability. PMID:17928522

  16. Hybrid Modified K-Means with C4.5 for Intrusion Detection Systems in Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Laftah Al-Yaseen, Wathiq; Ali Othman, Zulaiha; Ahmad Nazri, Mohd Zakree

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the processing time and performance of intrusion detection systems are of great importance due to the increased speed of traffic data networks and a growing number of attacks on networks and computers. Several approaches have been proposed to address this issue, including hybridizing with several algorithms. However, this paper aims at proposing a hybrid of modified K-means with C4.5 intrusion detection system in a multiagent system (MAS-IDS). The MAS-IDS consists of three agents, namely, coordinator, analysis, and communication agent. The basic concept underpinning the utilized MAS is dividing the large captured network dataset into a number of subsets and distributing these to a number of agents depending on the data network size and core CPU availability. KDD Cup 1999 dataset is used for evaluation. The proposed hybrid modified K-means with C4.5 classification in MAS is developed in JADE platform. The results show that compared to the current methods, the MAS-IDS reduces the IDS processing time by up to 70%, while improving the detection accuracy. PMID:26161437

  17. Hybrid Modified K-Means with C4.5 for Intrusion Detection Systems in Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Laftah Al-Yaseen, Wathiq; Ali Othman, Zulaiha; Ahmad Nazri, Mohd Zakree

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the processing time and performance of intrusion detection systems are of great importance due to the increased speed of traffic data networks and a growing number of attacks on networks and computers. Several approaches have been proposed to address this issue, including hybridizing with several algorithms. However, this paper aims at proposing a hybrid of modified K-means with C4.5 intrusion detection system in a multiagent system (MAS-IDS). The MAS-IDS consists of three agents, namely, coordinator, analysis, and communication agent. The basic concept underpinning the utilized MAS is dividing the large captured network dataset into a number of subsets and distributing these to a number of agents depending on the data network size and core CPU availability. KDD Cup 1999 dataset is used for evaluation. The proposed hybrid modified K-means with C4.5 classification in MAS is developed in JADE platform. The results show that compared to the current methods, the MAS-IDS reduces the IDS processing time by up to 70%, while improving the detection accuracy. PMID:26161437

  18. The mass function of black holes 14.5: comparison of models with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada; Volonteri, Marta

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we compare the observationally derived black hole mass function (BHMF) of luminous (>1045-1046 erg s-1) broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) at 1 < z < 4.5 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) presented by Kelly et al., with models of merger-driven black hole (BH) growth in the context of standard hierarchical structure formation models. In these models, we explore two distinct black hole seeding prescriptions at the highest redshifts: 'light seeds'- remnants of Population III stars and 'massive seeds' that form from the direct collapse of pre-galactic discs. The subsequent merger triggered mass build-up of the black hole population is tracked over cosmic time under the assumption of a fixed accretion rate as well as rates drawn from the distribution derived by Merloni & Heinz. Four model snapshots at z= 1.25, 2, 3.25 and 4.25 are compared with the SDSS-derived BHMFs of BLQSOs. We find that the light seed models fall short of reproducing the observationally derived mass function of BLQSOs at MBH > 109 M⊙ throughout the redshift range; the massive seed models with a fixed accretion rate of 0.3 Edd, or with accretion rates drawn from the Merloni & Heinz distribution provide the best fit to the current observational data at z > 2, although they overestimate the high-mass end of the mass function at lower redshifts. At low redshifts, a drastic drop in the accretion rate is observed and this is explained as arising due to the diminished gas supply available due to consumption by star formation or changes in the geometry of the inner feeding regions. Therefore, the overestimate at the high-mass end of the black hole mass function for the massive seed models can be easily modified, as the accretion rate is likely significantly lower at these epochs than what we assume. For the Merloni & Heinz model, examining the Eddington ratio distributions fEdd, we find that they are almost uniformly sampled from fEdd= 10-2 to 1 at z≃ 1, while at high redshift

  19. Stretch increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Felix, J A; Woodruff, M L; Dirksen, E R

    1996-03-01

    Mechanical stimulation of airway epithelial cells with a microprobe leads to an increase in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] that appears to be due, in part, to release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores (Boitano et al., Science 258:292[1992]). To investigate whether intracellular IP3 concentration ([IP3]i) increases in response to mechanical stimulation, we grew confluent monolayers from rabbit tracheal mucosal explants on flexible substrates and measured [IP3]i after stretching the substrate. The effect of stretch on [IP3]i was measured in the presence of Li+, an inhibitor of IP3 degradation. In unstretched cells, IP3 measured approximately 5.1 pmol/10(6) cells, from which we estimated [IP3]i to be 1.8 microM. Addition of Li+ had no effect on resting [IP3]i. When the flexible cell support was stretched to increase its surface area by 13%, mean [IP3]i increased about 3-fold with a half-time of approximately 1 s. The increased [IP3]i was maintained in a plateau phase for approximately 8 s and then decayed to near the unstretched level over the next 10 s, despite the sustained application of stretch. A transient stretch (0.5 s) induced a similar rate of increase and peak [IP3]i; however, [IP3]i subsided without a plateau phase. The magnitude of the [IP3]i increase was proportional to stimulus intensity between 0 and 13% increase in substrate surface area. In addition, dissociated airway epithelial cells were exposed to hypotonic solution to induce cell swelling. [IP3]i increased about 4-fold above control levels after 10 s of exposure to hypotonic solution. Basal [IP3]i of dissociated cells in isotonic solution was estimated to be 0.7 microM. These results are consistent with mechanical stimulation leading to phospholipase C synthesis of IP3, which mediates intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:8845181

  20. Inhibition of thalamic excitability by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol: a selective role for delta-GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Herd, Murray B; Foister, Nicola; Chandra, Dev; Peden, Dianne R; Homanics, Gregg E; Brown, Verity J; Balfour, David J K; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

    2009-03-01

    The sedative and hypnotic agent 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP) is a GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) agonist that preferentially activates delta-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs (delta-GABA(A)Rs). To clarify the role of delta-GABA(A)Rs in mediating the sedative actions of THIP, we utilized mice lacking the alpha(1)- or delta-subunit in a combined electrophysiological and behavioural analysis. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from ventrobasal thalamic nucleus (VB) neurones at a holding potential of -60 mV. Application of bicuculline to wild-type (WT) VB neurones revealed a GABA(A)R-mediated tonic current of 92 +/- 19 pA, which was greatly reduced (13 +/- 5 pA) for VB neurones of delta(0/0) mice. Deletion of the delta- but not the alpha(1)-subunit dramatically reduced the THIP (1 mum)-induced inward current in these neurones (WT, -309 +/- 23 pA; delta(0/0), -18 +/- 3 pA; alpha(1) (0/0), -377 +/- 45 pA). Furthermore, THIP selectively decreased the excitability of WT and alpha(1) (0/0) but not delta(0/0) VB neurones. THIP did not affect the properties of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents in any of the genotypes. No differences in rotarod performance and locomotor activity were observed across the three genotypes. In WT mice, performance of these behaviours was impaired by THIP in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of THIP on rotarod performance was blunted for delta(0/0) but not alpha(1) (0/0) mice. We previously reported that deletion of the alpha(1)-subunit abolished synaptic GABA(A) responses of VB neurones. Therefore, collectively, these findings suggest that extrasynaptic delta-GABA(A)Rs vs. synaptic alpha(1)-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs of thalamocortical neurones represent an important molecular target underpinning the sedative actions of THIP. PMID:19302153

  1. GENOTOXICITY OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID BIODEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN THE SALMONELLA REVERSION AND LAMBDA PROPHAGE-INDUCTION BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The herbicide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), is still an environmental hazard because of its persistent nature even though its use was outlawed in this country in the 1960's. n order to eliminate the contamination created by 2,4,5-T application, storage, and dispos...

  2. Atomic accuracy models from 4.5 Å cryo-electron microscopy data with density-guided iterative local refinement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Brunner, Matthias J.; Xu, Chunfu; Conticello, Vincent; Egelman, Edward; Marlovits, Thomas; Cheng, Yifan; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    Direct electron detectors have made it possible to generate electron density maps at near atomic resolution using cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstructions. Critical current questions include how best to build models into these maps, how high quality a map is required to generate an accurate model, and how to cross-validate models in a system independent way. We describe a modeling approach that integrates Monte Carlo optimization with local density guided moves, Rosetta all-atom refinement, and real space B-factor fitting, yielding accurate models from experimental maps for three different systems with resolutions 4.5 Å or higher. We characterize model accuracy as a function of data quality, and present a model validation statistic that correlates with model accuracy over the three test systems. PMID:25707030

  3. Roles of 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide in regulating extracellular electron transfer of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Yu, Sheng-Song; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Wei; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Microbial extracellular electron transfer (EET) is critically involved in many pollutant conversion processes in both natural environment and engineered bioelectrochemical systems (BES), but typically with limited efficiency and poor controllability. In this study, we discover an important role of uncouplers in affecting the microbial energy metabolism and EET. Dose of lower-concentration 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) in the anolyte promoted the current generation and substrate degradation of an MFC inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. However, higher TCS dosage caused obvious microbial inhibition. Our results suggest a previously unknown role of uncouplers in regulating the microbial EET. In addition, the underlying mechanisms of such processes are investigated. This work broadens our view about the EET behaviors of microorganisms in real water environment where uncouplers are usually present, and suggests a possible new approach to regulate microbial EET in BES. PMID:25612888

  4. 8-Methly-4-(3-diethylaminopropylamino) pyrimido [4',5';4,5] thieno (2,3-b) quinoline (MDPTQ), a quinoline derivate that causes ROS-mediated apoptosis in leukemia cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, Sudheer; Vasania, Viraf S.; Gopal, M.; Mehta, Ashish . E-mail: ashish_mehta@relbio.com

    2007-07-01

    The present study reports the biological activity of 8-methly-4-(3-diethylamino-propylamino) pyrimido [4';5';4,5] thieno (2,3-b) quinoline (MDPTQ), a quinoline derivative structurally related to ellipticine and suggests a possible mechanism through which the compound induces apoptosis in carcinoma cell lines. Out of the 8 cell lines used in the study as representatives of different types of cancer, MDPTQ was found to be effective only against leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and K-562) whereas it had no effect on normal human bone marrow cells (BMC) which were used as controls. Fall mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) were mainly responsible for inducing apoptosis in the two cell lines. Cell death was demonstrated by increase in caspase 3 activity as well as phosphatidyl serine exposure. Pre-incubation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced the increased ROS and caspase 3 activity as well as phosphatidyl serine exposure. MDPTQ also caused cell cycle arrest in these cell lines. The above study for the first time reports the mode of action of a quinoline derivative, which could be a possible future candidate for leukemia therapy. However, there are lot of questions that need to be answered in terms of signalling pathways and its effects on animal models.

  5. Performance of six 4. 5 m SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole model magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.; Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Green, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1986-01-01

    Six 4.5 m long dipole models for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6 T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 - 2.4 K) liquid, 8 T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated well above the required current with little training.

  6. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; Blichert-Toft, J; Müller, W; Albarede, F; Holden, P; Mojzsis, S J

    2005-12-23

    The long-favored paradigm for the development of continental crust is one of progressive growth beginning at approximately 4 billion years ago (Ga). To test this hypothesis, we measured initial 176Hf/177Hf values of 4.01- to 4.37-Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia. epsilonHf (deviations of 176Hf/177Hf from bulk Earth in parts per 10(4)) values show large positive and negative deviations from those of the bulk Earth. Negative values indicate the development of a Lu/Hf reservoir that is consistent with the formation of continental crust (Lu/Hf approximately 0.01), perhaps as early as 4.5 Ga. Positive epsilon(Hf) deviations require early and likely widespread depletion of the upper mantle. These results support the view that continental crust had formed by 4.4 to 4.5 Ga and was rapidly recycled into the mantle. PMID:16293721

  7. Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Lebensohn, Andres M; Ma, Le; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Kirschner, Marc W

    2006-01-01

    Xenopus egg cytoplasmic extracts have been used to study a variety of complex cellular processes. Given their amenability to biochemical manipulation and physiological balance of regulatory proteins, these extracts are an ideal system to dissect signal transduction pathways leading to actin assembly. We have developed methods to study Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. In this chapter, we describe detailed procedures to prepare Xenopus egg extracts, Cdc42, and PI(4,5)P2 for use in actin assembly experiments. We also describe a fluorometric pyrene actin assay for quantitative kinetic analysis of actin polymerization and a microscopic rhodamine actin assay for quick measurement of actin rearrangements in extracts. Finally we provide a protocol for immunodepletion of proteins and discuss the use of immunodepletion and rescue experiments for functional analysis of components in the extracts. PMID:16472657

  8. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones as analogues of kakuol.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Merlini, Lucio; Farina, Gandolfina

    2010-04-01

    In a study aiming to determine the structural elements essential to the antifungal activity of kakuol, we synthesized a series of 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones, and we assayed their in vitro antifungal activity. The most sensitive target organisms to the action of these class of compounds were Phytophthora infestans, Phytium ultimum, Cercospora beticola, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Most of the analogs showed a remarkable in vitro activity, and some of them appeared significantly more effective than the natural product. The biological activity was mainly affected by introducing structural modification on the carbonyl moiety of the natural-product molecule. In particular, compound 5a, bearing a C=C bond conjugated to the C=O group, was found active with a MIC value of 10 microg ml(-1) against Cladosporium cucumerinum. The results suggest that 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones can be considered promising candidates in the development of new antifungal compounds. PMID:20397224

  9. Constructions of Optimal (v,{4,5,6},1,Q)-OOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiyang; Fan, Pingzhi; Wu, Dianhua

    Optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) is a promising technique for multimedia transmission in fiber-optic local-area networks (LANs). Variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) can be used for OCDMA networks supporting multiple quality of services (QoS). Most constructions for optimal variable-weight OOCs have focused on the case where the number of distinct Hamming weights of all codewords is equal to two, and the codewords of weight 3 are normally included. In this letter, four explicit constructions of optimal (v,{4,5,6},1,Q)-OOCs are presented, and more new optimal (v,{4,5,6},1,Q)-OOCs are obtained via recursive constructions. These improve the existing results on optimal variable-weight OOCs with at least three distinct Hamming weights and minimum Hamming weight 4.

  10. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy.

  11. Backside optimization for improving avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV IGBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Tian; Jiang, Lu; Yuan, Teng; Wenliang, Zhang; Shuojin, Lu; Yangjun, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The static avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV high-voltage IGBT is studied by theory analysis and experiment. The avalanche breakdown behaviors of the 4.5 kV IGBTs with different backside structures are investigated and compared by using the curve tracer. The results show that the snap back behavior of the breakdown waveform is related to the bipolar PNP gain, which leads to the deterioration of the breakdown voltage. There are two ways to optimize the backside structure, one is increasing the implant dose of the N+ buffer layer, the other is decreasing the implant dose of the P+ collector layer. It is found that the optimized structure is effective in suppressing the snap back behavior and improving the breakdown characteristic of high voltage IGBT. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project of China (No. 2011ZX02503-003).

  12. 4,5-Bis(dimethylamino)quinolines: proton sponge versus azine behavior.

    PubMed

    Dyablo, Olga V; Shmoilova, Elena A; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Burov, Oleg N; Starikova, Zoya A

    2012-08-17

    Two first representatives, 5 and 6, of the still unknown 4,5-bis(dimethylamino)quinoline have been synthesized and studied. While the former, being protonated either at the peri-NMe(2) groups or at the ring nitrogen, has been shown to display properties of both a proton sponge and azine, its counterpart 6 behaves exclusively as azine giving only a quinolinium salt. PMID:22860688

  13. Synthesis of oxazolo[4,5-c]quinoline TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Voight, Eric A; Daanen, Jerome F; Kort, Michael E

    2010-12-17

    An efficient synthesis of 2-amino-oxazolo[4,5-c]quinoline TRPV1 antagonists is described via a thiourea formation/carbodiimide cyclization sequence. Synthetic route optimization eliminates intermediate isolations and facilitates the rapid preparation of a series of novel pentacyclic TRPV1 antagonists. From this series, compound (S)-4 was identified as a potent and selective ligand for the TRPV1 ion channel. PMID:21090730

  14. Analysis of cellular phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate levels and distribution using confocal fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Michelle; Nowell, Cameron J; Condron, Melanie; Gardiner, James; Holmes, Andrew B; Desai, Jayesh; Burgess, Antony W; Catimel, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an immunocytochemistry method for the semiquantitative detection of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) at the cell plasma membrane. This protocol combines the use of a glutathione S-transferase-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general phosphoinositides-1 receptor (GST-GRP1PH) with fluorescence confocal microscopy and image segmentation using cell mask software analysis. This methodology allows the analysis of PI(3,4,5)P3 subcellular distribution in resting and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HEK293T cells and in LIM1215 (wild-type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)) and LIM2550 (H1047R mutation in PI3K catalytic domain) colonic carcinoma cells. Formation of PI(3,4,5)P3 was observed 5min following EGF stimulation and resulted in an increase of the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio from 1.03 to 1.53 for HEK293T cells and from 2.2 to 3.3 for LIM1215 cells. Resting LIM2550 cells stained with GST-GRP1PH had an elevated membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio of 9.8, suggesting constitutive PI3K activation. The increase in the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescent ratio was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This cellular confocal imaging assay can be used to directly assess the effects of PI3K mutations in cancer cell lines and to determine the potential specificity and effectiveness of PI3K inhibitors in cancer cells. PMID:20599646

  15. Development of a 4.5 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, Ted; Olson, Jeff; Champagne, Patrick; Mix, Jack; Evtimov, Bobby; Roth, Eric; Collaco, Andre

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's (LM) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed a four stage pulse tube cryocooler (stirling-type pulse tube system) to provide cooling at 4.5 K for superconducting digital electronics communications programs. These programs utilize superconducting niobium integrated circuits [1, 2]. A prior ATC 4 stage unit has provided cooling to 3.8 K. [3] The relatively high cooling loads for the present program led us to a new design which improves the 4.5 K power efficiency over prior systems. This design includes a unique pulse tube approach using both He-3 and He-4 working gas in two compression spaces. The compressor utilizes our standard moving magnet linear motor, clearance seal and flexure bearing system. The system is compact, lightweight and reliable and utilizes our aerospace cooler technology to provide unlimited lifetime. The unit is a proof of concept, but the construction is at an engineering model level. Follow on activities for improvements of performance and more compact packaging and future production for ground based communication systems is anticipated. This paper presents the experimental results at various cooling conditions. Primary results are shown for HYPRES cooling requirements and data is also included at lower cooling loads that may be required for future space missions. The system provides a maximum of 42 mW @ 4.5 K and a no load temperature of 3 K. The majority of this work was subcontracted by HYPRES and funded by the Army and Navy. A small part of this effort to obtain data at lower cooling loads (1-10 mW @ 4.5 K) was funded by LM internal funds.

  16. Investigation of 4,5-epoxymorphinan degradation during analysis by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Quarry, Mary Ann; Sebastian, Dolores S; Diana, Frank

    2002-08-22

    Compounds of the 4,5-epoxymorphinan series have been shown to degrade in solution to the corresponding 2,2'-dimers when stored in amber glass HPLC vials. A colorant in the glass has been shown to catalyze the degradation. Although amber glass is routinely used to protect solutions from light degradation, it should not be used without evaluating its effect on sample stability. PMID:12151069

  17. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4--5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  18. Long-life vibration-free 4.5 K sorption cooler for space applications.

    PubMed

    Burger, J F; ter Brake, H J M; Holland, H J; Meijer, R J; Veenstra, T T; Venhorst, G C F; Lozano-Castelló, D; Coesel, M; Sirbi, A

    2007-06-01

    A breadboard 4.5 K helium sorption cooler for use in vibration-sensitive space missions was developed and successfully tested. This type of cooler has no moving parts and is, therefore, essentially vibration-free. The absence of moving parts also simplifies scaling down of the cooler to small sizes, and it contributes to achieving a very long lifetime. In addition, the cooler operates with limited dc's so that hardly any electromagnetic interference is generated. This cooler is a favorite option for future missions such as ESA's Darwin mission, a space interferometer in which the sensitive optics and detectors can hardly accept any vibration. The system design consists of a hydrogen stage cooling from 80 to 14.5 K and a helium stage establishing 5 mW at 4.5 K. Both stages use microporous activated carbon as the adsorption material. The two cooler stages need about 3.5 W of total input power and are heat sunk at two passive radiators at temperatures of about 50 and 80 K-radiators which are constructed at the cold side of the spacecraft. We developed, built, and tested a demonstrator of the helium cooler. This demonstrator has four sorption compressor cells in two compressor stages. Test experiments on this cooler showed that it performs within all specifications imposed by ESA. The cooler delivered 4.5 mW at 4.5 K with a long-term temperature stability of 1 mK and an input power of 1.96 W. So far, the cooler has operated continuously for a period of 2.5 months and has not shown any sign of performance degradation. PMID:17614633

  19. Complex functions of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in regulation of TRPC5 cation channels.

    PubMed

    Trebak, Mohamed; Lemonnier, Loic; DeHaven, Wayne I; Wedel, Barbara J; Bird, Gary S; Putney, James W

    2009-02-01

    The canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins have been recognized as key players in calcium entry pathways activated through phospholipase-C-coupled receptors. While it is clearly demonstrated that members of the TRPC3/6/7 subfamily are activated by diacylglycerol, the mechanism by which phospholipase C activates members of the TRPC1/4/5 subfamily remains a mystery. In this paper, we provide evidence for both negative and positive modulatory roles for membrane polyphosphoinositides in the regulation of TRPC5 channels. Depletion of polyphosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) through inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activates calcium entry and membrane currents in TRPC5-expressing but not in TRPC3- or TRPC7-expressing cells. Inclusion of polyphosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate or PIP2, but not phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, in the patch pipette inhibited TRPC5 currents. Paradoxically, depletion of PIP2 with a directed 5-phosphatase strategy inhibited TRPC5. Furthermore, when the activity of single TRPC5 channels was examined in excised patches, the channels were robustly activated by PIP2. These findings indicate complex functions for regulation of TRPC5 by PIP2, and we propose that membrane polyphosphoinositides may have at least two distinct functions in regulating TRPC5 channel activity. PMID:18665391

  20. The co-chaperones Fkbp4/5 control Argonaute2 expression and facilitate RISC assembly

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Natalia J.; Chang, Hao-Ming; Borrajo, Jacob de Riba; Gregory, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) for target messenger RNA cleavage and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Although Ago2 is essential for RISC activity, the mechanism of RISC assembly is not well understood, and factors controlling Ago2 protein expression are largely unknown. A role for the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone complex in loading small RNA duplexes into the RISC has been demonstrated in cell extracts, and unloaded Ago2 is unstable and degraded by the lysosome in mammalian cells. Here we identify the co-chaperones Fkbp4 and Fkbp5 as Ago2-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. Pharmacological inhibition of this interaction using FK506 or siRNA-mediated Fkbp4/5 depletion leads to decreased Ago2 protein levels. We find FK506 treatment inhibits, whereas Fkbp4/5 overexpression promotes, miRNA-mediated stabilization of Ago2 expression. Simultaneous treatment with a lysosome inhibitor revealed the accumulation of unloaded Ago2 complexes in FK506-treated cells. We find that, consistent with unloaded miRNAs being unstable, FK506 treatment also affects miRNA abundance, particularly nascent miRNAs. Our results support a role for Fkbp4/5 in RISC assembly. PMID:24049110

  1. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z>4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; Frey, Sándor; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here we report on observations of an additional ten z > 4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN), thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50 per cent. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z > 4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis (unbeamed) radio sources with rest-frame self-absorption peaks at or below GHz frequencies and that these sources can be classified as gigahertz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and megahertz peaked-spectrum (MPS) sources.

  2. Computational research on memory effects in AlPO4-5 nanoporous material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulín-González, J.; Demontis, P.; Navas Conyedo, E.; Suffritti, G. B.

    2012-06-01

    Reversible amorphization and memory effects of both dense and open frameworks have received a great attention due to their prospective industrial applications. In this paper, the results of a computational study related to phase transition and memory effects in AlPO4-5 nanoporous material at high external pressure is presented. The behavior of the AlPO4-5 unit cell at high external pressures was studied by energy minimization techniques using classical potentials. A combination of interatomic potentials was used to describe the crystalline structure of the aluminophosphate. According to simulation's result a decrease of crystalline order is observed at a pressure about 3.5 GPa. The behavior of the simulated infrared spectra of compressed structures is an unambiguous evidence of structural disorder. Also, an abrupt change in the slope of the unit cell volume vs. pressure curve was obtained. At P≤3.5 GPa the process was found reversible. Contrary to what has been reported in other aluminosilicate systems the final crystalline state of AlPO4-5 at the highest simulated pressure was not amorphous. According to our knowledge this is the first evidence of a reversible first-order crystal-crystal phase transition in AlPO- family materials. This result could be important in future industrial and catalytic applications of these materials.

  3. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles using nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 as an effective catalyst.

    PubMed

    Safari, Javad; Gandomi-Ravandi, Soheila; Akbari, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    An efficient four-component synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles is described by one-step condensation of an aldehyde, benzil, ammonium acetate and primary aromatic amine with nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate in ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation. High yields, short reaction times, mild conditions, simplicity of operation and easy work-up are some advantages of this protocol. PMID:25685459

  4. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles using nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 as an effective catalyst☆

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Javad; Gandomi-Ravandi, Soheila; Akbari, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    An efficient four-component synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles is described by one-step condensation of an aldehyde, benzil, ammonium acetate and primary aromatic amine with nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate in ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation. High yields, short reaction times, mild conditions, simplicity of operation and easy work-up are some advantages of this protocol. PMID:25685459

  5. Changes in Preference for Infant-Directed Speech in Low and Moderate Noise by 4.5- to 13-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Hussain, Isma

    2006-01-01

    Although a large literature discusses infants' preference for infant-directed speech (IDS), few studies have examined how this preference might change over time or across listening situations. The work reported here compares infants' preference for IDS while listening in a quiet versus a noisy environment, and across 3 points in development: 4.5

  6. Research and Development Toward a 4.5-1.5 {Angstrom} Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at SLAC to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 A) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation in a minimal time include: (1) a peak current in the 7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of {lt}0.05%, and (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}[r-m], approximating the diffraction limit condition {epsilon} = {lambda} / 4{pi}, where lambda(m) is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.02% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 8 m/rad for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress has been made in developing individual components and beam processing techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to approx. 20 A, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 A LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas.

  7. The ALMA Patchy Deep Survey: a blind search for [C II] emitters at z ˜ 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Nagao, T.; Iono, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Tamura, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shimizu, I.

    2015-07-01

    We present a result of a blind search for [C II] 158 μm emitters at z ˜ 4.5 using Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 archival data. We collected extragalactic data covering at 330-360 GHz (band 7) from 8 Cycle 0 projects from which initial results have been already published. The total number of fields is 243 and the total on-source exposure time is 19.2 h. We searched for line emitters in continuum-subtracted data cubes with spectral resolutions of ˜50, 100, 300 and 500 km s-1. We could not detect any new line emitters above a 6σ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the [C II] luminosity function at z ˜ 4.5 over L_[C II] ˜ 10^8-10^{10} L_{⊙} or star formation rate, SFR ˜ 10-1000 M_^{⊙}yr-1. These limits are at least two orders of magnitude larger than the [C II] luminosity functions expected from the z ˜ 4 UV luminosity function or from numerical simulation. However, this study demonstrates that we would be able to better constrain the [C II] luminosity function and to investigate possible contributions from dusty galaxies to the cosmic star formation rate density by collecting Cycle 1+2 archival data as the ALMA Patchy Deep Survey.

  8. 2-(Alkylamino)-3-aryl-6,7-dihydrobenzofuran-4(5H)-ones: Improved Synthesis and their Photophysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumawat, Lokesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Furans are an important class of compounds and exhibit a diverse range of activities and properties. As such, improved synthetic access to furans is an important research goal. In the present report, a solvent- and catalyst-free reaction between 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone), an aryl aldehyde and an isocyanide under microwave irradiation is presented. This method is significantly improved from previously described protocols in terms of applicability of wide ranging aryl aldehydes, better yields, shorter reaction times, facile work up and essentially no need of column chromatography. The photophysical properties of this series of compounds were studied for their possible applicability in the field of metal ion sensors. In solution, two compounds, 2-(cyclohexylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6,6-dimethyl-6,7-dihydrobenzofuran-4(5H)-one (1 i) and 2-(tert-butylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6,6-dimethyl-6,7-dihydrobenzofuran-4(5H)-one (1 j), underwent an observable color change from yellow to colorless in the presence of aluminum(III) ions. Further studies to investigate the UV absorption and luminescence behavior of these compounds revealed their utility as “naked-eye sensors” for aluminum detection. PMID:26491643

  9. Identification of a new membrane-permeable inhibitor against inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-3-kinase A.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Dominik; Rehbach, Christoph; Seyffarth, Carola; Neuenschwander, Martin; Kries, Jens V; Windhorst, Sabine

    2013-09-20

    Ectopic expression of the neuron-specific inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-3-kinase A (ITPKA) in lung cancer cells increases their metastatic potential because the protein exhibits two actin regulating activities; it bundles actin filaments and regulates inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-mediated calcium signals by phosphorylating InsP3. Thus, in order to inhibit the metastasis-promoting activity of ITPKA, both its actin bundling and its InsP3kinase activity has to be blocked. In this study, we performed a high throughput screen in order to identify specific and membrane-permeable substances against the InsP3kinase activity. Among 341,44 small molecules, 237 compounds (0.7%) were identified as potential InsP3kinase inhibitors. After determination of IC50-values, the three compounds with highest specificity and highest hydrophobicity (EPPC-3, BAMB-4, MEPTT-3) were further characterized. Only BAMB-4 was nearly completely taken up by H1299 cells and remained stable after cellular uptake, thus exhibiting a robust stability and a high membrane permeability. Determination of the inhibitor type revealed that BAMB-4 belongs to the group of mixed type inhibitors. Taken together, for the first time we identified a highly membrane-permeable inhibitor against the InsP3kinase activity of ITPKA providing the possibility to partly inhibit the metastasis-promoting effect of ITPKA in lung tumor cells. PMID:23981806

  10. Photophysics of 2-(4'-amino-2'-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]pyridine and its analogues: intramolecular proton transfer versus intramolecular charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Behera, Santosh Kumar; Karak, Ananda; Krishnamoorthy, G

    2015-02-12

    Photophysical characteristics of 2-(4'-amino-2'-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]pyridine (AHPIP-c) have been studied in various aprotic and protic solvents using UV-visible, steady state fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. To comprehend the competition between the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) processes, the photophysical properties of 2-(4'-amino-2'-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]pyridine (AMPIP-c) and 2-(4'-aminophenyl)-1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]pyridine (APIP-c) were also investigated. Though APIP-c displays twisted ICT (TICT) emission in protic solvents, AHPIP-c exhibits normal and tautomer emissions in aprotic as well as in protic solvents due to ESIPT. However, the methoxy derivative, AMPIP-c, emits weak TICT fluorescence in methanol. PMID:25337987

  11. 4.1N binding regions of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Kazumi; Bannai, Hiroko; Inoue, Takafumi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2006-04-01

    Zhang et al. and Maximov et al. [S. Zhang, A. Mizutani, C. Hisatsune, T. Higo, H. Bannai, T. Nakayama, M. Hattori, and K. Mikoshiba, Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4048-4056; A. Maximov, T. S. Tang, and I. Bezprozvanny, Association of the type 1 inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor with 4.1N protein in neurons, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 22 (2003) 271-283.] reported that 4.1N is a binding partner of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP(3)R1), however the binding site of IP(3)R1 differed: the former determined the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail (CTT14aa) as the binding site, while the latter assigned another segment, cytoplasmic tail middle 1 (CTM1). To solve this discrepancy, we performed immunoprecipitation and found that both the segments had binding activity to 4.1N. Both segments also interfered the 4.1N-regulated IP(3)R1 diffusion in neuronal dendrites. However, IP(3)R1 lacking the CTT14aa (IP(3)R1-DeltaCTT14aa) does not bind to 4.1N [S. Zhang, A. Mizutani, C. Hisatsune, T. Higo, H. Bannai, T. Nakayama, M. Hattori, and K. Mikoshiba, Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4048-4056.] and its diffusion constant is larger than that of IP(3)R1 full-length in neuronal dendrites [K. Fukatsu, H. Bannai, S. Zhang, H. Nakamura, T. Inoue, and K. Mikoshiba, Lateral diffusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is regulated by actin filaments and 4.1N in neuronal dendrites, J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 48976-48982.]. We conclude that both the CTT14aa and CTM1 sequences can bind to 4.1N in peptide fragment forms. However, we propose that the responsible binding site for 4.1N binding in full-length tetramer form of IP

  12. In vivo and in vitro dermal penetration of 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime , 5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl in young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.V.; Sumler, M.R. ); Fisher, H.L.; Hall, L.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Penetration of 2,4,5,2{prime},4{prime},5{prime}-({sup 14}C)hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) through skin of young (33 days) and adult (82 days) female Fischer 344 rats was determined in vivo and by two in vitro methods. In vivo dermal penetration at 120 hr was 45% in young and 43% in adults. At 72 hr in vivo dermal penetration was 35% in young and 26% in adults compared to 1.5% for young and 1.0% for adult as measured with a continuous flow in vitro system and 2.9% for young and 1.9% for adults as measured with a static in vitro system. Most of the dermally absorbed HCB remained in the body as only 4.9 and 2.6% of that absorbed was excreted by young and adult rats, respectively, at the end of 120 hr. Significant differences in dermal penetration and kinetics of HCB between young and adult female rats were observed. The elimination of ECB-derived material was approximately six times higher in feces than in urine. A physiological pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the organ and tissue radioactivity distribution data. Parameters in the model determined from dermal dosing of female Fischer 344 rats were in reasonable agreement with those reported in the literature for adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (iv dose). The rate constant for dermal penetration was 0.83 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} min{sup {minus}1} for adults and 0.96 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} min{sup {minus}1} for young. The delay or lag time parameter for dermal penetration was 4.4 hr in adults and 1.1 hr in young.

  13. Preliminary study to compare body residues and sublethal energetic responses in benthic invertebrates exposed to sediment-bound 2,4,5-trichlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Penttinen, O.P.; Kukkonen, J.; Pellinen, J.

    1996-02-01

    Relationships between concentration of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) in sediment, body residues of the chemical, and sublethal biological effects in three benthic invertebrates were studied. Uncontaminated lake sediment was spiked with four concentrations (23--85 {micro}g/g dry sediment) of TCP. Chironomid larvae (Chironomus riparius), oligochaete worms (Lumbriculus variegatus), and sphaeriid bivalves (Sphaerium corneum) were exposed to the sediment. The effect of chlorophenol on the rate of heat dissipation of animals was monitored by direct microcalorimetry. It appeared that both the behavior of the animals and their body residues explained the energetic response. Valve closure behavior of S. corneum reduced the accumulation of toxicant (< 0.3 {micro}mol/g) but was observed as a complex energetic response. Heat dissipation of L. variegatus was at the same level in control animals and those with high body residues of TCP (> 1.5 {micro}mol/g). Regardless of the amount of TCP accumulated to C. riparius (0.1--0.6 {micro}mol/g), the rate of heat dissipation was almost two times higher than that of the control animals, probably reflecting uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, which is the primary mode of toxic action of chlorophenols. However, when a threshold concentration was exceeded there was no concentration-response dependence until acute toxicity appears.

  14. Inhibition or enhancement by 4 Pacific Island food plants against cancers induced by 2 amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Zhu, Shuotun; Han, Dug Yeo; Harris, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    A 1-yr carcinogenicity bioassay was conducted in rats fed 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), simultaneously with AIN-76/ high-fat (HF) diet alone, or with 10% starch replaced with kumara, pineapple, coconut, or taro, prepared as for a human diet. All of the non-IQ treated control, kumara, pineapple, or taro but not coconut-fed rats survived to 1 yr. None of the IQ-fed animals survived to 1 yr and although there were minor survival time differences among the groups, none was statistically significant. At sacrifice, IQ/HF controls had tumors in the skin, Zymbal's gland, ear canal, oral cavity, liver, and small intestine, totaling 32 among 20 animals. Kumara-fed rats had a similar tumor distribution but no tumors in the ear or oral cavity, and a total of 27 tumors among 20 animals, whereas pineapple-fed rats showed a somewhat lower tumor incidence (23/20 animals), including no small intestine lesions. Unexpectedly, a higher tumor incidence, especially of skin tumors, was seen in coconut and taro-fed animals (35/20 and 41/20 animals, respectively). In particular, the incidence of malignant liver tumors and gastrointestinal tumors were significantly increased in the taro-fed group in comparison with the kumara group. PMID:22211787

  15. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP. PMID:25863026

  16. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  17. Synthesis, structures, and properties of 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiolate linked group 10 metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Kuppuswamy; Shaw, Mohamed C; Chandrasekaran, P; Villagrán, Dino; Gray, Thomas G; Mague, Joel T; Donahue, James P

    2009-11-16

    Dimetallic compounds [(P-P)M(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))M(P-P)] (M = Ni, Pd; P-P = chelating bis(phosphine), 3a-3f) are prepared from O=CS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)C=O or (n)Bu(2)SnS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)Sn(n)Bu(2), which are protected forms of 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiolate. Selective monodeprotections of O=CS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)C=O or (n)Bu(2)SnS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)Sn(n)Bu(2) lead to [(P-P)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)C=O)] or [(P-P)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)Sn(n)Bu(2))]; the former is used to prepare trimetallic compounds [(dcpe)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))M(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dcpe)] (M = Ni (6a) or Pt (6b); dcpe = 1,2-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane). Compounds 3a-3f are redox active and display two oxidation processes, of which the first is generally reversible. Dinickel compound [(dcpe)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dcpe)] (3d) reveals two reversible oxidation waves with DeltaE(1/2) = 0.66 V, corresponding to K(c) of 1.6 x 10(11) for the mixed valence species. Electrochemical behavior is unstable to repeated scanning in the presence of [Bu(4)N][PF(6)] electrolyte but indefinitely stable with Na[BArF(24)] (BArF(24) = tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate), suggesting that the radical cation generated by oxidation is vulnerable to reaction with PF(6)(-). Chemical oxidation of 3d with [Cp(2)Fe][BArF(24)] leads to formation of [3d][BArF(24)]. Structural identification of [3d][BArF(24)] reveals appreciable shortening and lengthening of C-S and C-C bond distances, respectively, within the tetrathioarene fragment compared to charge-neutral 3d, indicating this to be the redox active moiety. Attempted oxidation of [(dppb)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dppb)] (3c) (dppb = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene) with AgBArF(24) produces [[(dppb)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dppb)](2)(mu-Ag(2))][BArF(24)](2), [4c][BArF(24)](2), in which no redox chemistry has occurred. Crystal structures of bis(disulfide)-linked compounds [(P-P)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)(mu-S(2))(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(P-P)] are reported. Near IR spectroscopy upon cationic [3d](+) and neutral 6a

  18. Short-term carcinogenicity testing of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in E(mu)-pim-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, I K; Mortensen, A; Kristiansen, E; van Kreijl, C; Adamson, R H; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1996-10-01

    The usefulness of transgenic E(mu)-pim-1 mice over-expressing the pim-1 oncogene in lymphoid tissues, as sensitive test organisms was studied in a short-term carcinogenicity study. The mice were fed standard diet Altromin 1314 supplemented either with 0.03% 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) for 7 months or with 0.03% 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for 6 months. PhIP and IQ are heterocyclic amines formed during cooking of meat and fish and are mutagenic to bacteria and cultured mammalian cells. PhIP is a potent mouse lymphomagen, while IQ is a liver carcinogen and also causes lung tumors and tumors of the forestomach in mice. We found that transgenic E(mu)-pim-1 mice are highly susceptible to PhIP induced lymphomagenesis but do not respond to the IQ treatment. PhIP feeding of E(mu)-pim-1 mice not only increased the total number of T-cell lymphomas but also decreased the latency time compared to either transgenic or wild-type controls. The effect was most pronounced in the treated female E(mu)-pim-1 mice, which showed a higher incidence of PhIP induced T-cell lymphomas than transgenic males and a strongly reduced latency period after PhIP treatment compared to non-transgenic mice. Our results suggest that the transgenic E(mu)-pim-1 mouse may be a useful model for short-term carcinogenicity screening of potential genotoxic carcinogens having the lymphoid system as target tissue. The carcinogen IQ which does not have the lymphoid system as a target was not recognized in this model. PMID:8895492

  19. Time Is Money...and the Enemy of College Completion: Transform American Higher Education to Boost Completion and Reduce Costs. Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Stan Jones' testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training. In his testimony, he talks about a new American majority of students that is emerging on campuses, especially at community colleges. These students must delicately balance long hours at jobs they must…

  20. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains. PMID:27308017

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Thrombolysis within 4.5 Hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xingquan; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Chunjuan; Du, Wanliang; Liu, Gaifen; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous economic studies conducted in developed countries showed intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is cost-effective for acute ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tPA treatment in China, the largest developing country. Methods A combination of decision tree and Markov model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tPA treatment versus non-tPA treatment within 4.5 hours after stroke onset. Outcomes and costs data were derived from the database of Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of acute ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China) study. Efficacy data were derived from a pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were compared in both short term (2 years) and long term (30 years). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Comparing to non-tPA treatment, tPA treatment within 4.5 hours led to a short-term gain of 0.101 QALYs at an additional cost of CNY 9,520 (US$ 1,460), yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CNY 94,300 (US$ 14,500) per QALY gained in 2 years; and to a long-term gain of 0.422 QALYs at an additional cost of CNY 6,530 (US$ 1,000), yielding an ICER of CNY 15,500 (US$ 2,380) per QALY gained in 30 years. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that tPA treatment is cost-effective in 98.7% of the simulations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of CNY 105,000 (US$ 16,200) per QALY. Conclusions Intravenous tPA treatment within 4.5 hours is highly cost-effective for acute ischemic strokes in China. PMID:25329637

  2. Interfacial hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by turkey erythrocyte phospholipase C.

    PubMed Central

    James, S R; Demel, R A; Downes, C P

    1994-01-01

    The activity of a beta-isoform of phospholipase C (PLC) partially purified from turkey erythrocyte cytosol was assayed using phospholipid monolayers formed at an air-water interface. PLC was rapidly purified at least 8000-fold by a sequence of ion-exchange, hydrophobic and heparin chromatographies. 33P-labelled substrates were prepared using partially purified PtdIns kinase and PtdIns4P 5-kinases, respectively, and purified by h.p.l.c. using an amino-cyano analytical column. Using such 33P-labelled phosphoinositides of high specific radioactivity, PLC activity was monitored directly by measuring the loss of radioactivity from monolayers as a result of the release of inositol phosphates and their subsequent dissolution and quenching in the subphase. Under these conditions, PtdIns4P hydrolysis obeyed approximately first-order kinetics whereas PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis was zero-order at least until 80% of the substrate had been degraded. PLC activity was markedly affected by the surface pressure of the monolayer, with reduced activity at extremes of initial pressure and with the most permissive pressures in the middle of the range investigated. The optimum surface pressure for hydrolysis of PtdIns4P was approx. 25 mN/m, but for PtdIns(4,5)P2 the maximum activity occurred at the markedly higher surface pressure of 30 mN/m. These data are discussed in terms of the substrate specificity and likely regulation of PLC beta isoforms engaged in degrading their substrate in biological membranes. PMID:8135761

  3. Saturn's Regional and Global Cloud Properties from Cassini/VIMS 4.5-5.1 Micron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Baines, K. H.; Momary, T. W.; Orton, G. S.; Roos-Serote, M.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2009-09-01

    Exploiting a region of Saturn's thermal-IR spectrum between 4.5-5.1 microns where there is a dearth of opacity sources, Cassini/VIMS has revealed a wealth of dynamical phenomena in the 1-4 bar region that are transforming our understanding of the gas giant. Narrow dark lanes and discrete cloud features are observed in silhouette against the 5-micron background thermal glow of Saturn's deep atmosphere. The NEMESIS optimal-estimation retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., JSQRT, 2008) is used to model the 4.5-5.1 micron region using the correlated-k approximation. We determine (a) the sensitivity and correlations associated with determinations of cloud properties and gaseous composition from the Cassini/VIMS dataset; (b) the meridional variation in opacity sources (a multi-layer cloud model, the abundances of phosphine and arsine); (c) the contribution of the thermal and reflected components to VIMS spectra and (d) the spatial variability of opacity sources associated with Saturn's string of pearls and ribbon wave features in the northern hemisphere. The meridional gradients in composition are compared to the Cassini/CIRS derivations of phosphine at higher altitudes (pressures less than 1 bar; Fletcher et al., Icarus, 2009). The seasonal origin of the north-south asymmetry in 5-micron opacity (Baines et al., BAAS, 2006) and the dynamical motions associated with Saturn's complex zonal wave activity will be discussed. The vertical distribution of cloud opacity demonstrates the necessity for aerosols at the 2-3 bar level to successfully replicate the VIMS data. Finally, we search Cassini/CIRS mapping observations at 15.0 cm-1 resolution for mid-IR counterparts (0.1-0.5 bar) to the zonal wave activity in the deeper troposphere (1-4 bars) to investigate the vertical coupling in Saturn's troposphere.

  4. Room temperature photoluminescence at 4.5 {mu}m from InAsN

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Q.; Godenir, A. M. R.; Krier, A.; Lai, K. T.; Haywood, S. K.

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen incorporation in InAsN epilayers grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was investigated as a function of growth conditions. Reduced growth rate, growth temperature, and arsenic flux significantly enhance the nitrogen incorporation. Optimal growth conditions allowed us to obtain high quality InAsN with nitrogen composition of up to 2.5%. The epilayers exhibit intense 4 K photoluminescence (PL) with double-peak features, which were attributed to free carrier recombination and localized carrier recombination. Strong room temperature PL emission up to a wavelength of 4.5 {mu}m is obtained.

  5. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2010-01-08

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  6. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2009-01-16

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  7. Accurate labeling of the light-actinide O4,5 ionization edges

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v

    2006-08-23

    In this short article the accurate labeling of the O4,5 edges of the light actinides is addressed. The O4 and O5 edges are both contained in what is termed the ''giant resonance'' and the smaller ''pre-peak'' that is observed is a consequence of first-order perturbation by the 5d spin-orbit interaction. Thus, the small prepeak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O5 peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak.

  8. Divided We Fail: Why It's Time for a Broader, More Inclusive Conversation on the Future of Higher Education. A Final Report on the 2013 National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    At state and institutional levels, leaders are discussing and enacting policy changes that could shape the future of higher education for decades-especially public higher education. But when citizens talk about the mission of higher education today, their conversations are different from those of policymakers. How do their values and concerns…

  9. Size evolution of star-forming galaxies with 2 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Tresse, L.; Dunlop, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The size of a galaxy encapsulates the signature of the different physical processes driving its evolution. The distribution of galaxy sizes in the Universe as a function of cosmic time is therefore a key to understand galaxy evolution. Aims: We aim to measure the average sizes and size distributions of galaxies as they are assembling before the peak in the comoving star formation rate density of the Universe to better understand the evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Methods: We used a sample of ~1200 galaxies in the COSMOS and ECDFS fields with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ zspec ≤ 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), representative of star-forming galaxies with iAB ≤ 25. We first derived galaxy sizes by applying a classical parametric profile-fitting method using GALFIT. We then measured the total pixel area covered by a galaxy above a given surface brightness threshold, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring sizes of galaxies with irregular shapes. We then compared the results obtained for the equivalent circularized radius enclosing 100% of the measured galaxy light r100T ~2.2 to those obtained with the effective radius re,circ measured with GALFIT. Results: We find that the sizes of galaxies computed with our non-parametric approach span a wide range but remain roughly constant on average with a median value r100T ~2.2 kpc for galaxies with 2 4.5. This is in stark contrast with the strong downward evolution of re with increasing redshift, down to sizes of <1 kpc at z ~ 4.5. We analyze the difference and find that parametric fitting of complex, asymmetric, multicomponent galaxies is severely underestimating their sizes. By comparing r100T with physical parameters obtained through fitting the spectral energy distribution we find that the star-forming galaxies that are the largest at any redshift are, on average, more massive and form more stars. We discover that galaxies present more concentrated light profiles with

  10. Satellite observations of the spatial extent and structure of Pc 3, 4, 5 pulsations near the magnetospheric equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, H. J.; Russell, C. T.; Kivelson, M. G.; Fritz, T. A.; Lennartsson, W.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of Pc 3, 4, 5 pulsations by five satellites in the pre-noon local time sector at and near synchronous orbit are examined. The periods of these simultaneous pulsations are not the same at the different observation points. This difference is attributed to site dependent resonant conditions. The spatial properties of the temporal phenomenon are demonstrated with observations by ISEE-1 and -2 as they pass through oscillations in a spatially limited region. Fundamental and second harmonic standing Alfven waves are observed simultaneously on the same field line. The periods are consistent with model predictions when the measured plasma composition, which by mass consists mainly of singly ionized oxygen, is taken into account.

  11. Neutron scattering differential cross sections for 23Na from 1.5 to 4.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Champine, B. R.; Combs, B. M.; Crider, B. P.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; Liu, S. H.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Sidwell, L. C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Watts, D. W.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections from 23Na have been performed for sixteen incident neutron energies between 1.5 and 4.5 MeV. These measurements were complemented by γ-ray excitation functions using the (n ,n‧ γ) reaction to include excited levels not resolved in the neutron detection measurements. The time-of-flight (TOF) technique was employed for background reduction in both neutron and γ-ray measurements and for energy determination in neutron detection measurements. Previous reaction model evaluations relied primarily on neutron total cross sections and four (n, n0) and (n, n1) angular distributions in the 5 to 9 MeV range. The inclusion of more inelastic channels and measurements at lower incident neutron energies provide additional information on direct couplings between elastic and inelastic scattering as a function of angular momentum transfer. Reaction model calculations examining collective direct-coupling and compound absorption components were performed.

  12. Total Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydroguadiscine: A Potent Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Brazilian Medicinal Herb, Hornschuchia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Sugano, Youta; Shirato, Miki; Sonoda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-07-24

    The first total synthesis of the 7,7-dimethylaporphinoid, 4,5-didehydroguadiscine (6), originally isolated from the stems and roots of Hornschuchia oblique (Annonaceae), was achieved by the condensation of homopiperonylamine (7) with an α,α-dimethylphenylacetic acid derivative (8) and subsequent Pschorr reaction of the resulting benzylisoquinoline intermediate (22). The reported (13)C NMR data were partially revised on the basis of the analysis of HMBC spectra measured under different conditions. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.7 μM) of 6 was 40 times stronger than that of arbutin (174 μM), which was used as reference standard. Furthermore, 6 was the most potent natural melanogenesis inhibitor within this class of compounds. PMID:26135746

  13. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education: Leadership in Uncertain Times. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions (19th, New York, New York, March 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Joan A., Ed.; Johnson, Beth H., Ed.

    This proceedings document discusses academic leadership in uncertain times, the need for a cooperative model of collective bargaining to provide administration and faculty the flexibility required to respond to changing times, who should bargain for whom and for what, readiness of the next generation to lead, and retirement issues for college…

  14. The metabolism of gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in rats.

    PubMed

    Grover, P L; Sims, P

    1965-08-01

    1. After intraperitoneal administration, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Gammexane) and gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene were converted by rats into 2,3,5- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which were excreted as free phenols and as sulphuric acid and glucuronic acid conjugates. 2. Derivatives of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl glucosiduronic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenylmercapturic acid were isolated from the urine as metabolites of gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene. 3. The phenolic metabolites of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene isolated from urine were similar to those of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, which indicates that the two latter compounds are intermediates in gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane metabolism in rats. PMID:4158352

  15. The yeast transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Amanda J; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Webster, Michael W; Chen, Eefei; Vandevenne, Marylène; Bendak, Katerina; Mackay, Joel P; Hartzog, Grant A; Vrielink, Alice

    2016-09-01

    The heterodimeric transcription elongation factor Spt4/Spt5 (Spt4/5) tightly associates with RNAPII to regulate both transcriptional elongation and co-transcriptional pre-mRNA processing; however, the mechanisms by which Spt4/5 acts are poorly understood. Recent studies of the human and Drosophila Spt4/5 complexes indicate that they can bind nucleic acids in vitro. We demonstrate here that yeast Spt4/5 can bind in a sequence-specific manner to single stranded RNA containing AAN repeats. Furthermore, we show that the major protein determinants for RNA-binding are Spt4 together with the NGN domain of Spt5 and that the KOW domains are not required for RNA recognition. These findings attribute a new function to a domain of Spt4/5 that associates directly with RNAPII, making significant steps towards elucidating the mechanism behind transcriptional control by Spt4/5. PMID:27376968

  16. Expression and Distribution Pattern of Aquaporin 4, 5 and 11 in Retinas of 15 Different Species.

    PubMed

    Amann, Barbara; Kleinwort, Kristina J H; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Sekundo, Walter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hauck, Stefanie M; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins with 13 members in mammals and are essential for water transport across membranes. They are found in many different tissues and cells. Currently, there are conflicting results regarding retinal aquaporin expression and subcellular localization between genome and protein analyses and among various species. AQP4, 7, 9 and 11 were described in the retina of men; whereas AQP6, 8 and 10 were earlier identified in rat retinas and AQP4, 5 and 11 in horses. Since there is a lack of knowledge regarding AQP expression on protein level in retinas of different animal models, we decided to analyze retinal cellular expression of AQP4, 5 and 11 in situ with immunohistochemistry. AQP4 was detected in all 15 explored species, AQP5 and AQP11 in 14 out of 15. Interestingly, AQP4 was unambiguously expressed in Muller glial cells, whereas AQP5 was differentially allocated among the species analyzed. AQP11 expression was Muller glial cell-specific in 50% of the animals, whereas in the others, AQP11 was detected in ganglion cell layer and at photoreceptor outer segments. Our data indicate a disparity in aquaporin distribution in retinas of various animals, especially for AQP5 and 11. PMID:27438827

  17. 4.5-K Cold Box for SNS - A Successful Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleck, U.; Kurtcuoglu, K.; Urbin, J.; Howe, D.

    2004-06-23

    The US Department of Energy is constructing the next generation, accelerator-based, neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The superconducting LINAC requires a large custom cryogenic helium system that was specified and ordered by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory. Two groups of Linde AG's engineering division teamed to design, fabricate, and deliver the 4.5-K cold box for the SNS Central He liquefier. Linde Kryotechnik AG (LK), Switzerland provided design, engineering support and the gas bearing turbine systems. Process design for 4.5 K cooling as well as 38-K shield cooling will be explained. Control logic, including turbine related logic, was specified by LK and implemented successfully by ORNL in their control system in cooperation with LK. Linde BOC Process Plants LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma fabricated, tested and delivered the cold box. Skills and techniques specific to helium cold box fabrication will be discussed. Finally, an overview of the commissioning will be provided according to the project status.

  18. 4.5-K Cold Box for SNS — A Successful Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, U.; Urbin, J.; Kurtcuoglu, K.; Howe, D.

    2004-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is constructing the next generation, accelerator-based, neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The superconducting LINAC requires a large custom cryogenic helium system that was specified and ordered by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory. Two groups of Linde AG's engineering division teamed to design, fabricate, and deliver the 4.5-K cold box for the SNS Central He liquefier. Linde Kryotechnik AG (LK), Switzerland provided design, engineering support and the gas bearing turbine systems. Process design for 4.5 K cooling as well as 38-K shield cooling will be explained. Control logic, including turbine related logic, was specified by LK and implemented successfully by ORNL in their control system in cooperation with LK. Linde BOC Process Plants LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma fabricated, tested and delivered the cold box. Skills and techniques specific to helium cold box fabrication will be discussed. Finally, an overview of the commissioning will be provided according to the project status.

  19. Expression and Distribution Pattern of Aquaporin 4, 5 and 11 in Retinas of 15 Different Species

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Barbara; Kleinwort, Kristina J. H.; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Sekundo, Walter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins with 13 members in mammals and are essential for water transport across membranes. They are found in many different tissues and cells. Currently, there are conflicting results regarding retinal aquaporin expression and subcellular localization between genome and protein analyses and among various species. AQP4, 7, 9 and 11 were described in the retina of men; whereas AQP6, 8 and 10 were earlier identified in rat retinas and AQP4, 5 and 11 in horses. Since there is a lack of knowledge regarding AQP expression on protein level in retinas of different animal models, we decided to analyze retinal cellular expression of AQP4, 5 and 11 in situ with immunohistochemistry. AQP4 was detected in all 15 explored species, AQP5 and AQP11 in 14 out of 15. Interestingly, AQP4 was unambiguously expressed in Muller glial cells, whereas AQP5 was differentially allocated among the species analyzed. AQP11 expression was Muller glial cell-specific in 50% of the animals, whereas in the others, AQP11 was detected in ganglion cell layer and at photoreceptor outer segments. Our data indicate a disparity in aquaporin distribution in retinas of various animals, especially for AQP5 and 11. PMID:27438827

  20. Genotoxicity of chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene and its sulfone derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Sinsheimer, J.E.; Hooberman, B.H.; Das, S.K.; Savla, P.M.; Ashe, A.J. III )

    1992-01-01

    The authors' recent syntheses of cryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene together with its potential sulfone metabolite, chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene-4,4-dioxide, have made these compounds available for genotoxicity testing. Such toxicity testing is of interest as this thiophene is an isoster of the established carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is one of the thiaarenes which are potential environmental contaminants found in fossil fuels. Although the thiophene was less mutagenic than benzo[a]pyrene in Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 after S9 activation, it exhibited in vivo chromosomal aberration activity equal to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the bone-marrow cells of mice. A reduced activity with Salmonella as well as in the bone-marrow cell assay for the sulfone does not support its role as the key active metabolic intermediate for the genotoxicity of the thiophene. Molecular orbital calculations would be consistent with the concept of activation through a diol-epoxide mechanism and offers an explanation for the reduced genotoxicity of the sulfone via this mechanism. These genotoxicity studies support the concern that sulfur isosters of established carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could themselves be toxic. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and phospholipase C-independent Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signals induced by a nitrogen source in nitrogen-starved yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, J C; Kasri, N N; Donaton, M C; De Wever, V; Tisi, R; de Winde, J H; Martegani, E; Thevelein, J M; Wera, S

    2001-01-01

    Addition of ammonium sulphate to nitrogen-depleted yeast cells resulted in a transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P(3), with a maximum concentration reached after 7-8 min, as determined by radioligand assay and confirmed by chromatography. Surprisingly, the transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P(3) did not trigger an increase in the concentration of intracellular calcium, as determined in vivo using the aequorin method. Similar Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signals were also observed in wild-type cells treated with the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin and in cells deleted for the only phospholipase C-encoding gene in yeast, PLC1. This showed clearly that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was not generated by phospholipase C-dependent cleavage of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). Apart from a transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P(3), we observed a transient increase in PtdIns(4,5)P(2) after the addition of a nitrogen source to nitrogen-starved glucose-repressed cells. Inhibition by wortmannin of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, Stt4, which is involved in PtdIns(4,5)P(2) formation, did not affect the Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signal, but significantly delayed the PtdIns(4,5)P(2) signal. Moreover, wortmannin addition inhibited the nitrogen-induced activation of trehalase and the subsequent mobilization of trehalose, suggesting a role for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in nitrogen activation of the fermentable-growth-medium-induced signalling pathway. PMID:11672425

  2. Carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole found in beverages, sauces, and caramel colors: chemical properties, analysis, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Matt; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-30

    Since the National Toxicology Program (NTP) identified 4(5)-methylimidazole [4(5)-MI] as a cancer causing chemical in 2007 and the State of California added it to the Proposition 65 list of compounds as a carcinogen on January 7, 2011, many researchers and regulatory agencies have become focused on the presence of 4(5)-MI in foods and beverages. 4(5)-MI has been known to form in the Maillard reaction system consisting of a sugar and ammonia-a typical caramel-color preparation method for beverages. 4(5)-MI is identified in various beverages and sauces, which are colored with caramel, as well as in caramel color itself. Analysis of 4(5)-MI is extremely difficult due to its high water solubility, but the analytical method for 4(5)-MI has progressed from conventional paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the most advanced high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various studies indicate that caramel colors and carbonated beverages contain 4(5)-MI in levels ranging from 0 to around 1000 ppm and from 0 to about 500 ppm, respectively. Reports of the toxicity of 4(5)-MI at relatively high levels suggest that it may cause some adverse effects on human consumers. PMID:23294412

  3. C-(4,5,6-trimethoxyindan-1-yl)methanamine: a mescaline analogue designed using a homology model of the 5-HT2A receptor.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas H; Chambers, James J; Parrish, Jason C; Braden, Michael R; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Kurrasch-Orbaugh, Deborah; Nichols, David E

    2006-07-13

    A conformationally restricted analogue of mescaline, C-(4,5,6-trimethoxyindan-1-yl)-methanamine, was designed using a 5-HT(2A) receptor homology model. The compound possessed 3-fold higher affinity and potency than and efficacy equal to that of mescaline at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. The new analogue substituted fully for LSD in drug discrimination studies and was 5-fold more potent than mescaline. Resolution of this analogue into its enantiomers corroborated the docking experiments, showing the R-(+) isomer to have higher affinity and potency and to have efficacy similar to that of mescaline at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. PMID:16821786

  4. Structure of 4.5S RNA in the signal recognition particle of Escherichia coli as studied by enzymatic and chemical probing.

    PubMed Central

    Lentzen, G; Moine, H; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B; Wintermeyer, W

    1996-01-01

    The structure of 4.5S RNA, the Escherichia coli homologue of the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, alone and in the SRP complex with protein P48 (Ffh) was probed both enzymatically and chemically. The molecule is largely resistant against single strand-specific nucleases, indicating a highly base paired structure. Reactivity appears mainly in the apical tetraloop and in one of the conserved internal loops. Although some residues are found reactive toward dimethylsulphate and kethoxal in regions predicted to be unpaired by the phylogenetic secondary structure model of 4.5S RNA, generally the reactivity is low, and some residues in internal loops are not reactive at all. RNase V1 cleaves the RNA at multiple sites that coincide with predicted helices, although the cleavages show a pronounced asymmetry. The binding of protein P48 to 4.5S RNA results in a protection of residues in the apical part of the molecule homologous to eukaryotic SRP RNA (domain IV), whereas the cleavages in the conserved apical tetraloop are not protected. Hydroxyl radical treatment reveals an asymmetric pattern of backbone reactivity; in particular, the region encompassing nucleotides 60-82, i.e., the 3' part of the conserved domain IV, is protected. The data suggest that a bend in the domain IV region, most likely at the central asymmetric internal loop, is an important element of the tertiary structure of 4.5S RNA. Hyperchromicity and lead cleavage data are consistent with the model as they reveal the unfolding of a higher-order structure between 30 and 40 degrees C. Protection by protein P48 occurs in this region of the RNA and, more strongly, in the 5' part of domain IV (nt 26-50, most strongly from 35 to 49). It is likely that P48 binds to the outside of the bent form of 4.5S RNA. PMID:8608448

  5. Characterization of nitrogen-bridged 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-, furazan-, and 1H-tetrazole-based polyheterocyclic compounds: heats of formation, thermal stability, and detonation properties.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Wu, Jianzhang; Zhu, Weihua; Zhang, Chenchen; Xiao, Heming

    2012-08-01

    The heats of formation (HOFs), thermal stability, and detonation properties for a series of nitrogen-bridged 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-, furazan-, and 1H-tetrazole-based polyheterocyclic compounds (3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5- tetrazine (TST), 3,6-bis(furazan-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (FSF), 3,4-bis(1,2,4,5- tetrazine-3-ylamino)-furazan (SFS), 3,4-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole-5-ylamino)-furazan (TFT), 1,5-bis(1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3-ylamino)-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (STS), and 1,5-bis(furazan-3-ylamino)-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (FTF) derivatives) were systematically studied by using density functional theory. The results show that the -N(3) or -NHNH(2) group plays a very important role in increasing the HOF values of the derivatives. Among these series, the SFS derivatives have lower energy gaps, while the TFT derivatives have higher ones. Incorporation of the -NH(2) group into the FSF, SFS, STS, or FTF ring is favorable for enhancing its thermal stability, whereas the substitution of the -NHNH(2) group could increase the thermal stability of the TST, SFS, STS, or FTF ring. The calculated detonation properties indicate that the -NO(2) or -NF(2) is very helpful for enhancing the detonation performance for these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and thermal stability, six derivatives may be regarded as promising candidates of high-energy density materials (HEDMs). These results provide basic information for the molecular design of novel HEDMs. PMID:22281812

  6. Attribution of changes in global wetland methane emissions from pre-industrial to present using CLM4.5-BGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Rajendra; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Hess, Peter G. M.; Meng, Lei; Riley, William J.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of potential factors controlling methane emissions from natural wetlands is important to accurately project future atmospheric methane concentrations. Here, we examine the relative contributions of climatic and environmental factors, such as precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, wetland inundation extent, and land-use and land-cover change, on changes in wetland methane emissions from preindustrial to present day (i.e., 1850-2005). We apply a mechanistic methane biogeochemical model integrated in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The methane model explicitly simulates methane production, oxidation, ebullition, transport through aerenchyma of plants, and aqueous and gaseous diffusion. We conduct a suite of model simulations from 1850 to 2005, with all changes in environmental factors included, and sensitivity studies isolating each factor. Globally, we estimate that preindustrial methane emissions were higher by 10% than present-day emissions from natural wetlands, with emissions changes from preindustrial to the present of +15%, -41%, and -11% for the high latitudes, temperate regions, and tropics, respectively. The most important change is due to the estimated change in wetland extent, due to the conversion of wetland areas to drylands by humans. This effect alone leads to higher preindustrial global methane fluxes by 33% relative to the present, with the largest change in temperate regions (+80%). These increases were partially offset by lower preindustrial emissions due to lower CO2 levels (10%), shifts in precipitation (7%), lower nitrogen deposition (3%), and changes in land-use and land-cover (2%). Cooler temperatures in the preindustrial regions resulted in our simulations in an increase in global methane emissions of 6% relative to present day. Much of the sensitivity to these perturbations is mediated in the model by changes in

  7. Molecular Cytotoxic Mechanisms of 1-(3,4,5-Trihydroxyphenyl)-dodecylbenzoate in Human Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Maioral, M. F.; Bubniak, L.D.S.; Marzarotto, M.A.L.; De Moraes, A.C.R.; Leal, P.; Nunes, R.; Yunes, R. A.; Santos-Silva, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that gallic acid and its alkylesters induce apoptosis in different cell lines. Since new compounds with biological activity and less cytotoxicity to normal cells are necessary for cancer therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-dodecylbenzoate on human acute myeloid leukemia K562 cells and on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells. The cell viability was determined by MTT method. The apoptosis induction was assessed by bromide and acridine orange staining and by Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection kit. The cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry using propidium iodide. Cytometric analysis was also performed to evaluate the expression of the following proteins: AIF, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax. The mitochondrial potential was also assessed by flow cytometry using MitoView633 kit. The results showed that the compound significantly reduced the cell viability of K562 and Jurkat cells in a concentration and time dependent manner (IC50 of 30 μM). The compound induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1phase and significantly increased the proportion of cells in the sub-G0/G1phase. Apoptosis was confirmed by the sight of morphological characteristics of apoptosis and by phosphatidylserine externalization (73.47±5.71% of cells expressing annexin). The results also showed that the compound promotes a modification in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and increases p53 expression. Thus, it is possible to conclude that 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-dodecylbenzoate induces apoptosis by inhibiting the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and by increasing the release of AIF, Bax and p53. In addition, it blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1, stopping cell proliferation. So far, the results suggest that this compound may have a potential therapeutic effect against leukemia cells. PMID:27168690

  8. Stride time variability as a marker for higher level of gait control in multiple sclerosis: its association with fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Allali, Gilles; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Assal, Frédéric; Lalive, Patrice H

    2016-06-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) and gait disorders represent both prevalent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the association between FOF and higher level of gait control (HLGC) has not been studied in MS. This study aims to assess the association between FOF and HLGC in patients with MS. HLGC was assessed by stride time variability (STV) during single and dual-tasks (forward counting, backward counting, categorical verbal fluency and literal verbal fluency) and FOF was quantified by the falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I). Seventy-one patients (age: 39.27 ± 9.77 years; 63 % female) were included in this cross-sectional study (Expanded Disability Status Scale (median): 2.00) with a low prevalence of FOF (FES-I: 21.52 ± 8.37). The mean gait speed was 1.19 ± 0.23 m/s with a STV of 2.35 ± 1.68 % during single walking task. STV during single task and the dual tasks of forward counting and backward counting were associated with the FES-I in the univariable linear regression models (p ≤ 0.001), but only STV while backward counting (β: 0.42, [0.18;0.66]) was associated with FOF in the multivariable model (adjusted for age, gender, previous fall, Expanded Disability Status Scale and gait speed). These findings indicate that FOF is associated with STV while backward counting, a marker of HLGC in relationship with working memory in a MS population including a majority of low disabled patients. PMID:27106906

  9. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  10. Influence of Solar and Thermal Radiation on Future Heat Stress Using CMIP5 Archive Driving the Community Land Model Version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer of 2015 has experienced major heat waves on 4 continents, and heat stress left ~4000 people dead in India and Pakistan. Heat stress is caused by a combination of meteorological factors: temperature, humidity, and radiation. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)—an empirical metric this is calibrated with temperature, humidity, and radiation—for determining labor capacity during heat stress. Unfortunately, most literature studying global heat stress focuses on extreme temperature events, and a limited number of studies use the combination of temperature and humidity. Recent global assessments use WBGT, yet omit the radiation component without recalibrating the metric.Here we explicitly calculate future WBGT within a land surface model, including radiative fluxes as produced by a modeled globe thermometer. We use the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), which is a component model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), and is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). To drive our CLM4.5 simulations, we use greenhouse gasses Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (business as usual), and atmospheric output from the CMIP5 Archive. Humans work in a variety of environments, and we place the modeled globe thermometer in a variety of environments. We modify CLM4.5 code to calculate solar and thermal radiation fluxes below and above canopy vegetation, and in bare ground. To calculate wet bulb temperature, we implemented the HumanIndexMod into CLM4.5. The temperature, wet bulb temperature, and radiation fields are calculated at every model time step and are outputted 4x Daily. We use these fields to calculate WBGT and labor capacity for two time slices: 2026-2045 and 2081-2100.

  11. From Lean Times to Enrollment Declines: The Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmayer, Patricia

    Conditions in higher education in Michigan and the role of the Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan are highlighted. The average college tuition rate in Michigan is the highest in the nation, and a critical maintenance and equipment problem exists. The Commission is composed of knowledgeable persons without vested…

  12. Parallel synthesis of an oligomeric imidazole-4,5-dicarboxamide library.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhigang; DiCesare, John C; Baures, Paul W

    2010-03-01

    A library of oligomeric compounds was synthesized based on the imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid scaffold along with amino acid esters and chiral diamines derived from amino acids. The final compounds incorporate nonpolar amino acids (Leu, Phe, Trp), polar amino acids (Ser, Asp, Arg), and neutral amino acids (Gly, Ala), and were designed to be useful in screening for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Many of the protected and deprotected oligomers show evidence of conformational isomers persistent at room temperature in aqueous solution. A total of 317 final oligomers, out of 441 targeted compounds, were obtained in high analytical purity and of sufficient quantity to submit them for high-throughput screening as part of the NIH Roadmap. PMID:20170086

  13. Human health effects of 2,4,5-T and its toxic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R; Hertzberg, V S

    1984-05-11

    A clinical epidemiologic study was conducted to determine the long-term health effects of workplace exposure to the process of manufacturing the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid including contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-rho-dioxin. The population consisted of two cohorts: 204 clearly exposed and 163 not exposed. Among the exposed, clinical evidence of chloracne persisted in 55.7%. None of the not exposed experienced chloracne development. An association was found between the persistence of chloracne and the presence and severity of actinic elastosis of the skin. There is an association between exposure and the history of gastrointestinal tract ulcer. Pulmonary function values among those who were exposed and who currently smoked were lower than those who were not exposed and who currently smoked. The data assembled in the study indicate no evidence of increased risk for cardiovascular disease, hepatic disease, renal damage, or central or peripheral nervous system problems. PMID:6231388

  14. Outbreaks of monophasic Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Luxembourg, 2006.

    PubMed

    Mossong, J; Marques, P; Ragimbeau, C; Huberty-Krau, P; Losch, S; Meyer, G; Moris, G; Strottner, C; Rabsch, W; Schneider, F

    2007-06-01

    A monophasic Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- phage type DT193 emerged as the dominant serovar in Luxembourg in 2006, when it caused two major outbreaks involving 133 laboratory-confirmed human cases, 24 hospitalisations, and one death. The outbreak strain had an uncommon pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern STYMXB.0031 and antibiotic resistance profile ASSuT. A high proportion of cases were clustered in institutions for the elderly and in day-care centers. Strains identical to the outbreak strain were recovered from two control meals, a nappy changing table, retail sausages and caecal porcine samples at an abattoir. Locally produced pork meat is strongly suspected to have been the vehicle for the outbreaks, although the precise mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:17991400

  15. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rengasamy, A.; Feinberg, H.

    1988-02-15

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca/sup +/-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca/sup 2 +/ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na/sup +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release was additive to that released by Na/sup +/ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes.

  16. Fifth dimension of life and the 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Brain cells are not spherical. The basal metabolic rate (B) of a spherical cell scales as B approximately r2, where r is the radius of the cell; that of a brain cell scales as B approximately r(d), where r is the characteristic radius of the cell and d is the fractal dimensionality of its contour. The fractal geometry of the cell leads to a 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain, uniquely endowing humans with a 5th dimension and successfully explains why the scaling exponent varies during rest and exercise. A striking analogy between Kleiber's 3/4 law and Newton's second law is heuristically illustrated. A physical explanation is given for the 4th dimension of life for three-dimensional organisms and the 5th dimension for human brain. PMID:15563403

  17. Studying isoform-specific inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor function and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Betzenhauser, Matthew J.; Wagner, Larry E.; Won, Jong-Hak; Yule, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3R) are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca2+ channels. Isoform-specific properties of the three family members may play a prominent role in defining the rich diversity of the spatial and temporal characteristics of intracellular Ca2+ signals. Studying the properties of the particular family members is complicated because individual receptor isoforms are typically never expressed in isolation. In this article, we discuss strategies for studying Ca2+ release through individual InsP3R family members with particular reference to methods applicable following expression of recombinant InsP3R and mutant constructs in the DT40-3KO cell line, an unambiguously null InsP3R expression system. PMID:18929664

  18. 4.5S ribonucleic acid, a novel ribosome component in the chloroplasts of flowering plants.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, C M; Dyer, T A

    1979-01-01

    A species of low-molecular-weight ribosomal RNA, referred to as '4.5S rRNA', was found in addition to 5S rRNA in the large subunit of chloroplast ribosomes of a wide range of flowering plants. It was shown by sequence analysis that several variants of this RNA may occur in a plant. Furthermore, although in most flowering plants the predominant variant contains about 100 nucleotides, in the broad bean it has less than 80. It seems, therefore, to be much more diverse in size and sequence than the other ribosomal RNA species. Like 5S rRNA , it does not contain modified nucleotides and it is also unusual in having an unphosphorylated 5'-end. It is apparently neither a homologue of cytosol 5.8S rRNA nor a fragment of 23S rRNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:540035

  19. Crystal structure of phenyl 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean; Staples, Richard J.; Biros, Shannon M.; Ngassa, Felix N.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C12H7Cl3O3S, was synthesized via a nucleophilic substitution reaction between phenol and 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonyl chloride. The two aryl rings are oriented gauche to one another around the sulfonate S—O bond, with a C—S—O—C torsion angle of −70.68 (16)°, and the two rings are inclined to one another by 72.40 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via various C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming ribbons propagating along [100]. Neighboring ribbons are linked by a weak C—Cl⋯π inter­action, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:27308043

  20. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  1. Complex self-assembly of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleoside supramolecular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Guo, Xiurong; He, Shiliang; Zeng, Xin; Zhou, Xinglong; Zhang, Chaoliang; Hu, Jing; Wu, Xiaohua; Xing, Zhihua; Chu, Liangyin; He, Yang; Chen, Qianming

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly is not only one of the chemical roots of biological structure but is also drawing attention in different industrial fields. Here we study the mechanism of the formation of a complex flower-shaped supramolecular structure of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleosides by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray analysis. Upon removing the hydroxyl group of sugars, different flower-shaped superstructures can be produced. These works demonstrate that complex self-assembly can indeed be attained through hierarchical non-covalent interactions of single molecules. Furthermore, chimerical structures built from molecular recognition by these monomers indicate their potential in other fields if combined with other chemical entities.

  2. Inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors and their protein partners as signalling hubs

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Colin W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are expressed in nearly all animal cells, where they mediate the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The complex spatial and temporal organization of the ensuing intracellular Ca2+ signals allows selective regulation of diverse physiological responses. Interactions of IP3Rs with other proteins contribute to the specificity and speed of Ca2+ signalling pathways, and to their capacity to integrate information from other signalling pathways. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of the proteins proposed to interact with IP3Rs and the functional effects that these interactions produce. Interacting proteins can determine the activity of IP3Rs, facilitate their regulation by multiple signalling pathways and direct the Ca2+ that they release to specific targets. We suggest that IP3Rs function as signalling hubs through which diverse inputs are processed and then emerge as cytosolic Ca2+ signals. PMID:26830355

  3. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD {sub 30/50} value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  4. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD [sub 30/50] value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  5. Human cardiac phospholipase D activity is tightly controlled by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Thomas; Kemken, Dorit; Mier, Kenneth; Weber, Isabel; Richardt, Gert

    2004-02-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a central role in receptor-mediated breakdown of choline phospholipids and formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), an important regulator of cardiac function. However, specific mechanisms that regulate myocardial PLD activity remain largely unknown, particularly in the human heart. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), best known as substrate for phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes, plays a critical role in regulating myocardial PLD activity. We examined the effect of PIP2 on human myocardial PLD activity in vitro by utilizing a fluorescence HPLC assay. PIP2 increased 10-fold the maximal activity of a partially solubilized PLD from human atrial myocardium. PIP2-stimulated PLD activity was accompanied by a consecutive increase in diacylglycerol, indicating dephosphorylation of PA by PA phosphohydrolase. Likewise, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, which is produced from PIP2 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, increased PLD activity with about the same potency but with somewhat lower efficacy. In contrast, other phospholipids were ineffective, indicating that the action of PIP2 on PLD is highly specific. Neomycin, a high-affinity ligand of PIP2, inhibited PLD activity in human atrial myocardium, but had no effect on the activity of partially solubilized enzyme. The addition of PIP2 restored the sensitivity of solubilized PLD to neomycin inhibition, indicating that neomycin inhibits PLD activity by binding to endogenous PIP2. Our results demonstrate a critical role for PIP2 in human cardiac PLD activity and suggest that PIP2 synthesis (by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase) and hydrolysis (by PIP2-specific PLC) could be important determinants in regulating PLD signal transduction in the human heart. PMID:14871550

  6. Synthetic polyspermine imidazole-4, 5-amide as an efficient and cytotoxicity-free gene delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shi-Yue; Ge, Xue-Mei; Lu, Nan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Weien; Jin, Tuo

    2012-01-01

    A chemically dynamic spermine-based polymer: polyspermine imidazole-4, 5-amide (PSIA, Mw > 7 kDa) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in terms of its ability to deliver nucleic acids. This polymer was made from an endogenous monomer professionally condensing genes in sperms, spermine, and a known safety drug metabolite, imidazole-4, 5-dicarboxylic acid, through a bis-amide bond conjugated with the imidazole ring. This polymer can condense pDNA at a W/W ratio above 10 to form polyplexes (100–200 nm in diameter), which is consistent with the observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the zeta potential was in the range of 10–20 mV. The pDNA packaged polymer was stable in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.4 (simulated body fluid) while the polyplexes were releasing pDNA into the solution at pH 5.8 (simulated endo-lysosomes) due to the degradation of the bis-amide linkages in response to changes in pH values. PSIA-polyplexes were able to achieve efficient cellular uptake and luciferase gene silencing by co-transfection of pDNA and siRNA in COS-7 cells and HepG2 cells with negligible cytotoxicity. Biodistribution of Rhodamine B-labeled PSIA-polyplexes after being systemically injected in BALB/c nude-mice showed that the polyplexes circulated throughout the body, accumulated mainly in the kidney at 4 hours of sample administration, and moved to the liver and spleen after 24 hours. All the results suggested that PSIA offered a promising example to balance the transfection efficiency and toxicity of a synthetic carrier system for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids. PMID:22888236

  7. THE NATURE OF EXTREMELY RED H - [4.5] > 4 GALAXIES REVEALED WITH SEDS AND CANDELS

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Almaini, O.; Bell, E. F.; Dickinson, M.; Donley, J. L.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koo, D. C.; and others

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed a sample of 25 extremely red H - [4.5] > 4 galaxies, selected using 4.5 {mu}m data from the Spitzer SEDS survey and deep H-band data from the Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS survey, over {approx}180 arcmin{sup 2} of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. Our aim is to investigate the nature of this rare population of mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources that display such extreme near-to-mid-IR colors. Using up to 17-band photometry (U through 8.0 {mu}m), we have studied in detail their spectral energy distributions, including possible degeneracies in the photometric redshift/internal extinction (z{sub phot}-A{sub V} ) plane. Our sample appears to include sources of very different nature. Between 45% and 75% of them are dust-obscured, massive galaxies at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5. All of the 24 {mu}m detected sources in our sample are in this category. Two of these have S(24 {mu}m)>300 {mu}Jy, which at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5 suggests that they probably host a dust-obscured active galactic nucleus. Our sample also contains four highly obscured (A{sub V} > 5) sources at z{sub phot} < 1. Finally, we analyze in detail two z{sub phot} {approx} 6 galaxy candidates, and discuss their plausibility and implications. Overall, our red galaxy sample contains the tip of the iceberg of a larger population of z > 3 galaxies to be discovered with the future James Webb Space Telescope.

  8. Pulsations in magnetic field and ion flux observed at L = 4. 5 on August 5, 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Engebretson, M.J.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Williams, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    After the unusually strong compression of the earth's magnetosphere associated with the August 1972 geomagnetic storm, large amplitude ULF pulsations were observed for several hours in space by Explorer 45 magnetic field and particle instruments near L = 4.5 and at magnetic observatories on the ground over a large range of latitudes. Spectral analysis of Explorer 45 magnetometer data suggests that a compressional mode oscillation coupled to a transverse mode oscillation. Enhancements in amplitude of a 300-s period wave near 0040 UT August 5 coincide with an intensification of 100- to 1000-Hz magnetic and electric field oscillations and with the appearance of enhancements of fluxes of energetic ions. During this period the ion pitch angle distribution in each available energy channel (24--300 keV) followed a periodic sequence, apparently synchronized with the magnetic pulsations, from normal trappping (highest fluxes near 90/sup 0/ and lowest near 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/) to a nearly isotropic particle distribution. During the transitions the particle flux near 90/sup 0/ pitch angle was alternately larger earthward of the satellite (before isotropy) and larger radially outward from the satellite (after isotropy). Intense field-aligned fluxes of lower energy ions (E< or =5 keV) were observed periodically throughout the interval. Possible configurations of the magnetosphere consistent with the wave and particle observations are discussed, the most likely candidate being the presence of a wavelike boundary near the satellite. It is possible that the satellite sensed the low-latitude boundary layer at L = 4.5 during this period of extreme magnetospheric compression.

  9. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  10. Tissue distribution and metabolism of the putative cancer chemopreventive agent 3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavonol (TMFol) in mice.

    PubMed

    Saad, Shaban E A; Jones, Donald J L; Norris, Leonie M; Horner-Glister, Emma; Patel, Ketan R; Britton, Robert G; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J; Brown, Karen; Sale, Stewart

    2012-12-01

    3',4',5'-Trimethoxyflavonol (TMFol) is a synthetic flavonol with preclinical cancer chemopreventive properties. The hypothesis was tested that, in mice, p.o. administration of TMFol results in measureable levels of the parent in target tissues. A single oral dose (240 mg/kg) was administered to mice (n = 4 per time point) with time points ranging from 5 to 1440 min. TMFol and its metabolites were identified and quantitated in all tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma levels of TMFol were at the limit of quantification or below, although metabolites were identified. Peak levels of TMFol in the gastrointestinal tract and the prostate averaged 1671 ± 265 µg/g (5.3 µmol/g) and 6.0 ± 1.6 µg/g (18.4 nmol/g), and occurred 20 and 360 min post-dose, respectively. The area under the tissue concentration-time curve (AUC) for TMFol was greater than those of the metabolites, indicating that TMFol is relatively metabolically stable. Micromolar TMFol levels are easily achieved in the prostate and gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that TMFol might exert chemopreventive efficacy at these tissue sites. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the potential chemopreventive potency of TMFol. PMID:22454297

  11. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMOSOMAL DNA REGION REQUIRED FOR GROWTH ON 2,4,5-T BY PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC1100

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of spontaneous 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) nonmetabolizing mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 were characterized to be defective in either 2,4,5-T uptake or conversion of this compound to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP). Two of these mutants, RHC22 a...

  12. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMOSOMAL DNA REGION REQUIRED FOR GROWTH ON 2,4,5-T BY PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC1100

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of spontaneous 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) nonmetaolizing mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 were characterized to be defective in either 2,4,5-T uptake or conversion of this compound to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5TCP). wo of these mutants, RHC22 and ...

  13. Integrin adhesion and force coupling are independently regulated by localized PtdIns(4,5)2 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Legate, Kyle R; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Bonakdar, Navid; Fabry, Ben; Boettiger, David; Zent, Roy; Fässler, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The 90-kDa isoform of the lipid kinase PIP kinase Type I γ (PIPKIγ) localizes to focal adhesions (FAs), where it provides a local source of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Although PtdIns(4,5)P2 regulates the function of several FA-associated molecules, the role of the FA-specific pool of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is not known. We report that the genetic ablation of PIPKIγ specifically from FAs results in defective integrin-mediated adhesion and force coupling. Adhesion defects in cells deficient in FA-PtdIns(4,5)P2 synthesis are corrected within minutes while integrin–actin force coupling remains defective over a longer period. Talin and vinculin, but not kindlin, are less efficiently recruited to new adhesions in these cells. These data demonstrate that the specific depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 from FAs temporally separates integrin–ligand binding from integrin–actin force coupling by regulating talin and vinculin recruitment. Furthermore, it suggests that force coupling relies heavily on locally generated PtdIns(4,5)P2 rather than bulk membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2. PMID:21926969

  14. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  19. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  20. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  1. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  2. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  3. Synthesis of 5-chloro-4,5-diaryl-. delta. /sup 3/-1,3-oxazolin-2-ones

    SciTech Connect

    Bal'on, Ya.G.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1987-09-20

    During an attempt at the synthesis of the oxazoles by the reactions of the oxazolines (I) with phosphorus pentachloride the authors obtained the 5-chloro-4,5-diaryl-..delta../sup 3/-1,3-oxazolin-2-ones instead of the expected 4,5-diaryl-2-chlorooxazoles. As electrophiles, these compounds are active in nucleophilic addition and substitution reactions. Thus, in their reaction with methanol the 4,5-dimethoxy-4,5-diaryl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones are formed with quantitative yields. When heated they are easily converted into 5-methoxy-4,5-diaryl-..delta..-1,3-oxazolin-2-ones. The compositions and structures were proved by IR and PMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  4. A voltage-sensing phosphatase, Ci-VSP, which shares sequence identity with PTEN, dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hirohide; Murata, Yoshimichi; Kim, Youngjun; Hossain, Md Israil; Worby, Carolyn A; Dixon, Jack E; McCormack, Thomas; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2008-06-10

    Phosphatidylinositol lipids play diverse physiological roles, and their concentrations are tightly regulated by various kinases and phosphatases. The enzymatic activity of Ciona intestinalis voltage sensor-containing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), recently identified as a member of the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) family of phosphatidylinositol phosphatases, is regulated by its own voltage-sensor domain in a voltage-dependent manner. However, a detailed mechanism of Ci-VSP regulation and its substrate specificity remain unknown. Here we determined the in vitro substrate specificity of Ci-VSP by measuring the phosphoinositide phosphatase activity of the Ci-VSP cytoplasmic phosphatase domain. Despite the high degree of identity shared between the active sites of PTEN and Ci-VSP, Ci-VSP dephosphorylates not only the PTEN substrate, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3], but also, unlike PTEN, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Enzymatic action on PI(4,5)P2 removes the phosphate at position 5 of the inositol ring, resulting in the production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. The active site Cys-X(5)-Arg (CX(5)R) sequence of Ci-VSP differs with that of PTEN only at amino acid 365 where a glycine residue in Ci-VSP is replaced by an alanine in PTEN. Ci-VSP with a G365A mutation no longer dephosphorylates PI(4,5)P2 and is not capable of inducing depolarization-dependent rundown of a PI(4,5)P2-dependent potassium channel. These results indicate that Ci-VSP is a PI(3,4,5)P3/PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that uniquely functions in the voltage-dependent regulation of ion channels through regulation of PI(4,5)P2 levels. PMID:18524949

  5. Lymphopenic effects on mice of a component of ammonia caramel, 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI).

    PubMed

    Iscaro, A; Mackay, I R; O'Brien, C

    1988-01-01

    A derivative of ammonia caramel colour (AC) is known to induce a selective lymphopenia in rats. Accordingly, the haematological effects were studied in mice of oral administration in drinking water of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), the component of AC responsible for lymphopenia. Initially five groups of BALB/c mice (five mice per group) were given doses of THI ranging from 0 to 200 parts/10(6) and bled weekly. Doses of THI from 5 to 100 parts/10(6) had no effect on circulating leucocytes over 6 weeks, but lymphopenia occurred with 200 parts/10(6). An increase in the concentration of THI to 400 parts/10(6) in the group on the lowest dose resulted in lymphopenia. An increase in dosage in two groups of mice, to 1000 and 2000 parts/10(6), resulted in marked lymphopenia. The number of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes remained unchanged throughout the experiment. Measurement of the proportions of CD4(L3T4)+ and CD8(Ly2)+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes from mice on high doses of THI did not show a selective depression of either subset, although both were increased relative to non-T cells. THI causes a selective lymphopenia in mice, as in rats, but at relatively higher doses, and merits investigation in mice as an experimental treatment for states of lymphocyte excess or overactivity. PMID:3147240

  6. The structural stability of AlPO4-5 zeolite under pressure: Effect of the pressure transmission medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hang; Yao, Mingguang; Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Lu, Shuangchen; Jiang, Linhai; Cui, Wen; Liu, Zhaodong; Liu, Jing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing

    2012-06-01

    The structural stability of AlPO4-5 zeolite (AFI) has been studied as a function of pressure up to 34.4 GPa in a diamond anvil cell by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. It is found that the AFI structural stability can be enhanced significantly when a mixture of silicone oil and liquid nitrogen is used as pressure transmission medium (PTM). In this case, the crystalline-to-amorphous transition pressure for AFI increased to be 15.9 GPa, much higher than that of 8.5 GPa observed in the experiment by using silicone oil as PTM. We found that the average distance of the interplanar crystal spacing along to most planes was expanded obviously when liquid nitrogen is used as one component in the PTM. The presence of liquid nitrogen in the PTM also affects the structural evolution of the AFI channel under pressure. The results demonstrated that nitrogen molecules can be inserted into the channels of porous zeolite AFI single crystals, exerting a supporting effect against the structure collapse of AFI and thus improving their structural stability.

  7. CH4 parameter estimation in CLM4.5bgc using surrogate global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; Paudel, R.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Woodbury, J.; Wang, Y.; Mahowald, N.

    2015-10-01

    Over the anthropocene methane has increased dramatically. Wetlands are one of the major sources of methane to the atmosphere, but the role of changes in wetland emissions is not well understood. The Community Land Model (CLM) of the Community Earth System Models contains a module to estimate methane emissions from natural wetlands and rice paddies. Our comparison of CH4 emission observations at 16 sites around the planet reveals, however, that there are large discrepancies between the CLM predictions and the observations. The goal of our study is to adjust the model parameters in order to minimize the root mean squared error (RMSE) between model predictions and observations. These parameters have been selected based on a sensitivity analysis. Because of the cost associated with running the CLM simulation (15 to 30 min on the Yellowstone Supercomputing Facility), only relatively few simulations can be allowed in order to find a near-optimal solution within an acceptable time. Our results indicate that the parameter estimation problem has multiple local minima. Hence, we use a computationally efficient global optimization algorithm that uses a radial basis function (RBF) surrogate model to approximate the objective function. We use the information from the RBF to select parameter values that are most promising with respect to improving the objective function value. We show with pseudo data that our optimization algorithm is able to make excellent progress with respect to decreasing the RMSE. Using the true CH4 emission observations for optimizing the parameters, we are able to significantly reduce the overall RMSE between observations and model predictions by about 50 %. The methane emission predictions of the CLM using the optimized parameters agree better with the observed methane emission data in northern and tropical latitudes. With the optimized parameters, the methane emission predictions are higher in northern latitudes than when the default parameters are

  8. CH4 parameter estimation in CLM4.5bgc using surrogate global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; Paudel, R.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Woodbury, J.; Wang, Y.; Mahowald, N.

    2015-01-01

    Over the anthropocene methane has increased dramatically. Wetlands are one of the major sources of methane to the atmosphere, but the role of changes in wetland emissions is not well understood. The Community Land Model (CLM) of the Community Earth System Models contains a module to estimate methane emissions from natural wetlands and rice paddies. Our comparison of CH4 emission observations at 16 sites around the planet reveals, however, that there are large discrepancies between the CLM predictions and the observations. The goal of our study is to adjust the model parameters in order to minimize the root mean squared error (RMSE) between model predictions and observations. These parameters have been selected based on a sensitivity analysis. Because of the cost associated with running the CLM simulation (15 to 30 min on the Yellowstone Supercomputing Facility), only relatively few simulations can be allowed in order to find a near optimal solution within an acceptable time. Our results indicate that the parameter estimation problem has multiple local minima. Hence, we use a computationally efficient global optimization algorithm that uses a radial basis function (RBF) surrogate model to approximate the objective function. We use the information from the RBF to select parameter values that are most promising with respect to improving the objective function value. We show with pseudo data that our optimization algorithm is able to make excellent progress with respect to decreasing the RMSE. Using the true CH4 emission observations for optimizing the parameters, we are able to significantly reduce the overall RMSE between observations and model predictions by about 50%. The CLM predictions with the optimized parameters agree for northern and tropical latitudes more with the observed data than when using the default parameters and the emission predictions are higher than with default settings in northern latitudes and lower than default settings in the tropics.

  9. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and NMR) investigation and NLO, HOMO-LUMO, NBO analysis of organic 2,4,5-trichloroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, M.; Karabacak, M.; Periandy, S.; Tanuja, D.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the experimental and theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 2,4,5-trichloroaniline (C6H4NCl3, abbreviated as 2,4,5-TClA) were studied. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies in the ground state were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 2,4,5-TClA with calculated results by HF and DFT indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the 2,4,5-TClA molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. Mulliken atomic charges of 2,4,5-TClA was calculated and compared with aniline and chlorobenzene molecules. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  10. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and NMR) investigation and NLO, HOMO-LUMO, NBO analysis of organic 2,4,5-trichloroaniline.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Karabacak, M; Periandy, S; Tanuja, D

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the experimental and theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 2,4,5-trichloroaniline (C(6)H(4)NCl(3), abbreviated as 2,4,5-TClA) were studied. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies in the ground state were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 2,4,5-TClA with calculated results by HF and DFT indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the 2,4,5-TClA molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. Mulliken atomic charges of 2,4,5-TClA was calculated and compared with aniline and chlorobenzene molecules. The (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. PMID:22765942

  11. Substitution effects on nonlinear optical activity of (X-methylphenyl)-5-nitro-6-amino-3-pyridinecarboxmide (X=2,3,4,5,6): A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Rekha, T. N.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    The substitution effects on the first order hyperpolarizability value of (X-methylphenyl)-5-nitro-6-amino-3-pyridinecarboxmide (X-MPNAPC),{X=2,3,4,5,6}molecule was calculated with the aid of density functional theory calculations. The optimized molecular structure of urea and (X-methylphenyl)-5-nitro-6-amino-3-pyridinecarboxmide (X-MPNAPC), {X=2,3,4,5,6} were predicted by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set. The higher first order hyperpolarizability values were obtained for all molecules compared with the urea, which confirm that the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecules. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis was carried out and their related molecular properties were calculated. The higher first order hyperpolarizability value was obtained for 4-MPNAPC molecule compared with other molecules, which indicates that the lower energy gap and extended π-conjugated bridge between the donor and acceptor group leads to the higher NLO activity of the molecule. Hence, this present investigation paves the way for designing the new organic NLO materials.

  12. Aldolase A Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domains as determined by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, C B; Tolan, D R; Choi, K H; Coburn, R F

    1999-01-01

    We substituted neutral amino acids for some positively charged residues (R42, K107, K146, R148 and K229) that line the active site of aldolase A in an effort to determine binding sites for inositol 1, 4,5-trisphosphate. In addition, D33 (involved in carbon-carbon bond cleavage) was mutated. K229A and D33S aldolases showed almost no catalytic activity, but Ins(1,4,5)P(3) binding was similar to that determined with the use of wild-type aldolase A. R42A, K107A, K146R and R148A had markedly decreased affinities for Ins(1,4,5)P(3) binding, increased EC(50) values for Fru(1,6)P(2)-evoked release of bound Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and increased K(i) values for Ins(1,4, 5)P(3)-evoked inhibition of aldolase activity. K146Q (positive charge removal) had essentially no catalytic activity and could not bind Ins(1,4,5)P(3). Computer-simulated docking of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) in the aldolase A structure was consistent with electrostatic binding of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) to K107, K146, R148, R42, R303 and backbone nitrogens, as has been reported for Fru(1,6)P(2) binding. Results indicate that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) binding occurs at the active site and is not dependent on having a catalytically active enzyme; they also suggest that there is competition between Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and Fru(1, 6)P(2) for binding. Although Ins(1,4,5)P(3) binding to aldolase involved electrostatic interactions, the aldolase A Ins(1,4, 5)P(3)-binding domain did not show other similarities to pleckstrin homology domains or phosphotyrosine-binding domains known to bind Ins(1,4,5)P(3) in other proteins. PMID:10417347

  13. Biosensors to measure inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration in living cells with spatiotemporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Remus, Timothy P; Zima, Aleksey V; Bossuyt, Julie; Bare, Dan J; Martin, Jody L; Blatter, Lothar A; Bers, Donald M; Mignery, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoinositides participate in many signaling cascades via phospholipase C stimulation, which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, producing second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). Destructive chemical approaches required to measure [InsP3] limit spatiotemporal understanding of subcellular InsP3 signaling. We constructed novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based InsP3 biosensors called FIRE (fluorescent InsP3-responsive element) by fusing plasmids encoding the InsP3-binding domain of InsP3 receptors (types 1-3) between cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein sequences. FIRE was expressed and characterized in COS-1 cells, cultured neonatal cardiac myocytes, and incorporated into an adenoviral vector for expression in adult cardiac ventricular myocytes. FIRE-1 exhibits an approximately 11% increase in the fluorescence ratio (F530/F480) at saturating [InsP3] (apparent K(d) = 31.3 +/- 6.7 nm InsP3). In COS-1 cells, neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and adult cat ventricular myocytes FIRE-1 exhibited comparable dynamic range and a 10% increase in donor (cyan fluorescent protein) fluorescence upon bleach of yellow fluorescent protein, indicative of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. In FIRE-1 expressing ventricular myocytes endothelin-1, phenylephrine, and angiotensin II all produced rapid and spatially resolved increases in [InsP3] using confocal microscopy (with free [InsP3] rising to approximately 30 nm). Local entry of intracellular InsP3 via membrane rupture by a patch pipette (containing InsP3)in myocytes expressing FIRE-1 allowed detailed spatiotemporal monitoring of intracellular InsP3 diffusion. Both endothelin-1-induced and direct InsP3 application (via pipette rupture) revealed that InsP3 diffusion into the nucleus occurs with a delay and blunted rise of [InsP3] versus cytosolic [InsP3]. These new biosensors allow studying InsP3 dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolution that

  14. Hydrogeodeformation field in the Caucasus related to the preparation of Tbilisi earthquakes (M>4.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, A.; Bendukidze, G.; Biagi, P. F.; Chelidze, T.; Devidze, M.; Garalov, B.; Melikadze, G.; Vartanian, G.

    2003-04-01

    Here we present the relation between the variations of the underground water level in boreholes and the deformation processes associated with the occurrence of Tbilisi earthquakes with Mge4.5. The hydrogeodeformation field (HGDF) has been pointed out on the basis of the data collected in networks located in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. The boreholes are uniformly distributed in the Caucasus and they cover all the main geological blocks of the region; their depth ranges from 250 m to 3.500 m. On the basis of the water variations related to the gravity tides, a preliminary calibration of the boreholes was carried out at the purpose to evaluate the sensitivity and to normalize the hydrodynamic signals. The hydrodynamical and hydrochemical data have been processed by means of spectral analyses to separate the disturbance background field from the valid signals. The processed data cover the period 1999-2002 in which 3 earthquakes (Mge4.5) occurred in Tbilisi at December 14, 2000, January 03, 2001 and April 25, 2002. The formation of an extension zone in the eastern Caucasus and of a compression zone in the western Georgia and northern Caucasus was observed 3 months before the April 2002 earthquake. The boundary between these 2 zones was along a well known sub horizontal fault. The largest deformation gradient was observed in a zone that is the joint of deep faults. This zone is the place where the previous earthquake was generated. After the earthquake occurrence, the zone of the largest gradient migrated towards East and the residual HGDF could be considered as source of the Ujarma earthquake (August 2002). Thus, HGDF seems to indicate a migration of the deformation field along the slope of the Greater Caucasus 3 months prior the earthquake. Another observation is that before the earthquakes, when the deformation reaches its critical value, the natural pattern of tidal variations in each observation point was disturbed. The period of the perturbation (from

  15. HERPUD1 protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through downregulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Felipe; Parra, Valentina; Torrealba, Natalia; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; Gatica, Damian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pennanen, Christian; Quiroga, Clara; Chiong, Mario; Caesar, Christa; Taylor, W Robert; Molgó, Jordi; San Martin, Alejandra; Jaimovich, Enrique; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1 (HERPUD1), an ER resident protein, is upregulated in response to ER stress and Ca(2+) homeostasis deregulation. HERPUD1 exerts cytoprotective effects in various models, but its role during oxidative insult remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HERPUD1 contributes to cytoprotection in response to redox stress and participates in mediating stress-dependent signaling pathways. Our data showed that HERPUD1 protein levels increased in HeLa cells treated for 30 min with H2O2 or angiotensin II and in aortic tissue isolated from mice treated with angiotensin II for 3 weeks. Cell death was higher in HERPUD1 knockdown (sh-HERPUD1) HeLa cells treated with H2O2 in comparison with control (sh-Luc) HeLa cells. This effect was abolished by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelating agent BAPTA-AM or the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) antagonist xestospongin B, suggesting that the response to H2O2 was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) stores and the ITPR. Ca(2+) kinetics showed that sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells exhibited greater and more sustained cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases than sh-Luc HeLa cells. This higher sensitivity of sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells to H2O2 was prevented with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. We concluded that the HERPUD1-mediated cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress depends on the ITPR and Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. PMID:26616647

  16. cis-1,3,4,6-Tetranitrooctahydroimidazo-[4,5-d]imidazole (BCHMX), its properties and initiation reactivity.

    PubMed

    Klasovitý, Dusan; Zeman, Svatopluk; Růzicka, Ales; Jungová, Marcela; Rohác, Michal

    2009-05-30

    Using the (15)N NMR chemical shifts of nitrogen atoms in nitramino groups of cis-1,3,4,6-tetranitrooctahydroimidazo-[4,5-d]imidazole (bicyclo-HMX or BCHMX) and additional 10 nitramines, we have assessed its reactivity in detonation, under the influence of impact, and by action of electric spark. It is stated that the thermal stability of BCHMX is higher than that of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX). The longest NN bond in the BCHMX molecule (1.412(4)A) is the cause for its higher impact reactivity, which is at the level of that of penterythritol tetranitrate (PETN). In the experimentally determined detonation velocity, BCMX can be slightly better performing than RDX. From the standpoint of friction sensitivity, BCHMX is similar to 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). Attention was also focused on the solubility-temperature dependence of BCHMX in acetone, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide, tetrahydrofurane, and nitromethane. X-ray crystallographic study of BCHMX (C(4)H(6)N(8)O(8), M(r)=294.17), has been carried out at the temperature of 150K with the following results: a=8.5430(8), b=6.9480(6), c=8.7780(8)A, alpha=90.0(7) degrees , beta=102.452(11) degrees , gamma=90.0(9) degrees , V=508.777(8)A(3), Z=2, D(x)=1.920 g cm(-3), lambda(Mo Ka)=0.71073A, micro=0.169 cm(-1), F(000)=856, final R=0.0414 for 1254 independent observed reflections. In the BCHMX crystal there were found more short contacts in the molecular crystal of BCHMX data of Gilardi creating extensive supramolecular architecture. PMID:18926628

  17. Effect on fast neutron irradiation to 4 dpa at 400{degrees}C on the properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Robertson, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    Tensile, Charpy impact and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed at ORNL on V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti specimens that were prepared at ANL and irradiated in the lithium-bonded X530 experiment in the EBR-II fast reactor. All of the specimens were irradiated to a damage level of about 4 dpa at a temperature of {approximately}400{degrees}C. A significant amount of radiation hardening was evident in both the tensile and Charpy impact tests. The irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti yield strength measured at {approximately}390{degrees}C was >800 MPa, which is more than three times as high as the unirradiated value. The uniform elongations of the irradiated tensile specimens were typically {approximately}1%, with corresponding total elongations of 4-6%. The ductile to brittle transition temperature of the irradiated specimens was less than the unirradiated resistivity, which suggests that hardening associated with interstitial solute pickup was minimal.

  18. Regulation of Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) signaling by a reversible kinase/phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ho, Melisa W Y; Yang, Xiaonian; Carew, Mark A; Zhang, Tong; Hua, Len; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chung, Sung-Kee; Adelt, Stephan; Vogel, Günter; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; Shears, Stephen B

    2002-03-19

    Regulation of Cl(-) channel conductance by Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) provides receptor-dependent control over salt and fluid secretion, cell volume homeostasis, and electrical excitability of neurones and smooth muscle. Ignorance of how Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) is synthesized has long hindered our understanding of this signaling pathway. We now show Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) synthesis by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 1-phosphatase activity by an enzyme previously characterized as an Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) 1-kinase. Rationalization of these phenomena with a ligand binding model unveils Ins(1,3,4)P(3) as not simply an alternative kinase substrate, but also an activator of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 1-phosphatase. Stable overexpression of the enzyme in epithelial monolayers verifies its physiological role in elevating Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) levels and inhibiting secretion. It is exceptional for a single enzyme to catalyze two opposing signaling reactions (1-kinase/1-phosphatase) under physiological conditions. Reciprocal coordination of these opposing reactions offers an alternative to general doctrine that intracellular signals are regulated by integrating multiple, distinct phosphatases and kinases. PMID:11909533

  19. Reduction of inositol (1,4,5)–trisphosphate affects the overall phosphoinositol pathway and leads to modifications in light signalling and secondary metabolism in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; de Silva, Kanishka; Ballu, Clarisse; Ali, Nawab; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2012-01-01

    The phosphoinositol pathway is one of the major eukaryotic signalling pathways. The metabolite of the phosphoinositol pathway, inositol- (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3), is a regulator of plant responses to a wide variety of stresses, including light, drought, cold, and salinity. It was found that the expression of InsP 5-ptase, the enzyme that hydrolyses InsP3, also dramatically affects the levels of inositol phosphate metabolites and the secondary metabolites in transgenic tomato plants. Tomato plants expressing InsP 5-ptase exhibited a reduction in the levels of several important inositol phosphates, including InsP1, InsP2, InsP3, and InsP4. Reduced levels of inositol phosphates accompanied an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoids (rutin, chlorogenic acid) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the transgenic fruits of tomato plants. The enhanced accumulation of these metabolites in transgenic tomato plants was in direct correspondence with the observed up-regulation of the genes that express the key enzymes of ascorbic acid metabolism (myo-inositol oxygenase, MIOX; L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase, GLDH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (chalcone synthase, CHS1; cinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate transferase, HCT). To understand the molecular links between the activation of different branches of plant metabolism and InsP3 reduction in tomato fruits, the expression of transcription factors known to be involved in light signalling was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LeHY5, SIMYB12, and LeELIP was found to be higher in fruits expressing InsP 5-ptase. These results suggest possible interconnections between phosphoinositol metabolism, light signalling, and secondary metabolism in plants. Our study also revealed the biotechnological potential for the genetic improvement of crop plants by the manipulation of the phosphoinositol pathway. PMID:21994174

  20. Iraq challenges sanctions, offers 4.5 million b/d developable capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1995-04-10

    The prospective oil deals of the century were unveiled last month in Baghdad at the unlikely venue of the first international oil conference in Iraq in decades. In a dramatic twist Iraq detailed 33 oil fields that are now open for joint development with foreign partners. The productive capacity of the listed fields totals some 4.5 million b/d, and the underlying proved reserves exceed 50 billion bbl--equal to more than US and Canadian reserves combined. Reversing its prior compulsive secretiveness concerning oil affairs, the government cleared at the highest level the proposal to publicize the available resources and to offer corroborative detail. ``Four and a half million b/d is an awful lot of oil,`` noted one foreign oilman who was loath to be quoted because his company feared possible reprisals in the US. The economic bait was both clear and enticing. Iraq chose the public forum to signal to the world the gains that could accrue to the first countries that break with the US over continuing the sanctions. The paper discusses the political impacts, the substantial offerings, exploitation costs, and bypassing sanctions.