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Sample records for 4-5 times larger

  1. 18 CFR 4.5 - Time for filing protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time for filing protest. 4.5 Section 4.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... to such reports. If no protest is filed within the time allowed, the Commission will issue such...

  2. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  3. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ˜42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  4. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Derek D; Greenfield, Michael L

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  5. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  6. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF.

    PubMed

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Yu

    2012-10-01

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator∕photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y(n)) measurements from below 10(9) (DD) to nearly 10(15) (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y(n) precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of ± 10% and precision of ± 1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y(n) measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  7. Determination of time-dependent inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate concentrations during calcium release in a smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, C C; Slepchenko, B; Loew, L M

    1999-01-01

    The level of [InsP3]cyt required for calcium release in A7r5 cells, a smooth muscle cell line, was determined by a new set of procedures using quantitative confocal microscopy to measure release of InsP3 from cells microinjected with caged InsP3. From these experiments, the [InsP3]cyt required to evoke a half-maximal calcium response is 100 nM. Experiments with caged glycerophosphoryl-myo-inositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (GPIP2), a slowly metabolized analogue of InsP3, gave a much slower recovery and a half-maximal response of an order of magnitude greater than InsP3. Experimental data and highly constrained variables were used to construct a mathematical model of the InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]cyt changes; the resulting simulations show high fidelity to experiment. Among the elements considered in constructing this model were the mechanism of the InsP3-receptor, InsP3 degradation, calcium buffering in the cytosol, and refilling of the ER stores via sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) pumps. The model predicts a time constant of 0.8 s for InsP3 degradation and 13 s for GPIP2. InsP3 degradation was found to be a prerequisite for [Ca2+]cyt recovery to baseline levels and is therefore critical to the pattern of the overall [Ca2+]cyt signal. Analysis of the features of this model provides insights into the individual factors controlling the amplitude and shape of the InsP3-mediated calcium signal. PMID:10388786

  8. Relationships between Reading Achievement and Leisure-Time Reading in Grades 3, 4, 5, and 6: A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otter, Martha E.; And Others

    A longitudinal study investigated the effects of leisure time reading (reading at home for pleasure or fun) on pupils' reading achievement in school. Subjects, 736 students in grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 in 30 schools located throughout the Netherlands, had their reading achievement determined five times: at the beginning and end of grade 3 and at the…

  9. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). I. A Neptune-sized Planet Orbiting an M4.5 Dwarf in the Hyades Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; LaCourse, Daryll; Jacobs, Thomas L.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.; Kaplan, Kyle F.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of young planetary systems can shed light on how the dynamics and structure of planets evolve during their most formative years. Recent K2 observations of nearby young clusters (10-800 Myr) have facilitated the discovery of such planetary systems. Here we report the discovery of a Neptune-sized planet transiting an M4.5 dwarf (K2-25) in the Hyades cluster (650-800 Myr). The light curve shows a strong periodic signal at 1.88 days, which we attribute to spot coverage and rotation. We confirm that the planet host is a member of the Hyades by measuring the radial velocity of the system with the high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer. This enables us to calculate a distance based on K2-25's kinematics and membership to the Hyades, which in turn provides a stellar radius and mass to ≃5%-10%, better than what is currently possible for most Kepler M dwarfs (12%-20%). We use the derived stellar density as a prior on fitting the K2 transit photometry, which provides weak constraints on eccentricity. Utilizing a combination of adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution spectra, we rule out the possibility that the signal is due to a bound or background eclipsing binary, confirming the transits’ planetary origin. K2-25b has a radius ({3.43}-0.31+0.95 R⊕) much larger than older Kepler planets with similar orbital periods (3.485 days) and host-star masses (0.29 M⊙). This suggests that close-in planets lose some of their atmospheres past the first few hundred million years. Additional transiting planets around the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters from K2 will help confirm whether this planet is atypical or representative of other close-in planets of similar age.

  10. Determinants of shear stress-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide production assessed in real-time by 4,5-diaminofluorescein fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Qiu, W; Kass, D A; Hu, Q; Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-08-17

    The extremely short biological half-life of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has impeded real-time measurements of NO synthesis. We used the membrane-permeable fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) to study determinants of NO synthesis in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A step increase in shear stress (SS) from 0.3 to 3.4 dyne/cm(2) triggered an increase in DAF-2 fluorescence starting 3.0 +/- 0.5 min after the flow rise and peaking at 44.7 +/- 7.2 min. This was abolished by intracellular Ca(2+) chelation, but was unaffected by blocking extracellular Ca(2+) influx or by inhibiting SS-related changes in intracellular pH. The increase in DAF-2 fluorescence occurred significantly earlier in BAECs transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT), indicating concomitant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by SS and "competition" between ROS- and DAF-2-NO interactions. These data provide novel insights into several NO signaling determinants and reveal that DAF-2 can assess real-time SS-stimulated NO synthesis in endothelial cells. This should facilitate the analysis of NO-signaling pathways.

  11. Development and validation of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5log(10) concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness.

  12. The influence of time of maternal exposure to 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime ,5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl on its accumulation in their nursing offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) is mobilized from rodent tissues during the lipid depletion associated with food restriction or lactation, the latter condition resulting in the substantial elimination of the maternal body burden of the chemical to nursing offspring. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the rate and/or magnitude of accumulation of 6-CB in nursing offspring differed with time following PCB administration to the maternal animal. Female ICR mice were administered two doses of 6-CB. Group I animals received (14C)-6-CB as weanlings (15-20 g) followed by unlabeled 6-CB 5 weeks later, after mating, on Day 1 of gestation. Group II received unlabeled 6-CB as weanlings and (14C)-6-CB on Day 1 of gestation. Thus, 14C identified the mobilization and elimination of either the first or the second dose of 6-CB in the treatment groups (I = (14C)-6-CB, 6-CB; II = 6-CB, (14C)-6-CB). Both groups of animals retained approximately 80% of the administered radiolabeled dose. The tissue distribution of (14C)-6-CB in group II as a percentage of the body burden was not different from that in group I as determined from maternal tissue concentrations on Day 14 of gestation. The percentage of the maternal body burden of (14C)-6-CB accumulated in suckling offspring of group II mothers was significantly greater than that in group I offspring on Day 1 (I, 2.2 +/- 0.5%; II, 3.5 +/- 0.4%), Day 3 (I, 14.8 +/- 1.9%; II, 24.6 +/- 2.7%), Day 5 (I, 16.8 +/- 1.4%; II, 24.8 +/- 0.8%), and Day 12 (I, 32.3 +/- 0.5%; II, 45.5 +/- 1.7%) postpartum. This differential elimination was reflected in the t1/2 of elimination of the radiolabeled dose from parametrial fat during lactation, which was significantly longer in group I (14 days) than group II maternal animals (9 days).

  13. 4.5 YEARS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF MRK 421 DURING THE ARGO-YBJ AND FERMI COMMON OPERATION TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di; Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Sciascio, G. Di; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhenyong; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2016-01-15

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3–58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9–7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be

  14. 4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of MRK 421 During the ARGO-YBJ and FERMI Common Operation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to

  15. Time-dependent effects of lithium on the agonist-stimulated accumulation of second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Los, G V; Artemenko, I P; Hokin, L E

    1995-10-01

    In order to approach the molecular mechanism of Li+'s mood-stabilizing action, the effect of Li+ (LiCl) on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] mass was investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which express muscarinic M3 receptors, coupled to PtdIns hydrolysis. Stimulation of these cells, with the cholinergic agonist acetylcholine, resulted in a rapid and transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 with a maximum at 10 s. This was followed by a rapid decline in Ins(1,4,5)P3 within 30 s to a plateau level above baseline, which gradually declined to reach a new steady state, which was significantly higher than resting Ins(1,4,5)P3 at 30 min. Li+ had no effect on Ins(1,4,5)P3 in resting cells, as well as on the acetylcholine-dependent peak of Ins(1,4,5)P3. However, Li+ caused a transient reduction (at 45 s), followed by a long lasting increase in the Ins(1,4,5)P3 (30 min), as compared with controls. The Li+ effects were dose-dependent and were observed at concentrations used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Supplementation with inositol had no effect on the level of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at least over the time periods studied. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors with consequent activation of phospholipase C were necessary for the manifestation of Li+ effects in SH-SY5Y cells, Li+ did not interfere with degradation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 after receptor-blockade with atropine, suggesting that Li+ has no direct effect on the Ins(1,4,5)P3-metabolizing enzymes. A direct effect of Li+ on the phospholipase C also is unlikely. Blockade of Ca2+ entry into the cells by Ni2+, or incubation with EGTA, which reduces agonist-stimulated accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, had no effect on the Li(+)-dependent increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3.

  16. Simulating Photosynthetic 13C Fractionation at a Western Subalpine Forest for Seasonal and Multi-Decadal Time Periods with the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczka, B. M.; Duarte, H.; Koven, C. D.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are an important tool to diagnose and predict land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and energy. This is critical in order to quantify the land-carbon feedback into the climate system. Ecological observations are extremely important in order to quantify model skill and to improve techniques in which to simulate ecosystem behavior. Isotope observations of 13C are especially useful in diagnosing the ecosystem response to water stress, atmospheric humidity and CO2 fertilization. We test the representation of isotopes within CLM 4.5 against site level observations of biomass and carbon fluxes measured at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. First we 'spun-up' the model for 1800 years to approximate site level conditions during the 21st century. We accomplished this by imposing a site-level reconstruction of seasonally varying atmospheric δ13C and atmospheric CO2 from 1850-2013 and site level meteorological observations from 1998-2013. We also imposed an empirical-downscaling of simulated photosynthesis to reproduce the observed photosynthesis. We found that the simulated δ13C of biomass pools was more depleted than the observed by 1-2 o/oo. This finding suggests the magnitude of photosynthetic discrimination was overestimated in the model. The model reproduced observed seasonal trends in discrimination with higher values in the spring and fall but lower values in the summer. However, if nitrogen-limitation is imposed in the model the photosynthetic downscaling influences the fractionation in such a way to obscure this observed trend. This suggests an alternative approach should be taken in order to account for nitrogen limitation. During the last century the model simulated an abrupt drop in δ13C for biomass pools, primarily because of the concurrent drop in atmospheric δ13C, but also because of increasing discrimination driven by increases in the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO2. Finally, we identified photosynthetic rate, and vapor pressure

  17. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  18. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  19. Review of Miocene larger foraminifera

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene larger foraminifera were generally restricted to shallow (<100m), warm, clear, normal marine environments and were primarily dependent on brief drifting of juveniles and rafting on vegetation for dispersal. These factors are reflected in both regional and local occurrences. Regional occurrences of Miocene larger foraminifera vary with bio-province and time. Three main foraminiferal provinces (Central American, Mediterranean, and Indo-West Pacific) developed through a combination of tectonics, eustasy, climate, and faunal evolution and migration. Important effects of Miocene tectonics included widening of the Atlantic, early Miocene occlusion of the western neo-Tethys, and northern movement of the Australian plate into the tropics. Changes in climate primarily expanded or constricted latitudinal provincial boundaries. Eustatic sea level variations caused by the destruction of the late Miocene Mediterranean fauna. Globally, Miocene faunas underwent a progressive loss of taxa. This is particularly noticeable in post-early Miocene faunas of the Mediterranean and Central American provinces. Although post-early Miocene taxa evolved in all three areas, faunal migration was prevented by environmental barriers. For a given time and province, the occurrence of larger foraminifera in well-preserved Miocene reef facies is related to paleoenvironmental factors of water depth, turbidity, water energy, and substrate and to post-mortem processes of transport and selective test destruction. Environmentally related changes in test morphology, together with the relative abundances of planktonic species and small benthic taxa, allow an estimation of the magnitude of the various environmental factors, even without detailed foraminiferal taxonomy.

  20. Comparison of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tube method with the conventional method and real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raut, U; Rantai, S; Narang, P; Chauhan, D S; Chahar, M; Narang, R; Mendiratta, D K

    2012-01-01

    Colorimetric methods are cheap, reproducible, and rapid methods of detecting drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method is one such technique that has been established in our laboratory to detect rifampicin resistance. The present study compared the results of the MTT method with those of the proportion method and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) in order to establish sensitivity and specificity of MTT. The mutations for rifampicin resistance occur in rpoB gene, and the commonest reported are in codons 526 and 531. Therefore, RTPCR was targeted at these two codons. The concordance of MTT with the proportion method and RTPCR was 94 and 72.77%, respectively, and that of RTPCR with the proportion method was 77.77%. While the study confirmed that the MTT method is a good method for detecting rifampicin resistance, it also brought out the fact that RTPCR when targeted for limited mutations is not a good tool. Either the genotypic method used should target the total 81-bp rpoB genome or methods such as DNA sequencing should be used. For resource-constraint laboratories, the MTT method can be considered as a better choice.

  1. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  2. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  3. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  4. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  5. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  6. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  7. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  8. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  9. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  10. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Character endorsements. 4.5 Section 4.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... reputation in his community or in his circle of business or social acquaintances. Each letter or other...

  11. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... management of the United States or any of its agencies, if such vessel is manned wholly by members of...

  12. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  13. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  14. Ground states of larger nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    The methods used for the few-body nuclei require operations on the complete spin-isospin vector; the size of this vector makes such methods impractical for nuclei with A > 8. During the last few years we developed cluster expansion methods that do not require operations on the complete vector. We use the same Hamiltonians as for the few-body nuclei and variational wave functions of form similar to the few-body wave functions. The cluster expansions are made for the noncentral parts of the wave functions and for the operators whose expectation values are being evaluated. The central pair correlations in the wave functions are treated exactly and this requires the evaluation of 3A-dimensional integrals which are done with Monte Carlo techniques. Most of our effort was on {sup 16}O, other p-shell nuclei, and {sup 40}Ca. In 1993 the Mathematics and Computer Science Division acquired a 128-processor IBM SP which has a theoretical peak speed of 16 Gigaflops (GFLOPS). We converted our program to run on this machine. Because of the large memory on each node of the SP, it was easy to convert the program to parallel form with very low communication overhead. Considerably more effort was needed to restructure the program from one oriented towards long vectors for the Cray computers at NERSC to one that makes efficient use of the cache of the RS6000 architecture. The SP made possible complete five-body cluster calculations of {sup 16}O for the first time; previously we could only do four-body cluster calculations. These calculations show that the expectation value of the two-body potential is converging less rapidly than we had thought, while that of the three-body potential is more rapidly convergent; the net result is no significant change to our predicted binding energy for {sup 16}O using the new Argonne v{sub 18} potential and the Urbana IX three-nucleon potential. This result is in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  16. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  17. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  18. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  19. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amy C; McDowell, Nathan G; Allen, Craig D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2015-09-28

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change(1-3). Droughts alter the structure and function of forests(4,5). Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests(6) and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage(7) and hydrology(8), exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees(4,5,9,10). Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress(11-14), the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns(4,15), and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees(16). We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  20. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  1. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.

    1998-05-04

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to 4.5 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigations successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen. These results are discussed in terms of future alloy development options.

  2. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  3. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Chung, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  4. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  5. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J.; Chung, H.M.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  6. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district.... (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and duty stations support the bank and...

  7. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district.... (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and duty stations support the bank and...

  8. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.5 District and field offices. (a) District offices. Each district... Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, and Guam. (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and...

  9. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who are authorized to accept service of...

  10. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  11. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  12. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Platen, Mitja; Junius, Meike; Diederichsen, Ulf; Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Honigmann, Alf; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a minor component of total plasma membrane lipids, but it has a substantial role in the regulation of many cellular functions, including exo- and endocytosis. Recently, it was shown that PI(4,5)P2 and syntaxin 1, a SNARE protein that catalyzes regulated exocytosis, form domains in the plasma membrane that constitute recognition sites for vesicle docking. Also, calcium was shown to promote syntaxin 1 clustering in the plasma membrane, but the molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, using a combination of superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, FRET, and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ca2+ acts as a charge bridge that specifically and reversibly connects multiple syntaxin 1/PI(4,5)P2 complexes into larger mesoscale domains. This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca2+ concentrations is likely to be important for Ca2+-regulated secretion. PMID:26884341

  13. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate ionization in the presence of cholesterol, calcium or magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Graber, Zachary T; Gericke, Arne; Kooijman, Edgar E

    2014-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is an important signaling lipid and plays a crucial role in a wide variety of cellular processes by interacting with protein targets and localizing proteins at the plasma membrane. These interactions are strongly influenced by the lateral distribution of PI(4,5)P2 as well as its ionization state. The characterization of the PI(4,5)P2 ionization state provides important information about how PI(4,5)P2 interacts with other membrane resident or associated chemical species. In this study we have used solid-state MAS (31)P NMR to investigate the interactions of PI(4,5)P2 with potential cluster promoting agents, divalent cations and cholesterol. Both Ca(2+) and cholesterol were found previously to promote formation of local PI(4,5)P2 clusters in vitro. The NMR approach allows us to probe independently the ionization state of PI(4,5)P2 two phosphomonoester groups. We investigated mixed phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PI(4,5)P2 multilamellar vesicles in the presence of micro and millimolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). We found that both cations lead to an increased downfield chemical shift of the PI(4,5)P2 phosphomonoester peaks, indicating an increased ionization in the presence of the divalent cations. Ca(2+) has a much larger effect on PI(4,5)P2 as compared to Mg(2+) at similar concentrations. Physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) are significantly lower than those found for Mg(2+) and the comparison of the PI(4,5)P2 ionization in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at physiological concentrations resulted in similar charges of the phosphomonoester groups for both cations. PI(4,5)P2 was also examined with vesicles containing cholesterol since cholesterol has been shown to promote PI(4,5)P2 clustering. In the presence of 40 mol% cholesterol, the PI(4,5)P2 phosphomonoester (31)P NMR peaks shifted slightly downfield, indicating a small increase in charge. Previously published data suggest that PI(4,5)P2 is capable of

  14. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  15. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  16. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  17. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY AND RELEASE OF INFORMATION, CONTRACTING OUTREACH PROGRAM, POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS FOR...

  18. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  19. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  20. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  1. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  2. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  3. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December...

  4. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  5. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska...

  6. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska...

  7. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  8. Human erythrocyte membrane proteins of zone 4.5 exist as families of related proteins.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C F; Coleman, D B; Kay, M M; Shiffer, K A; Miller, J; Goodman, S R

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the polypeptide composition of zone 4.5 of human erythrocyte membranes has been done by immunoautoradiographic and two-dimensional peptide mapping techniques. Results of these studies demonstrated that the Coomassie blue profile was constant, with 14 well-resolved bands present. Zone 4.5 polypeptides existed as at least four families of two or more components with closely related polypeptide backbones. The families could be distinguished on the basis of their extraction characteristics, immunological cross-reactivity, and two-dimensional peptide maps. One family was related to protein 4.1, one family was related to band 3, and two families were independent and not similar to other larger membrane proteins. The data show that all of the visualized bands in zone 4.5 do not have the same protein composition and that several closely related forms of some polypeptides are present.

  9. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  10. Why do larger mothers produce larger offspring? A test of classic theory.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Hayley; Monro, Keyne; Malerba, Martino; Munch, Stephan; Marshall, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Across a wide range of taxa, larger mothers produce larger offspring. Theory assumes that larger, more fecund mothers create higher local densities of siblings, and so larger mothers produce larger offspring to offset sibling competition. This assumption has been debated for over 30 yr, but direct empirical tests are surprisingly rare. Here, we test two key assumptions of classic theories that predict sibling competition drives maternal-size-offspring-size (MSOS) correlations: (1) independent effects of offspring size and sibling density on offspring performance or (2) as a product of an interaction between these two factors. To simultaneously test these alternative assumptions, we manipulate offspring size and sibling density in the marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina, and monitor offspring performance in the field. We found that, depending on the fitness metric being considered, offspring size and sibling density can either independently or interactively affect offspring performance. Yet sibling density did not affect offspring performance in the ways that classic theories assume. Given our results, it is unlikely that sibling competition drives the positive MSOS correlation observed in this species. Empirical support for these classic theories remains lacking, suggesting alternative explanations are necessary.

  11. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  12. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager,...

  13. 43 CFR 3802.4-5 - Maintenance and public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-5 Maintenance and public safety. During all... otherwise identified to protect the public in accordance with applicable Federal and State laws...

  14. GBU4-5 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GBU-4 is a recently identified protein which was identified using SEREX technologies. GBU4-5 has a DEAD-box domain (like the CAGE protein), but until 2003 had not been described as eliciting an autoantibody response.

  15. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  16. Waterborne outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:-.

    PubMed

    Kozlica, Jennifer; Claudet, Amanda L; Solomon, Deborah; Dunn, John R; Carpenter, L Rand

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- is an emerging serotype, and little information regarding attribution or risk factors for infection has been documented. We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- infections in a rural community and identified the community's private water system as the source of infection. Five people were ill with gastroenteritis. Water testing identified Salmonella. Contamination of the unprotected spring from an environmental source was suspected.

  17. Smooth muscle length-dependent PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sul, D; Baron, C B; Broome, R; Coburn, R F

    2001-07-01

    We studied effects of increasing the length of porcine trachealis muscle on 5.5 microM carbachol (CCh)-evoked phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] synthesis and other parameters of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis rates in muscle held at 1.0 optimal length (L(o)), measured over the first 6 min of CCh stimulation, were 140 +/- 12 and 227 +/- 14% of values found in muscle held at 0.5 L(o) and in free-floating muscle, respectively. Time-dependent changes in cellular masses of PI(4,5)P2, PI, and phosphatidic acid, and PI resynthesis rates, were also altered by the muscle length at which contraction occurred. In free-floating muscle, CCh did not evoke increases in tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin (PTyr-paxillin), an index of beta1-integrin signaling; however, there were progressive increases in PTyr-paxillin in muscle held at 0.5 and 1.0 L(o) during contraction, which correlated with increases in PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates. These data indicate that PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates and other parameters of CCh-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover are muscle length-dependent and provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that length-dependent beta1-integrin signals may exert control on CCh-activated PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  18. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  19. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  1. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR SCIENCE, GRADES 4-5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAHAM, KATHRYN A.; AND OTHERS

    COURSE CONTENT, ACTIVITIES, AND REFERENCE INFORMATION FOR TEACHING SCIENCE IN GRADES 4, 5, AND 6 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS RELATE TO AN APPROACH TO TEACHING SCIENCE AND THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE SCIENCE PROGRAM. THE FIVE UNITS INCLUDED FOR GRADE 4 ARE (1) INSECTS AND SPIDERS, (2) LIVING THINGS OF SIMILAR AREAS, (3) THE…

  2. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  4. Distribution and excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H B; Kato, S; Morales, N M; Tuey, D B

    1977-10-01

    The intestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of the major component of Firemaster BP-6,2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, has been studied in the male rat. This polybrominated biphenyl was readily absorbed from the intestine, initially distributed throughout the body, and eventually stored primarily in the adipose tissue, was not subject to appreciable metabolism, and was excreted almost exclusively in the feces and at a very slow rate. Approximately 90% of an oral dose was absorbed from the intestine, and extrapolation of the rate of excretion to infinity indicates that less than 10% of the total dose would ever be excreted.

  5. Larger female fish contribute disproportionately more to self-replenishment.

    PubMed

    Beldade, R; Holbrook, S J; Schmitt, R J; Planes, S; Malone, D; Bernardi, G

    2012-06-07

    While chance events, oceanography and selective pressures inject stochasticity into the replenishment of marine populations with dispersing life stages, some determinism may arise as a result of characteristics of breeding individuals. It is well known that larger females have higher fecundity, and recent laboratory studies have shown that maternal traits such as age and size can be positively associated with offspring growth, size and survival. Whether such fecundity and maternal effects translate into higher recruitment in marine populations remains largely unanswered. We studied a population of Amphiprion chrysopterus (orange-fin anemonefish) in Moorea, French Polynesia, to test whether maternal size influenced the degree of self-recruitment on the island through body size-fecundity and/or additional size-related maternal effects of offspring. We non-lethally sampled 378 adult and young juveniles at Moorea, and, through parentage analysis, identified the mothers of 27 self-recruits (SRs) out of 101 recruits sampled. We also identified the sites occupied by each mother of an SR and, taking into account variation in maternal size among sites, we found that females that produced SRs were significantly larger than those that did not (approx. 7% greater total length, approx. 20% greater biomass). Our analyses further reveal that the contribution of larger females to self-recruitment was significantly greater than expected on the basis of the relationship between body size and fecundity, indicating that there were important maternal effects of female size on traits of their offspring. These results show, for the first time in a natural population, that larger female fish contribute more to local replenishment (self-recruitment) and, more importantly, that size-specific fecundity alone could not explain the disparity.

  6. Launchers and Improved Components for 4.5 in. Rockets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-02-09

    plotted from wind tunnel test data. P ART V An igniter was developed for use on the 4.5 inch rocket which may be inserted through the nozzle. It is...8217e. ca 8400 SM 2900 4150 411SZ 4800 500 Ifz. Provo straa 2800 3C 2640 39O 3760 4400 500 Prem aftr Feak istrs 000 gage ISMO 2000 I44 &440 W 0o tiLas ted

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a.... § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a) provides rules for determining whether the timing of a plan amendment or series of amendments...

  8. Larger late sodium conductance in M cells contributes to electrical heterogeneity in canine ventricle.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, A C; Eddlestone, G T; Thomas, G P; Nesterenko, V V; Antzelevitch, C

    2001-08-01

    Action potentials and whole cell sodium current were recorded in canine epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial myocytes in normal sodium at 37 degrees C. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) reduced the action potential duration of midmyocardial cells to a greater degree than either epicardial or endocardial cells. Whole cell recordings in potassium-free and very-low-chloride solutions revealed a slowly decaying current that was completely inhibited by 5 microM TTX or replacement of external and internal sodium with the impermeant cation N-methyl-D-glucamine. Late sodium current density at 0 mV was 47% greater in midmyocardial cells and averaged -0.532 +/- 0.058 pA/pF in endocardial, -0.463 +/- 0.068 pA/pF in epicardial, and -0.785 +/- 0.070 pA/pF in midmyocardial cells. Neither the frequency dependence of late sodium current nor its recovery from inactivation exhibited transmural differences. After a 4.5-s pulse to -30 mV, late sodium current recovered with a single time constant of 140 ms. We conclude that a larger late sodium conductance in midmyocardial cells will favor longer action potentials in these cells. More importantly, drugs that slow inactivation of sodium channels will produce a nonuniform response across the ventricular wall that is proarrhythmic.

  9. Test of microchannel plates in magnetic fields up to 4.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu; Barnyakov, M. Yu; Prisekin, V. G.; Karpov, S. V.; Katcin, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Detectors based on microchannel plates (MCP) can provide high time resolution and are able to operate in high magnetic field. An experimental setup based on a superconductive solenoid with 120 mm bore was created in BINP. The influence of magnetic field up to 4.5 T on the MCP photomultiplier parameters was studied. Several types of photodetectors produced in Novosibirsk were tested. Results of time resolution measurements, dependencies of gain and photon detection efficiency on magnetic field are presented.

  10. Probing the Physical Properties of z = 4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pakzad, Sabrina; Salmon, Brett; Wang, Junxian

    2015-11-01

    We present the results from a stellar population modeling analysis of a sample of 162 z = 4.5 and 14 z = 5.7 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the Boötes field, using deep Spitzer/IRAC data at 3.6 and 4.5 μm from the Spitzer Lyα Survey, along with Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS and WFC3 imaging at 1.1 and 1.6 μm for a subset of the LAEs. This represents one of the largest samples of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer IRAC. We find that 30/162 (19%) of the z = 4.5 LAEs and 9/14 (64%) of the z = 5.7 LAEs are detected at ≥3σ in at least one IRAC band. Individual z = 4.5 IRAC-detected LAEs have a large range of stellar mass, from 5 × 108-1011 {M}⊙ . One-third of the IRAC-detected LAEs have older stellar population ages of 100 Myr-1 Gyr, while the remainder have ages <100 Myr. A stacking analysis of IRAC-undetected LAEs shows this population to be primarily low mass (8-20 × 108 {M}⊙ ) and young (64-570 Myr). We find a correlation between stellar mass and the dust-corrected ultraviolet-based star formation rate (SFR) similar to that at lower redshifts, in that higher mass galaxies exhibit higher SFRs. However, the z = 4.5 LAE correlation is elevated 4-5 times in SFR compared to continuum-selected galaxies at similar redshifts. The exception is the most massive LAEs which have SFRs similar to galaxies at lower redshifts suggesting that they may represent a different population of galaxies than the traditional lower-mass LAEs, perhaps with a different mechanism promoting Lyα photon escape.

  11. Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)

    SciTech Connect

    Brunke, Michael A.; Broxton, Patrick; Pelletier, Jon; Gochis, David; Hazenberg, Pieter; Lawrence, David M.; Leung, L. Ruby; Niu, Guo-Yue; Troch, Peter A.; Zeng, Xubin

    2016-05-01

    One of the recognized weaknesses of land surface models as used in weather and climate models is the assumption of constant soil thickness due to the lack of global estimates of bedrock depth. Using a 30 arcsecond global dataset for the thickness of relatively porous, unconsolidated sediments over bedrock, spatial variation in soil thickness is included here in version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). The number of soil layers for each grid cell is determined from the average soil depth for each 0.9° latitude x 1.25° longitude grid cell. Including variable soil thickness affects the simulations most in regions with shallow bedrock corresponding predominantly to areas of mountainous terrain. The greatest changes are to baseflow, with the annual minimum generally occurring earlier, while smaller changes are seen in surface fluxes like latent heat flux and surface runoff in which only the annual cycle amplitude is increased. These changes are tied to soil moisture changes which are most substantial in locations with shallow bedrock. Total water storage (TWS) anomalies do not change much over most river basins around the globe, since most basins contain mostly deep soils. However, it was found that TWS anomalies substantially differ for a river basin with more mountainous terrain. Additionally, the annual cycle in soil temperature are affected by including realistic soil thicknesses due to changes to heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  12. Low-molecular-weight (4.5S) ribonucleic acid in higher-plant chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfeld, P R; Leaver, C J; Bottomley, W; Atchison, B

    1978-01-01

    A species of RNA that migrates on 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels between 5S and 4S RNA was detected in spinach chloroplasts. This RNA (referred to as 4.5 S RNA) was present in amounts equimolar to the 5S RNA and its molecular weight was estimated to be approx. 33 000. Fractionation of the chloroplast components showed that the 4.5S RNA was associated with the 50 S ribosomal subunit and that it could be removed by washing the ribosomes with a buffer containing 0.01 M-EDTA and 0.5 M-KCl. It did not appear to be a cleavage product of the labile 23 S RNA of spinach chloroplast ribosomes. When 125I-labelled 4.5 S RNA was hybridized to fragments of spinach chloroplast DNA produced by SmaI restriction endonuclease, a single fragment (mol.wt. 1.15 times 10(6)) became labelled. The same DNA fragment also hybridized to chloroplast 5 S RNA and part of the 23 S RNA. It was concluded that the coding sequence for 4.5 S RNA was part of, or immediately adjacent to, the rRNA-gene region in chloroplast DNA . A comparable RNA species was observed in chloroplasts of tobacco and pea leaves. Images Fig. 8. PMID:743229

  13. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  14. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  15. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  16. Ca(2+) signals mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels in rat ureteric myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, F X; Coussin, F; Morel, J L; Halet, G; Macrez, N; Mironneau, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized Ca(2+)-release signals (puffs) and propagated Ca(2+) waves were characterized in rat ureteric myocytes by confocal microscopy. Ca(2+) puffs were evoked by photorelease of low concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) from a caged precursor and by low concentrations of acetylcholine; they were also observed spontaneously in Ca(2+)-overloaded myocytes. Ca(2+) puffs showed some variability in amplitude, time course and spatial spread, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels exist in clusters containing variable numbers of channels and that within these clusters a variable number of channels can be recruited. Immunodetection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors revealed the existence of several spots of fluorescence in the confocal cell sections, supporting the existence of clusters of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors. Strong Ins(1,4,5)P(3) photorelease and high concentrations of acetylcholine induced Ca(2+) waves that originated from an initiation site and propagated in the whole cell by spatial recruitment of neighbouring Ca(2+)-release sites. Both Ca(2+) puffs and Ca(2+) waves were blocked selectively by intracellular applications of heparin and an anti-Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-receptor antibody, but were unaffected by ryanodine and intracellular application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody. mRNAs encoding for the three subtypes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor and subtype 3 of ryanodine receptor were detected in these myocytes, and the maximal binding capacity of [(3)H]Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was 10- to 12-fold higher than that of [(3)H]ryanodine. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels mediate a continuum of Ca(2+) signalling in smooth-muscle cells expressing a high level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors and no subtypes 1 and 2 of ryanodine receptors. PMID:10861244

  17. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels.

    PubMed

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of total

  18. Ca(2+) induces PI(4,5)P2 clusters on lipid bilayers at physiological PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Maria J; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    Calcium has been shown to induce clustering of PI(4,5)P2 at high and non-physiological concentrations of both the divalent ion and the phosphatidylinositol, or on supported lipid monolayers. In lipid bilayers at physiological conditions, clusters are not detected through microscopic techniques. Here, we aimed to determine through spectroscopic methodologies if calcium plays a role in PI(4,5)P2 lateral distribution on lipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Using several different approaches which included information on fluorescence quantum yield, polarization, spectra and diffusion properties of a fluorescent derivative of PI(4,5)P2 (TopFluor(TF)-PI(4,5)P2), we show that Ca(2+) promotes PI(4,5)P2 clustering in lipid bilayers at physiological concentrations of both Ca(2+) and PI(4,5)P2. Fluorescence depolarization data of TF-PI(4,5)P2 in the presence of calcium suggests that under physiological concentrations of PI(4,5)P2 and calcium, the average cluster size comprises ~15 PI(4,5)P2 molecules. The presence of Ca(2+)-induced PI(4,5)P2 clusters is supported by FCS data. Additionally, calcium mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering was more pronounced in liquid ordered (lo) membranes, and the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) clusters presented an increased affinity for lo domains. In this way, PI(4,5)P2 could function as a lipid calcium sensor and the increased efficiency of calcium-mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering on lo domains might provide targeted nucleation sites for PI(4,5)P2 clusters upon calcium stimulus.

  19. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  20. Performance of three 4. 5 m dipoles for SSC reference design D

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Fernow, R.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three 4.5 m long dipoles for Reference Design D of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 to 2.4 K) liquid, 8T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated at eight times the required current without training.

  1. Understanding the O4,5 edge structure of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, M; Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Wall, M; Haire, D

    2007-12-12

    Using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, we examine the O{sub 4,5} (5d {yields} 5f) edge structure of the ground-state {alpha} phase of Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm metal. Results show that the dipole-allowed transitions are contained within the giant resonance and that the small pre-peak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O{sub 5} peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak. Lastly, we present for the first time the O{sub 4,5} EELS spectra for Np, Am, and Cm metal.

  2. An Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor in Paramecium is associated with the osmoregulatory system.

    PubMed

    Ladenburger, Eva-Maria; Korn, Iris; Kasielke, Nicole; Wassmer, Thomas; Plattner, Helmut

    2006-09-01

    In the ciliate Paramecium, a variety of well characterized processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g. exocytosis, endocytosis and ciliary beat. Therefore, among protozoa, Paramecium is considered a model organism for Ca2+ signaling, although the molecular identity of the channels responsible for the Ca2+ signals remains largely unknown. We have cloned - for the first time in a protozoan - the full sequence of the gene encoding a putative inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) receptor from Paramecium tetraurelia cells showing molecular characteristics of higher eukaryotic cells. The homologously expressed Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain binds [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas antibodies unexpectedly localize this protein to the osmoregulatory system. The level of Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor expression was reduced, as shown on a transcriptional level and by immuno-staining, by decreasing the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ (Paramecium cells rapidly adjust their Ca2+ level to that in the outside medium). Fluorochromes reveal spontaneous fluctuations in cytosolic Ca2+ levels along the osmoregulatory system and these signals change upon activation of caged Ins(1,4,5)P3. Considering the ongoing expulsion of substantial amounts of Ca2+ by the osmoregulatory system, we propose here that Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors serve a new function, i.e. a latent, graded reflux of Ca2+ to fine-tune [Ca2+] homeostasis.

  3. Larger Units: Theater Army, Army Group, Field Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    LARGER UNITS: Theater Army, Army Group , Field Army St Fort LeawiivfoW, Kansas /A ’j>’" /\\(7 ’"VX <\\,» •«:-•$-(••’•.•->’-:-j Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1984 to 00-00-1984 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Larger Units: Theater Army, Army Group , Field Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Bibliography No. 4 LARGER UNITS: THEATER ARMY—ARMY GROUP —FIELD ARMY by LTC Gary L. Bounds Combat Studies Institute U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  4. Wavelet analysis of paleomagnetic data: 4. Characteristic short times (0.4-4.5 ky) of variations in the elements of the geomagnetic field during the early Jaramillo reversal and in the stationary field during the Matuyama and Jaramillo chrons (Western Turkmenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarii, G. Z.; Aleksyutin, M. V.; Ataev, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    The geomagnetic variations with characteristic times ranging from 0.4 to 15 ka are shown to be largely stochastic. Variations with different characteristic times appear during different time intervals and reflect accelerating and decelerating processes. The variations do not exhibit any predominant times. At the same time, almost periodic variations in the lithological characteristics are clearly seen in the wavelet diagrams of the parameters that reflect the changes in the composition (quantitative and qualitative) of ferrimagnetic material; i.e., the changes in the conditions of sedimentation related to climate variations. The variations with periods of 5, 8.5, and 13 ka are concurrent with the similar variations in the paleomagnetic data, while the variations with a period of 3.5 ka are only observed in the magnetic parameters. We suggest that the first mentioned oscillations reflect the changes of the external (relative to the Earth) origin, whereas the changes with a period of 3.5 ka are caused by some terrestrial factors.

  5. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  6. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  7. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  8. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  9. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic... Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats...

  10. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs Even many smokers think these warnings should ... 31, 2017 FRIDAY, March 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cigarette packs carry health warnings, but many Americans think ...

  11. Accelerated dendritic development of rat cortical pyramidal cells and interneurons after biolistic transfection with BDNF and NT4/5.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Marcus J; Brun, Annika; Grabert, Jochen; Patz, Silke; Wahle, Petra

    2003-12-01

    Neurotrophins are candidate molecules for regulating dendritogenesis. We report here on dendritic growth of rat visual cortex pyramidal and interneurons overexpressing 'brain-derived neurotrophic factor' BDNF and 'neurotrophin 4/5' NT4/5. Neurons in organotypic cultures were transfected with plasmids encoding either 'enhanced green fluorescent protein' EGFP, BDNF/EGFP or NT4/5/EGFP either at the day of birth with analysis at 5 days in vitro, or at 5 days in vitro with analysis at 10 days in vitro. In pyramidal neurons, both TrkB ligands increased dendritic length and number of segments without affecting maximum branch order and number of primary dendrites. In the early time window, only infragranular neurons were responsive. Neurons in layers II/III became responsive to NT4/5, but not BDNF, during the later time window. BDNF and NT4/5 transfectants at 10 days in vitro had still significantly shorter dendrites than adult pyramidal neurons, suggesting a massive growth spurt after 10 days in vitro. However, segment numbers were already in the range of adult neurons. Although this suggested a role for BDNF, long-term activity-deprived, and thus BDNF-deprived, pyramidal cells developed a dendritic complexity not different from neurons in active cultures except for higher spine densities on neurons of layers II/III and VI. Neutralization of endogenous NT4/5 causes shorter and less branched dendrites at 10 days in vitro suggesting an essential role for NT4/5. Neutralization of BDNF had no effect. Transfected multipolar interneurons became identifiable during the second time window. Both TrkB ligands significantly increased number of segments and branch order towards the adult state with little effects on dendritic length. The results suggested that early in development BDNF and NT4/5 probably accelerate dendritogenesis in an autocrine fashion. In particular, branch formation was advanced towards the adult pattern in pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  12. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Molecular Determinants of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) Binding to Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuñiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V.; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  14. Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and ultrathin films prepared by microwave synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mintova, S.; Mo, S.; Bein, T.

    1998-12-01

    Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and submicron AlPO{sub 4}-5 films were synthesized by microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors. The effects of the chemical composition of the initial solution and the conditions of microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors on the synthesis of nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves were investigated. The syntheses were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a microwave oven at temperatures ranging from 90 to 160 C, using various concentrations of H{sub 2}O and organic template and varying aging times. The resulting bulk products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, dynamic light scattering, and nitrogen sorption. Optimal conditions for the preparation of nanosized molecular sieve crystals were found. Thin films of AlPO{sub 4}-5 on acoustic wave devices were also prepared, composed of a molecular coupling layer, AlPO{sub 4}-5 seed crystals, and a homogeneous porous film formed by microwave treatment of an aluminophosphate precursor. The initial mixture composition and microwave conditions affect the thickness and the orientation of the zeolite crystals in the films. Sorption isotherms for n-hexane and cyclohexane in these AlPO{sub 4}5 films are reported.

  15. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  16. Endomembrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 activates the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Nirmal; Chung, Gary H C; Lete, Marta G; Alonso, Alicia; Byrne, Richard D; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé

    2015-09-15

    PKB/Akt activation is a common step in tumour growth, proliferation and survival. Akt activation is understood to occur at the plasma membrane of cells in response to growth factor stimulation and local production of the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] following phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. The metabolism and turnover of phosphoinositides is complex--they act as signalling molecules as well as structural components of biological membranes. The localisation and significance of internal pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has long been speculated upon. By using transfected and recombinant protein probes for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, we show that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is enriched in the nuclear envelope and early endosomes. By exploiting an inducible dimerisation device to recruit Akt to these compartments, we demonstrate that Akt can be locally activated in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and has the potential to phosphorylate compartmentally localised downstream substrates. This could be an important mechanism to regulate Akt isoform substrate specificity or influence the timing and duration of PI3K pathway signalling. Defects in phosphoinositide metabolism and localisation are known to contribute to cancer, suggesting that interactions at subcellular compartments might be worthwhile targets for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) sequesters spin-labeled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Michelle E; Ferguson, Colin G; Prestwich, Glenn D; Cafiso, David S

    2002-04-19

    The myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) may function to sequester phosphoinositides within the plane of the bilayer. To characterize this interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)), a novel spin-labeled derivative, proxyl-PIP(2), was synthesized and characterized. In the presence of molecules known to bind PI(4,5)P(2) the EPR spectrum of this label exhibits an increase in line width because of a decrease in label dynamics, and titration of this probe with neomycin yields the expected 1:1 stoichiometry. Thus, this probe can be used to quantitate the interactions made by the PI(4,5)P(2) head group within the bilayer. In the presence of a peptide comprising the effector domain of MARCKS the EPR spectrum broadens, but the changes in line shape are modulated by both changes in label correlation time and spin-spin interactions. This result indicates that at least some proxyl-PIP(2) are in close proximity when bound to MARCKS and that MARCKS associates with multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules. Titration of the proxyl-PIP(2) EPR signal by the MARCKS-derived peptide also suggests that multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules interact with MARCKS. Site-directed spin labeling of this peptide shows that the position and conformation of this protein segment at the membrane interface are not altered significantly by binding to PI(4,5)P(2). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that MARCKS functions to sequester multiple PI(4,5)P(2) molecules within the plane of the membrane as a result of interactions that are driven by electrostatic forces.

  18. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  19. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  20. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  1. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  2. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  3. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  4. Enhanced nearfield acoustic holography for larger distances of reconstructions using fixed parameter Tikhonov regularization

    DOE PAGES

    Chelliah, Kanthasamy; Raman, Ganesh G.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2016-07-07

    This paper evaluates the performance of various regularization parameter choice methods applied to different approaches of nearfield acoustic holography when a very nearfield measurement is not possible. For a fixed grid resolution, the larger the hologram distance, the larger the error in the naive nearfield acoustic holography reconstructions. These errors can be smoothed out by using an appropriate order of regularization. In conclusion, this study shows that by using a fixed/manual choice of regularization parameter, instead of automated parameter choice methods, reasonably accurate reconstructions can be obtained even when the hologram distance is 16 times larger than the grid resolution.

  5. Ductile fracture by cavity nucleation between larger voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1982-08-01

    A MECHANISM of ductile fracture involving the interaction of relatively large voids with small-scale voids is studied by a computational model. The larger voids are described as circular cylindrical holes arranged in a doubly periodic array in the initial state. In the matrix material between these voids the nucleation and growth of much smaller voids is accounted for by using approximate constitutive equations for a ductile, porous medium. The computations show bands of highly localized straining and void growth, initiating at the surfaces of larger voids and growing into the matrix material, until the bands connect two neighbouring voids. The materials are analysed both under plane strain conditions and under conditions approximating those in a round tensile bar. The failure strains obtained under different principal stress ratios show rather good agreement when plotted against a measure of the stress-triaxiality.

  6. Simultaneous recovery of metals and degradation of organic species: copper and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abdul J; Hassan, Mukhtar-ul; Grimes, Susan M

    2009-06-15

    In mixed wastewater streams, the presence of metal ions can retard the destruction of organic contaminants and the efficiency of recovery of the metal is reduced by the presence of organic species. The reduction in the efficiency of these methods is due to the formation of complexes between the organic species and the metal ions in solution. Results are presented for copper-2,4,5-T system in which both effects occur. A photolytic cell alone can achieve the complete degradation of 2,4,5-T, in the presence of TiO(2) or H(2)O(2), at pH 3.5. The addition of Cu(II) ions, however, retard the degradation of 2,4,5-T and complete mineralisation of 2,4,5-T was not achieved and the system also leaves Cu(II) ions in solution. An electrolytic cell alone can be used to recover copper in pH range 1.5-4.5 but is not capable of achieving complete disappearance of 2,4,5-T by anodic oxidation. A combined photolytic-electrolytic system is capable of achieving simultaneous destruction of 2,4,5-T and recovery of copper from mixed wastewater streams at pH 3.5. The percentage destruction of 2,4,5-T and the recovery of copper can be increased further by using a combined photolytic and an activated carbon concentrator cell system. This system can achieve the simultaneous recovery of copper and the degradation of 2,4,5-T without the use of an additional oxidants or catalysts.

  7. Ensemble perception of size in 4-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-07-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.

  8. Future climate data from RCP 4.5 and occurrence of malaria in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-10-15

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001-2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future.

  9. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  10. 1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as emerging pronucleophiles in asymmetric catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric catalysis represents a very powerful tool for the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. In this context the main focus has been directed not only to the search for new efficient chiral catalysts, but also to the development of efficient pronucleophiles. This review highlights the utility and first examples of 1H-imidazol-4(5H)-ones and thiazol-4(5H)-ones as pronucleophiles in catalytic asymmetric reactions. PMID:27340482

  11. Monitoring of surface burn after grinding larger bearing rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslušan, M.; Mičietová, A.; Čilliková, M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with detection of surface burn after grinding of larger bearing rings made of case - hardened steels. The paper reports about calibration of Barkhausen noise technique for non destructive monitoring of grinding operations for rings of diameter in the range of 600 up to 4000 mm. Properly suggested monitoring concept enables to detect thermal damage due to grinding wheel wear as well as insufficient coolant supply. Further, grinding burn associated with lack of coolant can be clearly distinguished from damage corresponding grinding wheel wear. The paper also discusses increasing magnetoelastic responses obtained after grinding rings of higher diameters.

  12. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  13. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  14. How much larger quantum correlations are than classical ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, Adán

    2005-07-01

    Considering as distance between two two-party correlations the minimum number of half local results one party must toggle in order to turn one correlation into the other, we show that the volume of the set of physically obtainable correlations in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell scenario is (3π/8)2≈1.388 larger than the volume of the set of correlations obtainable in local deterministic or probabilistic hidden-variable theories, but is only 3π2/32≈0.925 of the volume allowed by arbitrary causal (i.e., no-signaling) theories.

  15. Adsorption and photodegradation kinetics of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid with MgFeTi layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong; Beak, Min-wook; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-03-01

    The calcined layered double hydroxides (cLDHs) Ti-doped and undoped MgFe for this study were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) techniques and tested for adsorption and photodegradation (including photocatalytic and photo-Fenton-like) of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. In the range of studied operating conditions, the as-prepared samples exhibited excellent photo-Fenton-like activity, leading to more than 80-95% degradation of 2,4,5-T at initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with 4 g calcined LDHs per liter, was accomplished in 360 min, while 2,4,5-T half-life time was as short as 99-182 min. The kinetics of adsorption and photodegradation of 2,4,5-T were also discussed. These results offered a green, low cost and high efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  16. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  17. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  18. Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Eenhoorn, Evelien; Bot, Adriane N M; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2003-10-07

    We use a full factorial design to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal developmental temperature, as well as female oviposition temperature, on egg size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Butterflies were raised at two different temperatures and mated in four possible sex-by-parental-temperature crosses. The mated females were randomly divided between high and low oviposition temperatures. On the first day after assigning the females to different temperatures, only female developmental temperature affected egg size. Females reared at the lower temperature laid larger eggs than those reared at a higher temperature. When eggs were measured again after an acclimation period of 10 days, egg size was principally determined by the prevailing temperature during oviposition, with females ovipositing at a lower temperature laying larger eggs. In contrast to widely used assumptions, the effects of developmental temperature were largely reversible. Male developmental temperature did not affect egg size in either of the measurements. Overall, developmental plasticity and acclimation in the adult stage resulted in very similar patterns of egg size plasticity. Consequently, we argue that the most important question when testing the significance of acclamatory changes is not at which stage a given plasticity is induced, but rather whether plastic responses to environmental change are adaptive or merely physiological constraints.

  19. Synthesis and structures of ruthenium di- and tricarbonyl complexes derived from 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Chakraborty, Indranil; Mascharak, Pradip

    2015-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been shown to impart beneficial effects in mammalian physiology and considerable research attention is now being directed toward metal-carbonyl complexes as a means of delivering CO to biological targets. Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes, namely trans-dicarbonyldichlorido(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-κ(2)N,N')ruthenium(II), [RuCl2(C11H6N2O)(CO)2], (1), and fac-tricarbonyldichlorido(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-κN)ruthenium(II), [RuCl2(C11H6N2O)(CO)3], (2), have been isolated and structurally characterized. In the case of complex (1), the trans-directing effect of the CO ligands allows bidentate coordination of the 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (dafo) ligand despite a larger bite distance between the N-donor atoms. In complex (2), the cis disposition of two chloride ligands restricts the ability of the dafo molecule to bind ruthenium in a bidentate fashion. Both complexes exhibit well defined (1)H NMR spectra confirming the diamagnetic ground state of Ru(II) and display a strong absorption band around 300 nm in the UV.

  20. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  1. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  2. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-03-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  3. Crystal structure of 4,5-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The title compound, C20H23N3O6·CH3OH, was synthesized by [3 + 2] cyclo-addition of (Z)-2,3-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in DMF/water. The central nitro-gen of the triazole ring is protonated. The dihedral angles between the triazole ring and the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl ring planes are 34.31 (4) and 45.03 (5)°, while that between the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings is 51.87 (5)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules, along with two methanol solvent mol-ecules are linked into an R (4) 4(10) centrosymmetric dimer by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  4. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g., 0.27 ± 0.16 Gt C a-1 for 2000-2005 5 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17 ± 0.44 Gt C a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45 ± 0.40 Gt C a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40 ± 0.42 Gt C a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (0.9-1.2 Gt C a-1 for September 2009-August 2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 Gt C a-1 in 2010, Chevallier et al., 2014). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential large scale retrieval biases and/or long-range transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Here we show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02 ± 0.30 Gt C a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. The highest gain in information is obtained during the growing season when satellite observation conditions are advantageous and a priori uncertainties are largest. The consistency among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five

  5. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    PubMed

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm(3), respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm(3) nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  6. Larger Extrastriate Population Receptive Fields in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Elaine J.; de Haas, Benjamin; White, Sarah J.; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Previous behavioral research suggests enhanced local visual processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we used functional MRI and population receptive field (pRF) analysis to test whether the response selectivity of human visual cortex is atypical in individuals with high-functioning ASDs compared with neurotypical, demographically matched controls. For each voxel, we fitted a pRF model to fMRI signals measured while participants viewed flickering bar stimuli traversing the visual field. In most extrastriate regions, perifoveal pRFs were larger in the ASD group than in controls. We observed no differences in V1 or V3A. Differences in the hemodynamic response function, eye movements, or increased measurement noise could not account for these results; individuals with ASDs showed stronger, more reliable responses to visual stimulation. Interestingly, pRF sizes also correlated with individual differences in autistic traits but there were no correlations with behavioral measures of visual processing. Our findings thus suggest that visual cortex in ASDs is not characterized by sharper spatial selectivity. Instead, we speculate that visual cortical function in ASDs may be characterized by extrastriate cortical hyperexcitability or differential attentional deployment. PMID:24523560

  7. Gravitational and electroweak unification by replacing diffeomorphisms with larger group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandres, Dave

    2009-11-01

    The covariance group for general relativity, the diffeomorphisms, is replaced by a group of coordinate transformations which contains the diffeomorphisms as a proper subgroup. The larger group is defined by the assumption that all observers will agree whether any given quantity is conserved. Alternatively, and equivalently, it is defined by the assumption that all observers will agree that the general relativistic wave equation describes the propagation of light. Thus, the group replacement is analogous to the replacement of the Lorentz group by the diffeomorphisms that led Einstein from special relativity to general relativity, and is also consistent with the assumption of constant light velocity that led him to special relativity. The enlarged covariance group leads to a non-commutative geometry based not on a manifold, but on a nonlocal space in which paths, rather than points, are the most primitive invariant entities. This yields a theory which unifies the gravitational and electroweak interactions. The theory contains no adjustable parameters, such as those that are chosen arbitrarily in the standard model.

  8. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  9. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  10. Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Oleson, K.; Huber, M.

    2014-08-01

    We implement and analyze 13 different metrics (4 moist thermodynamic quantities and 9 heat stress metrics) in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5), the land surface component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We call these routines the HumanIndexMod. These heat stress metrics embody three philosophical approaches: comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to CLM4.5 BareGroundFuxesMod, CanopyFluxesMod, SlakeFluxesMod, and UrbanMod modules in order to differentiate between the distinct regimes even within one gridcell. This allows CLM4.5 to calculate the instantaneous heat stress at every model time step, for every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity in moisture-temperature covariance. Secondary modules for initialization and archiving are modified to generate the metrics as standard output. All of the metrics implemented depend on the covariance of near surface atmospheric variables: temperature, pressure, and humidity. Accurate wet bulb temperatures are critical for quantifying heat stress (used by 5 of the 9 heat stress metrics). Unfortunately, moist thermodynamic calculations for calculating accurate wet bulb temperatures are not in CLM4.5. To remedy this, we incorporated comprehensive water vapor calculations into CLM4.5. The three advantages of adding these metrics to CLM4.5 are (1) improved thermodynamic calculations within climate models, (2) quantifying human heat stress, and (3) that these metrics may be applied to other animals as well as industrial applications. Additionally, an offline version of the HumanIndexMod is available for applications with weather and climate datasets. Examples of such applications are the high temporal resolution CMIP5 archived data, weather and research forecasting models, CLM4.5 flux tower simulations (or other land surface model validation studies), and local weather station data analysis. To demonstrate the capabilities of the HumanIndexMod, we

  11. Microbial biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Karns, J S; Kilbane, J J; Chatterjee, D K; Chakrabarty, A M

    1984-01-01

    We have succeeded in isolating a pure culture of Pseudomonas cepacia, AC1100, from a chemostat enrichment culture experiment that is capable of growing on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid as its sole source of carbon and energy. AC1100 is not only capable of degrading 2,4,5-T but is also able to completely or partially dehalogenate a wide variety of halophenols. The regulation of the dehalogenating ability of AC1100 has been investigated which demonstrates that the enzyme(s) which allow the conversion of 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-TCP are constitutive, while the enzymes that allow the degradation of 2,4,5-TCP are inducible by 2,4,5-TCP (or some metabolite of 2,4,5-TCP) but not by 2,4,5-T or other halophenols which can serve as substrates. Moreover, the 2,4,5-TCP degradative pathway is repressed by the presence of an abundant alternative carbon source. The detailed pathway of 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 is currently under study. Although field tests have yet to be conducted, laboratory experiments have demonstrated rapid and complete degradation of 2,4,5-T from contaminated soil. Soil previously contaminated with as much as 5,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil could be detoxified by AC1100 treatment, allowing the growth of plants sensitive to less than 10 micrograms 2,4,5-T/g of soil. Moreover soil contaminated with as much as 20,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil showed greater than 90% degradation after six weekly AC1100 treatments. After 2,4,5-T has been substantially degraded in contaminated soil the titer of AC1100 rapidly falls to nearly undetectable levels, which indicates that no serious ecological disturbance is likely to result from the application of AC1100. It appears possible that the treatment of contaminated areas with appropriate microorganisms may allow essentially a total restoration of the original soil condition.

  12. Proliferative response patterns of human fibroblasts after photoinjury with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.R.; Carter, D.M.; Gala, M.

    1981-01-01

    The extent of growth suppression and recovery following exposure to 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen plus uv-A irradiation was studied in 3 diploid human fibroblast strains. Inhibition of cellular proliferation was dose-dependent within the concentration range of TMP that was tested, using a constant level of uv-A. The population generation times for all cell strains were progressively lengthened under these conditions while maximal cell densities were reduced. At 2 to 4 x 10(-7) M TMP in the presence of uv-A, there was a triphasic pattern of growth which consisted of proliferative activity during the first 24 to 36 h, followed by complete growth inhibition for variable periods of time and a recovery period of log phase proliferation that was not as vigorous as measured for untreated cells. There were also declines in the percentage of cells labeled with 3H-Tdr at various times after TMP-uv-A treatment. These measurements were essentially identical for the three fibroblast strains evaluated. In that the cells employed for these investigations were derived from embryonic pulmonary tissue, neonatal foreskin and the buttock skin of an adult male, it seems unlikely that donor age and tissue source were important variables in determining growth response patterns after TMP-uv-A exposure. Because proliferative recovery was attenuated after this photochemical injury, researchers conclude that the biologic effect(s) of TMP-uv-A extend beyond the known period of psoralen-DNA cross-link removal.

  13. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g. 0.27±0.16 GtC a-1 for 2000-2005 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17±0.44 GtC a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45±0.40 GtC a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40±0.42 GtC a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013)). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (1.0-1.3 GtC a-1 for 09/2009-08/2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 GtC a-1 in 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014)). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential retrieval biases and/or transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short-range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large-scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02±0.30 GtC a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. This is qualitatively consistent among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five independent satellite retrievals (BESD (Reuter et al., 2011) 2003-2010, ACOS (O'Dell et al., 2012) 2010, UoL-FP (Cogan et al., 2012) 2010, RemoTeC (Butz et al., 2011) 2010, and NIES (Yoshida et al., 2013) 2010

  14. Light scattering by randomly irregular dielectric particles larger than the wavelength.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    We present results of simulation of light scattering by randomly irregular particles that have dimensions larger than the wavelength of incident light. We apply the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method and compare the accurate solution with that obtained using an approximate geometric-optics model. A qualitative agreement is observed for scattering angle curves of intensity at the size parameter of X=60, whereas angular dependence of polarization appears to be more sensitive to the wave effects and requires larger sizes for application of geometrical optics.

  15. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  16. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  17. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  18. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  19. 42 CFR 4.5 - Use of materials from the collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of materials from the collections. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... prescribe additional reasonable rules to assure the most effective use of the Library's resources by...

  20. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  1. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. (a) Outage is defined as a... government facilities.” 911 special facilities are addressed separately in paragraph (e) of this section....

  2. 24 CFR 4.5 - Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and documentation of assistance subject to section 102(a). 4.5 Section 4.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  3. Analysis of data mining classification by comparison of C4.5 and ID algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajat, R.; Irianingsih, I.; Krisnawan, D.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology, triggered by the intensive use of information technology. For example, data mining widely used in investment. Many techniques that can be used assisting in investment, the method that used for classification is decision tree. Decision tree has a variety of algorithms, such as C4.5 and ID3. Both algorithms can generate different models for similar data sets and different accuracy. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provide accuracy are 87.16% and 99.83% and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 89.69%. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provides 520 and 598 customers and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 546 customers. From the analysis of the both algorithm it can classified quite well because error rate less than 15%.

  4. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents through TRPC channels controlled via the PI(4,5)P2-PLC signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masayuki X; Itsuki, Kyohei; Hase, Hideharu; Sawamura, Seishiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Mori, Yasuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents (ROCs) triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5)P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5)P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5)P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5)P2 on different ROCs.

  5. Late Alk4/5/7 signaling is required for anterior skeletal patterning in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, Michael L; Ramachandran, Janani; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires a conversation between the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and the overlying pattern-dictating ectoderm; however, our understanding of the molecular basis for this process remains incomplete. Here, we show that TGF-β-receptor signaling is required during gastrulation to pattern the anterior skeleton. To block TGF-β signaling, we used SB431542 (SB43), a specific inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor Alk4/5/7. Treatment with SB43 during gastrulation blocks anterior PMC positioning and the formation of the anterior skeleton, but does not perturb general ectoderm specification or development. This is the first example of a signaling event required for patterning of a specific part of the skeleton. Alk4/5/7 inhibition does not prevent the formation of a mouth, although SB43-treated plutei display reduced feeding ability, presumably due to the loss of the structural support for the mouth conferred by the anterior skeleton. Both Univin and Nodal are potential ligands for Alk4/5/7; however, Nodal is unilaterally expressed on only the right side, whereas Univin is bilaterally expressed in the ectoderm adjacent to the anterior skeleton during the relevant time period. Our results demonstrate that Univin is both necessary and sufficient for secondary skeletal development in a control background, consistent with the hypothesis that Univin is a relevant Alk4/5/7 ligand for anterior skeletal patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Alk4/5/7 signaling during gastrulation is required to direct PMCs to the oral hood, and suggest that Univin is a relevant ligand for this signaling event.

  6. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  7. RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-07-29

    Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

  8. A series of 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazole: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Vinay S.; Shaikh, Saminaparwin G.; Patel, Arun L.

    2016-06-01

    A new series of 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole were synthesized with good yields using simple methodology. All the compounds were thoroughly characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry and structures of 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyloxazole (5b) and 4,5-dimethyl-2-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)oxazole(5e) were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidently, the crystal structures of these compounds showed C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions. The electronic structures of these compounds were also studied by DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ++ level of theory.

  9. The in vitro metabolism of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R; Safe, S

    1980-08-01

    Radiolabelled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl was metabolized in vitro by rat liver microsomal enzymes to give more polar ether soluble lipophilic metabolites, trichloroacetic acid soluble conjugates and a macromolecular adduct fraction. The rates of formation of the three metabolic fractions were significantly enhanced using Firemaster BP-6 and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl induced microsomal enzymes. Comparative metabolic studies with the 4-brombiphenyl substrate showed that the lower brominated biphenyl substrate was more readily metabolized and the rate of metabolism was enhanced only with the Firemaster BP-6 induced microsomal enzymes and not the 2,2', 4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl induced enzyme system.

  10. Bis(tetra-methyl-amonium) bis-(2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate)-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Girginova, Penka I; Trindade, Tito; Rocha, João; Klinowski, Jacek; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2007-12-06

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C(4)H(12)N(+)·2C(10)H(5)O(8) (-)·C(10)H(6)O(8), consists of a tetra-methyl-amonium cation, an anion derived from the singly deprotonated pyromellitic acid anion, 2,4,5-carboxy-benzoate (H(3)bta(-)), and one-half of a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (H(4)bta) mol-ecule, which has the centroid of the aromatic ring positioned at a crystallographic centre of inversion. The H(4)bta and H(3)bta(-) residues are involved in an extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network, which leads to a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure containing one-dimensional channels running parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. These channels house the tetra-methyl-amonium cations.

  11. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  12. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  13. Syntheses and crystal structures of two ionic liquids with halogen-bonding groups: 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    We have prepared and characterized two novel Lewis acidic ionic liquids, 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates, using differential scanning calorimetry and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The effect of the halogen species on the phase transition behaviour and the cation-anion interacting geometry was investigated. The minor difference in chemical structure strongly affects the melting point, glass transition temperature and crystal structure because of the different halogen-bonding strength and linearity between C-Br⋯O and C-I⋯O. Both the salts melt above room temperature, but the fused salts show glass-forming property and poor crystallizability.

  14. Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamaki, Angeliki K.; Roberts, Roland G.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the seismicity rate behaviour in and around Greece during 2009, seeking significant changes in rate preceding larger events. For individual larger events it is difficult to clearly distinguish precursory rate changes from other, possibly unrelated, variations in seismicity. However, when we aggregate seismicity data occurring within a radius of 10 km and in a 50-day window prior to earthquakes with, e.g. magnitude ≥3.5, the resulting aggregated time series show a clearly increasing trend starting 2-3 weeks prior to the "mainshock" time. We apply statistical tests to investigate if the observed behaviour may be simply consistent with random (poissonian) variations, or, as some earlier studies suggest, with clustering in the sense that high activity rates at some time may imply increased rates later, and thus (randomly) greater probability of larger coming events than for periods of lower seismicity. In this case, rate increases have little useful predictive power. Using data from the entire catalogue, the aggregated rate changes before larger events are clearly and strongly statistically significant and cannot be explained by such clustering. To test this we choose events at random from the catalogue as potential "mainshocks". The events preceding the randomly chosen earthquakes show less pronounced rate increases compared to the observed rate changes prior to larger events. Similar behaviour is observed in data sub-sets. However, statistical confidence decreases for geographical subsets containing few "mainshocks" as it does when data are weighted such that "mainshocks" with many preceding events are strongly downweighted relative to those with fewer. The analyses suggest that genuine changes in aggregated rate do occur prior to larger events and that this behaviour is not due to a small number of mainshocks with many preceding events dominating the analysis. It does not automatically follow that it will be possible to routinely observe precursory

  15. Carl Rogers and the larger context of therapeutic thought.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Paul L

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' classic account (see record 2007-14639-002) of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change is examined in light of developments in theory and practice since the time he wrote. Rogers' ideas, which diverged from and were very largely a challenge to, the dominant psychoanalytic ideology of the era in which he wrote, are considered in relation to new theoretical developments in what has come to be called relational psychoanalysis. They are also considered in light of the greatly increased influence of and substantial evidence supporting behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Points of convergence and divergence among these approaches are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. High-spin states with seniority v=4, 5, and 6 in 119-126Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, A.; Porquet, M.-G.; Theisen, Ch.; Verney, D.; Deloncle, I.; Houry, M.; Lucas, R.; Azaiez, F.; Barreau, G.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Duchêne, G.; Gall, B. J. P.; Redon, N.; Rousseau, M.; Stézowski, O.

    2012-05-01

    The 119-126Sn nuclei have been produced as fission fragments in two reactions induced by heavy ions: 12C+238U at a bombarding energy of 90 MeV and 18O+208Pb at 85 MeV. Their level schemes have been built from γ rays detected using the Euroball array. High-spin states located above the long-lived isomeric states of the even- and odd-A 120-126Sn nuclei have been identified. Moreover, isomeric states lying around 4.5 MeV have been established in 120,122,124,126Sn from the delayed coincidences between the fission fragment detector SAPhIR and the Euroball array. The states located above 3 MeV excitation energy are ascribed to several broken pairs of neutrons occupying the νh11/2 orbit. The maximum value of angular momentum available in such a high-j shell, i.e., for midoccupation and the breaking of the three neutron pairs, has been identified. This process is observed for the first time in spherical nuclei.

  17. Amine degradation by 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Gallardo, Emerenciana; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2006-03-22

    The reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal with octylamine, benzylamine, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester were studied to investigate if amines may suffer a Strecker type degradation by epoxyalkenals analogously to amino acids. In addition to other reactions, the studied amines were converted into their corresponding Strecker aldehydes (octanal, benzaldehyde, and methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate, respectively) to an extent that depended on the pH, the temperature, the amount of epoxyalkenal, and the amine involved. Each amine exhibited an optimum pH for the reaction, but the corresponding Strecker aldehydes were produced to a significant extent within a broad pH range. In addition, the temperature mostly influenced the reaction rate, which was increased between 6.5 and 9.5 times when the reaction was carried out at 60 degrees C than when it took place at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, Strecker aldehyde formation was linearly correlated with the amount of the epoxyalkenal present in the reaction mixture. Nevertheless, the reaction yield mostly depended on the amine involved. Thus, octylamine only produced trace amounts of octanal, benzylamine was converted into benzaldehyde with a yield of 4.3%, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester was converted into methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate with a reaction yield of 49%. All of these results suggest that suitable amines can be degraded by epoxyalkenals to their corresponding Strecker aldehydes to a significant extent.

  18. [Comparative study of single strand conformation polymorphism of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Gong, L; Zhang, L; Li, S; Zhu, S

    1994-04-01

    A recently developed technique, non-isotopic single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR-SSCP), was applied to study the conserved feature of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria. The 4.5S RNA gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using the template DNA extracted respectively from five strains of Escherichia coli and three strains of different genera in Enterobacteriaceae, i.e. Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter aerogenes. The PCR products were then carried out SSCP analysis. The experimental results showed that there seemed to be no detectable differences in the size and single strand conformation of 4.5S RNA genes from above strains, except the negative strand conformation of Enterobacter aerogenes. Thus it can be seen that the secondary structures of 4.5S RNA gene in enterobacteria are quite conservative.

  19. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP.

  20. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  1. The interdisciplinary team: the whole is larger than the parts.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Nakshatra; Rizk, Dana V

    2014-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging global health problem. Caring for CKD patients is a medical and financial challenge currently placing a significant burden on our health-care system. This creates an impetus to explore nontraditional models of care. In this article, we explore the role of interdisciplinary care clinics in managing the complex and multifaceted aspects of CKD. By having different providers work seamlessly in a synergistic and collaborative environment, there is less risk of fragmentation of care. In this patient-centered model of care, patients are empowered and engaged to achieve therapeutic targets, make lifestyle changes, and participate in decision-making. Timely referral and education delivered by advanced practitioners are 2 of the crucial elements central to the success of the interdisciplinary model. Further studies are needed to identify other key elements that would enhance the interdisciplinary approach to ensure that guideline-based therapeutic targets are reached and to define the subset of patients that would benefit the most. Innovative information technology solutions that could enhance the implementation of interdisciplinary clinics and expand their reach should be exploited. Lastly, for the paradigm shift to occur, the integrative approach should prove to be cost-effective.

  2. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.

  3. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation. PMID:23392104

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Yuriy V; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A; Ache, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel.

  5. The elongation factor Spt4/5 regulates RNA polymerase II transcription through the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Crickard, John B; Lee, Jaehyoun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Reese, Joseph C

    2017-04-03

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) passes through the nucleosome in a coordinated manner, generating several intermediate nucleosomal states as it breaks and then reforms histone-DNA contacts ahead of and behind it, respectively. Several studies have defined transcription-induced nucleosome intermediates using only RNA Polymerase. However, RNAPII is decorated with elongation factors as it transcribes the genome. One such factor, Spt4/5, becomes an integral component of the elongation complex, making direct contact with the 'jaws' of RNAPII and nucleic acids in the transcription scaffold. We have characterized the effect of incorporating Spt4/5 into the elongation complex on transcription through the 601R nucleosome. Spt4/5 suppressed RNAPII pausing at the major H3/H4-induced arrest point, resulting in downstream re-positioning of RNAPII further into the nucleosome. Using a novel single molecule FRET system, we found that Spt4/5 affected the kinetics of DNA re-wrapping and stabilized a nucleosomal intermediate with partially unwrapped DNA behind RNAPII. Comparison of nucleosomes of different sequence polarities suggest that the strength of the DNA-histone interactions behind RNAPII specifies the Spt4/5 requirement. We propose that Spt4/5 may be important to coordinate the mechanical movement of RNAPII through the nucleosome with co-transcriptional chromatin modifications during transcription, which is affected by the strength of histone-DNA interactions.

  6. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  7. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRANS-4,5-DIHYDROXY-4,5-DIHYDROBENZO[A]PYRENE TO BENZO[A]PYRENE-BIS-DIOLS AND DNA ADDUCTS BY INDUCED RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of (+)-trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol), the K-region dihydrodiol of B[a]P, by B-naphthoflavone (BNF)-induced rat liver microsomes was studied. Trans-B[a]P-4,5-diol was metabolized to six major products as characterized by...

  8. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  9. Highly Dynamic and Specific Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Septin, and Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Responses Correlate with Caspofungin Activity against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] activates the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. Candida albicans exposure to caspofungin results in the rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins to plasma membrane foci and subsequent fungicidal effects. We studied C. albicans PI(4,5)P2 and septin dynamics and protein kinase C (PKC)-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway activation following exposure to caspofungin and other drugs. PI(4,5)P2 and septins were visualized by live imaging of C. albicans cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and red fluorescent protein-Cdc10p, respectively. PI(4,5)P2 was also visualized in GFP-PH domain-expressing C. albicans mkc1 mutants. Mkc1p phosphorylation was measured as a marker of PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation. Fungicidal activity was assessed using 20-h time-kill assays. Caspofungin immediately induced PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10p colocalization to aberrant foci, a process that was highly dynamic over 3 h. PI(4,5)P2 levels increased in a dose-response manner at caspofungin concentrations of ≤4× MIC and progressively decreased at concentrations of ≥8× MIC. Caspofungin exposure resulted in broad-based mother-daughter bud necks and arrested septum-like structures, in which PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10 colocalized. PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation was maximal within 10 min, peaked in response to caspofungin at 4× MIC, and declined at higher concentrations. The caspofungin-induced PI(4,5)P2 redistribution remained apparent in mkc1 mutants. Caspofungin exerted dose-dependent killing and paradoxical effects at ≤4× and ≥8× MIC, respectively. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, calcofluor white, and H2O2 did not impact the PI(4,5)P2 or Cdc10p distribution like caspofungin did. Caspofungin exerts rapid PI(4,5)P2-septin and PKC-Mkc1 responses that correlate with the extent of C. albicans killing, and the responses are not induced by other antifungal agents. PI(4,5)P2-septin regulation is crucial in early

  10. PBFA Z: A 55 TW/4.5 MJ electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.; Struve, K.W.; Seamen, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    PBFA Z is a new 55 TW/4.5 MJ short pulse electrical driver located at Sandia National Laboratories. The authors use PBFA Z to magnetically-implode plasma shells. These configurations are historically known as z pinches. The pulsed power design of PBFA Z is based on conventional single-pulse Marx generator, water-line pulse-forming technology used on the earlier Saturn and PBFA II accelerators. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in a 55-TW/105-ns pulse to the output water transmission lines, and delivers up to 3.0 MJ and 40 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on the initial load inductance and the implosion time, they attain peak currents of 16--20 MA with a rise time of 105 ns. Current is fed to the z-pinch load through self magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Peak electric fields in the MITLs exceed 2 MV/cm. The current from the four independent conical disk MITLs is combined together in a double post-hole vacuum convolute with an efficiency greater than 95%. The measured system performance of the water transmission lines, the vacuum insulator stack, the MITLs, and the double post-hole vacuum convolute differed from preshot predictions by {approximately} 5%. Using a 2-cm radius and a 2-cm length tungsten wire array with 240, 7.5-{micro}m diameter wires (4.1-mg mass) as the z-pinch load, they achieved x-ray powers of 200 TW and x-ray energies of 1.85 MJ as measured by x-ray diodes and resistive bolometry.

  11. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  12. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  13. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  14. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  15. Pharmacological Potential and Synthetic Approaches of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and Imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Krause, Malwina; Foks, Henryk; Gobis, Katarzyna

    2017-03-04

    The structural resemblance between the fused imidazopyridine heterocyclic ring system and purines has prompted biological investigations to assess their potential therapeutic significance. They are known to play a crucial role in numerous disease conditions. The discovery of their first bioactivity as GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators divulged their medicinal potential. Proton pump inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors, and NSAIDs were also found in this chemical group. Imidazopyridines have the ability to influence many cellular pathways necessary for the proper functioning of cancerous cells, pathogens, components of the immune system, enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, etc. The collective results of biochemical and biophysical properties foregrounded their medicinal significance in central nervous system, digestive system, cancer, inflammation, etc. In recent years, new preparative methods for the synthesis of imidazopyridines using various catalysts have been described. The present manuscript to the best of our knowledge is the complete compilation on the synthesis and medicinal aspects of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines and imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines reported from the year 2000 to date, including structure-activity relationships.

  16. Regulation of gene expression via retrotransposon insertions and the noncoding RNA 4.5S RNAH.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Kimura, Yuko; Mito, Mari; Okada, Shunpei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) comprise a significant portion of mammalian genomes and regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. Here, we show that Myodonta clade-specific 4.5S RNAH (4.5SH), an abundant nuclear noncoding RNA that is highly homologous to the retrotransposon SINE B1, controls the expression of reporter gene that contains the antisense insertion of SINE B1 via nuclear retention. The depletion of endogenous 4.5SH with antisense oligonucleotides neutralizes the nuclear retention and changes the subcellular distribution of the reporter transcripts containing the antisense SINE B1 insertion. Importantly, endogenous transcripts with antisense SINE B1 were increased in the cytoplasm after knockdown of 4.5SH, leading to a decrease in cellular growth. We propose a tentative hypothesis that the amplification of the 4.5SH cluster in specific rodent species might delineate their evolutionary direction via the regulation of genes containing the antisense insertion of SINE B1.

  17. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ran expression during simulated and real microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, B; Theisen, R; Schnabl, H

    2006-12-01

    In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate dynamically regulates the K2P background K+ channel TASK-2

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L. Pablo; Paulais, Marc; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.

    2017-01-01

    Two-pore domain K2P K+ channels responsible for the background K+ conductance and the resting membrane potential, are also finely regulated by a variety of chemical, physical and physiological stimuli. Hormones and transmitters acting through Gq protein-coupled receptors (GqPCRs) modulate the activity of various K2P channels but the signalling involved has remained elusive, in particular whether dynamic regulation by membrane PI(4,5)P2, common among other classes of K+ channels, affects K2P channels is controversial. Here we show that K2P K+ channel TASK-2 requires PI(4,5)P2 for activity, a dependence that accounts for its run down in the absence of intracellular ATP and its full recovery by addition of exogenous PI(4,5)P2, its inhibition by low concentrations of polycation PI scavengers, and inhibition by PI(4,5)P2 depletion from the membrane. Comprehensive mutagenesis suggests that PI(4,5)P2 interaction with TASK-2 takes place at C-terminus where three basic aminoacids are identified as being part of a putative binding site. PMID:28358046

  19. RNA polymerase and transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brianna J.; Bose, Daniel; Baker, Kevin J.; Yusoff, Zahirah M.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2011-01-01

    Spt4/5 in archaea and eukaryote and its bacterial homolog NusG is the only elongation factor conserved in all three domains of life and plays many key roles in cotranscriptional regulation and in recruiting other factors to the elongating RNA polymerase. Here, we present the crystal structure of Spt4/5 as well as the structure of RNA polymerase-Spt4/5 complex using cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction and single particle analysis. The Spt4/5 binds in the middle of RNA polymerase claw and encloses the DNA, reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp and ring helicases. The transcription elongation complex model reveals that the Spt4/5 is an upstream DNA holder and contacts the nontemplate DNA in the transcription bubble. These structures reveal that the cellular RNA polymerases also use a strategy of encircling DNA to enhance its processivity as commonly observed for many nucleic acid processing enzymes including DNA polymerases and helicases. PMID:21187417

  20. Synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, R J; Kaiser, S L; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate using a water-soluble carbodiimide. We obtained 1-1.5 mumol of the inositol cyclic trisphosphate starting with 5 mumol of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The cyclized product was isolated by HPLC on Partisil SAX. The identity of the cyclic product was verified by its hydrolysis to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in acid and by its conversion to 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate by a specific 5-phosphomonoesterase from platelets. We also identified the product by 31P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a peak at 17.2 ppm, characteristic of a five-membered cyclic phosphodiester ring, and peaks at 4.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, indicative of phosphomonoesters. This relatively simple method for producing inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate will facilitate studies of the physiology of this compound in signal transduction. PMID:3469663

  1. Developmental Expression of Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate Receptor in the Post-Natal Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. J.; Yang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) has been established to be essential for hearing. However, the expression of IP3R in the cochlea in the period of auditory development remains unknown. We investigated the expression of IP3R in the developing rat cochlea using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed its presence in the developing rat cochlea, and changes in IP3R protein expressions from the early post-natal period to adult. At birth (postnatal day 0, P0), IP3R expression was only found in Hensen’s cell. IP3R immunoreactivity first appeared in the sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti at P2. This localization was confirmed by means of double-labeling experiments with Myosin VIIA, a marker for cochlear hair cells. Colocalization of IP3R and Myosin VIIA from P2 to the second post-natal week suggested early expression of IP3R in developing inner and outer hair cells. Claudius’ cells near the spiral ligament were labelled for IP3R from P8 onwards. Transient IP3R expression was observed in the stria vascularis in early post-natal rat from P4 to P8. Spiral ganglion neurons also exhibited weaker IP3R fluorescence signals during post-natal development. The results of RT-PCR demonstrated that all three IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) were present in rat cochlea during four different developmental stages of cochlea, from P0 to P28. Present immunohistochemical evidence for both change and maintenance of expression of IP3R during post-natal development of the rat cochlea indicated the possible involvement of IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in cochlear development. PMID:26150157

  2. The 18 May 2012 (Ms 4.5) Chapala Lake, Jalisco, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The central part of Jalisco, Mexico has experienced at different times the occurrence of low magnitude earthquakes series. Although the effect of these earthquakes have been limited to relatively small areas have caused general alarm within the population and even in some cases true catastrophes (e.g. San Cristobal 1875). These groups of earthquakes that have lasted for weeks and even months have greater importance because they affect the most populous state area including the capital city of Guadalajara. An extraordinary example of these series of earthquakes occurred on 8 may 1912 that lasted until September. In the first 18 days 64 events were felt by residents of Guadalajara. Since then, there has been a relative seismic activity calm in the region. This paper analyzes the earthquake of May 18, 2012 (03:07 UT) occurred at the West edge of Lake Chapala. While it's an event of low magnitude (4.5 Ms) it has the importance of having occurred just 60 km to the South of Guadalajara and for which instrumental data of first quality is available. The focus of the earthquake was located at 20.30 ° N and 103.49 ° W at a depth of 0 km using arrivals of P and S waves at 16 regional seismic stations. However, by the errors of localization inherent in the method focus could be in a range of 0 to 5 km deep. The mechanism of failure using the polarities of the first arrivals favors a clear faulting of dip slip type along a plane with strike = 227 °, Dip = 80 °, and Rake = 93 °. Waveforms analysis is being used to corroborate these results.

  3. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  4. A new calmodulin-binding motif for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Baños-Sanz, Jose I; Monterroso, Begoña; Round, Adam; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; González, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    IP3-3K [Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase] is a key enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, using Ins(1,4,5)P3 and ATP as substrates. Both inositides, substrate and product, present crucial roles in the cell. Ins(1,4,5)P3 is a key point in Ca2+ metabolism that promotes Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and together with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates Ca2+ homoeostasis. In addition, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is involved in immune cell development. It has been proved that Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) regulates the activity of IP3-3K, via direct interaction between both enzymes. Although we have extensive structural knowledge of the kinase domains of the three IP3-3K isoforms, no structural information is available about the interaction between IP3-3K and Ca2+/CaM. In the present paper we describe the crystal structure of the complex between human Ca2+/CaM and the CaM-binding region of human IP3-3K isoform A (residues 158-183) and propose a model for a complex including the kinase domain. The structure obtained allowed us to identify all of the key residues involved in the interaction, which have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, pull-down and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. The results allowed the identification of a new CaM-binding motif, expanding our knowledge about how CaM interacts with its partners.

  5. Calcium Directly Regulates Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Headgroup Conformation and Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The orchestrated recognition of phosphoinositides and concomitant intracellular release of Ca2+ is pivotal to almost every aspect of cellular processes, including membrane homeostasis, cell division and growth, vesicle trafficking, as well as secretion. Although Ca2+ is known to directly impact phosphoinositide clustering, little is known about the molecular basis for this or its significance in cellular signaling. Here, we study the direct interaction of Ca2+ with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), the main lipid marker of the plasma membrane. Electrokinetic potential measurements of PI(4,5)P2 containing liposomes reveal that Ca2+ as well as Mg2+ reduce the zeta potential of liposomes to nearly background levels of pure phosphatidylcholine membranes. Strikingly, lipid recognition by the default PI(4,5)P2 lipid sensor, phospholipase C delta 1 pleckstrin homology domain (PLC δ1-PH), is completely inhibited in the presence of Ca2+, while Mg2+ has no effect with 100 nm liposomes and modest effect with giant unilamellar vesicles. Consistent with biochemical data, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal how Ca2+ binding to the PI(4,5)P2 headgroup and carbonyl regions leads to confined lipid headgroup tilting and conformational rearrangements. We rationalize these findings by the ability of calcium to block a highly specific interaction between PLC δ1-PH and PI(4,5)P2, encoded within the conformational properties of the lipid itself. Our studies demonstrate the possibility that switchable phosphoinositide conformational states can serve as lipid recognition and controlled cell signaling mechanisms. PMID:28177616

  6. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  7. Cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and skin irritation of 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate and di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate.

    PubMed

    Monhaphol, Thitinun; Yibchok-Anun, Sirinthorn; Banlunara, Wijit; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Palaga, Tanapat; Asawanonda, Pravit; Wanichweacharungruang, Supason

    2008-01-01

    Safety of two new ultraviolet (UV) filters, 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (E8) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (B8), has been evaluated through the human melanoma cytotoxicity test and seven-day acute oral toxicity studies in rats. At 2.5 mg/mL, both compounds gave similar cell viability to the control. LD50 values for E8 and B8 are more than 5000 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. No significant difference in body weight and hematological parameters among the 0, 5, 50, 500, and 5000 mg/Kg E8-treated animals could be detected. Pathological examination of rat tissues collected at the end of the study period revealed no significant difference between the control and all E8-administered rats. There was no significant difference in all clinical blood chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cholesterol), except alanine aminotransferase (ALT), between the control and the E8-treated animals. All ALT values were, however, in the normal range of SD rats. E8 showed negative results for the skin irritation study on human volunteers, using patch and photopatch tests. Excitation of respiratory signs of dypsnea in 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated rats could be observed during 1-24 h. All groups were, however, normal during the second to the seventh day. Hematological parameters of the 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated animals showed no significant difference. Pathological examination revealed no significant difference between the control and all B8-administered rats. However, significant differences in some clinical blood chemistry parameters and body weights between the control and some B8-treated animals could be detected. All values, however, were in the normal ranges of the SD rats.

  8. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  9. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume I: The Basic Functions of the Navigator Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This first of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on the basic functions of the Navigator component. Lesson 1 covers terminology and methods to connect to the World Wide Web, hardware needed, and a Netscape Communicator overview. Lesson 2 introduces the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus, and how to change the default…

  10. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  11. Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, K L; Kirchner, M; Guerra, B; Granier, S A; Lucarelli, C; Porrero, M C; Jakubczak, A; Threlfall, E J; Mevius, D J

    2010-06-03

    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s.

  12. Median CBO Salary Rises by 4.5 Percent, Annual Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    An annual national survey of college and university salaries found chief business officers' salaries rose 4.5 percent in 1996-97, less than the previous year. Salaries of women and minority CBOs continued to gain equity with that of men. Rates of increase varied by institution type. Salary gains for all administrative job types were less than in…

  13. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  14. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  15. 60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER' S BRIDGE, 1884, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Bottom of swing span and top of center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  17. Dynamic NHERF interaction with TRPC4/5 proteins is required for channel gating by diacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Ursula; Forst, Anna-Lena; Pardatscher, Franziska; Erdogmus, Serap; Philipp, Maximilian; Gregoritza, Manuel; Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Gudermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The activation mechanism of the classical transient receptor potential channels TRPC4 and -5 via the Gq/11 protein-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway has remained elusive so far. In contrast to all other TRPC channels, the PLC product diacylglycerol (DAG) is not sufficient for channel activation, whereas TRPC4/5 channel activity is potentiated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion. As a characteristic structural feature, TRPC4/5 channels contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif allowing for binding of the scaffolding proteins Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and 2. PKC inhibition or the exchange of threonine for alanine in the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif conferred DAG sensitivity to the channel. Altogether, we present a DAG-mediated activation mechanism for TRPC4/5 channels tightly regulated by NHERF1/2 interaction. PIP2 depletion evokes a C-terminal conformational change of TRPC5 proteins leading to dynamic dissociation of NHERF1/2 from the C terminus of TRPC5 as a prerequisite for DAG sensitivity. We show that NHERF proteins are direct regulators of ion channel activity and that DAG sensitivity is a distinctive hallmark of TRPC channels. PMID:27994151

  18. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5,5\\'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 007F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' - HEXABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 153 ) ( CAS No . 68631 - 49 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washingt

  19. Photooxygenation of alkynylperylenes. Formation of dibenzo[jk,mn]phenanthrene-4,5-diones.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Nanai, Yasuaki; Mizuno, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Junya; Takeshima, Sakiko; Inouye, Masahiko

    2007-11-09

    3-(1-Alkynyl)perylenes undergo oxygenation when subjected to irradiation with visible light under aerated conditions. The structures of novel oxygenated products formed in this manner are assigned as regioisomeric dibenzo[jk,mn]phenanthrene-4,5-diones.

  20. Mathematics Pentathlon. A Manual of Directions and Official Tournament Rules. Division III. Grades 4-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Regato, John C.; And Others

    The Mathematics Pentathlon is a tournament of mathematics games held each spring since 1979 to promote the development of mathematical concepts and skills while fostering interaction among the educational community. There are five games in each of four divisions, for grades K-1, 2-3, 4-5, and 6-7. The focus is on active problem solving and…

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  2. Preparation of 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2002-01-01

    The compound of the structure ##STR1## where a, b, c, d and e are 0 or 1 and a+b+c+d+e is from 0 to 5 is disclosed together with the species 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) and a process of preparing such compounds.

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. (a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This paragraph (a)...

  5. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  6. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  7. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples.

  8. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  9. Degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1993-01-01

    Under secondary metabolic conditions the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium rapidly mineralizes 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The pathway for degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by purified lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). The multistep pathway involves cycles of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination reactions followed by quinone reduction reactions to yield the key intermediate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene, which is presumably ring cleaved. In the first step of the pathway, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol is oxidized to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone by either MnP or Lip. 2,5-Dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is then reduced to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone. The 2,5-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone is oxidized by MnP to generate 5-chloro-4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone. The orthoquinone is in turn reduced to 5-chloro-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. Finally, the 5-chlorotrihydroxybenzene undergoes another cycle of oxidative dechlorination and reduction reactions to generate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene. The latter is presumably ring cleaved, with subsequent degradation to CO2. In this pathway, the substrate is oxidatively dechlorinated by LiP or MnP in a reaction which produces a quinone. The quinone intermediate is recycled by a reduction reaction to regenerate an intermediate which is again a substrate for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination. This pathway apparently results in the removal of all three chlorine atoms before ring cleavage occurs. PMID:8328802

  10. Picomolar, selective and subtype specific small-molecule inhibition of TRPC1/4/5 channels.

    PubMed

    Rubaiy, Hussein N; Ludlow, Melanie J; Henrot, Matthias; Gaunt, Hannah J; Miteva, Katarina; Cheung, Sin Yin; Tanahashi, Yasuyuki; Hamzah, Nurasyikin; Musialowski, Katie E; Blythe, Nicola M; Appleby, Hollie L; Bailey, Marc A; McKeown, Lynn; Taylor, Roger; Foster, Richard; Waldmann, Herbert; Nussbaumer, Peter; Christmann, Mathias; Bon, Robin S; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J

    2017-03-21

    The concentration of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and the voltage across the plasma membrane are major determinants of cell function. Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels are known to regulate these parameters but understanding of these channels remains inadequate. Here we focus on Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 4 and 5 proteins (TRPC4 and TRPC5) which assemble as homomers or heteromerize with TRPC1 to form Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels in many mammalian cell types. Multiple roles have been suggested including in epilepsy, innate fear, pain and cardiac remodeling but limitations in tools to probe these channels have restricted progress. A key question is whether we can overcome these limitations and develop tools which are high-quality, reliable, easy to use and readily accessible for all investigators. Here, through chemical synthesis and studies of native and over-expressed channels by Ca(2+) and patch-clamp assays, we describe compound 31 (C31), a remarkable small-molecule inhibitor of TRPC1/4/5 channels. Its potency ranged from 9 to 1300 pM, depending on the TRPC1/4/5 subtype and activation mechanism. Other channel types investigated were unaffected, including TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1, TRPM2, TRPM8 and store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by Orai1. These findings suggest identification of an important experimental tool compound which has much higher potency for inhibiting TRPC1/4/5 channels than previously reported agents, impressive specificity, and graded subtype selectivity within the TRPC1/4/5 channel family. The compound should greatly facilitate future studies of these ion channels. We suggest naming this TRPC1/4/5-inhibitory compound Pico145.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3).

  12. The mass function of black holes 14.5: comparison of models with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada; Volonteri, Marta

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we compare the observationally derived black hole mass function (BHMF) of luminous (>1045-1046 erg s-1) broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) at 1 < z < 4.5 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) presented by Kelly et al., with models of merger-driven black hole (BH) growth in the context of standard hierarchical structure formation models. In these models, we explore two distinct black hole seeding prescriptions at the highest redshifts: 'light seeds'- remnants of Population III stars and 'massive seeds' that form from the direct collapse of pre-galactic discs. The subsequent merger triggered mass build-up of the black hole population is tracked over cosmic time under the assumption of a fixed accretion rate as well as rates drawn from the distribution derived by Merloni & Heinz. Four model snapshots at z= 1.25, 2, 3.25 and 4.25 are compared with the SDSS-derived BHMFs of BLQSOs. We find that the light seed models fall short of reproducing the observationally derived mass function of BLQSOs at MBH > 109 M⊙ throughout the redshift range; the massive seed models with a fixed accretion rate of 0.3 Edd, or with accretion rates drawn from the Merloni & Heinz distribution provide the best fit to the current observational data at z > 2, although they overestimate the high-mass end of the mass function at lower redshifts. At low redshifts, a drastic drop in the accretion rate is observed and this is explained as arising due to the diminished gas supply available due to consumption by star formation or changes in the geometry of the inner feeding regions. Therefore, the overestimate at the high-mass end of the black hole mass function for the massive seed models can be easily modified, as the accretion rate is likely significantly lower at these epochs than what we assume. For the Merloni & Heinz model, examining the Eddington ratio distributions fEdd, we find that they are almost uniformly sampled from fEdd= 10-2 to 1 at z≃ 1, while at high redshift

  13. Hybrid Modified K-Means with C4.5 for Intrusion Detection Systems in Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Laftah Al-Yaseen, Wathiq; Ali Othman, Zulaiha; Ahmad Nazri, Mohd Zakree

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the processing time and performance of intrusion detection systems are of great importance due to the increased speed of traffic data networks and a growing number of attacks on networks and computers. Several approaches have been proposed to address this issue, including hybridizing with several algorithms. However, this paper aims at proposing a hybrid of modified K-means with C4.5 intrusion detection system in a multiagent system (MAS-IDS). The MAS-IDS consists of three agents, namely, coordinator, analysis, and communication agent. The basic concept underpinning the utilized MAS is dividing the large captured network dataset into a number of subsets and distributing these to a number of agents depending on the data network size and core CPU availability. KDD Cup 1999 dataset is used for evaluation. The proposed hybrid modified K-means with C4.5 classification in MAS is developed in JADE platform. The results show that compared to the current methods, the MAS-IDS reduces the IDS processing time by up to 70%, while improving the detection accuracy. PMID:26161437

  14. Photometry of Scattered Disk Objects at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Chad A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Mommert, Michael; Lejoly, Cassandra; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Scattered disk objects (SDO) are some of the most intriguing of the estimated 100,000 icy bodies located in the outer Solar System. SDOs have been gravitationally disturbed and scattered by the orbital migration of Neptune. The surface compositions of these objects provide a window into formation conditions and dynamics of the outer Solar System. Characterization of volatiles and organic materials, in particular, provide important constraints on formation conditions and subsequent surface processing of these objects. We measured fluxes of 38 SDOs at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in order to characterize volatiles, silicates, and complex organics on their surfaces. Albedos calculated from these fluxes are combined with broadband albedos from ground-based observations at shorter wavelengths (spanning 0.55 - 2.22 μm) to provide spectrophotometry from 0.5 to 4.5 μm. Much of those ground-based data are from previously published literature. However, we have also conducted new ground-based Y, J, H, K observations of several of the targets. Sizes and visible geometric albedos, which are required to convert IRAC fluxes to geometric albedos, were extracted from published literature when available and computed from absolute magnitudes otherwise. Data were available to construct complete 0.55 to 4.5 μm spectrophotometric curves for 14 SDOs and partial curves for the remaining 24 SDOs. The resulting spectrophotometry of these 38 SDOs indicates a wide range of surface compositions. Several of the SDOs we observed show red visible and near-infrared spectral slopes and strong absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. These absorption features suggest the presence of complex organics. Other SDOs appear red as well, but show only moderate absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Moderate absorption features at these wavelengths may indicate a mixture of H2O ice and refractory material on the surface. Finally, some objects show no

  15. Bcl-2 functionally interacts with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors to regulate calcium release from the ER in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Valencia, Ignacio; Zhong, Fei; McColl, Karen S.; Roderick, H. Llewelyn; Bootman, Martin D.; Berridge, Michael J.; Conway, Stuart J.; Holmes, Andrew B.; Mignery, Gregory A.; Velez, Patricio; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are channels responsible for calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (either wild type or selectively localized to the ER) significantly inhibited InsP3-mediated calcium release and elevation of cytosolic calcium in WEHI7.2 T cells. This inhibition was due to an effect of Bcl-2 at the level of InsP3Rs because responses to both anti-CD3 antibody and a cell-permeant InsP3 ester were decreased. Bcl-2 inhibited the extent of calcium release from the ER of permeabilized WEHI7.2 cells, even at saturating concentrations of InsP3, without decreasing luminal calcium concentration. Furthermore, Bcl-2 reduced the open probability of purified InsP3Rs reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Bcl-2 and InsP3Rs were detected together in macromolecular complexes by coimmunoprecipitation and blue native gel electrophoresis. We suggest that this functional interaction of Bcl-2 with InsP3Rs inhibits InsP3R activation and thereby regulates InsP3-induced calcium release from the ER. PMID:15263017

  16. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Yuqian; Yan, Yi; Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2017-02-01

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing.

  17. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hille, Bertil

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ir)) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P(2). Wide expression of K(V) channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of K(V) channels by PI(4,5)P(2), we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (M(1)R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P(2) with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited K(V)7.1, K(V)7.2/7.3, and K(ir)2.1 channel current by 90-95%. Activation of M(1)R inhibited K(V)7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P(2) regulation of activity of K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1, K(V)1.3, K(V)1.4, and K(V)1.5/K(V)β1.3, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.4, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1 and K(V)3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M(1)R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested K(V) channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the K(V)7 and K(ir) families.

  18. Molecular typing of monophasic Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- strains isolated in Belgium (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Wattiau, Pierre

    2014-01-31

    To assess the distribution of Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- subtypes in the Belgian food chain and compare it to the subtypes associated with human infections, a molecular assessment was initiated. Two hundred fifty-three Salmonella isolates serotyped as 4,[5]:i:- during the period 2008-2011 in Belgium and originating from animal productions, food or human clinical samples were analysed by a specific duplex PCR. One hundred ninety-four isolates (76.7%) fit the profile of a S. Typhimurium monophasic variant as defined by the European Food Safety Authority. The other isolates possessed but did not express the phase II flagellin gene (23.3%). Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) revealed many but closely related profiles in the fljB-negative S. Typhimurium monophasic variant isolates. Some MLVA types were associated with both human and animal isolates but no unique source of human contamination could be demonstrated.

  19. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; Blichert-Toft, J; Müller, W; Albarede, F; Holden, P; Mojzsis, S J

    2005-12-23

    The long-favored paradigm for the development of continental crust is one of progressive growth beginning at approximately 4 billion years ago (Ga). To test this hypothesis, we measured initial 176Hf/177Hf values of 4.01- to 4.37-Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia. epsilonHf (deviations of 176Hf/177Hf from bulk Earth in parts per 10(4)) values show large positive and negative deviations from those of the bulk Earth. Negative values indicate the development of a Lu/Hf reservoir that is consistent with the formation of continental crust (Lu/Hf approximately 0.01), perhaps as early as 4.5 Ga. Positive epsilon(Hf) deviations require early and likely widespread depletion of the upper mantle. These results support the view that continental crust had formed by 4.4 to 4.5 Ga and was rapidly recycled into the mantle.

  20. Backside optimization for improving avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV IGBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Tian; Jiang, Lu; Yuan, Teng; Wenliang, Zhang; Shuojin, Lu; Yangjun, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The static avalanche breakdown behavior of 4.5 kV high-voltage IGBT is studied by theory analysis and experiment. The avalanche breakdown behaviors of the 4.5 kV IGBTs with different backside structures are investigated and compared by using the curve tracer. The results show that the snap back behavior of the breakdown waveform is related to the bipolar PNP gain, which leads to the deterioration of the breakdown voltage. There are two ways to optimize the backside structure, one is increasing the implant dose of the N+ buffer layer, the other is decreasing the implant dose of the P+ collector layer. It is found that the optimized structure is effective in suppressing the snap back behavior and improving the breakdown characteristic of high voltage IGBT. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project of China (No. 2011ZX02503-003).

  1. Ubiquitin fusion constructs allow the expression and purification of multi-KOW domain complexes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription elongation factor Spt4/5.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Amanda; Gunasekara, Sanjika; Walshe, James; Mackay, Joel P; Hartzog, Grant A; Vrielink, Alice

    2014-08-01

    Spt4/5 is a hetero-dimeric transcription elongation factor that can both inhibit and promote transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). However, Spt4/5's mechanism of action remains elusive. Spt5 is an essential protein and the only universally-conserved RNAP-associated transcription elongation factor. The protein contains multiple Kyrpides, Ouzounis and Woese (KOW) domains. These domains, in other proteins, are thought to bind RNA although there is little direct evidence in the literature to support such a function in Spt5. This could be due, at least in part, to difficulties in expressing and purifying recombinant Spt5. When expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), Spt5 is innately insoluble. Here we report a new approach for the successful expression and purification of milligram quantities of three different multi-KOW domain complexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4/5 for use in future functional studies. Using the E. coli strain Rosetta2 (DE3) we have developed strategies for co-expression of Spt4 and multi-KOW domain Spt5 complexes from the bi-cistronic pET-Duet vector. In a second strategy, Spt4/5 was expressed via co-transformation of Spt4 in the vector pET-M11 with Spt5 ubiquitin fusion constructs in the vector pHUE. We characterized the multi-KOW domain Spt4/5 complexes by Western blot, limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography-multiangle light scattering and found that the proteins are folded with a Spt4:Spt5 hetero-dimeric stoichiometry of 1:1. These expression constructs encompass a larger region of Spt5 than has previously been reported, and will provide the opportunity to elucidate the biological function of the multi-KOW containing Spt5.

  2. N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-performance energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hao; Gao, Haixiang; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-12-15

    One route to high density and high performance energetic materials based on 1,2,4,5-tetrazine is the introduction of 2,4-di-N-oxide functionalities. Based on several examples and through theoretical analysis, the strategy of regioselective introduction of these moieties into 1,2,4,5-tetrazines has been developed. Using this methodology, various new tetrazine structures containing the N-oxide functionality were synthesized and fully characterized using IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Hydrogen peroxide (50 %) was used very effectively in lieu of the usual 90 % peroxide in this system to generate N-oxide tetrazine compounds successfully. Comparison of the experimental densities of N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine compounds with their 1,2,4,5-tetrazine precursors shows that introducing the N-oxide functionality is a highly effective and feasible method to enhance the density of these materials. The heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with Gaussian 03 (revision D.01) and these values were combined with measured densities to calculate detonation pressures (P) and velocities (νD ) of these energetic materials (Explo 5.0 v. 6.01). The new oxygen-containing tetrazines exhibit high density, good thermal stability, acceptable oxygen balance, positive heat of formation, and excellent detonation properties, which, in some cases, are superior to those of 1,3,5-tritnitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrotriazacyclohexane (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

  3. [Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl].

    PubMed

    Koga, N; Kanamaru, T; Oishi, N; Kato, Y; Kimura, R; Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y

    2001-05-01

    In vitro Metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB138) was studied using liver microsomes from rats, hamsters and guinea pigs. Guinea pig liver microsomes formed four metabolites named as M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 and these metabolites were all increased to about 4-5 fold of untreated microsomes by pretreatment of phenobarbital. Liver microsomes of rats and hamsters showed much less activity to metabolize CB138 than those of guinea pigs. Only phenobarbital-treated microsomes produced very small amounts of M-3 in rats and M-1, M-2 and M-3 in hamsters, but untreated and MC-treated microsomes did not. When mass spectra of the methylated derivatives of M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 were measured in GC/MS, the former two possess the molecular ion of 354 and the latter two had the molecular ion of 388. In addition, the mass fragmentation pattern indicated that M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 are 2-OH-4,5,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 5-OH-2,4,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3-OH-CB138 and 2-OH-3,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl, respectively. Of four metabolites, the chemical structures of M-3 and M-4 were supported by the synthesized authentic compounds. From these results, it is suggested that the metabolism of CB138 in guinea pig liver proceeds mainly via 2,3-epoxide as an intermediate and a PB-inducible P450, CYP2B18, is the most important isozyme in CB138 metabolism.

  4. Long-life vibration-free 4.5 K sorption cooler for space applications.

    PubMed

    Burger, J F; ter Brake, H J M; Holland, H J; Meijer, R J; Veenstra, T T; Venhorst, G C F; Lozano-Castelló, D; Coesel, M; Sirbi, A

    2007-06-01

    A breadboard 4.5 K helium sorption cooler for use in vibration-sensitive space missions was developed and successfully tested. This type of cooler has no moving parts and is, therefore, essentially vibration-free. The absence of moving parts also simplifies scaling down of the cooler to small sizes, and it contributes to achieving a very long lifetime. In addition, the cooler operates with limited dc's so that hardly any electromagnetic interference is generated. This cooler is a favorite option for future missions such as ESA's Darwin mission, a space interferometer in which the sensitive optics and detectors can hardly accept any vibration. The system design consists of a hydrogen stage cooling from 80 to 14.5 K and a helium stage establishing 5 mW at 4.5 K. Both stages use microporous activated carbon as the adsorption material. The two cooler stages need about 3.5 W of total input power and are heat sunk at two passive radiators at temperatures of about 50 and 80 K-radiators which are constructed at the cold side of the spacecraft. We developed, built, and tested a demonstrator of the helium cooler. This demonstrator has four sorption compressor cells in two compressor stages. Test experiments on this cooler showed that it performs within all specifications imposed by ESA. The cooler delivered 4.5 mW at 4.5 K with a long-term temperature stability of 1 mK and an input power of 1.96 W. So far, the cooler has operated continuously for a period of 2.5 months and has not shown any sign of performance degradation.

  5. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4-5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A. F.; Roussin, R. W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  6. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4--5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  7. Development of a 4.5 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, Ted; Olson, Jeff; Champagne, Patrick; Mix, Jack; Evtimov, Bobby; Roth, Eric; Collaco, Andre

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's (LM) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed a four stage pulse tube cryocooler (stirling-type pulse tube system) to provide cooling at 4.5 K for superconducting digital electronics communications programs. These programs utilize superconducting niobium integrated circuits [1, 2]. A prior ATC 4 stage unit has provided cooling to 3.8 K. [3] The relatively high cooling loads for the present program led us to a new design which improves the 4.5 K power efficiency over prior systems. This design includes a unique pulse tube approach using both He-3 and He-4 working gas in two compression spaces. The compressor utilizes our standard moving magnet linear motor, clearance seal and flexure bearing system. The system is compact, lightweight and reliable and utilizes our aerospace cooler technology to provide unlimited lifetime. The unit is a proof of concept, but the construction is at an engineering model level. Follow on activities for improvements of performance and more compact packaging and future production for ground based communication systems is anticipated. This paper presents the experimental results at various cooling conditions. Primary results are shown for HYPRES cooling requirements and data is also included at lower cooling loads that may be required for future space missions. The system provides a maximum of 42 mW @ 4.5 K and a no load temperature of 3 K. The majority of this work was subcontracted by HYPRES and funded by the Army and Navy. A small part of this effort to obtain data at lower cooling loads (1-10 mW @ 4.5 K) was funded by LM internal funds.

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on the fluorescence properties of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurak, Zbigniew; Wanic, Andrzej; Domański, Marian; Jarząbek, Bożena; Kaczmarczyk, Bożena; Konefał, Adam; Kądziołka-Gaweł, Mariola; Czaja, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The subject of our investigation was the intensity of the fluorescence of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides subjected to gamma radiation (the absorbed doses were 242 Gy, 1 kGy and 2.242 kGy). Dynamic changes of fluorescence intensity have been observed; the greatest relative increase of fluorescence intensity (and simultaneously, the least durable increase) occurs as a result of structural isomerisation.

  9. Phase evolution, structure, and magnetic properties of Nd8.4Fe86Mo1.1B4.5 nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, B. Z.; Sui, Y. C.; Sun, X. K.; Xiong, L. Y.; O'Shea, M. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2002-05-01

    The relationship between the phase evolution, nanostructure, exchange coupling, and magnetic properties of Nd8.4Fe86Mo1.1B4.5 magnets prepared by melt spinning (MS) and mechanical milling (MM) are studied by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, positron lifetime measurements, high resolution transmission electron microscopy observations, and magnetization measurements. The maximum magnetic energy product (BH)max for MM magnets annealed at 650 °C or below are notably higher than those of the corresponding MS samples due to the larger amount of the Nd(Fe,Mo)7 present in the MS samples.

  10. Molecular design of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-energy density materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Zhu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Yu-Fang; Xiao, Heming

    2009-08-20

    The heats of formation (HOFs) for a series of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT), Hartree Fork (HF), and Møller-Plesset (MP2) as well as semiempirical methods. The effects of different basis bets on HOFs were also considered. Our results show that the -CN or -N3 group plays a very important role in increasing the HOF values of the 1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives. An analysis of the bond dissociation energies for the weakest bonds indicates that substitutions of the -N3, -NH2, -CN, -OH, or -Cl group are favorable for enhancing the thermal stability of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine, but the -NHNH2, -NHNO2, -NO2, -NF2, or -COOH group produces opposite effects. The calculated detonation velocities and pressures indicate that the -NF2 or -NO2 group is very helpful for enhancing the detonation performance for the derivatives, but the case is quite the contrary for the -CN, -NH2, or -OH group. Considered the detonation performance and thermal stability, three derivatives may be regarded as potential candidates of high-energy density materials (HEDMs).

  11. Distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, P400, in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, J; Suburo, A M; Bentura, M L; Fernández, T; Nakade, S; Mikoshiba, K; Martínez-Murillo, R; Polak, J M

    1993-11-15

    The distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein, P400, was investigated in adult rat brain by immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody 4C11 raised against mouse cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein. Immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the cerebral cortex, the claustrum, the endopiriform nucleus, the corpus callosum, the anterior olfactory nuclei, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus, the caudate-putamen, the fundus striatum, the amygdaloid complex, the thalamus, the caudolateral part of the hypothalamus, the supramammillary nuclei, the substantia nigra, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the ventrotegmental area, the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the subnucleus oralis and caudalis of trigeminal nerve, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immunoreactive fibres were found in the medial forebrain bundle, the globus pallidus, the stria terminalis, the pyramidal tract, the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, and the ventral horn of spinal cord. Nerve fibres forming a dense plexus ending in terminal-like boutons were detected in relation to nonimmunoreactive neurons of the dentate, interpositus, and fastigial nuclei of the cerebellum and around neurons of the vestibular nuclei. This receptor protein binds a specific second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which produces a mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and a modulation of transmitter release.

  12. Relationship between 4,5-epoxymorphinan structure and in vitro modulation of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2004-06-28

    Morphine belongs to the class of compounds known as 4,5-epoxymorphinans, which can alter immune function directly via receptors expressed by immune cells. However, the opioid characteristics of these receptors are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of 24 structurally related 4,5-epoxymorphinans to allow further characterisation of the receptor that mediates the immunomodulation and to ascertain if there is any structure-effect relationship. The immunomodulation of 4,5-epoxymorphinans using isolated mouse splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A resulted in five types of responses: an inverted bell shaped curve (oxycodone, inhibitory EC(50)=1.6 nM), an inhibitory concentration response curve (buprenorphine, inhibitory EC(50)=12.6 microM), an inverted bell-shaped curve with induction (morphine, induction EC(50)=1.7 microM), an induction concentration response curve (oxymorphone, induction EC(50)=20 nM), and the lack of any response (e.g. noroxycodone). Non-stereoselectivity, naloxone-insensitivity, naloxone-sensitivity and non-classical opioid rank order of effect were all observed. A structure-effect relationship was developed and significant evidence for non-classical opioid receptor function on immune cells was concluded.

  13. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z > 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; Frey, Sándor; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-12-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early Universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here, we report on observations of an additional ten z > 4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network, thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50 per cent. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z > 4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis (unbeamed) radio sources with rest-frame self-absorption peaks at or below GHz frequencies and that these sources can be classified as gigahertz peaked-spectrum and megahertz peaked-spectrum sources.

  14. Photoactivation and calcium sensitivity of the fluorescent NO indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2): implications for cellular NO imaging.

    PubMed

    Broillet, M; Randin, O; Chatton, J

    2001-03-02

    The fluorescent indicator of nitric oxide (NO), 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2), and its membrane-permeable derivative (DAF-2 diacetate) have been recently developed to perform real-time biological imaging of NO. In this study, we show that DAF-2 is strongly influenced by factors other than the concentration of NO itself. Using measurements with a fluorimeter as well as fluorescence microscopy, we found that the divalent cation concentration in the medium, as well as the incident light, strongly affects the ability of DAF-2 to detect NO. Calcium, in particular, enhanced the signal detection of NO released by NO donors by up to 200 times. With multiple and longer exposures to light, no bleaching of the dye was observed but, instead, a potentiation of the fluorescence response could be measured. While these two properties will affect the use and interpretation of the hitherto acquired data with this fluorescent compound, they may also open up new possibilities for its application.

  15. Identification of in vivo and in vitro metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaolei; Wang, Junjun; Chen, Liang; Peng, Zhihong; Chen, Yong

    2016-05-01

    4,5-Dimthexycanthin-6-one and 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one are the main active ingredients of Picrasma quassioides, which is a widely used herbal medicine for the treatment of gastroenteritis, snakebite, infection and hypertension in China. In the present study, the in vitro metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one in rat, mouse, dog and human liver microsomes, as well as the in vivo metabolites in rat plasma and urine following a single oral dose of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with triple TOF mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS/MS). The metabolites were elucidated based on an accurate mass measurement, the MS/MS fragmentation patterns, the retention times of the parent drug and its metabolites, and the relevant drug biotransformation rules. After incubation in liver mcrosomes for 50 min, 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one produced 8 phase I metabolites including 2 mono-demethylated metabolites (M1, M2), 3 mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3-M5), and 3 mono-demethylated and mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M6-M8) in rat and mouse liver microsomes, 7 phase I metabolites (without M7) in dog and human liver microsomes. After a single oral administration of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one to rats, there were 3 phase I metabolites (M1, M2 and M5) detected in rat plasma and 5 phase I metabolites (M1-M5) in rat urine. Phase II metabolites were not detected in rat plasma and urine. Among these metabolites, mono-demethylated metabolites (M1 and M2) were the major metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3-M5) were the minor metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one.

  16. Research and Development Toward a 4.5-1.5 {Angstrom} Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at SLAC to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 A) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation in a minimal time include: (1) a peak current in the 7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of {lt}0.05%, and (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}[r-m], approximating the diffraction limit condition {epsilon} = {lambda} / 4{pi}, where lambda(m) is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.02% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 8 m/rad for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress has been made in developing individual components and beam processing techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to approx. 20 A, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 A LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas.

  17. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies: colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in these galaxies. We find a tight relation between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and effective velocity dispersion, a good mass indicator in early-type galaxies: ([3.6]-[4.5])e = (-0.109 ? 0.007)?+ (0.154 ? 0.016). Contrary to other colours in the optical and near-infrared, we find that the colours become bluer for larger galaxies. The relations are tighter when using the colour inside re (scatter 0.013 mag), rather than the much smaller re/8 aperture (scatter 0.023 mag), due to the presence of young populations in the central regions. We also obtain strong correlations between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and three strong absorption lines (H?, Mgb and Fe 5015). Comparing our data with the models of Marigo et al., which show that more metal rich galaxies are bluer, we can explain our results in a way consistent with results from the optical, by stating that larger galaxies are more metal rich. The blueing is caused by a strong CO absorption band, whose line strength increases strongly with decreasing temperature and which covers a considerable fraction of the 4.5-?m filter. In galaxies that contain a compact radio source, the [3.6]-[4.5] colour is generally slightly redder (by 0.015 ? 0.007 mag using the re/8 aperture) than in the other galaxies, indicating small amounts of either hot dust, non-thermal emission, or young stars near the centre. We find that the large majority of the galaxies show redder colours with increasing radius. Removing the regions with evidence for young stellar populations (from the H? absorption line) and interpreting the colour gradients as metallicity gradients, we find that our galaxies are more metal poor going outwards. The radial [3.6]-[4.5] gradients

  18. One step conversion of toxic beta-asarone from Acorus calamus into 1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydroxypropane and asaronaldehyde occurring in Piper clusii.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A K; Joshi, B P; Dogra, R

    2001-01-01

    1-(2,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydroxypropane (2), a natural phenylpropanoid occurring in Piper clusii, has been synthesized for the first time from toxic beta-asarone (1) of Acorus calamus with osmium tetroxide, while 1 with osmium tetroxide (catalytic amount) in presence of sodium metaperiodate furnished the asaronaldehyde (3) in high yield.

  19. Taking larger timesteps with speed-limited particle-in-cell simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Gregory; Cary, John

    2015-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is often impractical because it includes too much unnecessary physics. For example, to avoid instability in many simulations the timestep must be small enough to resolve the plasma frequency, even if plasma oscillations do not play a significant role. Other methods (e.g., MHD/fluid and hybrid approaches) allow faster simulation, but often don't include enough physics. A new method, speed-limited PIC (SLPIC) simulation, offers kinetic simulation with an arbitrary-strength approximation tied to the timestep. With a small (standard PIC) timestep, SLPIC is identical to PIC, while a larger timestep (e.g., large compared to the inverse plasma frequency) results in the relaxation of fast particles over slower timescales. SLPIC is therefore useful in situations where the particle distribution functions change slowly compared to the timestep required by PIC. For example, SLPIC can simulate collisionless sheaths with a timestep hundreds of times larger than the inverse plasma frequency. SLPIC involves relatively isolated changes of a standard PIC code and poses no extra difficulties for parallelism; complexities of PIC, such as field solvers, collisions, and boundary conditions, carry over naturally to SLPIC with little change. This work is supported by NASA.

  20. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  1. Phenotypic determinants of individual fitness in female fur seals: larger is better

    PubMed Central

    Beauplet, Gwénaël; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Inter-individual differences in fitness in female vertebrates have often been related to phenotypic discrepancies, suggesting that bigger individuals exhibit greater fitness. However, the use of the temporally variable indices of quality, such as body mass/condition, may not represent the most reliable index over longer time intervals. Few studies have assessed the direct influence of body size (BS) on individual fitness. We addressed this knowledge gap using data from long-term monitoring of individually marked female subantarctic fur seals. The females of higher quality (i.e. higher lifetime reproductive success) were larger in BS than their counterparts, which correlated with their ability to provision their pup with greater and more regular energy supply, possibly through the maximization of foraging performance and body fat storage. We accordingly found that our study population could be divided into three contrasted categories of maternal quality, with 33% of the females producing over 71% of the viable offspring constituting the next generation. We suggest that a larger BS represents a crucial selective advantage for a central place forager, especially when exploiting remotely available resources. PMID:17519194

  2. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction... the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for consumer debt collection....

  3. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  4. Spectroscopic Properties of the z ~ 4.5 Lyα Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Wang, JunXian; Landes, Emily

    2004-12-01

    We present Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer optical spectra of 17 Lyα-emitting galaxies and one Lyman break galaxy at z~4.5 discovered in the Large Area Lyman Alpha survey. The survey has identified a sample of ~350 candidate Lyα-emitting galaxies at z~4.5 in a search volume of 1.5×106 comoving Mpc3. We targeted 25 candidates for spectroscopy; hence, the 18 confirmations presented herein suggest a selection reliability of 72%. The large equivalent widths (median Wrestλ~80 Å) but narrow physical widths (Δv<500 km s-1) of the Lyα emission lines, along with the lack of accompanying high-ionization state emission lines, suggest that these galaxies are young systems powered by star formation rather than by active galactic nucleus activity. Theoretical models of galaxy formation in the primordial universe suggest that a small fraction of Lyα-emitting galaxies at z~4.5 may still be nascent, metal-free objects. Indeed, we find with 90% confidence that three to five of the confirmed sources show Wrestλ>240 Å, exceeding the maximum Lyα equivalent width predicted for normal stellar populations. Nonetheless, we find no evidence for He II λ1640 emission in either individual or composite spectra, indicating that although these galaxies are young, they are not truly primitive, Population III objects. Based in part on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  5. Radio spectra of bright compact sources at z>4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; van Velzen, Sjoert; Intema, Huib T.; Müller, Cornelia; Frey, Sándor; Coppejans, Deanne L.; Cseh, Dávid; Williams, Wendy L.; Falcke, Heino; Körding, Elmar G.; Orrú, Emanuela; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift quasars are important to study galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution, test cosmological models, and study supermassive black hole growth. Optical searches for high-redshift sources have been very successful, but radio searches are not hampered by dust obscuration and should be more effective at finding sources at even higher redshifts. Identifying high-redshift sources based on radio data is, however, not trivial. Here we report on new multi-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations of eight z > 4.5 sources previously studied at high angular resolution with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Combining these observations with those from the literature, we construct broad-band radio spectra of all 30 z > 4.5 sources that have been observed with VLBI. In the sample we found flat, steep and peaked spectra in approximately equal proportions. Despite several selection effects, we conclude that the z > 4.5 VLBI (and likely also non-VLBI) sources have diverse spectra and that only about a quarter of the sources in the sample have flat spectra. Previously, the majority of high-redshift radio sources were identified based on their ultra-steep spectra (USS). Recently a new method has been proposed to identify these objects based on their megahertz-peaked spectra (MPS). Neither method would have identified more than 18 per cent of the high-redshift sources in this sample. More effective methods are necessary to reliably identify complete samples of high-redshift sources based on radio data.

  6. Sr[sub 2]UO[sub 4. 5]: A new perovskite-type strontium uranate

    SciTech Connect

    Cordfunke, E.H.P. ); IJdo, D.J.W. )

    1994-04-01

    A new strontium uranate with the formal composition Sr[sub 2]UO[sub 4.5] has been found. Its perovskite-type crystal structure has been studied with neutron diffraction from which it is found that there is a statistical distribution of Sr and U (2:1) on one octahedral position and one U on the other, leading to the formula Sr[sub 2](Sr[sub 2/3]U[sub 1/3])UO[sub 6]. Its thermal stability has been determined, and its relation with other perovskite-type structures is discussed.

  7. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2016-07-12

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  8. Accurate labeling of the light-actinide O4,5 ionization edges

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v

    2006-08-23

    In this short article the accurate labeling of the O4,5 edges of the light actinides is addressed. The O4 and O5 edges are both contained in what is termed the ''giant resonance'' and the smaller ''pre-peak'' that is observed is a consequence of first-order perturbation by the 5d spin-orbit interaction. Thus, the small prepeak in the actinide 5d {yields} 5f transition should not be labeled the O5 peak, but rather the {Delta}S=1 peak.

  9. Photophysics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro styrene) film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Donald B.; Scott, Gary W.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The temperature-dependent steady-state emission, emission polarization anisotropy, and fluorescence-kinetics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro styrene) film are reported. Two interconverting excited-state conformations of the chromophore have been identified. The fluorescence of the higher energy conformation results from excitation on the red edge of the polymer absorption band at temperatures below 180 K. The energy barrier for conversion of the high energy conformer to the lower energy conformer is estimated to be E/hc = 27 + or - 7/cm. Electronic energy migration is not evident in this polymer.

  10. Design, fabrication and characterization of an AWG at 4.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Barritault, Pierre; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Boulila, Fahem; Carras, Mathieu; Nicoletti, Sergio

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, we present the design, the fabrication and the characterization of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) based on a SiGe graded index waveguide platform, operating at 4.5 µm. These devices were specifically designed to work together with an array of Distributed Feedback Bragg Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB-QCL) emitting at different wavelengths. The AWG enables to combine the different light sources into a single output and the design adopted allows to maximize transmission over the entire spectral range defined by the array of DFB-QCLs.

  11. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2009-01-16

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  12. An opiate binding site in the rat brain is highly selective for 4,5-epoxymorphinans.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Sadée, W

    1983-09-16

    In vitro binding studies have demonstrated the existence of multiple opiate receptor types. An additional site in the rat brain (termed the lambda site) is distinct from the established types by its selectivity for 4,5-epoxymorphinans (such as naloxone and morphine). While the lambda site displays a high affinity for naloxone in vivo and in vitro in fresh brain membrane homogenates, these sites rapidly convert in vitro to a state of low affinity. The regional distribution of the lambda site in the brain is strikingly different from that of the classic opiate receptor types.

  13. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2009-05-12

    Group living offers well-known benefits to animals, such as better predator avoidance and increased foraging success. An important additional, but so far neglected, advantage is that groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations through faster innovations of new solutions by some group members. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting a new foraging task of opening a familiar feeder in an unfamiliar way to house sparrows in small and large groups (2 versus 6 birds). Group size had strong effects on problem solving: sparrows performed 4 times more and 11 times faster openings in large than in small groups, and all members of large groups profited by getting food sooner (7 times on average). Independently from group size, urban groups were more successful than rural groups. The disproportionately higher success in large groups was not a mere consequence of higher number of attempts, but was also related to a higher effectiveness of problem solving (3 times higher proportion of successful birds). The analyses of the birds' behavior suggest that the latter was not explained by either reduced investment in antipredator vigilance or reduced neophobia in large groups. Instead, larger groups may contain more diverse individuals with different skills and experiences, which may increase the chance of solving the task by some group members. Increased success in problem solving may promote group living in animals and may help them to adapt quickly to new situations in rapidly-changing environments.

  14. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Group living offers well-known benefits to animals, such as better predator avoidance and increased foraging success. An important additional, but so far neglected, advantage is that groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations through faster innovations of new solutions by some group members. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting a new foraging task of opening a familiar feeder in an unfamiliar way to house sparrows in small and large groups (2 versus 6 birds). Group size had strong effects on problem solving: sparrows performed 4 times more and 11 times faster openings in large than in small groups, and all members of large groups profited by getting food sooner (7 times on average). Independently from group size, urban groups were more successful than rural groups. The disproportionately higher success in large groups was not a mere consequence of higher number of attempts, but was also related to a higher effectiveness of problem solving (3 times higher proportion of successful birds). The analyses of the birds' behavior suggest that the latter was not explained by either reduced investment in antipredator vigilance or reduced neophobia in large groups. Instead, larger groups may contain more diverse individuals with different skills and experiences, which may increase the chance of solving the task by some group members. Increased success in problem solving may promote group living in animals and may help them to adapt quickly to new situations in rapidly-changing environments. PMID:19416834

  15. VVDS-SWIRE. Clustering evolution from a spectroscopic sample of galaxies with redshift 0.2 < z < 2.1 selected from Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Arnouts, S.; Guzzo, L.; Farrah, D.; Iovino, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Meneux, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Pollo, A.; Waddington, I.; Bottini, D.; Fang, F.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Lamareille, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cucciati, O.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Temporin, S.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:By combining data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) with the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic survey (SWIRE), we have built the currently largest spectroscopic sample of high redshift galaxies selected in the rest-frame near-infrared. We have obtained 2040 spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies with (m3.6)_AB < 21.5 at 3.6 μ m, and 1255 spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies with (m4.5)_AB < 21. These allow us to investigate the clustering evolution of galaxies selected via their rest-frame near-infrared luminosity in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 2.1. Methods: We use the projected two-point correlation function w_p(r_p) to study the three dimensional clustering properties of galaxies detected at 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) in the SWIRE survey with measured spectroscopic redshifts from the first epoch VVDS. We compare these properties to those of a larger sample of 16672 SWIRE galaxies for which we have accurate photometric redshifts in the same field. Results: We find that in the 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m flux limited samples, the apparent correlation length does not change from redshift ~2 to the present. The measured correlation lengths have a mean value of r0 ≃ 3.9±0.5 h-1 Mpc for the galaxies selected at 3.6 μ m and a mean value of r0 ≃ 4.4±0.5 h-1 Mpc for the galaxies selected at 4.5 μ m, across the whole redshift range explored. These values are larger than those typicaly found for I-band selected galaxies at I_AB < 24, for which r0 varies from 2.69 h-1 Mpc to 3.63 h-1 Mpc between z = 0.5 to z = 2.1. We find that the difference in correlation length between I-band and 3.6-4.5 μm selected samples decreases with increasing redshift, becoming comparable at z ≃ 1.5. We interpret this as evidence that galaxies with older stellar populations and galaxies actively forming stars reside in comparably over-dense environments at epochs earlier than z ≃ 1.5, supporting the recently reported flattening of the color

  16. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  17. Size evolution of star-forming galaxies with 2 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Tresse, L.; Dunlop, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The size of a galaxy encapsulates the signature of the different physical processes driving its evolution. The distribution of galaxy sizes in the Universe as a function of cosmic time is therefore a key to understand galaxy evolution. Aims: We aim to measure the average sizes and size distributions of galaxies as they are assembling before the peak in the comoving star formation rate density of the Universe to better understand the evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Methods: We used a sample of ~1200 galaxies in the COSMOS and ECDFS fields with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ zspec ≤ 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), representative of star-forming galaxies with iAB ≤ 25. We first derived galaxy sizes by applying a classical parametric profile-fitting method using GALFIT. We then measured the total pixel area covered by a galaxy above a given surface brightness threshold, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring sizes of galaxies with irregular shapes. We then compared the results obtained for the equivalent circularized radius enclosing 100% of the measured galaxy light r100T ~2.2 to those obtained with the effective radius re,circ measured with GALFIT. Results: We find that the sizes of galaxies computed with our non-parametric approach span a wide range but remain roughly constant on average with a median value r100T ~2.2 kpc for galaxies with 2 4.5. This is in stark contrast with the strong downward evolution of re with increasing redshift, down to sizes of <1 kpc at z ~ 4.5. We analyze the difference and find that parametric fitting of complex, asymmetric, multicomponent galaxies is severely underestimating their sizes. By comparing r100T with physical parameters obtained through fitting the spectral energy distribution we find that the star-forming galaxies that are the largest at any redshift are, on average, more massive and form more stars. We discover that galaxies present more concentrated light profiles with

  18. Satellite observations of the spatial extent and structure of Pc 3, 4, 5 pulsations near the magnetospheric equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, H. J.; Russell, C. T.; Kivelson, M. G.; Fritz, T. A.; Lennartsson, W.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of Pc 3, 4, 5 pulsations by five satellites in the pre-noon local time sector at and near synchronous orbit are examined. The periods of these simultaneous pulsations are not the same at the different observation points. This difference is attributed to site dependent resonant conditions. The spatial properties of the temporal phenomenon are demonstrated with observations by ISEE-1 and -2 as they pass through oscillations in a spatially limited region. Fundamental and second harmonic standing Alfven waves are observed simultaneously on the same field line. The periods are consistent with model predictions when the measured plasma composition, which by mass consists mainly of singly ionized oxygen, is taken into account.

  19. Enantiopure 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles from carbohydrates: applications of organoselenium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Atanu; Samanta, Supravat; Pathak, Tanmaya

    2014-08-01

    A wide range of stable vinyl selenone-modified furanosides has been synthesized for the first time. These 2π-partners undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with a wide range of organic azides to afford enantiopure trisubstituted triazoles. Furanosyl rings opened up during triazole synthesis to generate polyfunctionalized molecules, ready to undergo further transformations. This strategy is one of the most convenient methods for the synthesis of enantiopure 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles where the chiral components are attached to C-4 or C-5 position of triazole ring. These triazoles are formed in a regioselective manner, and several pairs of regioisomeric triazoles have also been synthesized. The approach affords densely functionalized triazoles, which are amenable to further modifications because of the presence of aldehyde and hydroxyl groups. This powerful and practical route adds to the arsenals of chemists and biologists interested in the synthesis and applications of triazoles.

  20. 3,3',4',5,7-Pentamethylquercetin reduces angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhangfan; Liang, Yuanxin; Du, Xinling; Sun, Zongquan

    2009-09-01

    Quercetin has been shown to possess beneficial pharmacological properties in treatment of heart disease, but lack of stability and bioavailability limits its clinical use. In this study, we investigated for the first time the effect of a methylated form of quercetin, 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethylquercetin (PMQ), on myocardial protection in rats. Angiotensin II was delivered to Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously, while PMQ (5 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage; blood pressure was monitored daily. The production of NADPH oxidase was measured, and cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis were detected. The results revealed that PMQ could downregulate the expression of the NADPH oxidase gene and reduce angiotensin II- induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in rats. Therefore, we believe that PMQ showed beneficial effects on myocardium in angiotensin II-administered rats, and its potential to be used for treatment of cardiovascular disease deserves further attention.

  1. Expression and Distribution Pattern of Aquaporin 4, 5 and 11 in Retinas of 15 Different Species

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Barbara; Kleinwort, Kristina J. H.; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Sekundo, Walter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins with 13 members in mammals and are essential for water transport across membranes. They are found in many different tissues and cells. Currently, there are conflicting results regarding retinal aquaporin expression and subcellular localization between genome and protein analyses and among various species. AQP4, 7, 9 and 11 were described in the retina of men; whereas AQP6, 8 and 10 were earlier identified in rat retinas and AQP4, 5 and 11 in horses. Since there is a lack of knowledge regarding AQP expression on protein level in retinas of different animal models, we decided to analyze retinal cellular expression of AQP4, 5 and 11 in situ with immunohistochemistry. AQP4 was detected in all 15 explored species, AQP5 and AQP11 in 14 out of 15. Interestingly, AQP4 was unambiguously expressed in Muller glial cells, whereas AQP5 was differentially allocated among the species analyzed. AQP11 expression was Muller glial cell-specific in 50% of the animals, whereas in the others, AQP11 was detected in ganglion cell layer and at photoreceptor outer segments. Our data indicate a disparity in aquaporin distribution in retinas of various animals, especially for AQP5 and 11. PMID:27438827

  2. Genotoxicity of chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene and its sulfone derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Sinsheimer, J.E.; Hooberman, B.H.; Das, S.K.; Savla, P.M.; Ashe, A.J. III )

    1992-01-01

    The authors' recent syntheses of cryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene together with its potential sulfone metabolite, chryseno[4,5-bcd]thiophene-4,4-dioxide, have made these compounds available for genotoxicity testing. Such toxicity testing is of interest as this thiophene is an isoster of the established carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is one of the thiaarenes which are potential environmental contaminants found in fossil fuels. Although the thiophene was less mutagenic than benzo[a]pyrene in Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 after S9 activation, it exhibited in vivo chromosomal aberration activity equal to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the bone-marrow cells of mice. A reduced activity with Salmonella as well as in the bone-marrow cell assay for the sulfone does not support its role as the key active metabolic intermediate for the genotoxicity of the thiophene. Molecular orbital calculations would be consistent with the concept of activation through a diol-epoxide mechanism and offers an explanation for the reduced genotoxicity of the sulfone via this mechanism. These genotoxicity studies support the concern that sulfur isosters of established carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could themselves be toxic. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Cytotoxic 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones as mitotic arresters and cell migration inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Salum, Lívia B.; Altei, Wanessa F.; Chiaradia, Louise D.; Cordeiro, Marlon N.S.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Melo, Carolina P.S.; Winter, Evelyn; Mattei, Bruno; Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Yunes, José A.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.; Day, Billy W.; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays. PMID:23524161

  4. Effect of azadirachtin of neemix-4.5 on SWR/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Tarboush, F.M.; El-Ashmaoui, H.M.; Hussein, H.I.; Al-Rajhy, D.; Al-Assiry, M.

    2009-01-01

    Inbred normal SWR/J male and female mice, 8–10 weeks old and weighing 22.55–26.72 g, were used throughout the study. A total of 100 males and 100 females were used and were divided into 20 groups, 10 animals in each group. Azadirachtin of neemix-4.5, a commercial botanical pesticide derived from the neem tree, orally administered to male and female SWR/J mice at a dose level 9.0 mg/kg (1/10 LD50) for different treatment periods (2, 4, 6, 8 or 11.5 weeks) has produced signs of toxicity, mortality and changes in body and tissue weights of both sexes at almost all treated periods used in the present study. Moreover the oral administration of this dose level for 11.5 weeks has also resulted in some histopathological changes in the livers, kidneys and testes of treated animals compared with the control group, and the degree of these changes ranged from mild to severe in these organs of treated males. However, conflicting results have been reported concerning the toxicity of azadirachtin in mammalian species using different formulations of neem-based pesticides. It appears, therefore, that the toxicity produced by neemix-4.5 in the present study may be due to factors other than azadirachtin in this formulation. PMID:23961045

  5. Investigation of water assisted phase transformation process from AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Zhi; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-01

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  6. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  7. Precision of channel catfish catch estimates using hoop nets in larger Oklahoma reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoop nets are rapidly becoming the preferred gear type used to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and many managers have reported that hoop nets effectively sample channel catfish in small impoundments (<200 ha). However, the utility and precision of this approach in larger impoundments have not been tested. We sought to determine how the number of tandem hoop net series affected the catch of channel catfish and the time involved in using 16 tandem hoop net series in larger impoundments (>200 ha). Hoop net series were fished once, set for 3 d; then we used Monte Carlo bootstrapping techniques that allowed us to estimate the number of net series required to achieve two levels of precision (relative standard errors [RSEs] of 15 and 25) at two levels of confidence (80% and 95%). Sixteen hoop net series were effective at obtaining an RSE of 25 with 80% and 95% confidence in all but one reservoir. Achieving an RSE of 15 was often less effective and required 18-96 hoop net series given the desired level of confidence. We estimated that an hour was needed, on average, to deploy and retrieve three hoop net series, which meant that 16 hoop net series per reservoir could be "set" and "retrieved" within a day, respectively. The estimated number of net series to achieve an RSE of 25 or 15 was positively associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample but not with reservoir surface area or relative abundance. Our results suggest that hoop nets are capable of providing reasonably precise estimates of channel catfish relative abundance and that the relationship with the CV of the sample reported herein can be used to determine the sampling effort for a desired level of precision.

  8. Crystal structure of phenyl 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean; Staples, Richard J.; Biros, Shannon M.; Ngassa, Felix N.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C12H7Cl3O3S, was synthesized via a nucleophilic substitution reaction between phenol and 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonyl chloride. The two aryl rings are oriented gauche to one another around the sulfonate S—O bond, with a C—S—O—C torsion angle of −70.68 (16)°, and the two rings are inclined to one another by 72.40 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via various C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming ribbons propagating along [100]. Neighboring ribbons are linked by a weak C—Cl⋯π inter­action, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:27308043

  9. Local 4/5-law and energy dissipation anomaly in turbulence of incompressible MHD Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanshan; Tan, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we establish the longitudinal and transverse local energy balance equation of distributional solutions of the incompressible three-dimensional MHD equations. In particular, we find that the functions D_L^ɛ (u,B) and D_T^ɛ (u,B) appeared in the energy balance, all converging to the defect distribution (in the sense of distributions) D(u,B) which has been defined in Gao et al. (Acta Math Sci 33:865-871, 2013). Furthermore, we give a simpler form of defect distribution term, which is similar to the relation in turbulence theory, called the "4 / 3-law." As a corollary, we give the analogous "4 / 5-law" holds in the local sense.

  10. Fifth dimension of life and the 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Brain cells are not spherical. The basal metabolic rate (B) of a spherical cell scales as B approximately r2, where r is the radius of the cell; that of a brain cell scales as B approximately r(d), where r is the characteristic radius of the cell and d is the fractal dimensionality of its contour. The fractal geometry of the cell leads to a 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain, uniquely endowing humans with a 5th dimension and successfully explains why the scaling exponent varies during rest and exercise. A striking analogy between Kleiber's 3/4 law and Newton's second law is heuristically illustrated. A physical explanation is given for the 4th dimension of life for three-dimensional organisms and the 5th dimension for human brain.

  11. Dependence of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen photoaddition on the conformation of ribonucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Bachellerie, J.P.; Hall, K.; Hearst, J.E.

    1982-03-16

    The photoaddition of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) to different conformational states of RNA was studied. Poly(U), poly(A,U) (random copolymer), poly(A-U) (alternating copolymer), poly(A)-poly(U) (double stranded), and poly(U)-poly(A)-poly(U) (triple stranded) were reacted with HMT at different temperatures and salt concentrations. The conformation of the polymers was monitored by UV absorption and circular dichroism. It was found that the rate of HMT photoaddition changed dramatically at structural transitions in the RNA. The alternating copolymer poly(A-U) was found to have the highest rate of addition. Low salt and temperature produced maximal incorporation.

  12. DANGER, a novel regulatory protein of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor activity.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L; Cheung, King-Ho; Barrow, Roxanne K; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Gessell, Gregory S; Burkholder, Scott G; Watkins, D Neil; Foskett, J Kevin; Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-12-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of DANGER, a novel protein which physiologically binds to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R). DANGER is a membrane-associated protein predicted to contain a partial MAB-21 domain. It is expressed in a wide variety of neuronal cell lineages where it localizes to membranes in the cell periphery together with IP(3)R. DANGER interacts with IP(3)R in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with IP(3)R from cellular preparations. DANGER robustly enhances Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition of IP(3) RCa(2+) release without affecting IP(3) binding in microsomal assays and inhibits gating in single-channel recordings of IP(3)R. DANGER appears to allosterically modulate the sensitivity of IP(3) RtoCa(2+) inhibition, which likely alters IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) dynamics in cells where DANGER and IP(3)R are co-expressed.

  13. Covariantly constant curvature tensors and D=3, N=4, 5, 8 Chern-Simons matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fa-Min

    2012-03-01

    We construct some examples of D=3, N=4 GW theory and N=5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory by using the covariantly constant curvature of a quaternionic-Kahler manifold to construct the symplectic 3-algebra in the theories. Comparing with the previous theories, the N=4, 5 theories constructed in this way possess a local Sp(2n) symmetry and a diffeomorphism symmetry associated with the quaternionic-Kahler manifold. We also construct a generalized N=8 BLG theory by utilizing the dual curvature operator of a maximally symmetric space of dimension 4 to construct the Nambu 3-algebra. Comparing with the previous N=8 BLG theory, the theory has a diffeomorphism invariance and a local SO(4) invariance associated with the symmetric space.

  14. Effect of clinical death on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1993-01-01

    Changes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content in the rat brain have been evaluated by means of the radioimmunologic method during 5-min clinical death and up to 2 hrs after resuscitation. Ischemia produced a decrease of IP3 content in the brain on the average to 63% of the control values. IP3 concentration in the brain increased on the average to 197% of the control values at the 15th min after resuscitation, and decreased to 127% at the 60 min. Two hours after resuscitation the IP3 content in the brain again increased on the average to 187%. The new data on brain metabolism in the ischemic conditions and the role of IP3 as the second messenger and mediator of neuromodulation processes are discussed.

  15. Ethanol stimulates phospholipid turnover and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, A; Kuin, H; Jongen, M; de Wildt, P; Schuring, F; Klerk, H; van den Ende, H

    1992-02-01

    Alcohols induce mating-structure activation in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. From the effect of ethanol on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides, we conclude that the synthesis of these lipids is stimulated. Biologically inactive concentrations of ethanol (<6%) had no effect on synthesis, but 6-8% ethanol stimulated synthesis for upto 60 min. The (32)P incorporated into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid during ethanol treatment was readily chased out when 1 mM unlabelled Na3PO4 was added. Using a binding assay for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, we show that the production of this phospholipid constituent is dramatically increased after ethanol treatment. This effect, coupled to a rise in intracellular calcium concentration, could explain gamete activation. The significance of these results in explaining other ethanol-induced phenomena in algae is discussed.

  16. Theoretical and vibrational studies of 4,5-diphenyl-2-2 oxazole propionic acid (oxaprozin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdinc, Seda G.; Esme, Aslı

    2010-04-01

    The molecular structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties, and electronic properties of 4,5-diphenyl-2-2 oxazole propionic acid (oxaprozin) as a monomer were investigated by using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations that used 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability of oxaprozin (OXA) was found to be 1.117 × 10 -30 esu. The structure of oxaprozin dimer with HF/6-31G(d) level caused by the shifts of O-H and C dbnd O bands in the vibrational spectra of oxaprozin were also studied. Moreover, these calculated frequencies of oxaprozin dimer were compared with the solid FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The theoretical frequencies and infrared intensities were showed a good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives: synthesis and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Xue, Jia-Yu; Song, Bao-An; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Microwave irradiation promotes the rapid O,N-acylation-cyclodehydration cascade reaction of oximes and acid chloride. Twenty novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives containing heterocycle moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. The twenty compounds are all first reported and their structures were established by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The bioassay tests showed that compounds 2-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)benzo[d]thiazole (6af), 2-(2-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)pyrimidine (6bg) and 2-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)oxazol-5-ylthio)-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6cf) displayed good antiproliferative activity in vitro, which were comparable to the positive control (5-fluorouracil).

  18. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  19. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  20. Inhibition of rat intestinal Cl- secretion by 4,5-dimethylresorcinol.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio; Shibata, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    Wood creosote, a mixture of phenolic compounds, inhibits enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion, suggesting that one of its constituents suppresses transepithelial Cl- secretion from the intestinal mucosa. To identify an active constituent in wood creosote that inhibits intestinal Cl- secretion through Cl- channels, we first examined its effect on Cl- secretion using a cultured cell line transfected with complementary DNA encoding a Cl- channel and a Cl- -sensitive fluorescent dye. We next assayed chromatographic fractions of wood creosote for the inhibitory activity on Cl- secretion using a Ussing chamber. We found that 4,5-dimethylresorcinol, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inhibited intestinal Cl- secretion dose-dependently when added to a serosal, but not mucosal, surface of rat jejunum, a half-inhibitory concentration being 3.8 microg/ml (28 micromol/l). It was strongly suggested that this effect was due to inhibition of Cl- channels.

  1. A 4.5-megabase YAC contig and physical map over the hemochromatosis gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, M.J.; Smit, D.J.; Pyper, W.R.; Powell, L.W.; Jazwinska, E.C.

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig over the candidate hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises 16 YACs from the CEPH, Washington University, and ICI YAC libraries and covers 4.5 Mb at 6p21.3-6p22. The complete contig has been restriction mapped, enabling the precise relationship between the YACs to be determined and the mapping of a total of 12 STSs. Nine of these are highly polymorphic STSs that are closely linked to hemochromatosis; this series includes D6S265 and D6S1260, which comprise the most proximal and distal markers linked to HC. This is the first YAC contig that spans the hemochromatosis candidate region, and it provides valuable resource material for the cloning of this and other genes in the region distal to the MHC class I complex. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R

    1993-01-01

    Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201

  3. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  4. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  5. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  6. Cooperative binding of annexin A2 to cholesterol- and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-containing bilayers.

    PubMed

    Drücker, Patrick; Pejic, Milena; Grill, David; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Gerke, Volker

    2014-11-04

    Biological membranes are organized into dynamic microdomains that serve as sites for signal transduction and membrane trafficking. The formation and expansion of these microdomains are driven by intrinsic properties of membrane lipids and integral as well as membrane-associated proteins. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a peripherally associated membrane protein that can support microdomain formation in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and has been implicated in membrane transport processes. Here, we performed a quantitative analysis of the binding of AnxA2 to solid supported membranes containing the annexin binding lipids phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylserine in different compositions. We show that the binding is of high specificity and affinity with dissociation constants ranging between 22.1 and 32.2 nM. We also analyzed binding parameters of a heterotetrameric complex of AnxA2 with its S100A10 protein ligand and show that this complex has a higher affinity for the same membranes with Kd values of 12 to 16.4 nM. Interestingly, binding of the monomeric AnxA2 and the AnxA2-S100A10 complex are characterized by positive cooperativity. This cooperative binding is mediated by the conserved C-terminal annexin core domain of the protein and requires the presence of cholesterol. Together our results reveal for the first time, to our knowledge, that AnxA2 and its derivatives bind cooperatively to membranes containing cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, thus providing a mechanistic model for the lipid clustering activity of AnxA2.

  7. Homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system at ER-PM junctions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Lun; Liou, Jen

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-Ca(2+) signaling system is important for cell activation in response to various extracellular stimuli. This signaling system is initiated by receptor-induced hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane (PM) to generate the soluble second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 subsequently triggers the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store to the cytosol to activate Ca(2+)-mediated responses, such as secretion and proliferation. The consumed PM PI(4,5)P2 and ER Ca(2+) must be quickly restored to sustain signaling responses, and to maintain the homeostasis of PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+). Since phosphatidylinositol (PI), the precursor lipid for PM PI(4,5)P2, is synthesized in the ER membrane, and a Ca(2+) influx across the PM is required to refill the ER Ca(2+) store, efficient communications between the ER and the PM are critical for the homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. This review describes the major findings that established the framework of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system, and recent discoveries on feedback control mechanisms at ER-PM junctions that sustain the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. Particular emphasis is placed on the characterization of ER-PM junctions where efficient communications between the ER and the PM occur, and the activation mechanisms of proteins that dynamically localize to ER-PM junctions to provide the feedback control during PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling, including the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1, the extended synaptotagmin E-Syt1, and the PI transfer protein Nir2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  8. Influence of Solar and Thermal Radiation on Future Heat Stress Using CMIP5 Archive Driving the Community Land Model Version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer of 2015 has experienced major heat waves on 4 continents, and heat stress left ~4000 people dead in India and Pakistan. Heat stress is caused by a combination of meteorological factors: temperature, humidity, and radiation. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)—an empirical metric this is calibrated with temperature, humidity, and radiation—for determining labor capacity during heat stress. Unfortunately, most literature studying global heat stress focuses on extreme temperature events, and a limited number of studies use the combination of temperature and humidity. Recent global assessments use WBGT, yet omit the radiation component without recalibrating the metric.Here we explicitly calculate future WBGT within a land surface model, including radiative fluxes as produced by a modeled globe thermometer. We use the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), which is a component model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), and is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). To drive our CLM4.5 simulations, we use greenhouse gasses Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (business as usual), and atmospheric output from the CMIP5 Archive. Humans work in a variety of environments, and we place the modeled globe thermometer in a variety of environments. We modify CLM4.5 code to calculate solar and thermal radiation fluxes below and above canopy vegetation, and in bare ground. To calculate wet bulb temperature, we implemented the HumanIndexMod into CLM4.5. The temperature, wet bulb temperature, and radiation fields are calculated at every model time step and are outputted 4x Daily. We use these fields to calculate WBGT and labor capacity for two time slices: 2026-2045 and 2081-2100.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate regulates the formation of the basolateral plasma membrane in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gassama-Diagne, Ama; Yu, Wei; ter Beest, Martin; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Kierbel, Arlinet; Engel, Joanne; Mostov, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Polarity is a central feature of eukaryotic cells and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) has a central role in the polarization of neurons and chemotaxing cells. In polarized epithelial cells, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is stably localized at the basolateral plasma membrane, but excluded from the apical plasma membrane, as shown by localization of GFP fused to the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding pleckstrin-homology domain of Akt (GFP-PH-Akt), a fusion protein that indicates the location of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Here, we ectopically inserted exogenous PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 into the apical plasma membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Within 5 min many cells formed protrusions that extended above the apical surface. These protrusions contained basolateral plasma membrane proteins and excluded apical proteins, indicating that their plasma membrane was transformed from apical to basolateral. Addition of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells grown as cysts caused basolateral protrusions. MDCK cells grown in the presence of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor had abnormally short lateral surfaces, indicating that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates the formation of the basolateral surface.

  10. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate from inositol phosphates generated by receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T; Barker, C J; Downes, C P

    1988-01-01

    myo-[3H]Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate can be made from myo-[3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in a rat brain homogenate or soluble fraction. Although D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate can be phosphorylated by a soluble rat brain enzyme to give myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, it is not an intermediate in the pathway from myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The intermediates in the above pathway are myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate [Shears, Parry, Tang, Irvine, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 246, 139-147; Balla, Guillemette, Baukal & Catt (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9952-9955], and it is catalysed by soluble kinase activities of similar anion-exchange mobility and Mr value. Compounds with chromatographic and chemical properties consistent with the structures myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate and myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate are present in avian erythrocytes, human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells and primary-cultured murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The amounts of these inositol tetrakisphosphates rise upon muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the astrocytoma cells or stimulation of macrophages with platelet-activating factor. PMID:2845930

  11. Regioselective Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Reactions of N-Acyl 6-Amino-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines.

    PubMed

    Boger, Dale L.; Schaum, Robert P.; Garbaccio, Robert M.

    1998-09-04

    The regioselective inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions of 6-[(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)amino]-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (2), 6-(acetylamino)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (3), and 6-(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (4) are disclosed. All three underwent regioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition with electron-rich dienophiles to form the corresponding functionalized 1,2-diazines in excellent yields. An order of reactivity with electron-rich dienophiles was observed with both 2 and 3 being more reactive than 3,6-bis(methylthio)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1, i.e. 3 > 2 > 1), and both 3 and 4 were shown to be more robust than 2 at the higher temperatures necessary for [4 + 2] cycloaddition with less reactive dienophiles. The cycloaddition regioselectivity is consistent with the polarization of the diene and the ability of the methylthio group to stabilize a partial negative charge at C-3, and the N-acylamino group to stabilize a partial positive charge at C-6. While intermolecular reactions of unactivated alkynes either did not proceed or required high temperatures and long reaction times, intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions utilizing tethered unactivated acetylenes led to five- and six-membered bicyclic 1,2-diazines under mild conditions.

  12. 77 FR 65775 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... active in that market. The Bureau is issuing the final rule pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

  13. 78 FR 73383 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... payday lending markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank...

  14. 77 FR 42873 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 140 / Friday... RIN 3170-AA00 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank ``larger participant '' of...

  15. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  16. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  17. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  18. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  19. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  20. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  1. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... section to define larger participants of a market for student loan servicing. The Bureau proposes this... services, as the Bureau defines by rule. The proposal (Proposed Rule) would identify a market for...

  2. Effect on fast neutron irradiation to 4 dpa at 400{degrees}C on the properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Robertson, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    Tensile, Charpy impact and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed at ORNL on V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti specimens that were prepared at ANL and irradiated in the lithium-bonded X530 experiment in the EBR-II fast reactor. All of the specimens were irradiated to a damage level of about 4 dpa at a temperature of {approximately}400{degrees}C. A significant amount of radiation hardening was evident in both the tensile and Charpy impact tests. The irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti yield strength measured at {approximately}390{degrees}C was >800 MPa, which is more than three times as high as the unirradiated value. The uniform elongations of the irradiated tensile specimens were typically {approximately}1%, with corresponding total elongations of 4-6%. The ductile to brittle transition temperature of the irradiated specimens was less than the unirradiated resistivity, which suggests that hardening associated with interstitial solute pickup was minimal.

  3. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMOSOMAL DNA REGION REQUIRED FOR GROWTH ON 2,4,5-T BY PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC1100

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of spontaneous 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) nonmetabolizing mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 were characterized to be defective in either 2,4,5-T uptake or conversion of this compound to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP). Two of these mutants, RHC22 a...

  4. A distinct pool of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in caveolae revealed by a nanoscale labeling technique

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Akikazu; Cheng, Jinglei; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple functionally independent pools of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] have been postulated to occur in the cell membrane, but the existing techniques lack sufficient resolution to unequivocally confirm their presence. To analyze the distribution of PI(4,5)P2 at the nanoscale, we developed an electron microscopic technique that probes the freeze-fractured membrane preparation by the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-δ1. This method does not require chemical fixation or expression of artificial probes, it is applicable to any cell in vivo and in vitro, and it can define the PI(4,5)P2 distribution quantitatively. By using this method, we found that PI(4,5)P2 is highly concentrated at the rim of caveolae both in cultured fibroblasts and mouse smooth muscle cells in vivo. PI(4,5)P2 was also enriched in the coated pit, but only a low level of clustering was observed in the flat undifferentiated membrane. When cells were treated with angiotensin II, the PI(4,5)P2 level in the undifferentiated membrane decreased to 37.9% within 10 sec and then returned to the initial level. Notably, the PI(4,5)P2 level in caveolae showed a slower but more drastic change and decreased to 20.6% at 40 sec, whereas the PI(4,5)P2 level in the coated pit was relatively constant and decreased only to 70.2% at 10 sec. These results show the presence of distinct PI(4,5)P2 pools in the cell membrane and suggest a unique role for caveolae in phosphoinositide signaling. PMID:19470488

  5. Investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT 4/5 data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A technique under development uses a zoom transfer scope to register the photograph of the target with digitally enlarged photographic hardcopy of the TM data using a visual fit to the area surrounding the target. The first attempt using the Sacramento Scene (44/33) of February 1, 1983 indicated that relief displacement in the aerial photography would cause large errors. A second attempt is in progress using the aero-triangulated scene centers which have no relief displacement. Being calculated points, the scene centers have somewhat larger absolute errors in geolocation, approximately 3 meters instead of 1.5 meters. The average TM effective instantaneous field of view (EIFOV) calculated from modulation transfer functions (MTFs) is 52.7 m. This is smaller than the 55 and 65 m EIFOVs reported earlier using noisy MTFs but larger than the EIFOVs from the San Mateo Bridge analysis which ranged from 44.5 to 50.9 m and averaged 47.6 m for the same TM scene.

  6. A spectroscopic investigation of the binding interactions between 4,5-dihydroxyxanthone and heme.

    PubMed

    Xu Kelly, J; Winter, R; Riscoe, M; Peyton, D H

    2001-09-01

    In order to investigate one possible mechanism by which xanthones inhibit growth of malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites, optical and NMR spectroscopic studies were performed on a prototypic xanthone, 4,5-dihydroxyxanthone (45X2), upon its complexation to heme. The 45X2 x heme complex stoichiometry in aqueous solution was found to be 1:2; this interaction was non-cooperative, and exhibited a very similar heme complex dissociation constant (K(d)=5.1 x 10(-6)) as observed for the common antimalarial agents, chloroquine and quinine. The 45X2 x heme(2) complex formation was found to be both pH- and solvent-dependent, with clear evidence of the xanthone carbonyl moiety coordinating with the iron of heme. Hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of 45X2 and the propionate side chains of heme, as well as pi-pi stacking between both aromatic systems appeared to contribute to the overall stability of the 45X2 x heme(2) complex, as judged by 1H NMR. It was concluded that 45X2 forms a complex with a heme dimer in aqueous solution, and that this interaction can be generalized to account for its in vivo detrimental effect of parasite growth through an effective inhibition of hemozoin aggregate formation.

  7. Photophysical Properties of a 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexasubstituted Fullerene Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Khin K.; Chuang, Shih-Ching; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias; Foote, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a novel 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexasusbstituted fullerene derivative (1) are examined in this study. In addition to the ground state absorption spectrum of 1 we report its triplet-triplet absorption spectrum and molar extinction coefficient (ΔεT-T), as well as the triplet quantum yield (ΦT), lifetime (τT), and energy (ET). The saturation of a single six-member ring on the fullerene cage results in significant changes in the triplet state properties as compared to that of pristine C60. The triplet-triplet absorption spectrum shows a hypsochromic shift in long wavelength absorption and both the triplet state lifetime and triplet quantum yield are decreased. The triplet energy was found to be similar to that of C60. In addition, the quantum yield (ΦΔ) of singlet oxygen generated by 1 was calculated and is found to be significantly less than in the case of C60. PMID:17181318

  8. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  9. Flood of June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin, east-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware, Dubuque, Jackson, and Jones Counties, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cascade, Iowa, recorded a 14-hour rainfall of 6.0 inches at noon on June 4. Radar indications estimated as much as 8 to 10 inches of rain fell in the upper-middle part of the Maquoketa River Basin. Peak discharges on the Maquoketa River at Monticello of 47,500 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval estimated to be greater than 500 years as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey), and at the Maquoketa River near Maquoketa streamflow-gaging station of 47,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 50 years), were determined for the flood. The peak discharge of the 2002 flood is nearly equal that of the 1944 flood (48,000 cubic feet per second), the largest flood on record in the Maquoketa River Basin. The 2002 flood is the largest known flood in the North Fork Maquoketa River Basin. A peak discharge of 22,600 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 110 years) was determined for the flood at the North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton gaging station. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along the Maquoketa and North Fork Maquoketa Rivers.

  10. Geological Mapping Uses Landsat 4-5TM Satellite Data in Manlai Soum of Omnogovi Aimag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Author: Bayanmonkh N1, Undram.G1, Tsolmon.R2, Ariunzul.Ya1, Bayartungalag B31 Environmental Research Information and Study Center 2NUM-ITC-UNESCO Space Science and Remote Sensing International Laboratory, National University of Mongolia 3Geology and Hydrology School, Korea University KEY WORDS: geology, mineral resources, fracture, structure, lithologyABSTRACTGeologic map is the most important map for mining when it does exploration job. In Mongolia geological map completed by Russian geologists which is done by earlier technology. Those maps doesn't satisfy for present requirements. Thus we want to study improve geological map which includes fracture, structural map and lithology use Landsat TM4-5 satellite data. If we can produce a geological map from satellite data with more specification then geologist can explain or read mineralogy very easily. We searched all methodology and researches of every single element of geological mapping. Then we used 3 different remote sensing methodologies to produce structural and lithology and fracture map based on geographic information system's softwares. There can be found a visible lithology border improvement and understandable structural map and we found fracture of the Russian geological map has a lot of distortion. The result of research geologist can read mineralogy elements very easy and discovered 3 unfound important elements from satellite image.

  11. T cells deficient in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, T; Marks, A R

    1997-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) calcium release channel is present on the endoplasmic reticulum of most cell types. T lymphocytes which have been made deficient in IP3R1 lack detectable IP3-induced intracellular calcium release and exhibit defective signaling via the T-cell receptor (TCR) (T. Jayaraman, E. Ondriasova, K. Ondrias, D. Harnick, and A. R. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:6007-6011, 1995). We now show that IP3R1-deficient T cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, TCR stimulation, ionizing radiation, and Fas. Resistance to TCR-mediated apoptosis in IP3R1-deficient cells is reversed by pharmacologically raising cytoplasmic calcium levels. TCR-mediated apoptosis can be induced in calcium-free media, indicating that extracellular calcium influx is not required. These findings suggest that intracellular calcium release via the IP3R1 is a critical mediator of apoptosis. PMID:9154798

  12. Interactions of antagonists with subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Tovey, Stephen C; Molinski, Tedeusz F; Taylor, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+ channels. Interactions of the commonly used antagonists of IP3Rs with IP3R subtypes are poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R was measured using a luminal Ca2+ indicator. The effects of commonly used antagonists on IP3-evoked Ca2+ release and 3H-IP3 binding were characterized. KEY RESULTS Functional analyses showed that heparin was a competitive antagonist of all IP3R subtypes with different affinities for each (IP3R3 > IP3R1 ≥ IP3R2). This sequence did not match the affinities for heparin binding to the isolated N-terminal from each IP3R subtype. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and high concentrations of caffeine selectively inhibited IP3R1 without affecting IP3 binding. Neither Xestospongin C nor Xestospongin D effectively inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via any IP3R subtype. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Heparin competes with IP3, but its access to the IP3-binding core is substantially hindered by additional IP3R residues. These interactions may contribute to its modest selectivity for IP3R3. Practicable concentrations of caffeine and 2-APB inhibit only IP3R1. Xestospongins do not appear to be effective antagonists of IP3Rs. PMID:24628114

  13. Expression, purification, and properties of the Ubc4/5 family of E2 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lorick, Kevin L; Jensen, Jane P; Weissman, Allan M

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play a central role in ubiquitylation. They function to bridge the first, nonspecific step of ubiquitin activation by E1 with the transfer of activated ubiquitin to substrates by substrate-specific E3s. While sharing a common core UBC domain, members of this family exhibit significant specificity in their physical and functional interactions with E3s. Among the families of E2s, members of the yeast Ubc4/5 family are particularly well conserved in higher metazoans. In humans, these are represented by the UbcH5 family. Members of this ubiquitously expressed family show a capacity to interact with a wide range of E3s from both HECT and RING finger families, making them particularly useful tools in the laboratory. Using the UbcH5 family as a prototype, this chapter describes methods for the expression, purification, and characterization of E2 enzymes in vitro and some of the basics for their use in experiments in cells.

  14. Pheromone regulated production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate in the mammalian vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, K S; Anholt, R R

    1997-08-01

    Social behaviors of most mammals are profoundly affected by chemical signals, pheromones, exchanged between conspecifics. Pheromones interact with dendritic microvilli of bipolar neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). To investigate vomeronasal signal transduction pathways, microvillar membranes from porcine VNO were prepared. Incubation of such membranes from prepubertal females with boar seminal fluid or urine results in an increase in production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate (IP3). The dose response for IP3 production is biphasic with a GTP-dependent component at low stimulus concentrations and a nonspecific increase in IP3 at higher stimulus concentrations. The GTP-dependent stimulation is mimicked by GTPgammaS and blocked by GDPbetaS. Furthermore, the GTP-dependent component of the stimulation of IP3 production is sex specific and tissue dependent. Studies with monospecific antibodies reveal a G alpha(q/11)-related protein in vomeronasal neurons, concentrated at their microvilli. Our observations indicate that pheromones in boar secretions act on vomeronasal neurons in the female VNO via a receptor mediated, G protein-dependent increase in IP3. These observations set the stage for further investigations on the regulation of stimulus-excitation coupling in vomeronasal neurons. The pheromone-induced IP3 response also provides an assay for future purification of mammalian reproductive pheromones.

  15. Investigations of shot reproducibility for the SMP diode at 4.5 MV.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, Marlon D.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Lare, Gregory A.; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Rafael; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Welch, Dale Robert; Cordova, Steve Ray; Gallegos, M.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Daniel Scott; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Renk, Timothy Jerome; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy Jay; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2013-11-01

    In experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator, the SMP diode exhibits sig- ni cant shot-to-shot variability. Speci cally, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. To remove knob emission as a source, only data from a shot series conducted with a 4.5-MV peak voltage are considered. The scope of this report is limited to sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as power ow emission and trajectory changes, variations in pulsed power, dustbin and transmission line alignment, and di erent knob shapes. We nd no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we nd that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance pro les. This result forms the basis of a follow-on study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics. 3

  16. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo S.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Araújo Neto, João H.; Medina, Ana Carolina Q. D.; Menezes, Antonio C. S.; Sousa, José E. F.; Oliveira, Solemar S.; Camargo, Ademir J.; Napolitano, Hamilton B.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA) is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic P1¯ space group (Z' = 1) and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical R22(4) ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes PMID:27355378

  17. Optimization and In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of G4.5 Pamam Dendrimer-Risperidone Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Maria Jimena; del Rio Zabala, Nahuel Eduardo; Marotta, Cristian Hernán; Carreño Gutierrez, Hector; Arévalo Arévalo, Rosario; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Alonso, Silvia del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%). Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer) was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex. PMID:24587349

  18. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  19. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates autophagy through its interaction with Beclin 1.

    PubMed

    Vicencio, J M; Ortiz, C; Criollo, A; Jones, A W E; Kepp, O; Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Vitale, I; Morselli, E; Tailler, M; Castedo, M; Maiuri, M C; Molgó, J; Szabadkai, G; Lavandero, S; Kroemer, G

    2009-07-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) is a major regulator of apoptotic signaling. Through interactions with members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, it drives calcium (Ca(2+)) transients from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria, thereby establishing a functional and physical link between these organelles. Importantly, the IP(3)R also regulates autophagy, and in particular, its inhibition/depletion strongly induces macroautophagy. Here, we show that the IP(3)R antagonist xestospongin B induces autophagy by disrupting a molecular complex formed by the IP(3)R and Beclin 1, an interaction that is increased or inhibited by overexpression or knockdown of Bcl-2, respectively. An effect of Beclin 1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis was discarded as siRNA-mediated knockdown of Beclin 1 did not affect cytosolic or luminal ER Ca(2+) levels. Xestospongin B- or starvation-induced autophagy was inhibited by overexpression of the IP(3)R ligand-binding domain, which coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin 1. These results identify IP(3)R as a new regulator of the Beclin 1 complex that may bridge signals converging on the ER and initial phagophore formation.

  20. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  1. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) controls magnesium gatekeeper TRPM6 activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia; Sun, Baonan; Du, Jianyang; Yang, Wenzhong; Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Overton, Jeffrey D; Runnels, Loren W; Yue, Lixia

    2011-01-01

    TRPM6 is crucial for human Mg2+ homeostasis as patients carrying TRPM6 mutations develop hypomagnesemia and secondary hypocalcemia (HSH). However, the activation mechanism of TRPM6 has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophate (PIP2) controls TRPM6 activation and Mg2+ influx. Stimulation of PLC-coupled M1-receptors to deplete PIP2 potently inactivates TRPM6. Translocation of over-expressed 5-phosphatase to cell membrane to specifically hydrolyze PIP2 also completely inhibits TRPM6. Moreover, depolarization-induced-activation of the voltage-sensitive-phosphatase (Ci-VSP) simultaneously depletes PIP2 and inhibits TRPM6. PLC-activation induced PIP2-depletion not only inhibits TRPM6, but also abolishes TRPM6-mediated Mg2+ influx.Furthermore, neutralization of basic residues in the TRP domain leads to nonfunctional or dysfunctional mutants with reduced activity by PIP2, suggesting that they are likely to participate in interactions with PIP2.Our data indicate that PIP2 is required for TRPM6 channel function; hydrolysis of PIP2 by PLC-coupled hormones/agonists may constitute an important pathway for TRPM6 gating, and perhaps Mg2+ homeostasis.

  3. Shot reproducibility of the self-magnetic-pinch diode at 4.5Â MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, M. Dale; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Lare, Greg; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Robert; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale R.; Cordova, Steve; Gallegos, Manuel L.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Nielsen, Dan; Renk, Timothy J.; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy J.; Ziska, Derek

    2014-05-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' RITS-6 accelerator, the self-magnetic-pinch diode exhibits significant shot-to-shot variability. Specifically, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. The scope of this report is limited to data collected at 4.5-MV peak voltage and sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as sheath electron emission and trajectories, variations in pulsed power, load and transmission line alignment, and different field shapers. We find no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we find that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance profiles. In poor shots, the sheath current in the load region falls from 16%-30% of the total current to less than 10%. This result will form the basis of a follow-up study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics.

  4. Electron delocalization in a rigid cofacial naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) dimer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilei; Frasconi, Marco; Gardner, Daniel M; McGonigal, Paul R; Schneebeli, Severin T; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-09-01

    Investigating through-space electronic communication between discrete cofacially oriented aromatic π-systems is fundamental to understanding assemblies as diverse as double-stranded DNA, organic photovoltaics and thin-film transistors. A detailed understanding of the electronic interactions involved rests on making the appropriate molecular compounds with rigid covalent scaffolds and π-π distances in the range of ca. 3.5 Å. Reported herein is an enantiomeric pair of doubly-bridged naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) cyclophanes and the characterization of four of their electronic states, namely 1) the ground state, 2) the exciton coupled singlet excited state, 3) the radical anion with strong through-space interactions between the redox-active NDI molecules, and 4) the diamagnetic diradical dianion using UV/Vis/NIR, EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies in addition to X-ray crystallography. Despite the unfavorable Coulombic repulsion, the singlet diradical dianion dimer of NDI shows a more pronounced intramolecular π-π stacking interaction when compared with its neutral analog.

  5. Functional architecture of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in restricted spaces of myoendothelial projections.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Taylor, Mark S; Bonev, Adrian D; Hannah, Rachael M; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Shui, Bo; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Nelson, Mark T

    2008-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) regulates the function of virtually every mammalian cell. Unlike ryanodine receptors, which generate local Ca(2+) events ("sparks") that transmit signals to the juxtaposed cell membrane, a similar functional architecture has not been reported for IP(3)Rs. Here, we have identified spatially fixed, local Ca(2+) release events ("pulsars") in vascular endothelial membrane domains that project through the internal elastic lamina to adjacent smooth muscle membranes. Ca(2+) pulsars are mediated by IP(3)Rs in the endothelial endoplasmic reticulum of these membrane projections. Elevation of IP(3) by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, increased the frequency of Ca(2+) pulsars, whereas blunting IP(3) production, blocking IP(3)Rs, or depleting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) inhibited these events. The elementary properties of Ca(2+) pulsars were distinct from ryanodine-receptor-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in smooth muscle and from IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) puffs in Xenopus oocytes. The intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (K(Ca)3.1) channel also colocalized to the endothelial projections, and blockage of this channel caused an 8-mV depolarization. Inhibition of Ca(2+) pulsars also depolarized to a similar extent, and blocking K(Ca)3.1 channels was without effect in the absence of pulsars. Our results support a mechanism of IP(3) signaling in which Ca(2+) release is spatially restricted to transmit intercellular signals.

  6. A map of dust reddening to 4.5 kpc from Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Jurić, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.

    2014-07-01

    We present a map of the dust reddening to 4.5 kpc derived from Pan-STARRS1 stellar photometry. The map covers almost the entire sky north of declination –30° at a resolution of 7'-14', and is based on the estimated distances and reddenings to more than 500 million stars. The technique is designed to map dust in the Galactic plane, where many other techniques are stymied by the presence of multiple dust clouds at different distances along each line of sight. This reddening-based dust map agrees closely with the Schlegel et al. (SFD) far-infrared emission-based dust map away from the Galactic plane, and the most prominent differences between the two maps stem from known limitations of SFD in the plane. We also compare the map with Planck, finding likewise good agreement in general at high latitudes. The use of optical data from Pan-STARRS1 yields reddening uncertainty as low as 25 mmag E(B – V).

  7. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media. PMID:25406424

  8. Expression of Spgatae, the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ortholog of vertebrate GATA4/5/6 factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei Yun; Davidson, Eric H

    2004-12-01

    Spgatae is the sea urchin ortholog of the vertebrate gata4/5/6 genes, as confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The accumulation of Spgatae transcripts during embryonic development and the spatial pattern of expression are reported here. Expression was first detected in the 15 h blastula. The number of Spgatae RNA molecules increases steadily during blastula stages, with expression peaking during gastrulation. After gastrulation is complete, the level of expression decreases until the end of embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that Spgatae transcripts were first detected in a ring of prospective mesoderm cells in the vegetal plate. Spgatae expression then expands to include the entire vegetal plate at the mesenchyme blastula stage. During gastrulation Spgatae is expressed at the blastopore, and at prism stage strongly in the hindgut and midgut but not foregut, and also in mesoderm cells at the tip of the archenteron. Towards the end of embryogenesis, expression in the hindgut decreases. The terminal pattern of expression is in midgut plus coelomic pouches.

  9. Design of a 4.5 MJ/1 MW sectored toroidal superconducting energy storage magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Akhter, Javed; Nandi, Chinmay; Pal, Gautam; Saha, Subimal

    2014-09-01

    A 4.5 MJ/1 MW superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is being developed at VECC centre, Kolkata. The magnet system consists of the cryostat and coil assembly comprising eight superconducting solenoid coils made of custom-made NbTi based Rutherford-type cable and arranged in toroidal fashion with finite inter-sector gap. Since the strong electromagnetic force distributed to the coil is asymmetric and non-uniform in nature, a precise 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) has been carried out to design a mechanically stable coil and support structure under various operational scenarios. The results reveal that maximum stress developed on coil and its support structure is below allowable stress limit. Extensive transient analysis has also been carried out to evaluate transient loss and assess the feasibility of using helium re-condensation technology with commercially available cryo-refrigerators. Finally, quench protection scenario has also been discussed suitable for this toroidal-type SMES system. The article investigates the design concept of the cryostat and coil assembly.

  10. A Reducing Milieu Renders Cofilin Insensitive to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PIP2) Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Bianca; John, Isabel; Simon, Bernd; Brockmann, Christoph; Oelmeier, Stefan A.; Jahraus, Beate; Kirchgessner, Henning; Riplinger, Selina; Carlomagno, Teresa; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Samstag, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to T cell hyporesponsiveness. A reducing micromilieu (e.g. provided by dendritic cells) can rescue T cells from such oxidant-induced dysfunction. However, the reducing effects on proteins leading to restored T cell activation remained unknown. One key molecule of T cell activation is the actin-remodeling protein cofilin, which is dephosphorylated on serine 3 upon T cell costimulation and has an essential role in formation of mature immune synapses between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Cofilin is spatiotemporally regulated; at the plasma membrane, it can be inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we show by NMR spectroscopy that a reducing milieu led to structural changes in the cofilin molecule predominantly located on the protein surface. They overlapped with the PIP2- but not actin-binding sites. Accordingly, reduction of cofilin had no effect on F-actin binding and depolymerization and did not influence the cofilin phosphorylation state. However, it did prevent inhibition of cofilin activity through PIP2. Therefore, a reducing milieu may generate an additional pool of active cofilin at the plasma membrane. Consistently, in-flow microscopy revealed increased actin dynamics in the immune synapse of untransformed human T cells under reducing conditions. Altogether, we introduce a novel mechanism of redox regulation: reduction of the actin-remodeling protein cofilin renders it insensitive to PIP2 inhibition, resulting in enhanced actin dynamics. PMID:24003227

  11. Acoustic Receptivity of Mach 4.5 Boundary Layer with Leading- Edge Bluntness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows where second mode instability is dominant. Computations are performed to investigate the effect of leading-edge thickness and it is found that bluntness tends to stabilize the boundary layer. Furthermore, the relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle.

  12. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  13. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males.

  14. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN.

  15. Synaptojanin 1-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis is modulated by membrane curvature and facilitates membrane fission

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Ileto, Belle; Frere, Samuel G.; Chan, Robin B.; Voronov, Sergey V.; Roux, Aurélien; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] plays a fundamental role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, precisely how PI(4,5)P2 metabolism is spatially and temporally regulated during membrane internalization and the functional consequences of endocytosis-coupled PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation remain to be explored. Using cell free assays with liposomes of varying curvatures, we show that the major synaptic phosphoinositide phosphatase, synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), acts with membrane curvature generators/sensors, such as the BAR protein endophilin, to preferentially remove PI(4,5)P2 from curved membranes as opposed to relatively flat ones. Moreover, in vivo recruitment of Synj1’s inositol 5-phosphatase domain to endophilin-induced membrane tubules results in fragmentation and condensation of these structures largely in a dynamin-dependent fashion. Our study raises the possibility that geometry-based mechanisms may contribute to spatially restricting PI(4,5)P2 elimination during membrane internalization and suggests that the PI(4,5)P2-to-PI4P conversion achieved by Synj1 at sites of high curvature may cooperate with dynamin to achieve membrane fission. PMID:21316588

  16. Removal of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by bacterial isolates from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kr; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-09-01

    2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) mineralizing bacteria were isolated from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper industry. These isolates used 2,4,5-TCP as a source of carbon and energy and were capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichimetric release of chloride and biomass formation. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these bacteria were identified as Kocuria sp. (CL2), Bacillus pumillus (CL5), Pseudomonas stutzeri (CL7). HPLC analysis revealed that these isolates were able to degrade 2,4,5-TCP at higher concentrations (600 mg/l or 3.0 mM). A consortia of these isolates completely removed 2,4,5-TCP from the sludge obtained from pulp and paper mill within 2 weeks when supplemented at a rate of 100 mg l(-1) . Bacterial consortium also significantly reduced absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) by 61% and 63%, respectively from the sludge. These isolates have high potential to remove 2,4,5-TCP and may be used for remediation of pulp paper mill waste containing 2,4,5-TCP.

  17. Assessment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of 2,4,5-TP in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sergi; Casino, Patricia; Marín, M Luisa; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2002-09-01

    A highly sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described for Silvex, 2-(2,4,5 trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, (2,4,5-TP). One specific feature of the immunoassay is the use of simple chemical activation of chlorophenoxy acids to prepare both the immunizing and coating conjugates. The assay is based on the use of polyclonal antibodies raised against 2,4,5-TP, and a peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody for colorimetric detection. The effect of different chemical conditions (pH, and salt and detergent concentration) on immunoassay performance has been studied. Under the best conditions the least detectable dose and the sensitivity (IC(50)) for 2,4,5-TP were 0.05 micro g L(-1) and 0.80 micro g L(-1), respectively. The optimized immunoassay was also highly specific, showing little (6.9% for 2,4,5-T) or no cross-reactivity with other similar herbicides. The assay was used to determine 2,4,5-TP in water and soils. The excellent recoveries obtained (mean values ranging between 89% and 104%) make this immunoassay a suitable screening method for either environmental monitoring or laboratory quantification of 2,4,5-TP.

  18. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 is required for Syntaxin1A clustering and neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Khuong, Thang Manh; Habets, Ron L P; Kuenen, Sabine; Witkowska, Agata; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Swerts, Jef; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert; Verstreken, Patrik

    2013-03-20

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find the lipid in membrane domains at neurotransmitter release sites, where it concentrates with Syntaxin1A, a protein essential for vesicle fusion. Reducing PI(3,4,5)P3 availability disperses Syntaxin1A clusters and increasing PI(3,4,5)P3 levels rescues this defect. In artificial giant unilamellar vesicles, PI(3,4,5)P3 also induces Syntaxin1A domain formation and this clustering, in vitro and in vivo, is dependent on positively charged residues in the Syntaxin1A-juxtamembrane domain. Functionally, reduced PI(3,4,5)P3 causes temperature-sensitive paralysis and reduced neurotransmitter release, a phenotype also seen in animals expressing a Syntaxin1A with a mutated juxtamembrane domain. Thus, our data indicate that PI(3,4,5)P3, based on electrostatic interactions, clusters Syntaxin1A at release sites to regulate neurotransmitter release.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of epithelial sodium channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianing; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Huibin; Zhang, Bingkun; Zhao, Ying; Ma, Ke; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Qiushi; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Zhiren

    2013-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO ) was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS). Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC P(O); however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO . Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5)P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5)P3. Moreover, BPV(pic), a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5)P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway.

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Activation of Epithelial Sodium Channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5)P3 Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianing; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Huibin; Zhang, Bingkun; Zhao, Ying; Ma, Ke; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Qiushi; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Zhiren

    2013-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO) was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS). Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC PO; however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO. Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5)P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5)P3. Moreover, BPV(pic), a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5)P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway. PMID:23741314

  1. Larger, Lighter Space Telescopes by Implementing In-Space Manufacturing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James t.; Gregory, Don; Herren, Ken; Howsman, Tom

    2007-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes from both the astronomical and global surveillance communities one looking up and the other down. Enabling technologies must be developed and implemented that will allow this goal to be financially and technically feasible. The optical systems needed far high spatial resolution surveillance and astronomical applications require large optical, apertures with mention of future systems up to 150 meter in diameter. With traditional optical manufacturing technologies, large optical aperture means high mass and long fabrication lead times with associated high costs. Completely new approaches to optical fabrication must be developed to enable the fabrication of such optical systems. The cost and lead time associated with the fabrication of lightweight, high quality optical systems limits the feasible size of the optics. A primary factor in the launch cost of space optical systems is volume and mass. To minimize the mass of the high quality optics, optical fabricators implement materials with high specific stiffness and use honeycomb, or other structural minimization patterns, to support the optical surface; however, the structure must still be designed to survive launch loads. This sigmficantly adds to the fabrication difficulty and dramatically increases launch costs. One approach to minimizing launch volume and negating the need for the design to survive launch loads is to send the manufacturing facility and raw materials into space and perform the fabrication in-situ. We, are currently performing feasibility studies of initial concepts for inspace manufacturing of optical systems. By utilizing the micro-gravity and vacuum environment of space while eliminating the constraints defined by high launch forces and limited volume of the launch vehicle, the development of large, high quality glass membrane mirrors may be feasible. Several concepts were investigated to address the manufacturing of

  2. Relativistic orbits around spinning supermassive black holes: Secular evolution to 4.5 post-Newtonian order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.; Maitra, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    We derive the secular evolution of the orbital elements of a stellar-mass object orbiting a spinning massive black hole. We use the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation in harmonic coordinates, with test-body equations of motion for the conservative dynamics that are valid through 3PN order, including spin-orbit, quadrupole and (spin) 2 effects, and with radiation-reaction contributions linear in the mass of the body that are valid through 4.5PN order, including the 4PN damping effects of spin-orbit coupling. The evolution equations for the osculating orbit elements are iterated to high PN orders using a two-time-scale approach and averaging over orbital time scales. We derive a criterion for terminating the orbit when its Carter constant drops below a critical value, whereupon the body plunges across the event horizon at the next closest approach. The results are valid for arbitrary eccentricities and arbitrary inclinations. We then analyze numerically the orbits of objects injected into high-eccentricity orbits via interactions within a surrounding star cluster, obtaining the number of orbits and the elapsed time between injection and plunge, and the residual orbital eccentricity at plunge as a function of inclination. We derive an analytic approximation for the time to plunge in terms of initial orbital variables. We show that, if the black hole is spinning rapidly, the flux of gravitational radiation during the final orbit before plunge may be suppressed by as much as 3 orders of magnitude if the orbit is retrograde on the equatorial plane compared to its prograde counterpart.

  3. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  4. Antibodies to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 in patients with cerebellar disease

    PubMed Central

    Fouka, Penelope; Alexopoulos, Harry; Chatzi, Ioanna; Dedos, Skarlatos G.; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Politis, Panagiotis; Tzioufas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe newly identified autoantibodies associated with cerebellar disorders. Design/Methods: We first screened the sera of 15 patients with cerebellar ataxia, without any known associated autoantibodies, with immunocytochemistry on mouse brain. After characterization and validation of a newly identified antibody, 85 additional patients with suspected autoimmune cerebellar disease were screened using a cell-based assay. Results: Immunoglobulin G from one of the first 15 patients demonstrated a distinct staining pattern on Purkinje neurons. This autoantibody, as characterized further by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, was binding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1), an intracellular channel that mediates the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Anti-IP3R1 specificity was then validated with a cell-based assay. On this basis, screening of 85 other patients with cerebellar disease revealed 2 additional IP3R1-positive patients. All 3 patients presented with cerebellar ataxia; the first was eventually diagnosed with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, the second had a homozygous CAG insertion at the gene TBP, and the third was thought to have a neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions: We independently identified an autoantibody against IP3R1, a protein highly expressed in Purkinje neurons, confirming an earlier report. Because a mouse knockout model for IP3R1 exhibits ataxia and epilepsy, this autoantibody may have a functional role. The heterogeneity of the antibody-positive patients suggests that this antibody may either have a direct involvement in disease pathogenesis or it is a surrogate marker secondary to cerebellar injury. Anti-IP3R1 antibodies should be further explored in various ataxic and epileptic syndromes as they may denote a marker of response to immunotherapies. PMID:27957507

  5. Use of the 4/5 Kolmogorov equation for describing some characteristics of fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarskii, V. I.

    2005-03-01

    The Kolmogorov equation, which relates the second-order structure function Dll(r ) and the third-ordrer structure function Dlll(r ), may be presented as a closed linear integrodifferential equation for the probability distribution function W(U ,r) of longitudinal velocity difference U. In general, without any restrictions, the function of two variables W(U ,r) may be presented as [Dll(r )]-1/2F(U/√Dll(r ) ,r). As a first approximation, we neglect dependence of F on the second argument r. In this approximation (self-similarity of the probability density function), the integrodifferential equation for W reduces to the ordinary nonlinear differential equation for Dll(r ). It follows from this equation that for r →∞ the function Dll(r )˜r2/3. This consideration does not use the 1941 Kolmogorov hypothesis that is based on dimension analysis. Any deviations from the 2/3 law, including intermittency effects, must be related to the violation of the above-mentioned self-similarity of W, i.e., with the additional dependence of F on the second argument r. On the basis of experimental data, we suggest a simple model of W, which allows us to describe deviations from the 2/3 law, caused by intermittency, and describe the local exponents κ in the structure functions ⟨∣U(r)∣ρ⟩˜rκ(ρ ) for moderate ρ. The so called "bottleneck effect" also can be described by 4/5 Kolmogorov equation.

  6. Morphological evaluation of eccentric sets guide-plates of dcp-l 4.5 mm

    PubMed Central

    Borges, José Humberto de Souza; da Silva Filho, Antonio Lisboa; Pereira Neto, Francisco; Daher, Walter Rodrigo; de Mesquita, Alessandro Queiroz; Freitas, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Objective To carry out isolated and comparative evaluations of the measurements of the set eccentric guide plates used in 4.5mm surgical implants, and to determine the effect of these measurements on compression strength. Methods Four eccentric guides, four large dynamic compression plates (L-DCP) from four local manufacturers, and a Vonder® 200 mm caliper brand were used. Five standard parameter measurements were created for the set eccentric guide-plate, which were identified as A to E. Four sets were made, using materials of the same factory, and identified as groups I to IV. The analyses were performed by measuring all the parameters from a ventral view of the plate, with the eccentric guide placed in the plate hole. Results Groups I and II showed the same values for all the parameters. All the groups showed the same measurements for E = 8.15 e B = 3.60. Group III: A = 8.10mm, C = 3.25mm, D = 1.25mm. Group IV: A = 7.00mm, C = 3.10mm, D = 0.30mm. Maximum compression force was (F Max.): Group I 80.58 N, Group. II: F Max. 81.63 N, Group. III: F Max. 36.32N, Group. IV: F Max. 37.52N Conclusion The measurements evaluated show a lack of standardization in the manufacture of orthopedic instruments and its effects on the values for compression strength. Level of Evidence: Level III, analytical study. PMID:24453573

  7. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in fasting and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguo; Li, Gang; Goode, Jason; Paz, Jose C; Ouyang, Kunfu; Screaton, Robert; Fischer, Wolfgang H; Chen, Ju; Tabas, Ira; Montminy, Marc

    2012-04-08

    In the fasted state, increases in circulating glucagon promote hepatic glucose production through induction of the gluconeogenic program. Triggering of the cyclic AMP pathway increases gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation of the CREB co-activator CRTC2 (ref. 1). Glucagon promotes CRTC2 dephosphorylation in part through the protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of the CRTC2 kinase SIK2. A number of Ser/Thr phosphatases seem to be capable of dephosphorylating CRTC2 (refs 2, 3), but the mechanisms by which hormonal cues regulate these enzymes remain unclear. Here we show in mice that glucagon stimulates CRTC2 dephosphorylation in hepatocytes by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores and activating the calcium/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr-phosphatase calcineurin (also known as PP3CA). Glucagon increased cytosolic calcium concentration through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs), which associate with CRTC2. After their activation, InsP(3)Rs enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting the calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of CRTC2. During feeding, increases in insulin signalling reduced CRTC2 activity via the AKT-mediated inactivation of InsP(3)Rs. InsP(3)R activity was increased in diabetes, leading to upregulation of the gluconeogenic program. As hepatic downregulation of InsP(3)Rs and calcineurin improved circulating glucose levels in insulin resistance, these results demonstrate how interactions between cAMP and calcium pathways at the level of the InsP(3)R modulate hepatic glucose production under fasting conditions and in diabetes.

  8. Detection and quantification of 4(5)-methylimidazole in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound found in class III and IV ammoniated caramel colors, a group of additives widely used in the food industry. A suspected carcinogen and neurotoxin and efforts are underway to limit its presence in foods. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantitate 4-MeI in different food matrices, including roasted coffee, beer, soft drinks, and soy sauce; however, no methods are available to measure 4-MeI in cooked meat and meat products containing lipids and high levels of interfering nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and peptides. A rapid method using 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) as an extraction solvent followed by derivatization with isobutylchloroformate and gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry was developed to quantify 4-MeI in cooked meat products with added caramel colors containing 4-MeI. Selected ion monitoring mode was used to monitor 4-MeI ions fragments. In the 8 commercial meat products tested, 4-MeI levels ranged from 0.041 to 1.015 mg/kg, with recovery of 94.76% to 103.94%. In addition, a matrix-matched calibration performed by analyzing a spiked cooked meat sample indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05), which means the meat matrix had no effect on the developed method. This method proved useful in analyzing 4-MeI in meat products with added caramel color containing 4-MeI.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters synaptotagmin 1 membrane docking and drives opposing bilayers closer together.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Weiwei; Herrick, Dawn Z; Cafiso, David S

    2011-04-05

    Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) is a synaptic vesicle-anchored membrane protein that acts as the calcium sensor for the synchronous component of neuronal exocytosis. Using site-directed spin labeling, the position and membrane interactions of a fragment of syt1 containing its two C2 domains (syt1C2AB) were assessed in bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Addition of 1 mol % PIP(2) to a lipid mixture of PC and PS results in a deeper membrane penetration of the C2A domain and alters the orientation of the C2B domain so that the polybasic face of C2B comes into the proximity of the bilayer interface. The C2B domain is found to contact the membrane interface in two regions, the Ca(2+)-binding loops and a region opposite the Ca(2+)-binding loops. This suggests that syt1C2AB is configured to bridge two bilayers and is consistent with a model generated previously for syt1C2AB bound to membranes of PC and PS. Point-to-plane depth restraints, obtained by progressive power saturation, and interdomain distance restraints, obtained by double electron-electron resonance, were obtained in the presence of PIP(2) and used in a simulated annealing routine to dock syt1C2AB to two membrane interfaces. The results yield an average structure different from what is found in the absence of PIP(2) and indicate that bilayer-bilayer spacing is decreased in the presence of PIP(2). The results indicate that PIP(2), which is necessary for bilayer fusion, alters C2 domain orientation, enhances syt1-membrane electrostatic interactions, and acts to drive vesicle and cytoplasmic membrane surfaces closer together.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate competitively inhibits phorbol ester binding to protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A.; Cauhan, V.P.S.; Deshmukh, D.S.; Brokerhoff, H. )

    1989-06-13

    Calcium phospholipid dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diacylglycerol (DG) and by phorbol esters and is recognized to be the phorbol ester receptor of cells; DG displaces phorbol ester competitively from PKC. A phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), can also activate PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and Ca{sup 2+} with a K{sub PIP{sub 2}} of 0.04 mol %. Preliminary experiments have suggested a common binding site for PIP{sub 2} and DG on PKC. Here, the authors investigate the effect of PIP{sub 2} on phorbol ester binding to PKC in a mixed micellar assay. In the presence of 20 mol % PS, PIP{sub 2} inhibited specific binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in a dose-dependent fashion up to 85% at 1 mol %. Inhibition of binding was more pronounced with PIP{sub 2} than with DG. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in binding of PDBu in the presence of PIP{sub 2} is the result of an altered affinity for the phorbol ester rather than of a change in maximal binding. The plot of apparent dissociation constants (K{sub d{prime}}) against PIP{sub 2} concentration was linear over a range of 0.01-1 mol % with a K{sub i} of 0.043 mol % and confirmed the competitive nature of inhibition between PDBu and PIP{sub 2}. Competition between PIP{sub 2} and phorbol ester could be determined in a liposomal assay system also. These results indicate that PIP{sub 2}, DG, and phorbol ester all compete for the same activator-receiving region on the regulatory moiety of protein kinase C, and they lend support to the suggestion that PIP{sub 2} is a primary activator of the enzyme.

  11. Mechanism of protein kinase C activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myungho; Bell, R.M. )

    1991-01-29

    The mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) was investigated by using Triton X-100 mixed micellar methods. The activation of PKC by PIP{sub 2}, for which maximal activity was 60% of that elicited by sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), was similar to activation by DAG in several respects: (1) activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG required phosphatidylserine (PS) as a phospholipid cofactor, (2) PIP{sub 2} and DAG reduced the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} and PS required for activation, (3) the concentration dependences of activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG depended on the concentration of PS, and (4) PIP{sub 2} and DAG complemented one another to achieve maximal activation. On the other hand, PIP{sub 2} activation of the PKC differed from activation by DAG in several respects. With increasing concentrations of PIP{sub 2}, (1) the optimal concentration of PS required was constant at 12 mol%, (2) the maximal activity at 12 mol% PS increased, and (3) the cooperativity for PS decreased. PIP{sub 2} did not inhibit ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding of PKC at saturating levels of PS; however, at subsaturating levels of PS, PIP{sub 2} enhanced ({sup 3}H)PDBu binding by acting as a phospholipid cofactor. PIP did not function as an activator but served as a phospholipid cofactor in the presence of PS. These data establish that PIP{sub 2}, PIP, and PI can function to spare, in part, the PS phospholipid cofactor requirement of PKC, and they demonstrate that PIP{sub 2} but not PIP and PI can function as a lipid activator of PKC by mechanisms distinct from those of DAG and phorbol esters.

  12. Formation of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in Aqueous d-Glucose-Amino Acids Model System.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IRAC) has classified 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MeI) as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. Thus, how 4-MeI forms in a D-glucose (Glu) amino acids (AA) model system is important, as it is how browning is affected. An aqueous solution of Glu was mixed individually in equimolar amounts at 3 concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 M) with aqueous solutions of L-Alanine (Ala), L-Arginine (Arg), Glycine (Gly), L-Lysine (Lys), and L-Serine (Ser). The Glu-AA mixtures were reacted at 60, 120, and 160 °C for 1 h. The 4-MeI levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with isobutylchloroformate. No 4-MeI was formed at 60 °C for any treatment combination; however, at 120 °C and 0.05 M, Glu-Arg and Glu-Lys produced 0.13 and 0.14 mg/kg of 4-MeI. At 160 °C and 0.05 M all treatment combinations formed 4-MeI. At 160 °C and 0.15 M, the observed levels of Glu-Ala, Glu-Arg, Glu-Gly, Glu-Lys, and Glu-Ser were 0.21, 1.00, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.16 mg/kg. The AA type, reactant concentrations, and temperature significantly affected (P < 0.001) formation of 4-MeI as well as browning. Glu-Lys treatment in all combinations produced the most browning, but Glu-Arg produced the most 4-MeI. This method showed that foods processed using low temperatures may have reduced levels of 4-MeI.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  14. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  15. Interconversion of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate to inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate and (1,3,4)-trisphosphate in permeabilized adrenal glomerulosa cells is calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, M.F.; Dentand, I.A.; Lew, P.D.; Capponi, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.

    1986-08-29

    The metabolism of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate was followed in permeabilized bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. At low Ca++ concentration (pCa = 7.2), more than 90% of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate had disappeared within 2 min, while two other metabolites, (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate appeared progressively. At higher Ca++ concentrations (pCa = 5.7 and 4.8), the formation of these two metabolites was markedly increased, but completely abolished if the medium was ATP-depleted. The peak levels for the generation of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate (1 min) preceded those of (3H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and were closely correlated. These results suggest that, in adrenal glomerulosa cells, the isomer inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate is generated from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate via a calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway involving the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate.

  16. Public attitudes toward larger cigarette pack warnings: Results from a nationally representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of larger health warnings on cigarette packages. However, there is limited research examining attitudes toward such warning labels, which has potential implications for implementation of larger warning labels. The purpose of the current study was to examine attitudes toward larger warning sizes on cigarette packages and examine variables associated with more favorable attitudes. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 5,014), participants were randomized to different warning size conditions, assessing attitude toward “a health warning that covered (25, 50, 75) % of a cigarette pack.” SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Across experimental groups, nearly three-quarters (72%) of adults had attitudes supportive of larger warning labels on cigarette packs. Among the full sample and smokers only (N = 1,511), most adults had favorable attitudes toward labels that covered 25% (78.2% and 75.2%, respectively), 50% (70% and 58.4%, respectively), and 75% (67.9% and 61%, respectively) of a cigarette pack. Young adults, females, racial/ethnic minorities, and non-smokers were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Among smokers only, females and those with higher quit intentions held more favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Widespread support exists for larger warning labels on cigarette packages among U.S. adults, including among smokers. Our findings support the implementation of larger health warnings on cigarette packs in the U.S. as required by the 2009 Tobacco Control Act. PMID:28253257

  17. Bacterial communities predominant in the degradation of 13C(4)-4,5,9,10-pyrene during composting.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Jianqiang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Jia, Zhongjun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-09-01

    An in-vessel composting bioremediation of (13)C4-4,5,9,10-pyrene and unlabeled pyrene spiked soil amended with fresh wastes was investigated by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) of active bacteria involved. Highest dissipation of (13)C4-pyrene was detected at 55 °C after 42 days composting. The active bacterial communities in the composting changed over time, showing a distinct difference among different stages. α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were detected mainly involving in pyrene degradation at 38 °C over 14 days composting. Streptomyces appeared to dominate the pyrene degradation at 55 °C. β- and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant pyrene degraders at 70 °C after 42 days composting and at 38 °C after 60 days composting. The results of this study suggest the pyrene degradation was performed by phylogenetically distinct bacterial guilds from the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria during in-vessel composition processes.

  18. The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A in regulating emotional behavior and amygdala function

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Kyungjoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, June-seek; Son, Gi Hoon; Sun, Woong; Shin, Ki Soon; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A) is a molecule enriched in the brain and neurons that regulates intracellular calcium levels via signaling through the inositol trisphosphate receptor. In the present study, we found that IP3K-A expression is highly enriched in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which plays a pivotal role in the processing and expression of emotional phenotypes in mammals. Genetic abrogation of IP3K-A altered amygdala gene expression, particularly in genes involved in key intracellular signaling pathways and genes mediating fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. In agreement with the changes in amygdala gene expression profiles, IP3K-A knockout (KO) mice displayed more robust responses to aversive stimuli and spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, indicating high levels of innate fear and anxiety. In addition to behavioral phenotypes, decreased excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic current and reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the CeA of IP3K-A KO mice suggest that IP3K-A has a profound influence on the basal activities of fear- and anxiety-mediating amygdala circuitry. In conclusion, our findings collectively demonstrate that IP3K-A plays an important role in regulating affective states by modulating metabotropic receptor signaling pathways and neural activity in the amygdala. PMID:27053114

  19. DISCOVERY OF A PROBABLE 4-5 JUPITER-MASS EXOPLANET TO HD 95086 BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Delorme, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Girard, J. H.; Dumas, C.; Desidera, S.; Bonavita, M.

    2013-08-01

    Direct imaging has only begun to inventory the population of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars in the solar neighborhood. Following this approach, we carried out a deep imaging survey in the near-infrared using VLT/NaCo to search for substellar companions. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion orbiting the young (10-17 Myr), dusty, early-type (A8) star HD 95086 at 56 AU in L' (3.8 {mu}m) images. This discovery is based on observations with more than a year time lapse. Our first epoch clearly revealed the source at {approx_equal} 10{sigma}, while our second epoch lacks good observing conditions, yielding a {approx_equal} 3{sigma} detection. Various tests were thus made to rule out possible artifacts. This recovery is consistent with the signal at the first epoch but requires cleaner confirmation. Nevertheless, our astrometric precision suggests that the companion is comoving with the star with a 3{sigma} confidence level. The planetary nature of the source is reinforced by a non-detection in the Ks-band (2.18 {mu}m) images according to its possible extremely red Ks-L' color. Conversely, background contamination is rejected with good confidence level. The luminosity yields a predicted mass of about 4-5 M{sub Jup} (at 10-17 Myr) using ''hot-start'' evolutionary models, making HD 95086 b the exoplanet with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star.

  20. Self assembly of HIV-1 Gag protein on lipid membranes generates PI(4,5)P2/Cholesterol nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Yandrapalli, Naresh; Lubart, Quentin; Tanwar, Hanumant S.; Picart, Catherine; Mak, Johnson; Muriaux, Delphine; Favard, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein at the inner leaflet of the cell host plasma membrane is the key orchestrator of virus assembly. The binding between Gag and the plasma membrane is mediated by specific interaction of the Gag matrix domain and the PI(4,5)P2 lipid (PIP2). It is unknown whether this interaction could lead to local reorganization of the plasma membrane lipids. In this study, using model membranes, we examined the ability of Gag to segregate specific lipids upon self-assembly. We show for the first time that Gag self-assembly is responsible for the formation of PIP2 lipid nanoclusters, enriched in cholesterol but not in sphingomyelin. We also show that Gag mainly partition into liquid-disordered domains of these lipid membranes. Our work strongly suggests that, instead of targeting pre-existing plasma membrane lipid domains, Gag is more prone to generate PIP2/Cholesterol lipid nanodomains at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane during early events of virus assembly. PMID:28008947

  1. Characterization of recombinant Beta vulgaris 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase active in the biosynthesis of betalains.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Betalains are water-soluble pigments with high antiradical capacity which bestow bright colors to flowers, fruits and other parts of most plants of the order Caryophyllales. The formation of the structural unit of all betalains, betalamic acid from the precursor amino acid 4,5-dihydroxyphenylalanine is catalyzed by the enzyme 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase followed by intramolecular cyclization of the 4,5-secodopa intermediate. This paper describes the purification and the molecular and functional characterization of an active 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase from the best-known source of betalains-Beta vulgaris-after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa characterized by chromatography, electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. Enzyme kinetic properties are characterized in the production of betalamic acid, the structural, chromophoric and bioactive unit of plant pigment betalains.

  2. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia.

    PubMed

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  3. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  4. Rapid redistribution of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and septins during the Candida albicans response to caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Blankenship, Jill R; Cheng, Shaoji; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2012-09-01

    We previously showed that phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and septin regulation play major roles in maintaining Candida albicans cell wall integrity in response to caspofungin and other stressors. Here, we establish a link between PI(4,5)P2 signaling and septin localization and demonstrate that rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins is part of the natural response of C. albicans to caspofungin. First, we studied caspofungin-hypersusceptible C. albicans irs4 and inp51 mutants, which have elevated PI(4,5)P2 levels due to loss of PI(4,5)P2-specific 5'-phosphatase activity. PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in discrete patches, rather than uniformly, along surfaces of mutants in yeast and filamentous morphologies, as visualized with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology domain. The patches also contained chitin (calcofluor white staining) and cell wall protein Rbt5 (Rbt5-GFP). By transmission electron microscopy, patches corresponded to plasma membrane invaginations that incorporated cell wall material. Fluorescently tagged septins Cdc10 and Sep7 colocalized to these sites, consistent with well-described PI(4,5)P2-septin physical interactions. Based on expression patterns of cell wall damage response genes, irs4 and inp51 mutants were firmly positioned within a group of caspofungin-hypersusceptible, septin-regulatory protein kinase mutants. irs4 and inp51 were linked most closely to the gin4 mutant by expression profiling, PI(4,5)P2-septin-chitin redistribution and other phenotypes. Finally, sublethal 5-min exposure of wild-type C. albicans to caspofungin resulted in redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a manner similar to those of irs4, inp51, and gin4 mutants. Taken together, our data suggest that the C. albicans Irs4-Inp51 5'-phosphatase complex and Gin4 function upstream of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a pathway that helps govern responses to caspofungin.

  5. Purification and Properties of Component B of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetate Oxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100

    PubMed Central

    Xun, L.; Wagnon, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 degrades 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4,5-T), an herbicide and chlorinated aromatic compound. Although some progress has been made in understanding 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 by molecular analysis, little is known about the biochemistry involved. Enzymatic activity converting 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol in the presence of NADH and O(inf2) was detected in cell extracts of AC1100. Phenyl agarose chromatography of the ammonium sulfate-fractionated cell extracts yielded no active single fractions, but the mixing of two fractions, named component A and component B, resulted in the recovery of enzyme activity. Component B was further purified to homogeneity by hydroxyapatite and DEAE chromatographies. Component B had a native molecular weight of 140,000, and it was composed of two 49-kDa (alpha)-subunits and two 24-kDa (beta)-subunits. Component B was red, and its spectrum in the visible region had maxima at 430 and 560 nm (shoulder), whereas upon reduction it had maxima at 420 (shoulder) and 530 nm. Each mole of (alpha)(beta) heterodimer contained 2.9 mol of iron and 2.1 mol of labile sulfide. These properties suggest strong similarities between component B and the terminal oxygenase components of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Component A was highly purified but not to homogeneity. The reconstituted 2,4,5-T oxygenase, consisting of components A and B, converted 2,4,5-T quantitatively into 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and glyoxylate with the coconsumption of NADH and O(inf2). PMID:16535134

  6. cAMP generation inhibits inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Schramm, C M; Chuang, S T; Grunstein, M M

    1995-11-01

    Agonist-induced airway contraction involves the generation and subsequent binding of the phosphoinositide-derived second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], to its Ca(2+)-mobilizing intracellular receptor. To the extent that regulatory cross-talk is known to exist between different signal transduction pathways, the present study examined whether activation of the adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway induces altered binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor in membrane homogenates of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). In control TSM, monophasic binding curves provided mean +/- SE values for Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor density (Bmax) and binding affinity (Kd) amounting to 940 +/- 43 fmol/mg protein and 10.7 +/- 1.2 nM, respectively. Relative to control, binding of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 was significantly reduced in paired TSM separately treated with isoproterenol, forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP. Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding was inhibited to a level averaging 60% of control binding by maximal concentrations of each agonist, an effect attributed to a reduction in Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding sites rather than altered ligand affinity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway is associated with inhibition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor binding and implicate a novel mechanism of action of beta-adrenergic agents in preventing and/or reversing airway contraction.

  7. Phospholipase Cζ binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 requires the XY-linker region

    PubMed Central

    Nomikos, Michail; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Calver, Brian L.; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) is a strong candidate for the mammalian sperm-derived factor that triggers the Ca2+ oscillations required for egg activation at fertilization. PLCζ lacks a PH domain, which targets PLCδ1 to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) substrate in the plasma membrane. Previous studies failed to detect PLCζ in the plasma membrane, hence the means of PLCζ binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 is unclear. We find that the PLCζ XY linker, but not the C2 domain, exhibits robust binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 or to liposomes containing near-physiological levels of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The role of positively charged residues within the XY linker was addressed by sequentially substituting alanines for three lysine residues, K374, K375 and K377. Microinjection of these mutants into mouse eggs enabled their Ca2+ oscillation-inducing activities to be compared with wild-type PLCζ. The XY-linker mutant proteins were purified and the in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis and binding properties were monitored. Successive reduction of net positive charge within the PLCζ XY linker significantly affects both in vivo Ca2+-oscillation-inducing activity and in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 interaction of mouse PLCζ. Our data suggest that positively charged residues within the XY linker play an important role in the PLCζ interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2, a crucial step in generating the Ca2+ activation signal that is essential for fertilization in mammals. PMID:21730019

  8. Sprouty2 Regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ Signaling and HIV-1 Gag Release

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Carter, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that activation of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is required for efficient HIV-1 Gag trafficking and viral particle release (Ehrlich 2010). IP3R activation requires phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to IP3 and diacylglycerol. Here we show that Sprouty2 (Spry2), which binds PI(4,5)P2 and PLCγ, interfered with PI(4,5)P2 in a manner similar to U73122, an inhibitor of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, suggesting that Spry2 may negatively regulate IP3R by preventing formation of its activating ligand, IP3. Mutation to Asp of R252, a critical determinant of PI(4,5)P2 binding in the C-terminal domain of Spry2, prevented the interference completely, indicating that binding to the phospholipid is required. In contrast, deletion of the PLCγ binding region or mutation of a critical Tyr residue in the region did not prevent the interference but Spry2-PI(4,5)P2 colocalization was not detected, suggesting that PLC binding is required for their stable association. Like U73122, Spry2 over-expression inhibited WT Gag release as virus-like particles. The inhibition was relieved by disrupting either binding determinant. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling, in turn, was found to influence Spry2 subcellular distribution and ERK, a Spry2 regulator. Our findings suggest that Spry2 influences IP3R function through control of PI(4,5)P2 and IP3R influences Spry2 function by controlling its distribution and ERK activation. PMID:21762810

  9. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  10. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors selectively localized to the acrosomes of mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Calcium flux is required for the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction, an exocytotic event triggered by egg binding, which results in a dramatic rise in sperm intracellular calcium. Calcium-dependent membrane fusion results in the release of enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration through the zona pellucida during fertilization. We have characterized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated calcium channels and upstream components of the phosphoinositide signaling system in mammalian sperm. Peptide antibodies colocalized G alpha q/11 and the beta 1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLC beta 1) to the anterior acrosomal region of mouse sperm. Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody directed against purified brain IP3 receptor (IP3R) identified a specific 260 kD band in 1% Triton X-100 extracts of rat, hamster, mouse and dog sperm. In each species, IP3R immunostaining localized to the acrosome cap. Scatchard analysis of [3H]IP3 binding to rat sperm sonicates revealed a curvilinear plot with high affinity (Kd = 26 nM, Bmax = 30 pmol/mg) and low affinity (Kd = 1.6 microM, Bmax = 550 pmol/mg) binding sites, reflecting among the highest receptor densities in mammalian tissue. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the acrosomal localization in rat sperm. The IP3R fractionated with acrosomes by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation and was enriched in the medium of acrosome- reacted sperm. ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ loading of digitonin permeabilized rat sperm was decreased by 45% in the presence of 10 microM IP3. The IP3-mediated release of calcium was blocked by heparin. Thapsigargin, a sequiterpene lactone inhibitor of the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase, stimulated the acrosome reaction of mouse sperm to the same extent as the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. The failure of caffeine and ryanodine to affect calcium accumulation suggested that thapsigargin acted through an IP3-sensitive store. The presence of G alpha q/11, PLC beta 1 and a functional IP3R in the anterior acrosomal region

  11. Gas Phase Chromatography of some Group 4, 5, and 6 Halides

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, Eric Robert

    1998-10-01

    Gas phase chromatography using The Heavy Element Volatility Instrument (HEVI) and the On Line Gas Apparatus (OLGA III) was used to determine volatilities of ZrBr4, HfBr4, RfBr4, NbBr5, TaOBr3, HaCl5, WBr6, FrBr, and BiBr3. Short-lived isotopes of Zr, Hf, Rf, Nb, Ta, Ha, W, and Bi were produced via compound nucleus reactions at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and transported to the experimental apparatus using a He gas transport system. The isotopes were halogenated, separated from the other reaction products, and their volatilities determined by isothermal gas phase chromatography. Adsorption Enthalpy (ΔHa) values for these compounds were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation program modeling the gas phase chromatography column. All bromides showed lower volatility than molecules of similar molecular structures formed as chlorides, but followed similar trends by central element. Tantalum was observed to form the oxybromide, analogous to the formation of the oxychloride under the same conditions. For the group 4 elements, the following order in volatility and ΔHa was observed: RfBr4 > ZrBr4 > HfBr4. The ΔHa values determined for the group 4, 5, and 6 halides are in general agreement with other experimental data and theoretical predictions. Preliminary experiments were performed on Me-bromides. A new measurement of the half-life of 261Rf was performed. 261Rf was produced via the 248Cm(18O, 5n) reaction and observed with a half-life of 74-6+7 seconds, in excellent agreement with the previous measurement of 78-6+11 seconds. We recommend a new half-life of 75±7 seconds for 261Rf based on these two measurements. Preliminary studies in transforming HEVI from an isothermal (constant

  12. Bimodal regulation of an Elk subfamily K+ channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Anishkin, Andriy; Liu, Hansi; van Rossum, Damian B; Chintapalli, Sree V; Sassic, Jessica K; Gallegos, David; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates Shaker K+ channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in a bimodal fashion by inhibiting voltage activation while stabilizing open channels. Bimodal regulation is conserved in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, but voltage activation is enhanced while the open channel state is destabilized. The proposed sites of PIP2 regulation in these channels include the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and conserved regions of the proximal cytoplasmic C terminus. Relatively little is known about PIP2 regulation of Ether-á-go-go (EAG) channels, a metazoan-specific family of K+ channels that includes three gene subfamilies, Eag (Kv10), Erg (Kv11), and Elk (Kv12). We examined PIP2 regulation of the Elk subfamily potassium channel human Elk1 to determine whether bimodal regulation is conserved within the EAG K+ channel family. Open-state stabilization by PIP2 has been observed in human Erg1, but the proposed site of regulation in the distal C terminus is not conserved among EAG family channels. We show that PIP2 strongly inhibits voltage activation of Elk1 but also stabilizes the open state. This stabilization produces slow deactivation and a mode shift in voltage gating after activation. However, removal of PIP2 has the net effect of enhancing Elk1 activation. R347 in the linker between the VSD and pore (S4-S5 linker) and R479 near the S6 activation gate are required for PIP2 to inhibit voltage activation. The ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state also requires these residues, suggesting an overlap in sites central to the opposing effects of PIP2 on channel gating. Open-state stabilization in Elk1 requires the N-terminal eag domain (PAS domain + Cap), and PIP2-dependent stabilization is enhanced by a conserved basic residue (K5) in the Cap. Our data shows that PIP2 can bimodally regulate voltage gating in EAG family channels, as has been proposed for Shaker and HCN channels. PIP2 regulation

  13. Iapetus: 4.5 Billion Years of Contamination by Phoebe Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1997-07-01

    accreted there. Since the distribution of Iapetus' dark material depends on the flux of Phoebe dust over 4.5 billion years, it is not surprising that the distribution does not precisely match predictions which consider only the present dynamical configurations of the two satellites.

  14. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    The cosmopolite foraminifer Heterostegina depressa has been a target of studies, describing its internal and external morphology, ecology and biology. During the last decades many researcher concentrated on test morphology and described its maturoevolute shape. Furthermore, a continuously increasing trend of test flattening along water depth has been described multiple times. However, the most common measurements, such as the thickness/diameter ratio, are too dependent on individual size to pose as an accurate tool. /newline Therefore a growth invariant character has been used to describe the change of thickness through the ontogeny of H. depressa. To compute this, the thickness at the half-radius, the so-called mediolateral thickness, of five whorls has been measured in 127 axial section of H. depressa. Based on this the ontogenetic change in thickness has been computed for specimens from different depth intervals of the slope of Sesoko-Jima, NW-Okinawa. In addition, this has been compared with the actual thickness and the corresponding radii at the same measuring points. The latter describes how thickness would change according to the thickness/diameter ratio./newline Hence, our analysis clearly quantifies a continuous transition of individuals with thicker central parts to individuals with flatter central parts along the water depth gradient. This is most likely controlled by light intensity, since photosymbionts (diatoms) of H. depressa are most active at low irradiation levels. Thus, shallower specimens grow thicker tests to reduce light penetration, while deeper specimens increase their surface to reach a better light exposure. Due to its broad water depth distribution H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. Since similar ecological constraints are assumed for fossil nummulitid taxa, useful palaeobathymetric information might be gathered from studying test flattening in extinct species

  15. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v).

  16. A description of an 'obesogenic' eating style that promotes higher energy intake and is associated with greater adiposity in 4.5year-old children: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-02-14

    Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, p<0.001), fewer chews per gram (r=-0.71, p<0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r=-0.25, p<0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r=0.61, p<0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p<0.01) and higher energy intakes (p<0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p<0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an 'obesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight

  17. Studies of the vestibulo-ocular reflex on STS 4, 5 and 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Pool, Sam L.; Moore, Thomas P.; Uri, John J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) may be altered by weightlessness. Since this reflex plays a large role in visual stabilization, it was important to document any changes caused by space flight. This is a report on findings on STS-4 through 6 and is part of a larger study of neurosensory adaptation done on STS-4 through 8. Voluntary horizontal head oscillations at 1/3 Hz with amplitude of 30 deg right and left of center were recorded by a potentiometer and compared to eye position recorded by electroculography under the following conditions: eyes open, head fixed, tracking horizontal targets switched 0, 15, and 30 degrees right and left (optokinetic reflex - OKR - and calibration); eyes open and fixed on static external target with oscillation, (vestibulo ocular reflex, eyes closed - VOR EC); eyes open and wearing opaque goggles with target fixed in imagination (vestibulo-ocular reflex, eyes shaded - VOR ES); and eyes open and fixed on a head synchronized target with head oscillation (VOR suppression). No significant changes were found in voluntary head oscillation frequency or amplitude in those with (n=5), and without (n=3), space motion sickness (SMS), with phase of flight or test condition. Variations in head oscillation were too small to have produced detectable changes in test results.

  18. Growing larger with domestication: a matter of physiology, morphology or allocation?

    PubMed

    Milla, R; Matesanz, S

    2017-05-01

    Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass. Despite variations among crops, domestication generally increased the aboveground biomass (average effect +1.38, Cohen's d effect size). Domesticated plants invested less in leaves and more in stems than their wild progenitors. Photosynthesis rates remained similar after domestication. Variations in whole-plant C gains could not be explained by changes in leaf photosynthesis. Leaves were larger after domestication, which provided the main contribution to increases in leaf area per plant and plant-level C gain, and ultimately to larger aboveground biomass. In general, cultivated plants have become larger since domestication. In our six crops, this occurred despite lower investment in leaves, comparable leaf-level photosynthesis and similar biomass costs of leaf area (i.e. SLA) than their wild progenitors. Increased leaf size was the main driver of increases in aboveground size. Thus, we suggest that large seeds, which are also typical of crops, might produce individuals with larger organs (i.e. leaves) via cascading effects throughout ontogeny. Larger leaves would then scale into larger whole plants, which might partly explain the increases in size that accompanied domestication.

  19. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  20. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy.

  1. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  2. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  3. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  4. Post-mortem surface features in larger foraminiferan Archaias angulatus as paleoenvironmental indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Cottey, T.L.

    1986-05-01

    Larger foraminifera are major contributors to sand-sized carbonate sediments. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll) is the dominant larger foraminiferan in the Caribbean region. A taphonomic study of this species revealed several stages of preservation from newly unaltered tests to complete destruction of outer calcite layers. Tests collected from contrasting environments in Key Largo, Florida, show different paths of degradation. Impact features and secondary growths predominate on tests collected from well-sorted sediments of the open platform, whereas dissolution features are most common on tests from the calm, muddy environment of Largo Sound. Tests from the open platform show major breakage, abundant scratches, and small, randomly spaced holes. Tests from Largo Sound show little breakage, few scratches, and loss of entire sections of the outer wall. Microborings are present on tests from both environments. This study shows that postmortem alterations of surface textures of larger foraminifera may be useful indicators of paleoenvironments of deposition.

  5. Learning curves of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy in transforaminal approach at the L4/5 and L5/S1 levels: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin-bo; Fan, Guo-xin; Gu, Xin; Shen, Tu-gang; Guan, Xiao-fei; Hu, An-nan; Zhang, Hai-long; He, Shi-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the learning curves of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) in a transforaminal approach at the L4/5 and L5/S1 levels. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the first 60 cases at the L4/5 level (Group I) and the first 60 cases at the L5/S1 level (Group II) of PELD performed by one spine surgeon. The patients were divided into subgroups A, B, and C (Group I: A cases 1–20, B cases 21–40, C cases 41–60; Group II: A cases 1–20, B cases 21–40, C cases 41–60). Operation time was thoroughly analyzed. Results: Compared with the L4/5 level, the learning curve of transforaminal PELD at the L5/S1 level was flatter. The mean operation times of Groups IA, IB, and IC were (88.75±17.02), (67.75±6.16), and (64.85±7.82) min, respectively. There was a significant difference between Groups A and B (P<0.05), but no significant difference between Groups B and C (P=0.20). The mean operation times of Groups IIA, IIB, and IIC were (117.25±13.62), (109.50±11.20), and (92.15±11.94) min, respectively. There was no significant difference between Groups A and B (P=0.06), but there was a significant difference between Groups B and C (P<0.05). There were 6 cases of postoperative dysesthesia (POD) in Group I and 2 cases in Group IIA (P=0.27). There were 2 cases of residual disc in Group I, and 4 cases in Group II (P=0.67). There were 3 cases of recurrence in Group I, and 2 cases in Group II (P>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the L5/S1 level, the learning curve of PELD in a transforaminal approach at the L4/5 level was steeper, suggesting that the L4/5 level might be easier to master after short-term professional training. PMID:27381732

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Sébastien; Orsato, Alexandre; Mologni, Luca; Bisson, William H; Donadoni, Carla; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gueyrard, David; Goekjian, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    Chromosomal translocations involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are the driving mutations for a range of cancers and ALK is thus considered an attractive therapeutic target. We synthesized a series of functionalized benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines by an aza-Graebe-Ullman reaction, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. A sequential regioselective cross-coupling route is reported for the synthesis of unsymmetrically disubstituted benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines. The inhibition of ALK was evaluated and compound 19 in particular showed good activity against both the wild type and crizotinib-resistant L1196M mutant in vitro and in ALK-transfected BaF3 cells.

  7. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazol-2-yl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R P

    2015-01-25

    The reaction of semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide with 2-arylidene-1-tetralones under alkaline condition affords 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazole-2-carbo(thio)amides as a mixture of cis and trans diastereoisomers of 3-H and 3a-H. The synthesis of new indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones from the condensation of cis isomer and α-halo acids is reported. A DFT study along with X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented. All the eight newly synthesised indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and some compounds have shown promising activities.

  8. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazol-2-yl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide with 2-arylidene-1-tetralones under alkaline condition affords 3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[g]indazole-2-carbo(thio)amides as a mixture of cis and trans diastereoisomers of 3-H and 3a-H. The synthesis of new indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones from the condensation of cis isomer and α-halo acids is reported. A DFT study along with X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented. All the eight newly synthesised indazolyl-thiazol-4(5H)-ones were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and some compounds have shown promising activities.

  9. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  10. 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m PHASE CURVES AND EVIDENCE FOR NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET HD 189733b

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, Heather A.; Lewis, Nikole; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Aigrain, Suzanne; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Henry, Gregory W.; Langton, Jonathan

    2012-07-20

    We present new, full-orbit observations of the infrared phase variations of the canonical hot Jupiter HD 189733b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. When combined with previous phase curve observations at 8.0 and 24 {mu}m, these data allow us to characterize the exoplanet's emission spectrum as a function of planetary longitude and to search for local variations in its vertical thermal profile and atmospheric composition. We utilize an improved method for removing the effects of intrapixel sensitivity variations and robustly extracting phase curve signals from these data, and we calculate our best-fit parameters and uncertainties using a wavelet-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis that accounts for the presence of time-correlated noise in our data. We measure a phase curve amplitude of 0.1242% {+-} 0.0061% in the 3.6 {mu}m band and 0.0982% {+-} 0.0089% in the 4.5 {mu}m band, corresponding to brightness temperature contrasts of 503 {+-} 21 K and 264 {+-} 24 K, respectively. We find that the times of minimum and maximum flux occur several hours earlier than predicted for an atmosphere in radiative equilibrium, consistent with the eastward advection of gas by an equatorial super-rotating jet. The locations of the flux minima in our new data differ from our previous observations at 8 {mu}m, and we present new evidence indicating that the flux minimum observed in the 8 {mu}m is likely caused by an overshooting effect in the 8 {mu}m array. We obtain improved estimates for HD 189733b's dayside planet-star flux ratio of 0.1466% {+-} 0.0040% in the 3.6 {mu}m band and 0.1787% {+-} 0.0038% in the 4.5 {mu}m band, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1328 {+-} 11 K and 1192 {+-} 9 K, respectively; these are the most accurate secondary eclipse depths obtained to date for an extrasolar planet. We compare our new dayside and nightside spectra for HD 189733b to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer models from

  11. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Leavitt Law at 3.6 microns and 4.5 microns in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focuses on the period-luminosity relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly-sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. Period- luminosity and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 micron band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]-[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid s atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 micron flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  13. Annexin 2 Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate on Endocytic Vesicles Is Regulated by the Stress Response Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Matthew J.; Merrifield, Christien J.; Shao, Dongmin; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus; Schorey, Crislyn D’Souza; Levine, Tim P.; Proust, Jezabel; Curran, Julie; Bailly, Maryse; Moss, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Annexin 2 is a Ca2+-binding protein that has an essential role in actin-dependent macropinosome motility. We show here that macropinosome rocketing can be induced by hyperosmotic shock, either alone or synergistically when combined with phorbol ester or pervanadate. Rocketing was blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(s), p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and calcium, suggesting the involvement of phosphoinositide signaling. Since various phosphoinositides are enriched on inwardly mobile vesicles, we examined whether or not annexin 2 binds to any of this class of phospholipid. In liposome sedimentation assays, we show that recombinant annexin 2 binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5P2) but not to other poly- and mono-phosphoinositides. The affinity of annexin 2 for PtdIns-4,5P2 (KD ~5 μm) is comparable with those reported for a variety of PtdIns-4,5P2-binding proteins and is enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. Although annexin 1 also bound to PtdIns-4,5P2, annexin 5 did not, indicating that this is not a generic annexin property. To test whether annexin 2 binds to PtdIns-4,5P2 in vivo, we microinjected rat basophilic leukemia cells stably expressing annexin 2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) with fluorescently tagged antibodies to PtdIns-4,5P2. Annexin 2-GFP and anti-PtdIns-4,5P2 IgG co-localize at sites of pinosome formation, and annexin 2-GFP relocalizes to intracellular membranes in Ptk cells microinjected with Arf6Q67L, which has been shown to stimulate PtdIns-4,5P2 synthesis on pinosomes through activation of phosphatidylinositol 5 kinase. These results establish a novel phospholipid-binding specificity for annexin 2 consistent with a role in mediating the interaction between the macropinosome surface and the polymerized actin tail. PMID:14734570

  14. Regulation of histamine- and UTP-induced increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins (1,3,4,5)P4 and Ca2+ by cyclic AMP in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sipma, H; Duin, M; Hoiting, B; den Hertog, A; Nelemans, A

    1995-01-01

    1. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors with UTP or histamine H1-receptors with histamine gave rise to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4) in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. 2. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors or histamine H1-receptors caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, consisting of an initial peak, representing the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and a sustained phase representing Ca2+ influx. 3. The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry mechanism was more sensitive to UTP than Ca(2+)-mobilization (EC50: 3.3 microM +/- 0.4 microM vs 55.1 microM +/- 9.2 microM), in contrast to these processes activated by histamine H1-receptors (EC50: 5.8 microM +/- 0.6 microM vs 3.1 microM +/- 0.5 microM). 4. Pre-stimulation of cells with several adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) elevating agents, reduced the histamine H1-receptor-mediated formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. Forskolin completely inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation (IC50: 158 +/- 24 nM) whereas Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 formation was inhibited by only 45% (IC50: 173 +/- 16 nM). The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated production of these inositol phosphates was not affected by cyclic AMP. 5. Forskolin and isoprenaline reduced the histamine-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, as measured in Ca2+ containing medium and in nominally Ca(2+)-free medium but did not change the UTP-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+. 6. These results clearly demonstrate that cyclic AMP differentially regulates components of the histamine induced phospholipase C signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, cyclic AMP does not affect the phospholipase C pathway activated by stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

  15. Small chemicals with inhibitory effects on PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding of Btk PH domain.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Youngdae

    2014-05-15

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-5-triphosphates (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) formed by phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) had been known as a signaling molecule that plays important roles in diverse cellular processes such as cell signaling, metabolism, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates diverse cellular processes by recruiting effector proteins to the specific cellular locations for correct functions. In this study, we reported the inhibitory effect of small chemicals on the interaction between PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-Btk PH domain. Small chemicals were synthesized based on structural similarity of PtdInsP head-groups, and tested the inhibitory effects in vitro via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). As a result, the chemical 8 showed highest inhibitory effect with 17μM of IC50 value. To elucidate diverse inhibitory effects of different small chemicals we employed in silico docking experiment using molecular modeling and simulation. The result of docking experiments showed chemical 8 has more hydrogen bonding with the residues in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site of Btk PH domain than others. Overall, our studies demonstrate the efficient approach to develop lipid binding inhibitors, and further we can use these chemicals to regulate effector proteins. In addition, our study would provide new insight that lipid binding domain may be the attractive therapeutic targets to treat severe human diseases.

  16. 5-Stabilized phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate analogues bind Grp1 PH, inhibit phosphoinositide phosphatases, and block neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglu; He, Ju; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Sakai, Takahiro; Sasaki, Takehiko; Markadieu, Nicolas; Erneux, Christophe; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2010-02-15

    Metabolically stabilized analogues of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 have shown long-lived agonist activity for cellular events and selective inhibition of lipid phosphatase activity. We describe an efficient asymmetric synthesis of two 5-phosphatase-resistant analogues of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, the 5-methylene phosphonate (MP) and 5-phosphorothioate (PT). Furthermore, we illustrate the biochemical and biological activities of five stabilized PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 analogues in four contexts. First, the relative binding affinities of the 3-MP, 3-PT, 5-MP, 5-PT, and 3,4,5-PT3 analogues to the Grp1 PH domain are shown, as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Second, the enzymology of the five analogues is explored, showing the relative efficiency of inhibition of SHIP1, SHIP2, and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), as well as the greatly reduced ability of these phosphatases to process these analogues as substrates as compared to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Third, exogenously delivered analogues severely impair complement factor C5a-mediated polarization and migration of murine neutrophils. Finally, the new analogues show long-lived agonist activity in mimicking insulin action in sodium transport in A6 cells.

  17. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  18. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately

  19. Southeast Asia: Problems and Prospects Held at Washington, DC on 4-5 December 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    coca cola there! What are the issues and prospects within this family? We have a very strong solidarity. When we talk about Cambodia and Vietnam, you...magnitude of shocks thus become the key ingredients . In Thailand the depth of the current evolution depends on time for n:urturing and on the abeyance

  20. Phosphatidic acid increases inositol-1,4,5,-trisphosphate and [Ca2+]i levels in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Xu, Y; Hopfner, R L; Gopalakrishnan, V

    1999-08-25

    Phosphatidic acid (PA), which can be synthesized de novo, or as a product of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and/or phosphorylation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), mediates diverse cellular functions in various cell types, including cardiomyocytes. We set out to characterize the effect of PA on intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels in primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Addition of PA led to rapid, concentration and time dependent increases in both IP(3) and [Ca2+]i levels in adherent cells. There was strong correlation in the concentration-response relationships between IP(3) and [Ca2+]i increases evoked by PA. Incubation with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), significantly attenuated the PA evoked [Ca2+]i increase but had no significant effect on IP(3) accumulation. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, D-609, attenuated both IP(3) and [Ca2+]i elevations evoked by PA whereas staurosporine (STS), a potent and non-selective PKC inhibitor, had no significant effect on either. Another PLC inhibitor, U73122, but not its inactive analog, U73343, also inhibited PA evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. Depletion of extracellular calcium attenuated both basal and PA evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. The PLA(2) inhibitors, bromophenylacyl-bromide (BPB) and CDP-choline, had no effect on PA evoked [Ca2+]i responses. Neither the DAG analog, dioctanoylglycerol, nor the DAG kinase inhibitor, R59949, affected PA evoked changes in [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these data indicate that PA, in a manner independent of PKC, DAG, or PLA(2), may enhance Ca2+ release from IP(3) sensitive SR Ca(2+) stores via activation of PLC in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

  1. Kinetics and Threshold Level of 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorobiphenyl Dechlorination by an Organohalide Respiring Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The time required for a PCB-contaminated site to recover cannot yet be predicted due in part to lack of quantitative information on rates of PCB dechlorination in the porewater phase. We developed a method to measure rate of dechlorination in the aqueous phase at very low PCB concentrations. This approach utilizes a polymer functioning concurrently as a passive dosing system for maintaining a steady-state PCB substrate concentration in the water phase and as a passive equilibrium sampler to monitor the dechlorination product. Rates of dechlorination of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 61) to 2,3,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 23) by an organohalide respiring bacterium, Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF-1, were measured over an environmentally relevant range of 1 to 500 ng L–1 in sediment-free medium using a high concentration of cells (>106 cells mL–1). The results indicate that rate of dechlorination is a linear function of PCB substrate concentration below the maximum aqueous solubility of PCB 61 and occurs at concentrations as low as 1 ng L–1. Demonstration of PCB 61 dechlorination at environmentally relevant concentrations suggests that low numbers of organohalide respiring bacteria rather than bioavailability accounts for low rates of dechlorination typically observed in sediments. Using passive samplers to measure the concentration of dissolved PCBs in the porewater combined with knowledge of congener-specific rates for organohalide respirer(s), it will be possible to project the in situ rate and final concentration of PCBs for a specific site after treatment by bioaugmentation. PMID:24625226

  2. The Non-linear Health Consequences of Living in Larger Cities.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luis E C; Thorson, Anna E; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization promotes economy, mobility, access, and availability of resources, but on the other hand, generates higher levels of pollution, violence, crime, and mental distress. The health consequences of the agglomeration of people living close together are not fully understood. Particularly, it remains unclear how variations in the population size across cities impact the health of the population. We analyze the deviations from linearity of the scaling of several health-related quantities, such as the incidence and mortality of diseases, external causes of death, wellbeing, and health care availability, in respect to the population size of cities in Brazil, Sweden, and the USA. We find that deaths by non-communicable diseases tend to be relatively less common in larger cities, whereas the per capita incidence of infectious diseases is relatively larger for increasing population size. Healthier lifestyle and availability of medical support are disproportionally higher in larger cities. The results are connected with the optimization of human and physical resources and with the non-linear effects of social networks in larger populations. An urban advantage in terms of health is not evident, and using rates as indicators to compare cities with different population sizes may be insufficient.

  3. Mesoscale Mountains and the Larger-scale Atmospheric Dynamics A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schär, C.

    INTRODUCTION REGIME DIAGRAM FOR FLOW PAST TOPOGRAPHY Balanced Solutions Wake Formation and Transition into the Dissipative Regime Flow Regimes for Major Topographic Obstacles INTERACTIONS WITH THE BALANCED LARGER-SCALE DYNAMICS Surface Potential Temperature Anomalies Potential Vorticity Anomalies NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF ALPINE WAKES OUTLOOK REFERNCES

  4. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin.

  5. The Conversion of Smaller Borane Fragments to Larger Structures. Systematics of Boron Hydride Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Robert W. Parry and Goji Kodama Contract DAAG-29-8rl-K-Ol0l S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK S Department of...Entered; THE CONVERSION OF SMALLER BORANE FRAGMENTS TO LARGER STRUCTURES - SYSTEMATICS OF BORON HYDRIDE REACTIONS FINAL REPORT ROBERT W. PARRY AND GOJI

  6. Features of Capillary Breakup of a Liquid Jet at Ohnesorge Numbers Larger Than Unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the forced capillary breakup of a jet of viscous liquid at a value of the Ohnesorge number larger than unity. The regions of breakup of the jet without the formation of satellites have been determined. The dependences of the dimensions of main and satellite droplets on the wave number have been obtained for different Ohnesorge numbers.

  7. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  8. A Larger and Wealthier Hispanic Community Draws the Attention of College Fund Raisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1997-01-01

    Statistics showing that the U.S. Hispanic population is getting larger and wealthier have altered perceptions that this is a community in need. College officials, particularly in states with large Hispanic populations, are courting Hispanic business owners and establishing networks through Hispanic alumni groups. However, some fear that…

  9. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. 3. View of larger DL&W passenger terminal building looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of larger DL&W passenger terminal building looking southeast from beginning of South Park Avenue. Skyway is at extreme right. Train shed is at extreme left. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. The Brain Connection: The Corpus Callosum is Larger in Left-Handers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witelson, Sandra F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the neurobiological basis for functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, indicating that the size of the corpus callosum is correlated with the neurophysiological measure of hand preference. In postmortem examinations of 42 subjects there were no sex differences, but mixed-handers had significantly larger total areas of the…

  12. Multilayer coated grazing incidence condenser for large numerical aperture objective at wavelength of 4.5 nm.

    PubMed

    Ejima, T; Hatano, T; Ohno, K; Fukayama, T; Aihara, S; Yanagihara, M; Tsuru, T

    2014-10-10

    A grazing incidence condenser is developed for objectives with large numerical aperture working in Carbon-window wavelength region (λ=4.4-5.0  nm) with the use of a point light source. The condenser is composed of four pieces of toroidal mirrors and a piece of the mirror was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the mirror. The radii of the toroidal mirror are determined by ray-trace calculation, and each radius of the mirror substrate and the roughness of the polished surface were evaluated to satisfy the designed parameter. A Co/C reflection multilayer is also designed to reflect soft x-ray light at 4.5 nm wavelength, and the reflection multilayer was deposited on the mirror surface. Measured reflectance of the toroidal mirror with the reflection multilayer is higher than 0.32 at 4.5 nm wavelength.

  13. Multivalent benzene polyphosphate derivatives are non-Ca(2+)-mobilizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Luyten, Tomas; Erneux, Christophe; Parys, Jan B; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-12-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P31] mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) through the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor [InsP3R]. Although some progress has been made in the design of synthetic InsP3R partial agonists and antagonists, there are still few examples of useful small molecule competitive antagonists. A "multivalent" approach is explored and new dimeric polyphosphorylated aromatic derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The established weak InsP3R ligand benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4)P32] is dimerized through its 5-position in two different ways, first directly as the biphenyl derivative biphenyl 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate, [BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P68] and with its regioisomeric biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P611]. Secondly, a linker motif is introduced in a flexible ethylene-bridged dimer (9) with its corresponding 1,2-bisphosphate dimer (10), both loosely analogous to the very weak antagonist 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA 7). In permeabilized L15 fibroblasts overexpressing type 1 InsP3R, BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8) inhibits Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca(2+) release in a apparently competitive fashion [IC50 187 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 dimer (9) is only slightly weaker [IC50 380 nM]. Compounds were also evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. All compounds are resistant to dephosphorylation, with BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8), being the most effective inhibitor of any biphenyl derivative synthesized to date [IC50 480 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 ethylene dimer (9) weaker [IC50 3.55 μM]. BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 (11) also inhibits 5-phosphatase [IC50 730 nM] and exhibits unexpected Ca(2+) releasing activity [EC50 800 nM]. Thus, relocation of only a single mirrored phenyl phosphate group in (11) from that of antagonist (8) does not markedly change enzyme inhibitory activity, but elicits a dramatic switch in Ca(2+)-releasing activity. Such new agents demonstrate the

  14. Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-4.5wt% Cu reinforced with alumina nanoparticles by stir casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valibeygloo, N.; Azari Khosroshahi, R.; Taherzadeh Mousavian, R.

    2013-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-4.5wt% Cu alloy reinforced with different volume fractions (1.5vol%, 3vol%, and 5vol%) of alumina nanoparticles, fabricated using stir casting method, were investigated. Calculated amounts of alumina nanoparticles (about ϕ50 nm in size) were ball-milled with aluminum powders in a planetary ball mill for 5 h, and then the packets of milled powders were incorporated into molten Al-4.5wt% Cu alloy. Microstructural studies of the nanocomposites reveal a uniform distribution of alumina nanoparticles in the Al-4.5wt% Cu matrix. The results indicate an outstanding improvement in compression strength and hardness due to the effect of nanoparticle addition. The aging behavior of the composite is also evaluated, indicating that the addition of alumina nanoparticles can accelerate the aging process of the alloy, resulting in higher peak hardness values.

  15. Lipotoxic disruption of NHE1 interaction with PI(4,5)P2 expedites proximal tubule apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shenaz; Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Goel, Monu; Schilling, William P; Parker, Mark D; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Yadav, Satya P; Harris, Raymond C; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; Hoshi, Malcolm; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Deschênes, Isabelle; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease progression can be predicted based on the degree of tubular atrophy, which is the result of proximal tubule apoptosis. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulates proximal tubule cell survival through interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], but pathophysiologic triggers for NHE1 inactivation are unknown. Because glomerular injury permits proximal tubule luminal exposure and reabsorption of fatty acid/albumin complexes, we hypothesized that accumulation of amphipathic, long-chain acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) metabolites stimulates lipoapoptosis by competing with the structurally similar PI(4,5)P2 for NHE1 binding. Kidneys from mouse models of progressive, albuminuric kidney disease exhibited increased fatty acids, LC-CoAs, and caspase-2-dependent proximal tubule lipoapoptosis. LC-CoAs and the cytosolic domain of NHE1 directly interacted, with an affinity comparable to that of the PI(4,5)P2-NHE1 interaction, and competing LC-CoAs disrupted binding of the NHE1 cytosolic tail to PI(4,5)P2. Inhibition of LC-CoA catabolism reduced NHE1 activity and enhanced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of proximal tubule LC-CoA generation preserved NHE1 activity and protected against apoptosis. Our data indicate that albuminuria/lipiduria enhances lipotoxin delivery to the proximal tubule and accumulation of LC-CoAs contributes to tubular atrophy by severing the NHE1-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, thereby lowering the apoptotic threshold. Furthermore, these data suggest that NHE1 functions as a metabolic sensor for lipotoxicity.

  16. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

  17. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  18. Synthesis of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives containing 4,5-dihydropyrazole moiety to scavenge radicals and to protect DNA.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan; Luo, Xu-Yang; Li, De-Jun; Lu, Hang; Liu, Zai-Qun; Song, Zhi-Guang; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2012-07-01

    A series of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives containing 4,5-dihydropyrazole moiety were synthesized and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride))-induced oxidation of DNA, and in trapping DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS(+•) (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical), respectively. Among coumarin derivatives, 3a-d and 4a-c exhibited the termination of radical propagation-chains in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA. The ortho dihydroxyphenyl substitution at 5 position and 1-unsubstitution of the 4,5-dihydroxylpyrazole was found enhancing the antioxidant activities of these coumarin derivatives.

  19. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75-80K and 4.5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Yehia; Zimmerman, George O.; Powers, Jr., Robert E.; McConeghy, Randy J.; Kaplan, Alvaro

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K. and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizationl arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained.

  20. OH-radical induced degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA): A pulse radiolysis and gamma-radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Robert; Solar, Sonja; Sehested, Knud

    2012-02-01

    The reactions of rad OH, H rad and e aq- with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were studied by pulse radiolysis. The site of rad OH-radicals addition to the aromatic ring of 2,4,5-T was found to be—C1: ˜18%, C2/C4/C5: total ˜28% and C3/C6: total ˜41%. The overall rate constants with OH-radicals were k( rad OH+2,4,5-T)=6.4 (±0.5)×10 9 mol dm -3 s -1 and k( rad OH+MCPA)=8.5 (±0.8)×10 9 mol dm -3 s -1. The radiation induced decomposition of the pesticides, chloride- and product formation (phenolic compounds, aliphatic acids) was studied by gamma radiolysis as a function of dose. A mechanism for acetate formation is discussed. The presence of oxygen during irradiation affected the decomposition rate only indiscernibly, however, chloride elimination, ring fragmentation (formation of aliphatic acids), TOC- and toxicity reduction were strongly enhanced. For complete removal of 500 μmol dm -3 herbicides a dose of ˜4 kGy was required. Using air saturation during irradiation a reduction of 37-40% of the TOC was observable at 5 kGy, detoxification (luminescence inhibition <20%) was achieved with 10 kGy.

  1. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  2. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol mimic bradykinin effects on mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D A; Higashida, H

    1988-01-01

    1. The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) as possible mediators of the membrane current responses of NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells to bradykinin (BK, Brown & Higashida, 1988b) has been tested using intracellular ionophoresis of InsP3 and external application of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG). 2. Intracellular ionophoresis of InsP3 into cells clamped at -30 to -50 mV produced (i) a transient outward current, (ii) a transient outward current followed by an inward current, or (iii) an inward current. All currents were accompanied by an increased input conductance. 3. The transient outward current reversed at between -80 and -90 mV. The reversal potential was shifted to more positive potentials on raising extracellular [K+], suggesting that it resulted from an increased K+ conductance. 4. The outward current was inhibited by apamin (0.4 microM) or d-tubocurarine (0.2-0.5 mM); these drugs also inhibit the outward current produced by BK or by intracellular Ca2+ injections (Brown & Higashida, 1988 a, b). The outward current was also slowly reduced in 0 mM [Ca2+] or 0.5 mM [Cd2+] plus 2 mM [Co2+] solution. 5. Ionophoretic injection of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, guanosine trisphosphate or inorganic phosphate did not evoke an outward current but produced only an inward current with an increased conductance, reversing at between -10 and -20 mV. 6. Bath application of PDBu (10 nM-1 microM) or OAG (1-10 microM) produced an inward current with a fall in input conductance. The inward current was voltage dependent and was accompanied by an inhibition of the time-dependent current relaxations associated with activation or deactivation of the voltage-dependent K+ current, IM. 7. PDBu did not clearly reduce the Ca2+ current or the Ca2+-dependent K+ current recorded in these cells. During superfusion with PDBu, the outward current produced by intracellular

  3. Biochemical Analysis of Yeast Suppressor of Ty 4/5 (Spt4/5) Reveals the Importance of Nucleic Acid Interactions in the Prevention of RNA Polymerase II Arrest.

    PubMed

    Crickard, J Brooks; Fu, Jianhua; Reese, Joseph C

    2016-05-06

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) undergoes structural changes during the transitions from initiation, elongation, and termination, which are aided by a collection of proteins called elongation factors. NusG/Spt5 is the only elongation factor conserved in all domains of life. Although much information exists about the interactions between NusG/Spt5 and RNA polymerase in prokaryotes, little is known about how the binding of eukaryotic Spt4/5 affects the biochemical activities of RNAPII. We characterized the activities of Spt4/5 and interrogated the structural features of Spt5 required for it to interact with elongation complexes, bind nucleic acids, and promote transcription elongation. The eukaryotic specific regions of Spt5 containing the Kyrpides, Ouzounis, Woese domains are involved in stabilizing the association with the RNAPII elongation complex, which also requires the presence of the nascent transcript. Interestingly, we identify a region within the conserved NusG N-terminal (NGN) domain of Spt5 that contacts the non-template strand of DNA both upstream of RNAPII and in the transcription bubble. Mutating charged residues in this region of Spt5 did not prevent Spt4/5 binding to elongation complexes, but abrogated the cross-linking of Spt5 to DNA and the anti-arrest properties of Spt4/5, thus suggesting that contact between Spt5 (NGN) and DNA is required for Spt4/5 to promote elongation. We propose that the mechanism of how Spt5/NGN promotes elongation is fundamentally conserved; however, the eukaryotic specific regions of the protein evolved so that it can serve as a platform for other elongation factors and maintain its association with RNAPII as it navigates genomes packaged into chromatin.

  4. [3H]inositol polyphosphate metabolism in muscarinic cholinoceptor-stimulated airways smooth muscle: accumulation of [3H]inositol 4,5 bisphosphate via a lithium-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lynch, B J; Muqit, M M; Walker, T R; Chilvers, E R

    1997-02-01

    Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis is the principal mechanism underlying pharmacomechanical coupling in airways smooth muscle. In bovine tracheal smooth muscle, activation of muscarinic cholinoceptors results in sustained phospholipase C-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis but transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation, which implies agonist-stimulated metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3. To investigate the metabolic fate of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in bovine tracheal smooth muscle, we developed a [3H]inositol-labeling protocol wherein more than 98% of the [3H]inositol polyphosphates that accumulated over a 0 to 30-min incubation with 100 microM carbachol in the presence of 5 mM LiCl were derived from [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and wherein the Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.127) and 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) pathways generated a set of mutually exclusive [3H]-inositol polyphosphate isomers. Under these conditions, the 5-phosphatase pathway was shown to be the dominant route for [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism at all time intervals measured, especially at early times (0-300 sec), where it accounted for more than 85% of [H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism. We also observed accumulation of a novel agonist and LiCl-sensitive [3H]InsP2 isomer identified as [3H]Ins(4,5)P2. The presence of a LiCI-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.57) was demonstrated, and high LiCl concentrations (30 mM) caused a significant enhancement of [3H]Ins(1,4)P2 accumulation and a corresponding decline in [3H]Ins4P levels. Because nearly identical bell-shaped LiCl concentration-response curves were obtained for [H]Ins4P and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation, and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 was not generated under conditions expected to stimulate phospholipase D, these data suggest that the most likely precurser of [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 is [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3. This is the first demonstration of Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation in a non-neuronal cell type, and the foregoing data suggest a novel route of formation via an Ins(1,4,5)P3 1-phosphatase

  5. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  6. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  7. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Erickson, David J; Branstetter, Marcia; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-09-15

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  8. New nonbinary quantum codes with larger distance constructed from BCH codes over 𝔽q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Yuena; Guo, Luobin

    2017-03-01

    This paper concentrates on construction of new nonbinary quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of narrow-sense imprimitive BCH codes over finite field 𝔽q2 (q ≥ 3 is an odd prime power). By a careful analysis on properties of cyclotomic cosets in defining set T of these BCH codes, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing BCH codes is determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. [S. A. Aly, A. Klappenecker and P. K. Sarvepalli, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53, 1183 (2007)] for each different code length. Thus families of new nonbinary QECCs are constructed, and the newly obtained QECCs have larger distance than those in previous literature.

  9. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  10. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  11. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  12. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G.; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S.; Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions. PMID:26617418

  13. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S; Zúñiga-Vega, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions.

  14. Assessment of Gaussian-3 and density functional theories for a larger experimental test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtiss, Larry A.; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Redfern, Paul C.; Pople, John A.

    2000-05-01

    The G2/97 test set [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1063 (1997)] for assessing quantum chemical methods used to predict thermochemical data is expanded to include 75 additional enthalpies of formation of larger molecules. This new set, referred to as the G3/99 test set, includes enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and proton affinities in the G2/97 set and 75 new enthalpies of formation. The total number of energies in the G3/99 set is 376. Overall, G3 theory has a mean absolute deviation of 1.07 kcal/mol for the G3/99 test set and does about as well for the new hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons as it does for those in the G2/97 test. However, G3 theory has large deviations for several of the new nonhydrogen systems in the G3/99 test set such as SF6 and PF5. Part of the source of error is traced to the inadequate geometries used in G3 theory for these molecules. Other variations of G3 theory are also assessed such as G3(MP2), G3(MP3), and the versions of G3 theory using scaled energy terms instead of the higher level correction. These variations also do well for the larger hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons, but fail for the same nonhydrogen systems as G3 theory. The density functional methods assessed in this study, including the hybrid B3LYP method, all have much larger deviations from experiment for the new enthalpies of formation in the expanded test set; the mean absolute deviation more than doubles compared to that for the enthalpies in the G2/97 test set. This is due to a cumulative effect of the errors in the larger molecules in the density functional methods.

  15. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    PubMed

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  16. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations.

  17. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles.

  18. Teachers' Evaluation of KBSM Form 4, 5 English Textbooks Used in the Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Hooi Shyan; Knight, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the suitability of Form 4, 5 KBSM English textbooks used in Penang public secondary schools, Malaysia. It aims to investigate the relevance of the current textbooks to the needs of learners and the requirement of public examinations. A checklist is used to gauge teachers' viewpoints while subsequent interview…

  19. 5,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxine-2-thione

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-nan; Xiao, Xun-wen; Cai, Tongjiang; Huang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C5H4O2S3, consists of a planar [mean deviation = 0.020 (1) Å] 1,3-dithiole-2-thione unit with an ethyl­enedi­oxy group in the 4,5-positions. The dioxine ring is in a twist-chair conformation. PMID:21754789

  20. 5,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dioxine-2-thione.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Xiao, Xun-Wen; Cai, Tongjiang; Huang, Qin

    2011-06-01

    The title mol-ecule, C(5)H(4)O(2)S(3), consists of a planar [mean deviation = 0.020 (1) Å] 1,3-dithiole-2-thione unit with an ethyl-enedi-oxy group in the 4,5-positions. The dioxine ring is in a twist-chair conformation.

  1. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  2. A global analysis of transcription reveals two modes of Spt4/5 recruitment to archaeal RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Smollett, Katherine; Blombach, Fabian; Reichelt, Robert; Thomm, Michael; Werner, Finn

    2017-03-01

    The archaeal transcription apparatus is closely related to the eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) II system, while archaeal genomes are more similar to bacteria with densely packed genes organized in operons. This makes understanding transcription in archaea vital, both in terms of molecular mechanisms and evolution. Very little is known about how archaeal cells orchestrate transcription on a systems level. We have characterized the genome-wide occupancy of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii transcription machinery and its transcriptome. Our data reveal how the TATA and BRE promoter elements facilitate recruitment of the essential initiation factors TATA-binding protein and transcription factor B, respectively, which in turn are responsible for the loading of RNAP into the transcription units. The occupancies of RNAP and Spt4/5 strongly correlate with each other and with RNA levels. Our results show that Spt4/5 is a general elongation factor in archaea as its presence on all genes matches RNAP. Spt4/5 is recruited proximal to the transcription start site on the majority of transcription units, while on a subset of genes, including rRNA and CRISPR loci, Spt4/5 is recruited to the transcription elongation complex during early elongation within 500 base pairs of the transcription start site and akin to its bacterial homologue NusG.

  3. Impaired permeability to Ins(1,4,5)P3 in a mutant connexin underlies recessive hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Beltramello, Martina; Piazza, Valeria; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Pozzan, Tullio; Mammano, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Connexins are membrane proteins that assemble into gap-junction channels and are responsible for direct, electrical and metabolic coupling between connected cells. Here we describe an investigation of the properties of a recombinantly expressed recessive mutant of connexin 26 (Cx26), the V84L mutant, associated with deafness. Unlike other Cx26 mutations, V84L affects neither intracellular sorting nor electrical coupling, but specifically reduces permeability to the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)). Both the permeability to Lucifer Yellow and the unitary channel conductance of V84L-mutant channels are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type Cx26. Injection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) into supporting cells of the rat organ of Corti, which abundantly express Cx26, ensues in a regenerative wave of Ca(2+) throughout the tissue. Blocking the gap junction communication abolishes wave propagation. We propose that the V84L mutation reduces metabolic coupling mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3) to an extent sufficient to impair the propagation of Ca(2+) waves and the formation of a functional syncytium. Our data provide the first demonstration of a specific defect of metabolic coupling and offer a mechanistic explanation for the pathogenesis of an inherited human disease.

  4. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  5. OCRL controls trafficking through early endosomes via PtdIns4,5P2-dependent regulation of endosomal actin

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Di Campli, Antonella; Polishchuk, Elena; Santoro, Michele; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Godi, Anna; Levtchenko, Elena; De Leo, Maria Giovanna; Polishchuk, Roman; Sandoval, Lisette; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome, which is characterised by congenital cataracts, central hypotonia, and renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that OCRL interacts with components of the endosomal machinery; however, its role in endocytosis, and thus the pathogenic mechanisms of Lowe syndrome, have remained elusive. Here, we show that via its 5-phosphatase activity, OCRL controls early endosome (EE) function. OCRL depletion impairs the recycling of multiple classes of receptors, including megalin (which mediates protein reabsorption in the kidney) that are retained in engorged EEs. These trafficking defects are caused by ectopic accumulation of PtdIns4,5P2 in EEs, which in turn induces an N-WASP-dependent increase in endosomal F-actin. Our data provide a molecular explanation for renal proximal tubular dysfunction in Lowe syndrome and highlight that tight control of PtdIns4,5P2 and F-actin at the EEs is essential for exporting cargoes that transit this compartment. PMID:21971085

  6. Using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 Program, to Teach Single-Subject Experimentation with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermer, Marshall Lev

    2004-01-01

    Students enrolled in a single-subject design course studied the repeated acquisition of response sequences by using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 program, which runs in DOS or Windows. For about 2 months, students examined the learning of such sequences as a function of various treatments. Each week students graphed their data, discussed their…

  7. Climate-vegetation interactions in the coupled RegCM4 - CLM4.5 CNDV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Luca; Giuliani, Graziano; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    We use the latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) including a dynamic vegetation model to study biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system related to vegetation composition and structure. Sets of parallel experiments are conducted over the Africa and South America CORDEX domains using the RegCM4-CLM4.5 in its standard configuration and with the CNDV activated (CLM 4.5 with both the Carbon Nitrogen and the Dynamic Vegetation Model activated). The potential role of regional vegetation feedbacks within the climate system and the impact of climate variability and change on the ecosystem dynamics is assessed for both domains. In addition, the sensitivity to initial vegetation conditions and different idealized climate forcings is investigated. Preliminary results show that the changes in the climate forcing can have substantial effects on the dynamics and evolution of different vegetation types over both domains, and that the vegetation coupling can have a substantial effect on the simulated regional climate regimes. Our results thus indicate on the one hand that climate change can have profound effects on the evolution of important ecosystems for the two regions, and on the other that vegetation dynamics can indeed affect the climate response at the regional scale.

  8. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid in cultured cells of lettuce leaves.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Akioka, Takashi; Ueno, Koichi; Chujyo, Takeshi; Okazaki, Katsu-ichiro; King, Peter J; Robinson, W Edward

    2006-04-01

    3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) that is not found in intact plant of lettuce leaves was isolated from the cultured cells. The intact plant produced chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid: L-CCA) as well as chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid: 3-CQA) as the major metabolites. After subculturing of the cells for 40 days, the amount of 3,4,5-TCQA reached to 0.14 mg/g fresh weight. The inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type 1 integrase was assayed. Anti-HIV activity using HIV and MT-2 cells was 1.15 microM and IC(50) against HIV integrase was 0.063 microM whereas cell toxicity of this chemical was expressed as 5% death of all living cells to be 18.4 microM. The HIV inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA was the highest in values among L-CCA, and other dicaffeoylquinic acids. This data will provide a new possibility for creating a new drug design for HIV.

  9. Synthesis of 3-Substituted Aryl[4,5]isothiazoles through an All-Heteroatom Wittig-Equivalent Process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fanghui; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Erkang; Sun, Zhihua

    2016-06-03

    Extending the previous use of tert-butyl sulfoxide as the sulfinyl source, intramolecular sulfinylation of sulfonamides was successfully performed. The resulting sulfinimides were not isolated and instead were believed to go through an all-heteroatom Wittig-equivalent process to eventually afford aryl[4,5]isothiazoles in high yields.

  10. Motion Popout in Selective Visual Orienting at 4.5 but Not at 2 Months in Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemiller, James L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of element density on selective orienting was examined in 2 experiments with 2- and 4.5-month-old infants. Selective visual orienting to a singleton oscillating target that appeared with other static bars was used to study the effects of element density. Increasing the set size and density of the static bars decreased selective…

  11. Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; Gasser, T.; Fader, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Kato, E.; Li, W.; Lindeskog, M.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Robertson, E.; Viovy, N.; Yue, C.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change and CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  12. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities.

  13. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  14. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  15. Bioinjection Performance Review for the Building 100 Area and 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Survochak, Scott; Daniel, Joe

    2016-05-01

    This document provides a summary of a review of the performance of bioinjection activities at the Building 100 Area and the 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site since 2010, determines how best to optimize future injection events, and identifies the approach for the bioinjection event in 2016 at (1) the 4.5 Acre Site and (2) the Essentra property at the Building 100 Area. Because this document describes the next bioinjection event at the 4.5 Acre Site, it also serves as an addendum to the Interim Remedial Action Plan for Emulsified Edible Oil Injection at the 4.5 Acre Site (DOE 2013). In addition, this document revises the injection layout and injection intervals for the Essentra property that were originally described in the Interim Corrective Measure Work Plan for Source and Plume Treatment at the Building 100 Area (DOE 2014), and is a de facto update of that document. Bioinjection consists of injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DHM; formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface to enhance biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE), dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). VC is the only contaminant that exceeds its maximum contaminant level (10 micrograms per liter onsite and 1 microgram per liter onsite) on the 4.5 Acre Site and the Essentra property. Bioinjection was conducted at the 4.5 Acre Site in 2010 and 2013. Approximately 49,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 95 injection points in February 2010, and approximately 22,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 46 injection points in July 2013. The injection locations are shown on Figure 1. The goal of bioinjection at the 4.5 Acre Site is to decrease contaminant concentrations to maximum contaminant levels along the west and southwest property boundaries (to meet risk–based corrective action requirements) and to minimize the extent of the contaminant plume in the interior of the site. Bioinjection was

  16. Defining the functional domain of programmed cell death 10 through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Christopher F; Horst, Jeremy A; Malone, Michael H; Park, Kun; Temple, Brenda; Cheeseman, Holly; Barbaro, Justin R; Johnson, Gary L; Bencharit, Sompop

    2010-07-23

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system predisposing blood vessels to leakage, leading to hemorrhagic stroke. Three genes, Krit1 (CCM1), OSM (CCM2), and PDCD10 (CCM3) are involved in CCM development. PDCD10 binds specifically to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and OSM. Using threading analysis and multi-template modeling, we constructed a three-dimensional model of PDCD10. PDCD10 appears to be a six-helical-bundle protein formed by two heptad-repeat-hairpin structures (alpha1-3 and alpha4-6) sharing the closest 3D homology with the bacterial phosphate transporter, PhoU. We identified a stretch of five lysines forming an amphipathic helix, a potential PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site, in the alpha5 helix. We generated a recombinant wild-type (WT) and three PDCD10 mutants that have two (Delta2KA), three (Delta3KA), and five (Delta5KA) K to A mutations. Delta2KA and Delta3KA mutants hypothetically lack binding residues to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 at the beginning and the end of predicted helix, while Delta5KA completely lacks all predicted binding residues. The WT, Delta2KA, and Delta3KA mutants maintain their binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Only the Delta5KA abolishes binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Both Delta5KA and WT show similar secondary and tertiary structures; however, Delta5KA does not bind to OSM. When WT and Delta5KA are co-expressed with membrane-bound constitutively-active PI3 kinase (p110-CAAX), the majority of the WT is co-localized with p110-CAAX at the plasma membrane where PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is presumably abundant. In contrast, the Delta5KA remains in the cytoplasm and is not present in the plasma membrane. Combining computational modeling and biological data, we propose that the CCM protein complex functions in the PI3K signaling pathway through the interaction between PDCD10 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3.

  17. Reduced gravity causes larger and lower-angle granular avalanches with less stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Markies, H.; in't Veld, A. C.; Postema, F. N.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials avalanche when a static angle of repose is exceeded and freeze at a dynamic angle of repose. Such avalanches occur subaerially on hillslopes and wind dunes and subaqueously at the lee side of deltas and dunes. Their properties are important for the inference of present morphodynamics and past climate from surface morphology on rocky planetary bodies. The objective of this work is to determine whether the angles of repose depend on gravity; that is, are different on planet Mars or the Moon compared to Earth. Until now it has been assumed that the angles of repose are independent of gravitational acceleration because both mobilising force and friction theoretically depend linearly on gravity. During 33 parabolic flights in a well-controlled research aircraft we imaged avalanching granular materials in rotating drums and Hele-Shaw cells at effective gravitational accelerations of 0.10 g and 0.38 g. Control measurements were done at 1 g in flight and on the ground. The 9 drums had a diameter of 0.2 m and rotated slow enough for discontinuous avalanching. The granular materials had particle sizes of about 0.2, 0.6 or 2 mm, were rounded or angular and had air or water as interstitial fluid. Angles were measured at 25 Hz by image analyses on the digital videos and acceleration of the aircraft was measured at 50 Hz in three directions. Hele-shaw cells were used to study auto-organization processes in discontinuous avalanching bi-dispersed granular materials and their respective individual grain species. In both setups the angular materials had time-averaged angles of about 40 deg and rounded materials about 25 deg for all g, except the finest glass beads in air, which is explained by static electricity. For all materials, the static angle of repose increases about 5 deg with decreasing g (from 1 to 0.1 g), whereas the dynamic angle decreases with about 10 deg. Consequently, the avalanche size increases with decreasing g. The interstitial fluid hardly

  18. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) data management guide, version 1.4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) information resources are described in this FEMIS Data Management Guide. To comprehend what types of data are present, where the data is located, and how it is managed during the life span of the system, a basic understanding of the FEMIS architecture is necessary. The system is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). The capability to connect to remote CSEPP sites and share information will be present in a future release. Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide efficient EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links. FEMIS is a client/server system where much of the application software is located in the client PC. This client software integrates the FEMIS application, government furnished dispersion and evacuation models, and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software tools such as the ArcView geographic information system (GIS) and Microsoft Project (electron planning). A UNIX server provides data management services, ARC/INFO GIS capabilities, evacuation (Evac) modeling, electron main (E-mail), and meteorological (Met) input processing. A PC communication utility is available to interface with external subsystems. At this time, the weather collection system (Handar Met System) is the only external subsystem.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ischebeck, Till; Werner, Stephanie; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Lerche, Jennifer; Meijón, Mónica; Stenzel, Irene; Löfke, Christian; Wiessner, Theresa; Im, Yang Ju; Perera, Imara Y.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Busch, Wolfgang; Boss, Wendy F.; Teichmann, Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Persson, Staffan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. PMID:24326589

  20. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several “physiological” manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells. PMID:27217553

  1. Dynamic stabilization for L4-5 spondylolisthesis: comparison with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with more than 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the past decade, dynamic stabilization has been an emerging option of surgical treatment for lumbar spondylosis. However, the application of this dynamic construct for mild spondylolisthesis and its clinical outcomes remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the management of single-level spondylolisthesis at L4-5. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive patients with Meyerding Grade I spondylolisthesis at L4-5 who were managed with surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: DDS and MI-TLIF. The DDS group was composed of patients who underwent standard laminectomy and the DDS system. The MI-TLIF group was composed of patients who underwent MI-TLIF. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores at each time point of evaluation. Evaluations included radiographs and CT scans for every patient for 2 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with L4-5 spondylolisthesis completed the follow-up of more than 2 years and were included in the analysis (follow-up rate of 94.5%). There were 64 patients in the DDS group and 22 patients in the MI-TLIF group, and the overall mean follow-up was 32.7 months. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in demographic data (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) or preoperative clinical evaluations (e.g., visual analog scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores). The mean estimated blood loss of the MI-TLIF group was lower, whereas the operation time was longer compared with the DDS group (both p < 0.001). For both groups, clinical outcomes were significantly improved at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery compared with preoperative clinical status. Moreover, there were no differences between the 2

  2. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  3. Inframolecular acid–base and coordination properties towards Na+ and Mg2+ of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate: a structural approach to biologically relevant species† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Application of the Cluster Expansion Method (Table S1); 31P NMR spectra (Fig. S1); Structural details of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5–Mg2+ interaction (Fig. S2); Comparative fit of alternative chemical models for the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5–Na+ system (Fig. S3). See DOI: 10.1039/c2dt31807e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; Godage, Himali Y.; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs) are specific signalling metabolites ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. Although Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 is the second most abundant member of the InsPs family, its certain biological roles are far from being elucidated, in part due to the large number of species formed by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 in the presence of metal ions. In light of this, we have strived in the past to make a complete and at the same time “biological-user-friendly” description of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 chemistry with mono and multivalent cations. In this work we expand these studies focusing on the inframolecular aspects of its protonation equilibria and the microscopic details of its coordination behaviour towards biologically relevant metal ions. We present here a systematic study of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 intrinsic acid–base processes, in a non-interacting medium, and over a wide pH range, analyzing the 31P NMR curves by means of a model based on the Cluster Expansion Method. In addition, we have used a computational approach to analyse the energetic and structural features of the protonation and conformational changes of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5, and how they are influenced by the presence of two physiologically relevant cations, Na+ and Mg2+. PMID:23183928

  4. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes. 2: Evidence for thermal dehydration occurring in the cure process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Olshavsky, Michael A.; Meador, Michael A.; Ahn, Myong-Ku

    1988-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers appear, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), to undergo dehydration at elevated temperatures. This would produce thermally stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone, and render the polymers incapable of unzipping through a retro-Diels-Alder pathway. High resolution solid 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of one formulation of the polymer system before and after heating at elevated temperatures, shows this to indeed be the case. NMR spectra of solid samples of the polymer before and after heating correlated well with those of the parent pentiptycene model compound before and after acid-catalyzed dehydration. Isothermal gravimetric analyses and viscosities of the polymer before and after heat treatment support dehydration as a mechanism for the cure reaction.

  5. The excitation energies and term energies of the excited states 1s2ns (n=3,4,5) and 1s2nf (n=4,5) of lithium-like systems of Z=11-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zi-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhou, Ya-Jun; He, Li-Ming; Liu, Guo-Guang

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, the full-core plus correlation (FCPC) and the Ritz method is extended to calculate the non-relativistic energies of 1s2ns (n=3,4,5) and 1s2nf (n=4,5) states and the wavefunctions of the lithium-like systems from Z=11-20. The mass-polarization and the relativistic correction including the kinetic-energy correction, the Darwin term, the electron-electron contact term and the orbit-orbit interaction are evaluated perturbatively as the first-order correction. The contribution from quantum electrodynamic is also included by using the effective nuclear charge formula. The excited energies, the term-energy and fine structure, are given and compared with the other theoretical calculation and experimental results. It is shown that the correlative wave in the FCPC method embodies well the strong correlation between the 1s2 core and the valence electron.

  6. Study and optimization of negative polarity rod pinch diode as flash radiography source at 4.5 MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchessahar, Bertrand; Bernigaud, Virgile; Caron, Michel; Cartier, Frédéric; Cartier, Stéphanie; Hourdin, Laurent; Magnin, Laurent; Nicolas, Rémi; Poulet, Frédéric; Rosol, Rodolphe; Tailleur, Yaël; Toury, Martial; Compant La Fontaine, Antoine; Bicrel, Béatrice; Cassany, Bruno; Desanlis, Thierry; Voisin, Luc; Hébert, David; Delbos, Christophe; Garrigues, Alain; Soleilhavoup, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    The negative polarity rod pinch diode (NPRPD) is a potential millimeter spot size radiography source for high voltage generators (4 to 8 MV) [Cooperstein et al., "Considerations of rod-pinch diode operation in negative polarity for radiography," in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 2003, pp. 975-978]. The NPRPD consists of a small diameter (few mm) cylindrical anode extending from the front end of the vacuum cell through a thin annular cathode, held by a central conductor. The polarity has been inverted when compared to the original rod pinch diode [Cooperstein et al., "Theoretical modeling and experimental characterization of a rod-pinch diode," Phys. Plasmas 8(10), 4618-4636 (2001)] in order to take advantage from the maximal x-ray emission toward the anode holder at such a voltage [Swanekamp et al., "Evaluation of self-magnetically pinched diodes up to 10 MV as high resolution flash X-ray sources," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32(5), 2004-2016 (2004). We have studied this diode at 4.5 MV, driven by the ASTERIX generator [Raboisson et al., "ASTERIX, a high intensity X-ray generator," in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 1989, pp. 567-570.]. This generator, made up of a capacitor bank and a Blumlein line, was initially designed to test the behavior of electronic devices under irradiation. In our experiments, the vacuum diode has been modified in order to set up flash a radiographic diode [Etchessahar et al., "Negative polarity rod pinch diode experiments on the ASTERIX generator," in Conference Records-Abstracts, 37th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 2010]. The experiments and numerical simulations presented here allowed the observation and analysis of various physical phenomena associated with the diode operation. Also, the influence of several experimental parameters, such as cathode and anode diameters, materials and surface states, was examined. In order to achieve the most comprehensive characterization of the

  7. Study and optimization of negative polarity rod pinch diode as flash radiography source at 4.5 MV

    SciTech Connect

    Etchessahar, Bertrand; Bicrel, Beatrice; Cassany, Bruno; Desanlis, Thierry; Voisin, Luc; Hebert, David; Bernigaud, Virgile; Magnin, Laurent; Nicolas, Remi; Poulet, Frederic; Tailleur, Yaeel; Caron, Michel; Cartier, Frederic; Cartier, Stephanie; Hourdin, Laurent; Rosol, Rodolphe; Toury, Martial; Delbos, Christophe; Garrigues, Alain; Soleilhavoup, Isabelle; and others

    2012-09-15

    The negative polarity rod pinch diode (NPRPD) is a potential millimeter spot size radiography source for high voltage generators (4 to 8 MV) [Cooperstein et al., 'Considerations of rod-pinch diode operation in negative polarity for radiography,' in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 2003, pp. 975-978]. The NPRPD consists of a small diameter (few mm) cylindrical anode extending from the front end of the vacuum cell through a thin annular cathode, held by a central conductor. The polarity has been inverted when compared to the original rod pinch diode [Cooperstein et al., 'Theoretical modeling and experimental characterization of a rod-pinch diode,' Phys. Plasmas 8(10), 4618-4636 (2001)] in order to take advantage from the maximal x-ray emission toward the anode holder at such a voltage [Swanekamp et al., 'Evaluation of self-magnetically pinched diodes up to 10 MV as high resolution flash X-ray sources,' IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32(5), 2004-2016 (2004). We have studied this diode at 4.5 MV, driven by the ASTERIX generator [Raboisson et al., 'ASTERIX, a high intensity X-ray generator,' in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, 1989, pp. 567-570.]. This generator, made up of a capacitor bank and a Blumlein line, was initially designed to test the behavior of electronic devices under irradiation. In our experiments, the vacuum diode has been modified in order to set up flash a radiographic diode [Etchessahar et al., 'Negative polarity rod pinch diode experiments on the ASTERIX generator,' in Conference Records-Abstracts, 37th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 2010]. The experiments and numerical simulations presented here allowed the observation and analysis of various physical phenomena associated with the diode operation. Also, the influence of several experimental parameters, such as cathode and anode diameters, materials and surface states, was examined. In order to achieve the most comprehensive characterization of the

  8. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Showman, Adam P.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y. Katherina

    2017-02-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet’s highly irradiated dayside to its eternally dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a positive correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b (P = 0.813 days) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The first 3.6 μm visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our cloud-free atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day–night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within the planet’s cool, nearly retrograde mid-latitude flows before dispersing across its nightside at high altitudes. Since mid-latitude flows only materialize in fast-rotating (≲ 1 day) planets, this may explain an observed trend connecting measured day–night contrast with planet rotation rate that matches all current Spitzer phase curve results. Combining independent planetary emission measurements from multiple phases, we obtain a precise dayside hemisphere H2O abundance (2.5× {10}-5{--}1.1× {10}-4 at 1σ confidence) and, assuming chemical equilibrium and a scaled solar abundance pattern, we derive a corresponding metallicity estimate that is consistent with being solar (0.4–1.7). Using the retrieved global CO+CO2 abundance under the same assumptions, we estimate a comparable metallicity of 0.3–1.7× solar. This is the first time that precise abundance and metallicity constraints have been determined from multiple

  9. Mechanosensitive activation of K+ channel via phospholipase C-induced depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo Hyun; Lee, Hoo-Se; Nguyen, Yen Hoang; Kang, Tong Mook; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sang Jeong; Earm, Yung E; Kim, Sung Joon

    2007-08-01

    In various types of cells mechanical stimulation of the plasma membrane activates phospholipase C (PLC). However, the regulation of ion channels via mechanosensitive degradation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is not known yet. The mouse B cells express large conductance background K(+) channels (LK(bg)) that are inhibited by PIP(2). In inside-out patch clamp studies, the application of MgATP (1 mm) also inhibited LK(bg) due to the generation of PIP(2) by phosphoinositide (PI)-kinases. In the presence of MgATP, membrane stretch induced by negative pipette pressure activated LK(bg), which was antagonized by PIP(2) (> 1 microm) or higher concentration of MgATP (5 mm). The inhibition by PIP(2) was partially reversible. However, the application of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol scavenger disrupting lipid rafts, induced the full recovery of LK(bg) activity and facilitated the activation by stretch. In cell-attached patches, LK(bg) were activated by hypotonic swelling of B cells as well as by negative pressure. The mechano-activation of LK(bg) was blocked by U73122, a PLC inhibitor. Neither actin depolymerization nor the inhibition of lipid phosphatase blocked the mechanical effects. Direct stimulation of PLC by m-3M3FBS or by cross-linking IgM-type B cell receptors activated LK(bg). Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy showed that the hypotonic swelling of WEHI-231 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 and PIP(2) hydrolysis of plasma membrane. The time dependence of PIP(2) hydrolysis and LK(bg) activation were similar. The presence of LK(bg) and their stretch sensitivity were also proven in fresh isolated mice splenic B cells. From the above results, we propose a novel mechanism of stretch-dependent ion channel activation, namely, that the degradation of PIP(2) caused by stretch-activated PLC releases LK(bg) from the tonic inhibition by PIP(2).

  10. Revisiting the Ullmann-ether reaction: a concise and amenable synthesis of novel dibenzoxepino[4,5-d]pyrazoles by intramolecular etheration of 4,5-(o,o'-halohydroxy)arylpyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Roberto; SanMartin, Raul; Churruca, Fátima; Domínguez, Esther

    2002-10-18

    A concise synthesis of a series of novel dibenzoxepino[4,5-d]pyrazoles was accomplished by implementation of an intramolecular Ullmann-ether reaction on o,o'-halohydroxy-4,5-diarylpyrazoles mediated by CuBr.DMS. An alternative useful approach based on the palladium-catalyzed biaryl-ether linkage formation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) was also successfully applied, offering limitations with regard to the steric demand of the substituents. The synthesis of the key o,o'-halohydroxy-4,5-diarylpyrazole intermediates proceeds through the construction of the heterocyclic ring by a tandem amine-exchange/heterocyclization sequence of 3-N,N-(dimethylamino)-1,2-diarylpropenones with phenylhydrazine followed by basic hydrolysis for deprotection. The enamino ketone precursors were conveniently prepared from the corresponding O-sulfonyloxy and O-benzoyloxy ortho-substituted 1,2-diarylethanones, starting from inexpensive salicylaldehyde or phenylacetic derivatives. Preliminary binding affinity experiments against peripheral and central nervous system receptors have been done with negative results.

  11. Interpretation of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured-rock aquifer over increasingly larger length dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Ladderud, Jeffery; Yager, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger volumes of crystalline rock was conducted in the Piedmont physiographic region near Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Fluid-injection tests were conducted on intervals of boreholes isolating closely spaced fractures. Single-hole tests were conducted by pumping in open boreholes for approximately 30 min, and an interference test was conducted by pumping a single borehole over 3 days while monitoring nearby boreholes. An estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the rock over hundreds of meters was inferred from simulating groundwater inflow into a kilometer-long section of a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority tunnel in the study area, and a groundwater modeling investigation over the Rock Creek watershed provided an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity over kilometers. The majority of groundwater flow is confined to relatively few fractures at a given location. Boreholes installed to depths of approximately 50 m have one or two highly transmissive fractures; the transmissivity of the remaining fractures ranges over five orders of magnitude. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger rock volumes varied by less than half an order of magnitude. While many investigations point to increasing hydraulic conductivity as a function of the measurement scale, a comparison with selected investigations shows that the effective hydraulic conductivity estimated over larger volumes of rock can either increase, decrease, or remain stable as a function of the measurement scale. Caution needs to be exhibited in characterizing effective hydraulic properties in fractured rock for the purposes of groundwater management.

  12. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  13. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  14. Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in nicotinic calcium responses in dystrophic myotubes assessed by near-plasma membrane calcium measurement.

    PubMed

    Basset, Olivier; Boittin, François-Xavier; Dorchies, Olivier M; Chatton, Jean-Yves; van Breemen, Cornelis; Ruegg, Urs T

    2004-11-05

    In skeletal muscle cells, plasma membrane depolarization causes a rapid calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors triggering contraction. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal disease that is caused by the lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, the cytosolic calcium concentration is known to be increased, and this increase may lead to cell necrosis. Here, we used myotubes derived from control and mdx mice, the murine model of DMD, to study the calcium responses induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. The photoprotein aequorin was expressed in the cytosol or targeted to the plasma membrane as a fusion protein with the synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25, thus allowing calcium measurements in a restricted area localized just below the plasma membrane. The carbachol-induced calcium responses were 4.5 times bigger in dystrophic myotubes than in control myotubes. Moreover, in dystrophic myotubes the carbachol-mediated calcium responses measured in the subsarcolemmal area were at least 10 times bigger than in the bulk cytosol. The initial calcium responses were due to calcium influx into the cells followed by a fast refilling/release phase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition and unexpectedly, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor pathway was involved in these calcium signals only in the dystrophic myotubes. This surprising involvement of this calcium release channel in the excitation-contraction coupling could open new ways for understanding exercise-induced calcium increases and downstream muscle degeneration in mdx mice and, therefore, in DMD.

  15. Photospheric Acne at The Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Doppler Images of M4.5 - M9V Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, John R.; Haswell, Carole A.; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Lohr, Marcus E.; Jenkins, James S.

    2016-07-01

    Starspots are an important manifestation of stellar activity and yet their distribution patterns on the lowest mass stars is notwell known. Time series spectra of fullyconvective M dwarfs taken in the red-optical with UVES reveal numerous line profiledistortions which are interpreted as starspots. New Doppler images of HU Del (GJ 791.2A; M4.5V), BL Ceti (GJ 65A; M5.5V)and UV Ceti (GJ 65B; M6V) attwoepochs separated by three nights are presented. We find that contrastratioscorrespondingto photosphere-spot temperature differences of only 100-400 Kare sufficient to model the time series spectra of M4.5V - M9Vstars. Starspotsare reconstructed at a range of phases and latitudes with mean spot filling factors of only a few per cent.The distribution and low-contrast of the spots/spot-groups that we recover are likely to be responsible for the low amplitudephotometric variability seen in late-M dwarfs. The stability of the spot patterns in the two sets of timeseries observationsenables us to measure the latitude dependent differential rotation, which we find to be consistent with zero.

  16. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes somatic embryogenesis in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.).

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Tammy; Browne, Robin; Dong, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) offers vast potential for the clonal propagation of high-value roses. However, some recalcitrant cultivars unresponsive to commonly employed SE-inducing agents and low induction rates currently hinder the commercialization of SE technology in rose. Rose SE technology requires improvement before it can be implemented as a production system on a commercial scale. In the present work, we assessed 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin not previously tested in rose, for its effectiveness to induce SE in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.). We ran a parallel comparison to the commonly used 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). We tested each auxin with two different basal media: Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and woody plant medium (WPM). MS medium resulted in somatic embryo production, whereas WPM did not. 2,4,5-T induced SE over a greater concentration range than 2,4-D's and resulted in significantly greater embryo yields. 2,4,5-T at a concentration of 10 or 25 microM was better for embrygenic tissue initiation than 2,4,5-T at 5 microM. Further embryo development occurred when the tissue was transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR) free medium or media with 40% the original auxin concentration. However, the PGR-free medium resulted in a high percentage of abnormal embryos (32.31%) compared to the media containing auxins. Upon transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos successfully converted into plantlets at rates ranging from 33.3 to 95.2%, depending on treatment. Survival rates 3 months ex vitro averaged 14.0 and 55.6% for 2,4-D- and 2,4,5-T-derived plantlets, respectively. Recurrent SE was observed in 60.2% of the plantlets growing on germination medium. This study is the first report of SE in the commercially valuable rose cultivar 'Livin' Easy' (Rosa sp.) and a suitable methodology was developed for SE of this rose cultivar.

  17. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  18. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Understanding the role of land management for carbon and climate mitigation under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 using the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), land cover change and wood harvest were prescribed as major climate forcings for historical and future Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections. Lawrence et al. (2012) described how land cover change was prescribed in all of these simulations and how the climate system and carbon cycle responded to the land cover change in concert to other transient forcing in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The attribution of carbon cycle and climate changes directly due to land cover change however, were not possible due to the design of the CMIP5 experiments. Through a series of new CESM simulations we have attributed the land cover change impacts for the historical time series as well as RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 with and without land cover change. These simulations show that the direct land cover change fluxes to the atmosphere found in the CMIP5 simulations did not account for the lost uptake of carbon that would have been possible in the absence of land cover change and wood harvest. Once these losses are taken into account, the historical losses of terrestrial carbon increased from 61.2 PgC to 129.6 PgC, the RCP 4.5 uptake of 62.8 PgC changed to a loss of 5.8 PgC, and the RCP 8.5 loss of 49.0 PgC increased to 168.8 PgC. In order to assess the potential of land management to mitigate carbon and climate consequences we extended the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 experiments with large scale global afforestation compared to maximum agricultural expansion scenarios. In these experiments we found that afforestation was able to take up 220 PgC over the next 85 years, while large scale crop expansion could release the same amount of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems. Figure 1 shows the time series for global ecosystem carbon along with the spatial distribution of gains and losses under the maximum afforestation and agricultural expansion simulations. In comparison to fossil fuel emissions the land cover

  20. An experimental and theoretical study on a novel donor-π-acceptor bridge type 2, 4, 5-trimethoxy-4‧-chlorochalcone for optoelectronic applications: A dual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkir, Mohd.; Patil, P. S.; Arora, M.; AlFaify, S.; Algarni, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this article the authors aim is to investigate and analyze the various key parameters of an organic D-π-A type novel nonlinear optical material 2, 4, 5-trimethoxy-4‧-chlorochalcone (2,4,5TMCC) through experimental and quantum chemical studies. The Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction mechanism was applied to synthesize the 2,4,5TMCC compound and its single crystal was grown by a slow evaporation solution growth (low cost) technique. The crystal structure was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The robust vibrational study has been done using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra and its NLO activity was discussed. The factor group analysis was also performed. The optical absorption spectrum was recorded and the band gap was calculated to be 2.8 eV. In photoluminescence spectrum, an intense emission band at 540 nm has been observed which shows that the grown crystals can be used in green organic light emitting diodes and laser applications. To achieve the stable ground state molecular geometry of 2,4,5TMCC, the computational techniques were applied at different levels of theory using 6-31G* basis set. The calculated geometrical parameters and vibrational spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. To probe the optical properties of the title compound the time dependent density functional theory was applied. The excitation wavelength was observed at 398.63 nm calculated at B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory and found close to experimental value (i.e. 396 nm). The static first hyperpolarizability value is found to be 136 times higher than prototype urea molecule. Additionally, the molecular level approach was attained as HOMO-LUMO gap and electrostatic potential maps. The DSC study reveals that the titled material is stable up to 149 °C. The photophysical and nonlinear optical properties suggest that the titled material could be a better choice for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices.