Science.gov

Sample records for 4-6 weeks postpartum

  1. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  2. Wallenberg Syndrome with Associated Motor Weakness in a Two-Week-Postpartum Female

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David W.; Dholakia, Nimit; Raymond, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old, right-handed female presented 2 weeks postpartum with acute-onset severe headache, vertigo, and vomiting. Initial neurologic examination illustrated lingual dysarthria, horizontal nystagmus, right dysmetria on finger-to-nose testing, and weakness of the extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large, left lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg syndrome) with cephalad extension into the ipsilateral pons as well as involvement of the left middle cerebellar peduncle. The patient was discharged 3 weeks later to an inpatient rehabilitation facility with gradual improvement of her symptoms. PMID:26500545

  3. Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

  4. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  5. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Postpartum Women One Week after Their First Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifei; Xu, Lian; Ying, Tao; Tao, Junjia; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 95 postpartum women (47 vaginal delivery, 48 Cesarean section) using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. All the primiparae underwent ultrasound examination within one week after their first delivery. Volume datasets were acquired and analyzed to determine the alterations of levator hiatus after childbirth. Significant differences were observed in the levator hiatus of postpartum women compared with that of nullipara women. In postpartum women, the levator hiatus, with their dimensions increased, expanded into a circular shape. Puborectalis was avulsed in eight cases (accounting for 8.42% of all) and pelvic organ prolapse was found in 12 cases (accounting for 12.63%). The hiatal dimensions were larger and the incidence of pubrectalis muscle avulsion (17.02% vs. 0%) and pelvic organ prolapse (21.28% vs. 4.17%) was significantly higher in Vaginal delivery group than Cesarean section group. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor of postpartum women who present with morphological abnormalities, and such abnormalities are more likely to show in vaginal delivery women compared to Cesarean section. PMID:24522119

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound appearance of pelvic floor in nulliparous women and postpartum women one week after their first delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Xu, Lian; Ying, Tao; Tao, Junjia; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 95 postpartum women (47 vaginal delivery, 48 Cesarean section) using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. All the primiparae underwent ultrasound examination within one week after their first delivery. Volume datasets were acquired and analyzed to determine the alterations of levator hiatus after childbirth. Significant differences were observed in the levator hiatus of postpartum women compared with that of nullipara women. In postpartum women, the levator hiatus, with their dimensions increased, expanded into a circular shape. Puborectalis was avulsed in eight cases (accounting for 8.42% of all) and pelvic organ prolapse was found in 12 cases (accounting for 12.63%). The hiatal dimensions were larger and the incidence of pubrectalis muscle avulsion (17.02% vs. 0%) and pelvic organ prolapse (21.28% vs. 4.17%) was significantly higher in Vaginal delivery group than Cesarean section group. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor of postpartum women who present with morphological abnormalities, and such abnormalities are more likely to show in vaginal delivery women compared to Cesarean section. PMID:24522119

  7. Oral contraceptives in the immediate postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hume, A L; Hijab, J C

    1991-04-01

    Although there is a critical need for effective contraception in the immediate postpartum period for women who are not breastfeeding, this need must be balanced against the inherent risks. The most effective form of contraceptive protection--oral contraceptives (OCs)--can present an increased risk of thromboembolism in the period after delivery. The thrombotic changes associated with pregnancy, and the statistics and vascular damage following a delivery, can combine to create greater potential for thromboembolism after delivery than during pregnancy. Reported here is the case of a 21-year-old woman who, 4 weeks postpartum, developed pain and swelling in the right lower calf and mottled discoloration extending from the proximal thigh to the toes. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was made and heparin was administered. In the hospital, the patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and diaphoresis. A ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a pulmonary embolism. 1 week after delivery, the patient had initiated use of Triphasil. Although this woman had other risk factors (obesity, light cigarette smoking, and a sedentary life-style), OC use in the immediate postpartum period may have been the final factor precipitating the thromboembolic event. It is recommended that OC use should be delayed until at least 2 weeks postpartum in women without other risk factors for thromboembolism and until 4-6 weeks postpartum in those with such factors. PMID:2010744

  8. A 24-Week, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rivastigmine Patch 13.3 mg/24 h Versus 4.6 mg/24 h in Severe Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Farlow, Martin R; Grossberg, George T; Sadowsky, Carl H; Meng, Xiangyi; Somogyi, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Aims The 24-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind ACTION study investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Patients had probable AD and Mini–Mental State Examination scores ≥3–≤12. Primary outcome measures were as follows: Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) and AD Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living scale–Severe Impairment Version (ADCS-ADL-SIV). Secondary outcomes were as follows: ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC), 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-12), and safety/tolerability. Results Of 1014 patients screened, 716 were randomized to 13.3 mg/24 h (N = 356) or 4.6 mg/24 h (N = 360) patch. Baseline characteristics/demographics were comparable. Completion rates were as follows: 64.3% (N = 229) with 13.3 mg/24 h and 65.0% (N = 234) with 4.6 mg/24 h patch. The 13.3 mg/24 h patch was significantly superior to 4.6 mg/24 h patch on cognition (SIB) and function (ADCS-ADL-SIV) at Week 16 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049, respectively) and 24 (primary endpoint; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.025). Significant between-group differences (Week 24) were observed on the ADCS-CGIC (P = 0.0023), not NPI-12 (P = 0.1437). A similar proportion of the 13.3 mg/24 h and 4.6 mg/24 h patch groups reported adverse events (AEs; 74.6% and 73.3%, respectively) and serious AEs (14.9% and 13.6%). Conclusions The 13.3 mg/24 h patch demonstrated superior efficacy to 4.6 mg/24 h patch on SIB and ADCS-ADL-SIV, without marked increase in AEs, suggesting higher-dose patch has a favorable benefit-to-risk profile in severe AD. PMID:23924050

  9. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  10. An investigation of the microbiota in uterine flush samples and endometrial biopsies from dairy cows during the first 7 weeks postpartum.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Angen, Øystein; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Rasmussen, Eva Láadal; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Klitgaard, Kirstine

    2016-07-15

    Metritis and endometritis commonly occur in dairy cows after calving. Although numerous studies have been performed to identify the causative pathogens, a complete overview has not been done. Metagenomic studies have analyzed the bacterial populations of uterine flush samples from postpartum (pp) dairy cows, but the microbiota in the uterine luminal fluid may differ from the microbiota of the endometrium itself, and important putative pathogens may have been overlooked. In the present study, we compared the microbiota of the uterine lumen and the endometrium of healthy, metritic, and endometritic cows. Samples were collected from 68 Holstein dairy cows at 1, 4, and 7 weeks pp, and the data were analyzed by deep sequencing of the V1 and V2 hypervariable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed that Porphyromonadaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Leptotrichiaceae, and Mycoplasmataceae may be associated with uterine disease. The microbiota of the uterine flush samples and the endometrial biopsies were correlated, but the microbiota of the biopsies was more diverse. Fusobacteriaceae and Leptotrichiaceae were not observed in the biopsies at week 7, whereas they accounted for 20% and 13%, respectively, of the bacterial populations in the flush samples. The Mycoplasmataceae family was observed in much higher quantity in the flush samples than in the biopsies of the endometritis groups at weeks 4 and 7. Our findings support the observations of previous metagenomic studies and illustrate the importance of including endometrial biopsies to obtain more detailed knowledge of the pp uterine microbiota. PMID:27039075

  11. Preclinical screening for retinopathy of prematurity risk using IGF1 levels at 3 weeks post-partum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Muñuzuri, Alejandro; Couce-Pico, Maria Luz; Baña-Souto, Ana; López-Suárez, Olalla; Iglesias-Deus, Alicia; Blanco-Teijeiro, José; Fernández-Lorenzo, José Ramón; Fraga-Bermúdez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Following current recommendations for preventing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) involves screening a large number of patients. We performed a prospective study to establish a useful screening system for ROP prediction and we have determined that measuring serum levels of IGF1 at week three and the presence of sepsis have a high predictive value for the subsequent development of ROP. A total of 145 premature newborn, with birthweight <1500 g and/or <32 weeks gestational age, were enrolled. 26.9% of them showed some form of retinopathy. A significant association was found between the development of retinopathy and each of the following variables: early gestational age, low birthweight, requiring mechanical ventilation, oxygen treatment, intracranial haemorrhage, sepsis during the first three weeks, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the need for erythrocyte transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and low levels of serum IGF1 in the third week. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to obtain curves for the probability of developing ROP, based on the main factors linked with ROP, namely serum levels of IGF1 and presence of sepsis. Such preclinical screening has the ability to identify patients with high-risk of developing retinopathy and should lead to better prediction for ROP, while at the same time optimising the use of clinical resources, both human and material. PMID:24523937

  12. The relationship between severe maternal morbidity and psychological health symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum: a prospective cohort study in one English maternity unit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries. However, little has been known about the impact on postnatal morbidity, particularly on psychological health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between severe maternal morbidity (ie. major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorders or intensive care unit/obstetric high dependency unit admission) and postnatal psychological health symptoms, focusing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum. Method A prospective cohort study was undertaken of women who gave birth over six months in 2010 in an inner city maternity unit in England. Primary outcomes were prevalence of PTSD symptoms namely: 1) intrusion and 2) avoidance as measured using the Impact of Event Scale at 6 – 8 weeks postpartum via a self-administered postal questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included probable depression. Data on incidence of severe maternal morbidity were extracted from maternity records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD symptoms taking into account factors that might influence the relationship. Results Of women eligible to participate (n=3509), 52% responded. Prevalence of a clinically significant level of intrusion and avoidance were 6.4% (n=114) and 8.4% (n=150) respectively. There was a higher risk of PTSD symptoms among women who experienced severe maternal morbidity compared with women who did not (adjusted OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.78 for intrusion; adjusted OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 2.01-5.36 for avoidance). Higher ratings of reported sense of control during labour/birth partially mediated the risk of PTSD symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or severity of symptoms of depression. Conclusion This is one of the largest studies to date of PTSD symptoms among women who had recently given birth. Findings

  13. Postpartum Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click ...

  14. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  15. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  16. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy if you have postpartum depression. Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may help reduce ... Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may ... seriousness of postpartum depression, but may not prevent it. ...

  17. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... get treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  18. Postpartum Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues ... Bladder and Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum ...

  19. [Multidisciplinary approach to postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Arranz Lara, Lilia Cristina; Aguirre Rivera, Wilfrido; Ruiz Ornelas, Jaime; Gaviño Ambriz, Salvador; Cervantes Chávez, José Francisco; Carsi Bocanegra, Eduardo; Camacho Díaz, Margarita; Ochoa Madrigal, Martha Georgina

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a multifactorial condition suffered by 15% of women after delivery. We report a clinical case of a 32 years old female admitted at Postpartum depression clinic of gyneco-obstetric coordination at Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSTE, Mexico City. Patient was evaluated by psychiatric and psychological service personnel and diagnosed as with postpartum depression. She was admitted with her child during two weeks to be studied and treated. Several evaluation tests were applied and specific interventions by multidisciplinary team were designed. PMID:18800591

  20. Active ghrelin and the postpartum.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 10-15 % of women. The appetite hormone ghrelin, which fluctuates during pregnancy, is associated with depression in nonpregnant samples. Here, we examine the association between PPD and active ghrelin from pregnancy to postpartum. We additionally examine whether ghrelin changes from pregnancy to postpartum and differs between breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women. Sixty women who participated in a survey examining PPD and had information in regard to ghrelin concentrations were included in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of PPD. Raw ghrelin levels and ghrelin levels adjusted for creatinine were included as outcomes. Women screening positive for PPD at 12 weeks postpartum had higher pregnancy ghrelin concentrations. Ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased from pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum and this change differed based on pregnancy depression status. Finally, ghrelin levels were lower in women who breastfed compared with women who were bottle-feeding. No significant findings remained once ghrelin levels were adjusted for creatinine. Although results do not suggest an association between PPD and ghrelin after adjusting for creatinine, future research should continue to explore this possibility extending further across the postpartum period with larger sample sizes. PMID:26424410

  1. Comparison of outcomes at 6 weeks following postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertions by doctors and nurses in India: a case–control study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vivek; Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Das, Saswati; Srivastava, Ashish; Srivastava, Ashish; Kumar, Somesh; Sood, Bulbul

    2016-01-01

    Objective As part of a strategy to revitalize postpartum family planning services, Government of India revised its policy in 2013 to permit trained nurses and midwives to insert postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCDs). This study compares two key outcomes of PPIUCD insertions — expulsion and infection — for physicians and nurses/midwives to generate evidence for task sharing. Study design We analyzed secondary data from the PPIUCD program in seven states using a case–control study design. We included facilities where both doctors and nurses/midwives performed PPIUCD insertions and where five or more cases of expulsion and/or infection were reported during the study period (January–December 2013). For each case of expulsion and infection, we identified a time-matched control who received a PPIUCD at the same facility and had no complaints. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis focusing on provider cadre while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results In 137 facilities, 792 expulsion and 382 infection cases were matched with 1041 controls. Provider type was not significantly associated with either expulsion [odds ratio (OR) 1.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82–4.12] or infection (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.39–1.37). Compared with centralized training, odds of expulsion were higher for onsite (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.86–2.89) and on-the-job training (OR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.36), but odds of infection were lower for onsite (OR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27–0.75) and on-the-job training (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.25–0.37). Conclusion Trained nurses and midwives who conduct deliveries at public health facilities can perform PPIUCD insertions as safely as physicians. Implications Institutional deliveries are increasing in India, but most normal vaginal deliveries at public health facilities are attended by nurses and midwives due to a shortage of physicians. Task sharing with nurses and midwives can increase women's access to and the

  2. Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Delivery, and Postpartum Care Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks • What is a “medically indicated” delivery? • What is ... the baby grow and develop during the last weeks of pregnancy? • What are the risks for babies ...

  3. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  4. Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return

  5. Early Postpartum Glucose Testing in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Werner, Erika F; Has, Phinnara; Tarabulsi, Gofran; Lee, Joyce; Satin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Objective Given that most women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) never undergo the recommended 6 to 12 weeks postpartum glucose tolerance test (GTT), we assessed the feasibility of performing GTTs on postpartum day 2. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study in which women with GDM received a 75-g 2-hour GTT on postpartum day 2. We assessed the feasibility of this GTT and compared the results to the standard of care GTT at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. We also evaluated maternal and pregnancy characteristics of women who return for 6 to 12 weeks GTTs compared with those lost to follow-up. Results In this study, 98 of 106 participants (92%) completed the postpartum day 2 GTT; 59% had normal glucose values at that time. Only 49 women returned at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. Among women who had testing at both time points, the 2 days postpartum GTT were 100% sensitive and 94% specific for diabetes mellitus but less sensitive and specific for milder forms of abnormal glucose. Women who did not complete the 6 to 12 weeks postpartum GTT were less educated (p < 0.01) and more often had Medicaid (p < 0.01). Conclusion Performing GTTs on postpartum day 2 is feasible and should be further investigated as an alternative postpartum testing regimen in GDM. PMID:27120481

  6. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,6 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 88 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. Committee Opinion No. 666: Optimizing Postpartum Care.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    In the weeks after birth, postpartum care often is fragmented among maternal and pediatric health care providers, and communication between inpatient and outpatient settings is inconsistent. To optimize postpartum care, anticipatory guidance should begin during pregnancy. During antenatal care, it is recommended that the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider formulate a postpartum care plan and identify the health care professionals who will comprise the postpartum care team for the woman and her infant. Ideally, during the postpartum period, a single health care practice assumes responsibility for coordinating the woman's care. At discharge from maternity care, the woman should receive contact information for her postpartum care team and written instructions regarding the timing of follow-up postpartum care. It is recommended that all women undergo a comprehensive postpartum visit within the first 6 weeks after birth. This visit should include a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being. Systems should be implemented to ensure each woman can receive her desired form of contraception during the comprehensive postpartum visit, if not done earlier. At the conclusion of the postpartum visit, the woman and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider should determine who will assume primary responsibility for her ongoing care. If responsibility is transferred to another primary care provider, the obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider is responsible for ensuring that there is communication with the primary care provider so that he or she can understand the implications of any pregnancy complications for the woman's future health and maintain continuity of care. PMID:27214194

  8. Antenatal Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression at 20 Weeks Gestation in a Japanese Sample: Psychosocial Perspectives from a Cohort Study in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Tomoe; Takehara, Kenji; Kakee, Naoko; Tsujii, Hiromi; Mori, Rintaro; Inoue, Eisuke; Ota, Erika; Yoshida, Keiko; Kasai, Keiko; Okuyama, Makiko; Kubo, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) is high (Western countries, 10–15%; Japan, 17%). PND can cause parenting impairment and affect family health (e.g. child behaviors, cognitive development and physical health). This study aimed to reveal the risk factors of PND during the pregnancy period in a Japanese sample, and to identify the psychosocial risk factors of PND that should be appended to existing obstetric interview sheets. A cohort study with a Japanese sample was conducted. Methods All 14 obstetrics hospitals in the Setagaya ward, Tokyo, Japan, participated in this study. Pregnant women who booked their delivery between December 2012 and May 2013 were enrolled. Data used for this study were collected at 20 weeks gestation, a few days and one month postnatal. The questionnaires consisted of psychosocial factors and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). To identify PND risk factors, multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 1,775 women participated in this study. Eventually, the data of 1,133 women were used for the multivariate analyses. The demonstrated significant risk factors include EPDS score, primipara, “a perceived lack of family cohesion”, “current physical illness treatment” and “current psychiatric illness treatment”. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of mental health screening using psychological measures during the pregnancy period. In addition, family environment, parity, physical and psychiatric illness should be paid attention by professionals in maternal and child health. The results also suggest that mothers’ feelings of developing their families should be supported. PMID:26625132

  9. Postpartum pyomyoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Tina C.; Adair, Jamie; Lee, Yi Chun

    2005-01-01

    Leiomyomata are common benign tumors of the uterus and female pelvis. Myomas have been reported in 25% of Caucasian American women and 50% of African-American women. The true incidence is unknown, but descriptions of 50% have been found at postmortem examinations. Considering the high incidence of uterine myomata in women of reproductive age, they are reported as complications in only 2% of pregnancies. Pyomyoma (suppurative leiomyoma) a rare complication results from infarction and infection of a leiomyoma. Without a strong clinical suspicion and surgical intervention, fatalities may occur. Since 1945, only 15 cases have been described in the literature, mostly in pregnant or postmenopausal women after ascending infection. This report documents a pyomyoma that presented as a postpartum enlargement of a previously known leiomyoma. This case is unique because the patient did not undergo a hysterectomy at the time of exploratory laparotomy. Six months after the procedure, normal cyclic bleeding was noted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16035584

  10. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  11. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  12. Oxytocin course over pregnancy and postpartum period and the association with postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Krause, Daniela; Maiwald, Carina; Härtl, Kristin; Myint, Aye-Mu; Kästner, Ralph; Obermeier, Michael; Padberg, Frank; Brücklmeier, Benedikt; Weidinger, Elif; Kieper, Susann; Schwarz, Markus; Zill, Peter; Müller, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder such as postpartum depression (PPD), a disorder that associates with mother-infant bonding and child development. Oxytocin is considered to play a key role in mother-infant bonding and social interactions and altered oxytocin plasma concentrations were found to be associated with PPD. In the present study, we evaluated oxytocin plasma levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period in healthy women. We evaluated 100 women twice during pregnancy (weeks 35 and 38) and three times in the postpartum period (within 2 days and 7 weeks and 6 months after delivery) by measuring oxytocin plasma levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assessing depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Oxytocin plasma levels significantly increased from the 35th week of gestation to 6 months postpartum in all women. However, levels decreased from the 38th week of gestation to 2 days after delivery in participants with postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas they continuously increased in the group without postpartum depressive symptoms; the difference between the course of oxytocin levels in the two groups was significant (Δt2-t3: t = 2.14; p = 0.036*). Previous depressive episodes and breastfeeding problems predicted postpartum depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that alterations in the oxytocin system during pregnancy might be specific for women who develop postpartum depressive symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether oxytocin plasma levels might have predictive value in women at high risk for PPD. PMID:27320943

  13. Cryptogenic postpartum stroke.

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Dániel; Szegedi, Norbert; Szakács, Zoltán; Gubucz, István; May, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 25-40% of ischemic strokes are classified as cryptogenic, which means the cause of the cerebral infarction remains unidentified. One of the potential pathomechanisms - especially among young patients with no cardiovascular risk factors - is paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale. Pregnancy, cesarean delivery and the postpartum period are associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Factors that may contribute to ischemic strokes during gestation and puerperium include classic cardiovascular risk factors, changes in hemostaseology/hemodynamics, and pregnancy-specific disorders such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum cerebral angiopathy or peripartum cardiomyopathy. In this case report, we present a 36-year-old thrombolysis candidate undergoing mechanical thrombectomy 3 weeks after a cesarean section due to HELLP-syndrome. After evaluation of anamnestic and diagnostic parameters, closure of the patent foramen ovale has been performed. In the absence of specific guidelines, diagnostic work-up for cryptogenic stroke should be oriented after the suspected pathomechanism based on patient history and clinical picture. As long as definite evidences emerge, management of cryptogenic stroke patients with pathogenic right-to-left shunt remains individual based on the mutual decision of the patient and the multidisciplinary medical team. PMID:27591063

  14. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  15. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  16. Self-reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among a Cohort of Postpartum Women: The PIN Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Herring, Amy H.; Wen, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies measure physical activity objectively or at multiple time points during postpartum. We describe physical activity at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of women using both self-reported and objective measures. Methods In total, 181 women completed the 3-month postpartum measures, and 204 women completed the 12-month postpartum measures. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for one week and completed in-home interviews that included questions on physical activity. A cohort of 80 women participated at both time points. Poisson regression models were used to determine whether physical activity differed over time for the cohort. Results For the cohort, average counts/minute were 364 at 3-months postpartum and 394 at 12-months postpartum. At both time periods for the cohort, vigorous activity averaged 1 to 3 minutes/day, and moderate activity (NHANES cutpoints) averaged 16 minutes/day. Sedentary time averaged 9.3 hours at 3-months postpartum and 8.8 hours at 12-months postpartum, out of a 19-hour day. Average counts/minute increased and sedentary behavior declined from 3- to 12-months postpartum. Conclusion Interventions are needed to help women integrate more moderate to vigorous physical activity and to capitalize on the improvements in sedentary behavior that occur during postpartum. PMID:22232505

  17. Long-Term Efficacy of Postpartum Intravenous Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Background. The potential benefits of administering a dose of intravenous iron in patients with moderate postpartum anaemia rather than oral iron alone remains unproven. Aims. To determine whether a single injection of intravenous iron followed by a 6-week course of oral iron is as effective over 6 months in restoring normal haemoglobin levels and replenishing iron stores in women with moderate postpartum anaemia as a course of oral iron alone in women with mild postpartum anaemia. Materials and Methods. Retrospective two-arm cohort study in women with mild postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 9.6–10.5 g/dL) prescribed iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 150) and women with moderate postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 8.5–9.5 g/dL), given a single 500 mg injection of intravenous iron followed by iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 75). Haemoglobin and ferritin were measured 6 months postpartum. Results. Haemoglobin returned to similar mean levels in both groups. Ferritin levels were statistically significantly higher in the intravenous + oral group (57.7 ± 49.3 μg/L versus 32.9 ± 20.1 μg/L). Conclusions. Despite lower baseline haemoglobin, intravenous iron carboxymaltose was superior to oral iron alone in replenishing iron stores in moderate postpartum anaemia and may prove similarly beneficial in mild postpartum anaemia. PMID:25431768

  18. Effects of GnRH or PGF2α in week 5 postpartum on the incidence of cystic ovarian follicles and persistent corpora lutea and on fertility parameters in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Kögel, T; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-15

    Resumption of ovulatory activity and the timely lysis of the first CL postpartum (pp) are important determinants for the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Cystic ovarian follicles (COFs) and persistent CLs preclude normal ovarian cyclicity and increase the calving interval. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of GnRH on the incidence of COFs and the effect of PGF2α on the incidence of a prolonged luteal phase (PLP) and on fertility parameters in dairy cows. A total of 476 cows were examined ultrasonographically for the presence of a dominant follicle (12-25 mm, without CL >10 mm; n = 237) or a functional CL (≥20 mm; n = 239) between 28 and 35 days pp and were allocated to one of four groups. Cows with a dominant follicle received 10-μg GnRH (buserelin; group F-T; n = 118) or saline (group F-C; n = 119), and cows with a functional CL received 0.5 mg of a PGF2α analogue (cloprostenol; group CL-T; n = 119) or saline (group CL-C; n = 120) on the day of initial examination, defined as Day 0. Cows were reexamined 7 and 21 days (F-T and F-C) and 3 and 24 days (CL-T and CL-C) later, and COFs were treated immediately after diagnosis in all cows. On the basis of the ovarian findings on Days 21 and 24, cows were treated according to a protocol aimed at timely breeding. The incidence of COFs by Days 7 (F-T vs. F-C; 7.6% vs. 16.8%) and 21 (11.0% vs. 21.8%) decreased (P ≤ 0.03) with GnRH; however, this did not lead to a substantial improvement of calving-to-conception interval (means ± standard error of the mean; 107.91 ± 5.70 vs. 117.94 ± 6.63 days), first-service conception rate (42.3% vs. 41.3%), and number of services per conception (2.06 ± 0.12 vs. 2.31 ± 0.15). Treatment with PGF2α decreased (P < 0.0001) the incidence of PLP by Day 24 (CL-T vs. CL-C; 1.7% vs. 17.5%), decreased calving-to-conception interval(91.28 ± 4.77 vs. 101.75 ± 5.03 days), increased first-service conception rate (63.3% vs. 38.7%), and reduced the number of

  19. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  20. The postpartum triathlete.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2016-09-01

    The postpartum period in a woman's life is filled with numerous changes, including physical changes, changes in sleep habits, and learning how to best care for a newborn. A common goal among postpartum women is to either begin or resume an active lifestyle, which often includes physical activity such as running, biking and swimming. The postpartum athlete may discover barriers that prevent her from returning to or beginning an exercise routine. These obstacles include muscle weakness, fatigue, depression and physical changes that require exercise modification. The physical therapist is well-suited to properly assess, treat and manage the care of the postpartum athlete. Postpartum athletes wishing to begin or resume training for triathlons require special consideration, as the triathlete must balance training to compete in three different sports. The purpose of the paper is to identify the unique physical and physiological changes that occur to the female during the postpartum period. In addition, injuries that are more commonly seen during the postpartum period will be discussed. Recommendations for beginning or resuming an exercise program will be reviewed. Lastly, sport-specific training for the postpartum triathlete, including challenges presented with each triathlon component, will be discussed. PMID:27497835

  1. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  2. Kawasaki disease in a postpartum patient.

    PubMed Central

    Fason, Janet T.; Fry, Yvonne W.; Smith, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a multisystem disease. It usually affects children below the age of five, but it occasionally affects adults. There are less than 50 English-reported adult cases in the literature, and only five reported cases of Kawasaki disease and pregnancy, as of 2003. The cases associated with pregnancy involved patients who had a history of Kawasaki disease during childhood and addressed how the complications of the illness (i.e,. coronary artery aneurysms) were managed during pregnancy and delivery. There are no reported cases of Kawasaki disease in postpartum patients. This article presents a case of Kawasaki disease in a 21-year-old, four-week postpartum patient who initially responded to intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. This paper will review the diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as well as the multiple outside variables that impact the management of adult postpartum patients with Kawasaki disease. PMID:15586654

  3. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension presenting as postpartum headache.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Mariam; Salahuddin, Ayesha; Mathew, Namitha R; Nandhagopal, Ramachandiran

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum headache is described as headache and neck or shoulder pain during the first 6 weeks after delivery. Common causes of headache in the puerperium are migraine headache and tension headache; other causes include pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, post-dural puncture headache, cortical vein thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, brain tumor, cerebral ischemia, meningitis, and so forth. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare cause of postpartum headache. It is usually associated with papilledema, headache, and elevated intracranial pressure without any focal neurologic abnormality in an otherwise healthy person. It is more commonly seen in obese women of reproductive age group, but rare during pregnancy and postpartum. We present a case of IIH who presented to us 18 days after cesarean section with severe headache and was successfully managed. PMID:26818168

  4. Committee Opinion No. 666 Summary: Optimizing Postpartum Care.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    In the weeks after birth, postpartum care often is fragmented among maternal and pediatric health care providers, and communication between inpatient and outpatient settings is inconsistent. To optimize postpartum care, anticipatory guidance should begin during pregnancy. During antenatal care, it is recommended that the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider formulate a postpartum care plan and identify the health care professionals who will comprise the postpartum care team for the woman and her infant. Ideally, during the postpartum period, a single health care practice assumes responsibility for coordinating the woman's care. At discharge from maternity care, the woman should receive contact information for her postpartum care team and written instructions regarding the timing of follow-up postpartum care. It is recommended that all women undergo a comprehensive postpartum visit within the first 6 weeks after birth. This visit should include a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being. Systems should be implemented to ensure each woman can receive her desired form of contraception during the comprehensive postpartum visit, if not done earlier. At the conclusion of the postpartum visit, the woman and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider should determine who will assume primary responsibility for her ongoing care. If responsibility is transferred to another primary care provider, the obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider is responsible for ensuring that there is communication with the primary care provider so that he or she can understand the implications of any pregnancy complications for the woman's future health and maintain continuity of care. PMID:27214188

  5. Postpartum catatonia treated with electroconvulsive therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Strain, Angela Katherine; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Bullard, Elizabeth; Gaynes, Bradley N

    2012-01-01

    Catatonia is a rare syndrome that occurs in mood and psychotic disorders, and general medical conditions. Postpartum depression affects 10%-15% of women within 6 months after delivery. Postpartum psychosis affects 0.1%-0.5% of women within weeks after delivery, though it can occur within hours; it carries risk for suicide and infanticide. There is limited evidence available to guide treatment. We review a case of postpartum psychosis that presented with catatonia and was resistant to medications, but responded to electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:22227030

  6. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in the Postpartum Period: Increased Risk of Bleeding, a Challenging Situation.

    PubMed

    Abouzahr, Omar; Garofalo, Fabio; Garneau, Pierre Y

    2016-06-01

    The female population represents three-fourths of patients undergoing a bariatric procedure and could be scheduled for surgery in their postpartum period. We report a difficult case of a female patient who underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy 6 weeks postpartum. The postpartum period is accompanied by pronounced vasodilatation with transient portal hypertension. Most of the hemodynamic alterations occurring during pregnancy return to baseline within 6-8 weeks after delivery. Bariatric surgery in the postpartum period should be avoided in order for the cardiovascular system to regain its normality. PMID:27034060

  7. Postpartum thyroiditis: an autoimmune thyroid disorder which predicts future thyroid health

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Erin Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis is a potentially destructive lymphocytic thyroiditis occurring in approximately 8% of the pregnant population, making it the most common endocrine disorder associated with pregnancy. This autoimmune thyroid disorder is precipitated by the postpartum immunological rebound that follows the partial immunosuppression of pregnancy, in individuals already at risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. The manifestations of postpartum thyroiditis are usually not present at the six-week postpartum visit and thus it is important that all physicians be aware of the risks, presentation and intervention required for this common disorder. Postpartum thyroiditis is a strong predictor of future thyroid health and it is essential that women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis be screened regularly, especially prior to a future pregnancy. Selenium supplementation has recently been identified as a potential means to prevent postpartum thyroiditis in women at risk but further studies are required before recommendations for its use can be made.

  8. Effects of the postpartum period on nortriptyline pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wisner, K L; Perel, J M; Peindl, K S; Findling, R L; Hanusa, B H

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate sequential serum levels and level/dose ratios of the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline (NTP) through the first 17 postpartum weeks. The initial NTP dose was given immediately postpartum to 16 mothers and increased gradually to 70 mg over the first week. A dose of 75 mg was prescribed until adjustment according to serum levels. Serum levels of NTP and its metabolites Z- and E-OH-NTP were determined. At postpartum Week 2, the women developed a mean level/dose (L/D) ratio for NTP of 1.11 (range 0.37 to 3.23), and subsequently experienced an increase in the L/D ratios which continued through Week 6. At Week 8, the NTP L/D ratios declined, and became relatively stable at Week 11 and beyond. For postpartum women treated with NTP, side effect profiles should be carefully followed during the first 6 weeks after delivery as a clinical marker for elevation of serum levels. Since our highest L/D ratios for NTP occurred at Week 6, a serum level is recommended at this time. If the dose needs to be lowered to maintain a nontoxic level, a repeat serum level should be obtained at Week 11, at which time an increase in dose may be required. PMID:9230637

  9. Association of pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention with postpartum HbA1c among women with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, T.; Brown, F. M.; Curran, A.; James-Todd, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention with postpartum HbA1c levels in women with Type 1 diabetes. Methods We longitudinally evaluated 136 women with Type 1 diabetes who received prenatal and postpartum care through the Joslin Diabetes Center’s Diabetes and Pregnancy Program between 2004 and 2009. Weight, BMI and HbA1c concentration were assessed before the index pregnancy and repeatedly monitored after delivery until 12 months postpartum. We used a linear mixed model to assess the association of postpartum HbA1c with pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention. Results The mean HbA1c concentration increased from 49 mmol/mol (6.6%) at 6 weeks postpartum to 58 mmol/mol (7.5%) by 10 months postpartum, a level similar to the mean pre-pregnancy HbA1c concentration. Postpartum weight retention showed a linearly decreasing trend of 0.06 kg/week (P<0.0001), with −0.1 kg average postpartum weight retention by 1 year postpartum. Compared with women with a pre-pregnancy BMI≥25 kg/m2, women with a lower pre-pregnancy BMI maintained a 3.4 mmol/mol (0.31%) lower HbA1c concentration, after adjusting for several sociodemographic, reproductive and diabetes-related factors (P=0.03). There was a suggestion of a time-varying positive association between HbA1c and postpartum weight retention, with the most significant difference of 3.7 mmol/mol (0.34%; P=0.05) at 30 weeks postpartum among women with postpartum weight retention ≥5 kg vs those with postpartum weight retention <5 kg. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention were positively associated with HbA1c during the first postpartum year in women with Type 1 diabetes. Interventions to modify the behaviours associated with these body weight factors before pregnancy and after delivery may help women with Type 1 diabetes maintain good glycaemic control after pregnancy. PMID:25346003

  10. Suppression of natural killer cell cytotoxicity in postpartum women: time course and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Groer, Maureen W; El-Badri, Nagwa; Djeu, Julie; Williams, S Nicole; Kane, Bradley; Szekeres, Karoly

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the recovery of the immune system from normal pregnancy and whether the postpartum period is a uniquely adapted immune state. This report extends previous observations from our group of decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in the postpartum period. NK cytotoxicity was measured from 1 week through 9 months postpartum. In addition, NK cytotoxicity was assayed in the presence or absence of pooled plasmas collected from either postpartum or nonpostpartum women. Samples of cells were stained for inhibitory receptors and analyzed by flow cytometry. NK cytotoxicity remained decreased in postpartum women compared to controls through the first 6 postpartum months, returned to normal levels by 9 months, and remained normal at 12 months. NK cytotoxicity during the first 6 months was further inhibited by the addition of pooled plasma to NK cultures from postpartum women, but the addition of pooled plasma from the control group did not affect that group's NK cultures. There were differences in inhibitory receptor staining between the two groups, with decreased CD158a and CD158b and increased NKG2A expression on postpartum NK cells during the first 3 postpartum months. These data suggest that NK cytotoxicity postpartum inhibition lasts 6 months and is influenced by unidentified postpartum plasma components. The effect may also involve receptors on NK cells. PMID:23956351

  11. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  12. Predictors for postpartum pelvic girdle pain in working women: the Mom@Work cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Bruinvels, David J; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine which factors during pregnancy and postpartum predict pelvic girdle pain (PGP) at 12 weeks postpartum among working women. A total of 548 Dutch pregnant employees were recruited in 15 companies, mainly health care, child care, and supermarkets. The definition of PGP was any pain felt in the pelvic girdle region at 12 weeks postpartum. Participants received questionnaires at 30 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum with demographic, work-related, pregnancy-related, fatigue, psychosocial, PGP-related and delivery-related questions. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Almost half of the women experienced pain in their pelvic girdle at 12 weeks postpartum. However, the level of pain and the degree of disability due to postpartum PGP was low. Pregnancy-related predictors for PGP at 12 weeks were history of low back pain, higher somatisation, more than 8 hours of sleep or rest per day, and uncomfortable postures at work. The pregnancy and postpartum-related predictors were: more disability at 6 weeks, having PGP at 6 weeks, higher mean pain at 6 weeks, higher somatisation during pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum, higher birth weight of the baby, uncomfortable postures at work and number of days of bed rest. Based on these results, it is concluded that extra attention should be given to women who experience PGP during pregnancy to prevent serious PGP during late pregnancy and postpartum. More research is needed to confirm the roles of hours of sleep, somatisation, and bed rest in relation to PGP. PMID:23137900

  13. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,6 - Trinitrotoluene ( TNT ) ; CASRN 118 - 96 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for N

  14. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  15. Career Education: Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    The third of a series of nine career education guides includes four social studies units for grades 4-6. Part one, famous Americans from Plymouth Rock to Tranquility Base, includes goals, objectives, skills to be taught or reviewed, lists of famous Americans in the fields of science and medicine, inventions, sports, religion, politics, literature,…

  16. Science for Children, 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This publication developed by the New York State Education Department with the cooperation of the University of the State of New York, is a curriculum guide for elementary science (grade 4-6). This guide is organized around 6 large subject areas: (1) Living things; (2) Our growing bodies; (3) Air, water and weather; (4) The earth and its…

  17. A Dogrib History. Grade 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Tara

    A publication on the history and traditional lifestyle of the Dogrib Tribe of Canada's Northwest Territories is intended for use in grades 4-6. The text is illustrated with numerous drawings. Sections describe the caribou, spruce tree, muskox, fox, ducks and geese and their usefulness to Dogrib people. Activities covered are trading at the trading…

  18. Eating disorder symptoms pre- and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Cecilia Brundin; Zandian, Modjtaba; Clinton, David

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate symptoms of disordered eating pre- and postpartum using a standardised and widely used measure of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. A consecutive series of women attending either prenatal (N = 426) or postnatal (N = 345) clinics in metropolitan Stockholm were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Assessments were conducted at either the first visit to prenatal clinics (10-12 weeks of pregnancy) or 6 to 8 months postpartum. An optimised shortened version of the EDE-Q was best suited for studying eating disorders pre- and postpartum. Using the optimised version of the instrument with 14 items and a cut-off score of ≥2.8, it was estimated that 5.3 % of prepartum and 12.8 % of postpartum mothers were suffering from clinical eating disorders. Seriously disordered eating behaviour during, and especially after, pregnancy may be more common than previously thought. It is imperative that health services focus increased attention on these problems by raising awareness, developing and extending specialist services, as well as through implementing educational programmes and training directed toward frontline healthcare services. PMID:26961005

  19. Dynamics of postpartum endometrial cytology and bacteriology and their relationship to fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O; Santos, Natalia R

    2016-05-01

    Endometrial samples were obtained from 56 consecutively calving dairy cows examined for endometrial cytology and for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Changes over time, correlations between different cell types and between cell and bacterial populations and with fertility measures were calculated. The proportion of neutrophils in cytologic preparations decreased with time postpartum. Other cell types did not change significantly with time. The proportion of neutrophils early (Day 0 and 7) postpartum was negatively correlated with neutrophil proportion at 5 or 7 weeks postpartum and positively correlated with fertility. Cows with high proportion of neutrophils at 7 days postpartum (>40%) were significantly more likely to become pregnant than those with lower proportions of neutrophils. Escherichia coli were the bacteria most frequently isolated at 0 or 7 days postpartum but were uncommon after that. Trueperella pyogenes were most prevalent at 3 weeks postpartum and were more likely to infect cows that had previously been infected with E coli. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum increased the risk of concomitant or later infection with gram-negative anaerobes. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum significantly reduced the risk of pregnancy at 150 days in milk. The presence of alpha-hemolytic Streptoccus spp. at 7 days postpartum was associated with improved reproductive performance. The proportion of neutrophils at 5 and 7 weeks postpartum was related to concomitant bacterial infection. These findings suggest that rapid mobilization of neutrophils to the postpartum uterus is a beneficial response for uterine health in dairy cows. PMID:26944540

  20. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth. PMID:26189446

  1. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women. PMID:20091107

  2. Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…

  3. Postpartum Bilateral Sacroiliitis caused by Brucella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Altun, Demet; Ulubay, Mustafa; Firatligil, Fahri Burçin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of this septic sacroiliitis is difficult because symptoms are nonspecific during the postpartum period. In this case we dicscuss about a patient with bilateral buttock pain unresolved with painkillers and rest, after an induction delivery. A 31-year-old woman was presented to our clinic on the second week of postpartum period with bilateral buttock pain. She was subfebrile and had no apparent abnormality on her pelvic X-ray. The pain was so severe that she was unable to walk properly. Sacroiliac MRI during the acute episode of pain showed bone marrow oedema and fluid within the bilateral sacroiliac joint. She was found seropositive for brucellosis and the patient completely recovered with antibiotherapy treatment. We stopped our patient from breastfeeding when the Rose Bengal test turned out positive. Brucella sacroiliitis should be considered in puerperium period women when buttock pain and difficulty in walking are present and pain is unresponsive to analgesics. PMID:26675497

  4. Predictors of Postpartum Sexual Activity and Function in a Diverse Population of Women

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lynn M.; Kaimal, Anjali J.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Houston, Kathryn; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of postpartum sexual activity and functioning in a diverse population of women using the Sexual Health Outcomes in Women Questionnaire (SHOW-Q). Methods This was a prospective study of 160 postpartum women assessing relationships between demographic factors, mode of birth, depression, breastfeeding, and sexual activity and function. Questionnaires were administered over the telephone 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and in person 6 to 8 months postpartum. Primary outcomes were sexual activity at 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and global and subscale SHOW-Q scores at 6 to 8 months postpartum; the primary predictor was mode of birth. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Seventy-five percent of this population (n = 140 at 8–10 weeks, n = 129 at 6–8 months) gave birth vaginally, and 60.7% resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum. Only multiparity was associated with increased odds of having resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.44; P = .03), whereas older age was associated with decreased odds (aOR, 0.92; P = .02) of having resumed sexual activity. Women who were depressed (effect estimate, −13.3; P = .01), older (−1.1, P = .01), or exclusively breastfeeding (−16.5, P < .001) had significantly poorer sexual satisfaction, whereas multiparous women reported better sexual satisfaction (11.1, P = .03). A significant relationship between mode of birth and SHOW-Q scores did not emerge, although we did observe a trend toward lower SHOW-Q scores among women who underwent cesarean compared with those giving birth vaginally. Discussion Multiparity and younger age predict early resumption of sexual activity, whereas depression and breastfeeding are associated with poorer postpartum sexual functioning. The relationship between mode of birth and resumed sexual activity or postpartum sexual function remains

  5. Determinants of changes in vitamin D status postpartum in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Brembeck, Petra; Winkvist, Anna; Bååth, Mari; Bärebring, Linnea; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-02-14

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with unfavourable health outcomes. Postpartum, it is speculated that maternal vitamin D status decreases due to transfer of vitamin D from mother to child through breast milk. A few studies have investigated changes in maternal vitamin D postpartum and possible determinants. Thus, the aims of the present study were to determine changes in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) between 2 weeks and 12 months postpartum in Swedish women and to evaluate lactation and other determinants for changes in 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. In total, seventy-eight women were studied at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months postpartum. Data collection included measurements of weight and height as well as information about lactation, sun exposure, use of oestrogen contraceptives and physical activity level. Blood samples were collected and serum 25(OH)D levels were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Dietary intake of vitamin D was recorded using 4-d food diaries. For all the women studied, mean serum 25(OH)D did not change between 2 weeks and 12 months postpartum (67 (SD 23) v. 67 (SD 19) nmol/l). No association was found between lactation and changes in serum 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. Significant determinants for postpartum changes in 25(OH)D concentration were use of vitamin D supplements (P=0·003), use of oestrogen contraceptives (P=0·013) and season (P=0·005). In conclusion, no changes were observed in 25(OH)D concentrations during the 1st year postpartum in these women and no association was found between lactation and changes in 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. The main determinants for the variation in changes in 25(OH)D concentrations postpartum were use of vitamin D supplements, use of oestrogen contraceptives and season. PMID:26586446

  6. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  7. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  8. Management of postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Benhamou, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acquired coagulopathy observed in severe PPH is an important part of PPH management, but is mainly based on literature in trauma patients, and data thus should be interpreted with caution. This review describes recent advances in transfusion strategy and in the use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in women with PPH. PMID:27408694

  9. Immediate postpartum insertion of the norplant contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Molland, J R; Morehead, D B; Baldwin, D M; Castracane, V D; Lasley, B; Bergquist, C A

    1996-07-01

    During December 1992 to October 1994, in Texas, clinical researchers conducted a prospective case control study (15 cases receiving Norplant immediately postpartum vs. 6 controls undergoing bilateral tubal ligation immediately postpartum) to determine the safety and efficacy of inserting the contraceptive implant Norplant (6 capsules inserted subdermally, each containing 35 mg levonorgestrel) immediately postpartum. They followed the cases and the controls for three months. The study subjects were 18-35 years old, received prenatal care at one of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology's (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center) community clinics, had an uncomplicated term pregnancy and normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, and did not breast feed. They tended to be poor. During the first week after Norplant insertion, serum levonorgestrel levels peaked at about 2000 pg/ml, then fell abruptly until about the eighth week to about 250 pg/ml. This lower levonorgestrel level concerned the researchers because it is just slightly higher than levels associated with pregnancy. They were also concerned about the possibility of Norplant inducing a hypoestrogenic state in postpartum women. The Norplant group was more likely than the tubal ligation group to experience irregular bleeding (p 0.01), headaches (p 0.01), hair loss (p 0.05), and abdominal discomfort (p 0.05). The various serum metabolic biomarkers, serum electrolytes, and blood components fell into the normal range in both groups. The serum estradiol, progesterone, and urinary steroid biomarkers suggested that the Norplant group experienced very suppressed steroid secretion throughout the three month study period, while the controls had normal postpartum ovarian activity. Thus, ovarian activity was absent in the Norplant group. These findings suggest that postpartum insertion of Norplant is safe and effective. Yet further clinical evaluation is needed to address concerns about the long-term hypoestrogenic

  10. PREPP: postpartum depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth A; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Jiang, Nan; Desai, Preeya; Monk, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Most interventions to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) focus on the mother rather than the mother-infant dyad. As strong relationships between infant sleep and cry behavior and maternal postpartum mood have been demonstrated by previous research, interventions targeted at the dyad may reduce symptoms of PPD. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP). PREPP is a new PPD prevention protocol that aims to treat women at risk for PPD by promoting maternally mediated behavioral changes in their infants, while also including mother-focused skills. Results of this randomized control trial (RCT) (n = 54) indicate that this novel, brief intervention was well tolerated and effective in reducing maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression, particularly at 6 weeks postpartum. Additionally, this study found that infants of mothers enrolled in PREPP had fewer bouts of fussing and crying at 6 weeks postpartum than those infants whose mothers were in the Enhanced TAU group. These preliminary results indicate that PREPP has the potential to reduce the incidence of PPD in women at risk and to directly impact the developing mother-child relationship, the mother's view of her child, and child outcomes. PMID:26231973

  11. Effects of antenatal, postpartum and post-weaning melatonin supplementation on blood pressure and renal antioxidant enzyme activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Sirajudeen, K N S; Sundaram, Arunkumar; Zakaria, Rahimah; Singh, H J

    2011-06-01

    Although melatonin lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), its effect following antenatal and postpartum supplementation on the subsequent development of hypertension in SHR pups remains unknown. To investigate this, SHR dams were given melatonin in drinking water (10 mg/kg body weight/day) from day 1 of pregnancy until day 21 postpartum. After weaning, a group of male pups continued to receive melatonin till the age of 16 weeks (Mel-SHR), while no further melatonin was given to another group of male pups (Maternal-Mel-SHR). Controls received plain drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, after which the kidneys were collected for analysis of antioxidant enzyme profiles. SBP was significantly lower till the age of 8 weeks in Maternal-Mel-SHR and Mel-SHR than that in the controls, after which no significant difference was evident in SBP between the controls and Maternal-Mel-SHR. SBP in Mel-SHR was lower than that in controls and Maternal-Mel-SHR at 12 and 16 weeks of age. Renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activities, levels of total glutathione and relative GPx-1 protein were significantly higher in Mel-SHR. GPx protein was however significantly higher in Mel-SHR. No significant differences were evident between the three groups in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. In conclusion, it appears that while antenatal and postpartum melatonin supplementation decreases the rate of rise in blood pressure in SHR offspring, it however does not alter the tendency of offspring of SHR to develop hypertension. PMID:21210316

  12. Anger after Childbirth: An Overlooked Reaction to Postpartum Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Lobel, Marci; DeLuca, Robyn Stein

    2002-01-01

    Other than postpartum depression, little is known about women's emotional responses to childbirth and subsequent stressors. Anger was explored on the basis of theory and evidence that it is a likely emotional response in this context. During their third trimester of pregnancy and approximately six weeks after delivery, 163 participants completed…

  13. Postpartum Healthcare After Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, Kristin; Rogers, Stephanie; Ball, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy identify women with an elevated lifetime risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: Prospective cohort of women recruited from the postpartum service of a large community-based academic obstetrical hospital after delivery of a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) or a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP). Interviews were conducted, and validated surveys completed, before hospital discharge and again 3 months postpartum. Results: The study sample included 249 women: 111 with GDM, 127 with HDP, and 11 with both. Most, 230 (92.4%) had a PCP prior to pregnancy and 97 (39.0%) reported an office visit with their PCP during the prenatal period. Of the 176 (70.7%) participants who attended the 3-month study visit, 169 (96.0%) women with either diagnosis reported they had attended their 6-week postpartum visit. By the 3-month study visit, 51 (57.9%) women with GDM had completed follow-up glucose testing; 93 (97.9%) with HDP had follow-up blood pressure testing; and 101 (57.4%) with either diagnosis recalled ever having completed lipid screening. Women least likely to complete screening tests were those who had no college education, less than a high school level of health literacy, and who were not privately insured. Conclusion: There are important opportunities to improve postpartum testing for diabetes and CVD risk factor assessment. Most women were connected to primary care suggesting a “hand-off” to a primary care physician after pregnancy is feasible. More robust strategies may be needed to improve follow-up care for women with less education, lower health literacy, and those without private health insurance. PMID:25089915

  14. The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Predicting Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Rode, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the direct and moderating effects of emotional intelligence on postpartum depression (PPD), while taking into account social support and stressful life events. Using a prospective cohort design, 165 women were surveyed in their third trimester and again at 9 weeks postpartum. Results support the direct effects of emotional intelligence (β = -.20, p = .01), social support (β = -.17, p = .04), and stressful life events (β = .17, p = .04) on PPD. Moderating effects are also supported with significant effects on PPD: stressful life events × emotional intelligence (β = -.17, p = .04) and stressful life events × social support (β = -.21, p = .01). PMID:26106112

  15. PRIMARY POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Melody, George F.

    1951-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is the outstanding cause of maternal mortality, and a redoubtable contributor to puerperal death from other causes, notably infection and renal failure. The clinical situations in which hemorrhage is liable to occur must be better known, so that anticipatory and preventive measures can be taken. Recent knowledge about defibrinated blood in women with degenerative changes at the placental site must be incorporated in the thinking and practice of physicians dealing with obstetrical cases. The indications, limitations, and hazards of the various anesthetic methods available for parturient women should be carefully considered in the circumstances of each case. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:14886749

  16. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  17. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; ITO, Nozomi; NAGASHIMA, Shuntarou; MATSUI, Motozumi; SAWADA, Kumiko; SCHWEIGERT, Florian J.; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0–3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7–4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3–1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0–3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  18. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  19. Postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: differences in presentation and response to pharmacologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, V; Altshuler, L; Strouse, T; Grosser, S

    2000-01-01

    Following childbirth, major depression (postpartum depression) affects approximately 8-12% of new mothers. However, little is known about the pharmacological management of postpartum depression, and no studies to date have assessed differences in treatment response between women with postpartum and nonpostpartum major depression. The authors reviewed the records of 26 women with postpartum major depression and 25 women with major depression unrelated to childbearing (nonpostpartum depression) who presented to them for treatment over a 4-year period. Compared with the nonpostpartum depressed patients, the postpartum depressed women were significantly more likely to present with anxious features. Also, cases of postpartum depression were more severe than cases of nonpostpartum depression. While the postpartum patients were equally as likely to recover (as defined by a Clinical Global Impression score of 1 or 2) compared to the nonpostpartum-depressed patients, their time to response was significantly longer. By 3 weeks of pharmacotherapy, 75% of the nonpostpartum cases had recovered, in contrast to only 36% of the postpartum cases. Further, postpartum patients were significantly more likely to be receiving more than one antidepressant agent at the time of response to treatment. Length of depression prior to treatment did not explain the difference in treatment response. Presence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and timing of onset of the depression (before vs. after 4 weeks of delivery) did not affect likelihood of treatment response in this sample. Women with postpartum depression appear to be significantly more likely than the nonpostpartum women to present with anxious features, take longer to respond to pharmacotherapy for depression, and require more antidepressant agents at the time of response to treatment. PMID:10812531

  20. Predictors of Postpartum Weight Change Among Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bercedis L.; Krause, Katrina M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Methods Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Results Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to −24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Conclusions Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy. PMID:22092110

  1. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Alistair R. D.; Boel, Machteld E.; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  2. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    McLean, Alistair R D; Boel, Machteld E; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A; Fowkes, Freya J I

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  3. Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Chen, T. C.; Yeh, C. C.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Chi, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:25049906

  4. Postpartum management of diabetes pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Nazli

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has assumed the role of an epidemic. Previously considered a disease of affluent developed countries, it has become more common in developing countries. Pakistan is included among the countries with a high prevalence of diabetes. In this scenario, postpartum management of a woman with diabetes mellitus becomes more important as in this period counseling and educating a woman is essential. Counselling includes life style modifications to prevent future risks involving all the systems of the body. This review article discusses management of diabetes mellitus in postpartum period, guidelines for postpartum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, risks involved in future life and stresses upon the need of local population based studies. Primary care providers and gynaecologists must realize the importance of postpartum screening for diabetes mellitus and provide relevant information to women as well. PMID:27582163

  5. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  6. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression. PMID:24274243

  7. Mood and objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:24128191

  8. 11 CFR 4.6 - Discretionary release of exempt records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discretionary release of exempt records. 4.6 Section 4.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.6 Discretionary release of exempt records. The Commission may, in its discretion,...

  9. 16 CFR 4.6 - Cooperation with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation with other agencies. 4.6 Section 4.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.6 Cooperation with other agencies. It is the policy of the Commission to cooperate...

  10. 16 CFR 4.6 - Cooperation with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperation with other agencies. 4.6 Section 4.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.6 Cooperation with other agencies. It is the policy of the Commission to cooperate...

  11. 16 CFR 4.6 - Cooperation with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperation with other agencies. 4.6 Section 4.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.6 Cooperation with other agencies. It is the policy of the Commission to cooperate...

  12. 16 CFR 4.6 - Cooperation with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperation with other agencies. 4.6 Section 4.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.6 Cooperation with other agencies. It is the policy of the Commission to cooperate...

  13. 16 CFR 4.6 - Cooperation with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperation with other agencies. 4.6 Section 4.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.6 Cooperation with other agencies. It is the policy of the Commission to cooperate...

  14. 28 CFR 4.6 - Institution of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institution of proceedings. 4.6 Section 4.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.6 Institution of proceedings. All applications and supporting...

  15. 37 CFR 4.6 - Attorneys and Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Attorneys and Agents. 4.6 Section 4.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.6 Attorneys and Agents. Complaints...

  16. 37 CFR 4.6 - Attorneys and Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Attorneys and Agents. 4.6 Section 4.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.6 Attorneys and Agents. Complaints...

  17. 37 CFR 4.6 - Attorneys and Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attorneys and Agents. 4.6 Section 4.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.6 Attorneys and Agents. Complaints...

  18. 37 CFR 4.6 - Attorneys and Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Attorneys and Agents. 4.6 Section 4.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.6 Attorneys and Agents. Complaints...

  19. 38 CFR 4.6 - Evaluation of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of evidence. 4.6 Section 4.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.6 Evaluation of evidence. The element of the weight to be accorded the character of the...

  20. A longitudinal study of postpartum depressive symptoms: multilevel growth curve analyses of emotion regulation strategies, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and social support.

    PubMed

    Haga, Silje M; Ulleberg, Pål; Slinning, Kari; Kraft, Pål; Steen, Thorbjørn B; Staff, Annetine

    2012-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious health issue affecting as many as 10-15 % of postpartum women. This longitudinal study aimed to explore how psychological variables such as cognitive emotion regulation strategies, breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSE), and dimensions of social support predicted postpartum depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The data were collected with web-based survey questionnaires between May 2008 and December 2009, in a sample of 737 new mothers. The same questionnaire was surveyed at three points in time: 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling (level 1, time points; level 2, person). Results showed that BSE, certain cognitive emotion regulation strategies, perceived available support, and need for support predicted the rate of postpartum depressive symptoms. Only breastfeeding self-efficacy predicted change in postpartum depressive symptoms. This study illustrates the importance of psychological variables with regard to postpartum depressive symptoms. Implications for preventative efforts are discussed. PMID:22451329

  1. Toxics in My Home? You Bet! Curriculum on Household Toxics for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purin, Gina; And Others

    This curriculum consists of a one-week course of study designed to introduce students in grades 4-6 to (or increase their awareness of) toxic substances commonly found in the home. It includes an introduction/conceptual framework, four lessons, a unit evaluation, and appendices. Each lesson consists of a statement of purpose, objectives,…

  2. Delineating the Association between Heavy Postpartum Haemorrhage and Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eckerdal, Patricia; Kollia, Natasa; Löfblad, Johanna; Hellgren, Charlotte; Karlsson, Linnea; Högberg, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD), taking into account the role of postpartum anaemia, delivery experience and psychiatric history. Methods A nested cohort study (n = 446), based on two population-based cohorts in Uppsala, Sweden. Exposed individuals were defined as having a bleeding of ≥1000ml (n = 196) at delivery, and non-exposed individuals as having bleeding of <650ml (n = 250). Logistic regression models with PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) score ≥ 12) as the outcome variable and PPH, anaemia, experience of delivery, mood during pregnancy and other confounders as exposure variables were undertaken. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was also conducted. Results There was no association between PPH and PPD symptoms. A positive association was shown between anaemia at discharge from the maternity ward and the development of PPD symptoms, even after controlling for plausible confounders (OR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.15–4.58). Path analysis revealed significant roles for anaemia at discharge, negative self-reported delivery experience, depressed mood during pregnancy and postpartum stressors in increasing the risk for PPD. Conclusion This study proposes important roles for postpartum anaemia, negative experience of delivery and mood during pregnancy in explaining the development of depressive symptoms after PPH. PMID:26807799

  3. Autoimmune Encephalitis in Postpartum Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, Veerle; Armangue, Thaís; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Markx, Sander; Dalmau, Josep; Kushner, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Significant immunological alterations have been observed in women with first-onset affective psychosis during the postpartum period. Recent studies have highlighted the possibility that a subset of patients with first-onset severe psychiatric episodes might suffer from undiagnosed autoimmune encephalitis. Therefore, the authors performed a three-step immunohistochemistry-based screening for CNS autoantibodies in a large cohort of patients with postpartum psychosis and matched postpartum comparison subjects. Method Ninety-six consecutive patients with postpartum psychosis and 64 healthy postpartum women were included. Screening for antibodies in patient serum was performed using immunohistochemistry. Samples showing any staining were further examined by immunocytochemistry using live hippocampal neurons and cell-based assays to test for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies. Cell-based assays for all other known CNS antigens were performed in those samples with immunocytochemistry labeling but negative for NMDA receptor antibodies. Results Four patients (4%) with neuropil labeling suggestive for extracellular antigen reactivity were identified. Serum samples from all four patients showed clear extracellular labeling of live hippocampal neurons. Two women had the specific staining pattern characteristic for anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity, which was confirmed by cell-based assays. Neither patient with anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity had evidence of an ovarian teratoma. The other two patients tested negative by cell-based assays for all known CNS antigens. None of the matched postpartum comparison subjects had confirmed neuronal surface antibodies. The two patients with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies both showed extrapyramidal symptoms following initiation of treatment with low-dose haloperidol. Conclusions In patients with acute psychosis during the postpartum period, systematic screening for anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies

  4. [Postpartum pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Escalante, Juan Pablo; Diez, Ana; Figueroa Casas, Marcelo; Lasave, Alejandro; Cursack, Guillermo; Poy, Carlos; Rodríguez, María Soledad; Galuppo, Marcela; Zapata, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is a rare disorder that carries a high risk to mother and child, and as such, it is considered a contraindication to becoming pregnant. However, there are few published reports related to the diagnosis of this condition after delivery. We describe three PH cases diagnosed after their normal pregnancies and deliveries. Although the causes are unknown, several mechanisms such as hypercoagulation, placental hypoxia or amniotic fluid embolism have been considered as possible causes. It is difficult to define whether a PH diagnosed in the postpartum period, relates to an earlier asymptomatic PH period that was triggered by the physiological stress of labor or if it is a recently acquired condition. Despite the lack of data to support the absence of PH previous to pregnancy in our three patients, lack of events during this period, asymptomatic and normal deliveries, lead us to believe that they did not suffer this disease prior to pregnancy; considering that high hemodynamic demands impair a ventricle with little reserve, and its subsequent appearance at time of delivery. PMID:25637900

  5. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Petrology of types 4-6 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative mineralogic study has been made of Coolidge, Karoonda, and new C4 chondrites in order to clarify the origin of C4-6 chondrites. It is shown that the properties of all C4-6 chondrites are consistent with an origin by metamorphism of C3-like precursors by processes analogous to those operating in ordinary chondrite parent bodies or planetesimals. However, type 4-6 material was not well mixed with type 3 material in the CV3 parent body. It is concluded that C4-6 chondrites may come from one or more separate parent bodies.

  8. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... 944.4773 Learn More Pregnancy & Postpartum Mental Health Social Support Online Training Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During ... this illness is caused by a real or perceived trauma during delivery or postpartum. ... and/or lack of support and reassurance during the delivery Women who have ...

  9. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  10. Changes in Postpartum Insulin Requirements for Patients with Well-Controlled Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Hilary A; Moore, Thomas R; Ramos, Gladys A

    2016-06-01

    Objective To compare postpartum with preconception insulin doses in well-controlled (HbA1c ≤ 7.4%) type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to characterize differences in postpartum insulin dosing based on infant feeding. Study Design The primary outcome in this retrospective cohort was the change in total daily insulin (TDI) from preconception to postpartum. Insulin administration (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] vs. multiple daily injections [MDI]), HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), and infant feeding were abstracted. Results We identified 44 women with T1DM and HbA1c ≤ 7.4%. Preconception mean BMI was 24.6 ± 3.6 kg/m(2) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) HbA1c was 6.4 (6.0-6.9)%. Of these, 73% used CSII and 27% used MDI. Additionally, 80% of patients reported exclusive breastfeeding, 7% were exclusively formula feeding, and 13% used both breast milk and formula. Median (IQR) preconception TDI was 0.64 (0.49-0.69) U/kg/day, and postpartum: 0.39 (0.30-0.50) U/kg/day. Postpartum TDI was 34% lower than preconception TDI (p = 0.02). There was no difference in the postpartum TDI in patients who were breast versus formula feeding or when comparing CSII with MDI. Conclusion There was a significant decrease in the TDI required postpartum when compared with preconception. Dosages do not seem to be impacted by administration route or breastfeeding. These findings warrant consideration when dosing postpartum insulin in patients with T1DM. PMID:26862721

  11. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. Methods We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. Results MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a one hour/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR=1.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.27) and a one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.88–0.99). A one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.00–1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and one hour/week increases in indoor household (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01–1.18) and overall MVPA (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.12–5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.05–3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Conclusions Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

  12. [Postpartum ovarian physiology. Pituitary gonadotropins, estradiol and prolactin during 12 months of postpartum physiology].

    PubMed

    Hernández Horta, J L; Alonso Uriarte, Q; Cortés Gallegos, V

    1994-06-01

    In order to establish a relationship between hyperprolactinemia and FSH-LH associated to the ovarian physiology postpartum, a clinical/endocrinological follow-up was performed during a period of twelve months in a cohorte of seventeen women beginning pregnancy resolution. The study had two phases: Lactancy (LAC) and Post-lactancy (LAC) and Post-lactancy (POST-LAC). In both phases blood samples were obtained every week from the first one through the 52nd, to quantitate FSH, LH, prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E-2). PRL levels were significantly higher during LAC as compared to POST-LAC: an inverse relationship in E-2/PRL was seen through the study. No significant changes for LH and FSH were attained in both phases. Concentrations of these gonadotropins were at the physiological levels and no differences in either one of the two phases were shown when compared to a nonlactating subject. There was a negative association in prolactin levels and the weeks postpartum, and on the contrary, a positive one for E-2. Thus, ovarian follicular development apparently is independent to the gonadotropic-hypophysis stimulus. PMID:8056364

  13. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Okun, Michele L

    2016-07-01

    The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is an increased reporting of sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence implicating significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, with adverse outcomes, such as an increase in depressive symptomatology or the development postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant, and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD. PMID:27222140

  14. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  15. Postpartum Pyomyoma, a Rare Complication of Sepsis Associated with Chorioamnionitis and Massive Postpartum Haemorrhage Treated with an Intrauterine Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Mandeep; Gailer, Ruth; Iskaros, Joseph; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of a postpartum pyomyoma, a rare but serious complication of uterine leiomyomata in a 28-year-old primigravida. The patient was treated for an Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) at 16 weeks of gestation. She had asymptomatic short cervical length on ultrasound scan at 20 weeks that was managed conservatively due to the presence of further UTI and received antibiotics. She was known to have a left sided intramural leiomyoma. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 23+1 weeks of gestation and the next day she had spontaneous vaginal delivery and collapsed with E. Coli septic shock, massive postpartum haemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation and was successfully treated with oxytocic drugs, a Rusch intrauterine balloon, and intravenous antibiotics. Eleven days postnatally she re-presented with systemic sepsis and was treated for retained products of conception. Sepsis persisted and investigations showed a postpartum pyomyoma that was initially managed with intravenous antibiotics to avoid surgery. Ultimately she required laparotomy, drainage of pyomyoma, and myomectomy. Postoperative recovery was good and the patient had a successful pregnancy two years later. PMID:26199774

  16. The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Design Descriptive, exploratory design. Setting Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Participants Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Methods Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. Results The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked. Conclusions These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions. PMID:23181913

  17. Towards an Understanding of Change in Physical Activity from Pregnancy Through Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. METHOD: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. RESULTS: To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:21278835

  18. Towards an Understanding of Change in Physical Activity from Pregnancy Through Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. Method The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. Results To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. Conclusions This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:21278835

  19. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  20. The effects of Pilates exercise on sleep quality in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan; Sadeghniiathaghighi, Khosro; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Chen, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilates exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women. PMID:24725785

  1. Postpartum Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gudeta, Alemeshet; Zerihun, Aklilu; Lewis, Odene; Ahmed, Sohail; Gajjala, Jhansi; Thomas, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother's TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department. Current guidelines recommend primary Isoniazid prophylaxis in TB exposed pregnant women who are immune-suppressed and have chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Treatment during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with active TB at delivery should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary Isoniazid prophylaxis for at least twelve weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. This case highlights important aspects for management of TB during the postpartum period which has a higher morbidity. We present a case of a young mother migrating from a developing nation to the USA, who was found to have a positive quantiFERON test associated with multiple cavitary lung lesions and gave birth to a healthy baby. PMID:27610260

  2. Postpartum Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Gudeta, Alemeshet; Zerihun, Aklilu; Lewis, Odene; Ahmed, Sohail; Gajjala, Jhansi; Thomas, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother's TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department. Current guidelines recommend primary Isoniazid prophylaxis in TB exposed pregnant women who are immune-suppressed and have chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Treatment during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with active TB at delivery should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary Isoniazid prophylaxis for at least twelve weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. This case highlights important aspects for management of TB during the postpartum period which has a higher morbidity. We present a case of a young mother migrating from a developing nation to the USA, who was found to have a positive quantiFERON test associated with multiple cavitary lung lesions and gave birth to a healthy baby. PMID:27610260

  3. Toxicological profile for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Statement was prepared to give you information about 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,397 sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene has been found in at least 20 of these sites.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of uterine involution and postpartum follicular dynamics in French jennies (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Dadarwal, D; Tandon, S N; Purohit, G N; Pareek, P K

    2004-07-01

    Uterine involution and follicular dynamics during postpartum period were studied ultrasonographically in French jennies. For the study of uterine involution in postpartum jennies (n = 6, Group S), sonographic measurements of different parts of the uterus and endometrium were made at three-day interval, starting from the day of foaling and continued up to 33 days postpartum. Uterine dimensions were also recorded in non-pregnant jennies (n = 3, Group C) throughout a cycle and compared with the dimensions of Group S jennies observed on the day of complete involution. Follicular dynamics of first and second postpartum ovulatory cycles were studied and compared with that of the single estrous cycle of Group C jennies. Jugular venous blood samples of Group S jennies were collected at weekly intervals for 49 days, commencing at the appearance of first preovulatory follicle, to support the sonographic findings. The average involution period was 22.5 +/- 1.7 days. However, it was significantly delayed (P < 0.05) in jennies which came into first postpartum ovulatory heat within Day 9 than those who came later (25.0 +/- 1.0 versus 20.0 +/- 1.0). The endometrial layer was not discernible beyond Day 15 postpartum and thus was found to be unreliable index of uterine involution. The follicular growth rate (mm per day) and diameter (mm) of preovulatory follicle in postpartum jennies were similar to that in normal cycling jennies (P > 0.05). The first and second ovulations occurred at 14.6 +/- 0.8 and 39.0 +/- 0.8 days postpartum in Group S jennies. All the corpora lutea, either echogenic or centrally non-echogenic were functionally similar and had similar life span (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the postpartum reproductive events related to uterine involution and ovarian cyclicity apparently resemble that of mares. PMID:15159118

  5. Antenatal depression and hematocrit levels as predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235

  6. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  7. Pregnancy massage reduces prematurity, low birthweight and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Pregnant women diagnosed with major depression were given 12 weeks of twice per week massage therapy by their significant other or only standard treatment as a control group. The massage therapy group women versus the control group women not only had reduced depression by the end of the therapy period, but they also had reduced depression and cortisol levels during the postpartum period. Their newborns were also less likely to be born prematurely and low birthweight, and they had lower cortisol levels and performed better on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment habituation, orientation and motor scales. PMID:19646762

  8. Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

    Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

  9. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  10. Bio-psycho-socio-demographic and Obstetric Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Pregnancy: A prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rohani, Samad; Sazlina, Ghazali Shariff; Zarghami, Mehran; Azhar, Md Zain; Lye, Munn Sann; Rezaiee Abhari, Farideh; Majidi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Soghra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various attempts to confirm variables that could predict postpartum depression in advance. This study determined antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression in women at risk of developing this disorder. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 2279 eligible women who attended at Mazandaran province’ primary health centers from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to eighth postpartum weeks. The women were screened for symptoms of depression using the Iranian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. An Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of > 12 indicated possible postpartum depression. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 2083women during 32-42 weeks of gestation participated in this study and were followed up to 8-week postpartum. Four hundred and three (19.4%) mothers yielded scores above the threshold of 12. Depression and general health state in pregnancy based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.3-1.4) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.04), respectively were significant independent antenatal risk factors of depression symptoms at 8-week postpartum. Mothers who lived in nuclear families (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.04-1.84), whose husbands had lower educational status (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99), and with delayed prenatal care (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.001-1.03) were more susceptible to postpartum depression. Conclusion: A comprehensive antenatal assessment focused on psychiatric problems, environmental and obstetric factors would benefit pregnant women in the prevention of postpartum depression. PMID:25053953

  11. No relationship between maternal iron status and postpartum depression in two samples in China.

    PubMed

    Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Shao, Jie; Li, Ming; Zhao, Gengli; Zhao, Zhengyan; Xu, Guobing; Zhou, Min; Zhan, Jianying; Bian, Yang; Ji, Chai; Li, Xing; Jiang, Yaping; Zhang, Zhixiang; Richards, Blair J; Tardif, Twila; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Maternal iron status is thought to be related to postpartum depressive symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between pre- and postnatal maternal iron status and depressive symptoms in pilot (n = 137) and confirmatory (n = 567) samples of Chinese women. Iron status was evaluated at mid- and late pregnancy and 3 days postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess maternal postpartum depression 24-48 hours after delivery and 6 weeks later. In the pilot sample, correlations between early- and late-pregnancy maternal Hb and EPDS scores at 6 weeks were r = 0.07 and -0.01, respectively (nonsignificant). In the confirmatory sample, the correlations between maternal iron measures (Hb, MCV, ZPP, ferritin, sTfR, and sTfR Index) in mid- or late pregnancy or 3 days postpartum and EPDS scores shortly after delivery or at 6 weeks were also low (r values < 0.10). EPDS scores in anemic and nonanemic mothers did not differ, regardless of sample or timing of maternal iron status assessment. In addition, women with or without possible PPD were similar in iron status in both samples. Thus, there was no relationship between maternal iron status and postpartum depression in these samples. PMID:22900184

  12. No Relationship between Maternal Iron Status and Postpartum Depression in Two Samples in China

    PubMed Central

    Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Shao, Jie; Li, Ming; Zhao, Gengli; Zhao, Zhengyan; Xu, Guobing; Zhou, Min; Zhan, Jianying; Bian, Yang; Ji, Chai; Li, Xing; Jiang, Yaping; Zhang, Zhixiang; Richards, Blair J.; Tardif, Twila; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Maternal iron status is thought to be related to postpartum depressive symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between pre- and postnatal maternal iron status and depressive symptoms in pilot (n = 137) and confirmatory (n = 567) samples of Chinese women. Iron status was evaluated at mid- and late pregnancy and 3 days postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess maternal postpartum depression 24–48 hours after delivery and 6 weeks later. In the pilot sample, correlations between early- and late-pregnancy maternal Hb and EPDS scores at 6 weeks were r = 0.07 and −0.01, respectively (nonsignificant). In the confirmatory sample, the correlations between maternal iron measures (Hb, MCV, ZPP, ferritin, sTfR, and sTfR Index) in mid- or late pregnancy or 3 days postpartum and EPDS scores shortly after delivery or at 6 weeks were also low (r values < 0.10). EPDS scores in anemic and nonanemic mothers did not differ, regardless of sample or timing of maternal iron status assessment. In addition, women with or without possible PPD were similar in iron status in both samples. Thus, there was no relationship between maternal iron status and postpartum depression in these samples. PMID:22900184

  13. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  14. Association of Postpartum Maternal Morbidities with Children's Mental, Psychomotor and Language Development in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tofail, F.; Hilaly, A.; Mehrin, F.; Shiraji, S.; Banu, S.; Huda, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development. PMID:22838161

  15. Toxicological studies on 2,4,6-tribromoanisole.

    PubMed

    Koschier, F; Gallo, M A; Feng, X; Baxter, G E; Preston, R; Stevens, K; Powers, W

    2011-09-01

    TBA, or 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, is a musty-smelling metabolite of 2,4,6-tribromophenol that is used as a flame retardant and an antifungal agent for wooden pallets and packaging materials. The compound can impart its peculiar, often offensive, odor on product packaging to the concern of consumers for the safety of the package contents. These studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of TBA to humans ingesting products tainted with TBA. In addition to the 28-day oral study, a bacterial reverse mutation study was conducted, and confirmed that TBA was not mutagenic. To evaluate oral safety, TBA was evaluated in single dose and 5-day and 4-week repeated dose oral toxicity studies in rats. The test article, administered in single gavage doses of 2000, 5000 and 7500 mg/kg body weight (bw), in 5 daily repeated doses of 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg bw/day or in 28 daily oral gavage doses of 0 001, 0.01, 100, and 1000 mg/kg bw/day did not result in any deaths. Also, the single and repeat dose studies resulted in no significant differences between control and treated groups on body weight gain, food consumption, clinical observations, blood biochemical values, and hematology findings. Treatment-related adverse findings were only detected in male rats during repeated dose studies and were associated with high plasma concentrations of TBA. The test article-related finding of hyaline droplets in the cortical tubular epithelium of kidneys was associated with increases in α(2 μ)-globulin content in the kidneys as indicated by the intensity of immunohistochemical staining. These findings were correlated with an increased weight of kidneys in males administered 1000mg/kgbw/day for 28days. Chemical induction of hyaline droplets containing α(2μ)-globulin in the renal proximal tubule is a process unique to the male rat and is not relevant for human risk assessment. Findings of increased liver weight with minimal centrilobular to diffuse hepatocellular hypertrophy in males treated

  16. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  17. Targeting CDK4/6 in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Erika; Infante, Jeffrey R

    2016-04-01

    The cyclin D-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4 (INK4)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls cell cycle progression by regulating the G1-S checkpoint. Dysregulation of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-Rb pathway results in increased proliferation, and is frequently observed in many types of cancer. Pathway activation can occur through a variety of mechanisms, including gene amplification or rearrangement, loss of negative regulators, epigenetic alterations, and point mutations in key pathway components. Due to the importance of CDK4/6 activity in cancer cells, CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as promising candidates for cancer treatment. Moreover, combination of a CDK4/6 inhibitor with other targeted therapies may help overcome acquired or de novo treatment resistance. Ongoing studies include combinations of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers, and with selective RAF and MEK inhibitors for tumors with alterations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as melanoma. In particular, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy, such as palbociclib's recent first-line approval in combination with letrozole, is expected to transform the treatment of HR+ breast cancer. Currently, three selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have been approved or are in late-stage development: palbociclib (PD-0332991), ribociclib (LEE011), and abemaciclib (LY2835219). Here we describe the current preclinical and clinical data for these novel agents and discuss combination strategies with other agents for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27017286

  18. Forgiveness Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Art

    1984-01-01

    Carefully orchestrated public relations and publicity campaign at Free Library of Philadelphia motivated an estimated 35,000 patrons to return almost 160,000 overdues during "no fines" week. Coverage by radio stations, newspapers, and television aided recovery of materials including rare 1910 score of a Rachmaninoff symphony which was 31 years…

  19. Treating cancer with selective CDK4/6 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ben; Finn, Richard S; Turner, Nicholas C

    2016-07-01

    Uncontrolled cellular proliferation, mediated by dysregulation of the cell-cycle machinery and activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to promote cell-cycle progression, lies at the heart of cancer as a pathological process. Clinical implementation of first-generation, nonselective CDK inhibitors, designed to inhibit this proliferation, was originally hampered by the high risk of toxicity and lack of efficacy noted with these agents. The emergence of a new generation of selective CDK4/6 inhibitors, including ribociclib, abemaciclib and palbociclib, has enabled tumour types in which CDK4/6 has a pivotal role in the G1-to-S-phase cell-cycle transition to be targeted with improved effectiveness, and fewer adverse effects. Results of pivotal phase III trials investigating palbociclib in patients with advanced-stage oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer have demonstrated a substantial improvement in progression-free survival, with a well-tolerated toxicity profile. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors are beginning to emerge that, although unwelcome, might enable rational post-CDK4/6 inhibitor therapeutic strategies to be identified. Extending the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors beyond ER-positive breast cancer is challenging, and will likely require biomarkers that are predictive of a response, and the use of combination therapies in order to optimize CDK4/6 targeting. PMID:27030077

  20. A PI 4. 6 peroxidase that specifically crosslinks extensin precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Upham, B.L; Alizadeh, H.; Ryan, K.J.; Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The primary cell wall is a microcomposite of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and protein. The warp-weft model of the primary cell wall hypothesize that extensin monomers are intermolecularly crosslinked orthogonal to the cellulose microfibril thus mechanically coupling the major load-bearing polymer: cellulose. Media of tomato cell cultures contains heat labile, peroxide dependent crosslinking activity, as determined by the rate of decrease in monomer concentration analyzed via Superose-6. Isoelectric focusing of tomato cell culture media indicated crosslinking was predominantly in the acidic peroxidase fraction (pI4.6). This peroxidase was partially purified by ultracentrifugation, DEAE-Trisacryl and HPLC-DEAE chromatography techniques resulting in a 90 fold purification and 45% yield. A second acidic peroxidase eluted from the HPLC-DEAE column had 25% of the crosslinking activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase. Purified basic peroxidase had only 0.7% of the activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase. The specific activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase was 5,473 mg extensin crosslinked/min/mg peroxidase. The pI 4.6 peroxidase crosslinked the following extensins: tomato I and II, carrot, Ginkgo II and did not crosslink Ginkgo I, Douglas Fir, Maize, Asparagus I and II, and sugarbeet extensins as well as bovine serum albumin. Comparison of motifs common to extensins that are crosslinked by the pI 4.6 peroxidase may help identify the crosslink domain(s) of extension.

  1. Hematobiochemical profile in Surti goats during post-partum period

    PubMed Central

    Manat, Tanvi D.; Chaudhary, Sandhya S.; Singh, Virendra Kumar; Patel, Sanjay B.; Puri, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    concentration decreased up to 14th day post-partum and then started increasing from 21st day onward. Conclusion: Hematobiochemical parameters are indicative of health status of animals. Significantly low values of Hb, PCV, and TLC during first 2 weeks post-partum are indicative of stress. Catabolism of protein occurred during 2 weeks post-partum, as observed from increase in urea concentration. Decrease TGs and high level of NEFA during the transition period are suggestive of utilization of lipids for the supply of energy. High glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. PMID:27051179

  2. Plasma progesterone and blood metabolite profiles in post-partum small east African zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Tegegne, A; Entwistle, K W; Mukasa-Mugerwa, E

    1993-05-01

    Plasma progesterone profiles were used to monitor post-partum reproductive activity in 12 Small East African zebu (Bos indicus) cows allocated to either supplementary or no supplementary feeding (control) with continuous or restricted (twice daily) suckling regimes. Intact bulls were used for breeding. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week for 33 weeks to determine plasma progesterone levels. Weekly blood samples were also used to determine blood metabolite concentrations. Plasma progesterone levels remained below 1 ng/ml in all cows until week 12 post-partum. Only 5 cows showed ovarian activity over the 33 week period. Cows that cycled expressed irregular and short-lived progesterone rises (> 1 ng/ml) lasting 8 to 12 days prior to establishment of normal patterns of progesterone secretion where progesterone levels ranged from 8 to 10 ng/ml in cows with normal cycles. Plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen and glucose levels varied over time without consistent trends, and were not influenced by either supplementary feeding of suckling regimes, nor differed between cyclic and acyclic cows. It was concluded that extended post-partum anoestrus, conception failure and early embryonic mortality were responsible for lowered reproductive efficiency in zebu cows. Blood metabolite concentrations were not good indicators of nutritional status and were not related to post-partum ovarian activity. PMID:8236477

  3. Observations on the curative effect of lactulose for postpartum constipation based on a large sample study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Xinghua; Fan, Ling; Zhu, Yuanfang; Jiang, Yurong; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Guoping; Shen, Jingxin; Su, Zhihong; Wu, Ping; Wang, Danrui; Wang, Xietong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lactulose in the intervention treatment of postpartum women with constipation. Methods: The study adopted the multicenter clinical survey with a big sample which enrolled 4781 valid questionnaires from postpartum women in 18 different districts. All of them were treated with lactulose oral solution. Their constipation-related symptoms and routine examination on blood, urine and stool were monitored before and after lactulose intervention. The treatment duration lasted 2 weeks and all the patients were followed for 4 weeks. Result: Their stool consistency, daily defecation frequencies, defecating time and dyschezia were improved significantly after lactulose intervention, and the good therapeutic effect was remained at the off-medication session. Furthermore, abnormal rate of each index in blood, urine and stool examination showed a decreased trend. Conclusion: Lactulose offered good therapeutic benefit and could be developed as an effective intervention to postpartum women with constipation. PMID:26770550

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Immediate Compared With Delayed Postpartum Etonogestrel Implant Insertion

    PubMed Central

    GARIEPY, Aileen M.; DUFFY, Jennifer Y.; XU, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of immediate versus delayed (6 weeks) postpartum etonogestrel implant insertion in preventing future unintended pregnancy. Methods We constructed a decision-analytic model to examine a hypothetical population of women who request a contraceptive implant after giving birth. The timeframe for analysis was from the time of childbirth to one year postpartum. Model inputs were derived from a comprehensive literature review. We compared immediate (before discharge from the childbirth hospital stay) versus delayed (at first postpartum office visit) postpartum placement of the contraceptive implant from a health care system’s perspective. Implant insertion and removal, loss to follow-up at postpartum visit, use of alternative contraceptive methods, and contraceptive failure were incorporated into the model. We calculated the incremental cost of immediate insertion for each pregnancy prevented during the first postpartum year and cost savings associated with pregnancies prevented. One-way sensitivity analyses were also performed. Cost estimates are reported in 2014 U.S. dollars. Results Immediate postpartum implant insertion is associated with higher expected cost than delayed insertion ($1,091 per patient versus $650 per patient), but is more effective in preventing pregnancies (expected pregnancy rate: 2.4% and 21.6%, respectively). This results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2,304 per pregnancy prevented. When taking into consideration medical costs of the resulting unintended pregnancies that could be avoided, immediate implant insertion is expected to save $1,263 per patient. Conclusions Immediate postpartum provision of the contraceptive implant is cost-effective in preventing unintended pregnancies, and should be provided to women requesting this form of contraception. PMID:26241255

  5. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  6. Effect of Pilates exercises on postpartum maternal fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postpartum fatigue is a pervasive phenomenon and often affects mothers immediately after delivery. The present study aimed to assess the effect Pilates home exercises had on postpartum maternal fatigue. METHODS A total of 80 women participated in our clinical trial study. The women were randomly divided into two groups – the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). In the intervention group, the women performed Pilates exercises five times a week (30 min per session) for eight consecutive weeks. The first session was conducted 72 hours after delivery. The control group did not receive any intervention. Each woman’s level of fatigue was evaluated at hospital discharge (as a baseline), and at four and eight weeks after delivery, using the standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) questionnaire and repeated measures analysis. RESULTS During the eight weeks of follow-up, we found that the intervention group had lower mean MFI-20 scores than the control group with regard to general fatigue (7.80 ± 2.07 vs. 12.72 ± 1.79; p < 0.001), physical fatigue (7.12 ± 1.41 vs. 10.42 ± 2.02; p < 0.001), reduced activity (6.95 ± 1.35 vs. 11.27 ± 1.70; p < 0.001), reduced motivation (6.20 ± 1.01 vs. 9.80 ± 2.04; p < 0.001) and mental fatigue (6.85 ± 1.45 vs. 10.72 ± 1.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The present study’s findings show that physical exercise can significantly reduce postpartum maternal fatigue in all subscales. PMID:25820848

  7. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  8. The Postpartum Telogen Effluvium Fallacy

    PubMed Central

    Mirallas, Oriol; Grimalt, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum telogen effluvium (PPTE) is a commonly described entity, but few studies deal with the real incidence and pathogenesis of this claimed common disease. Objective To analyze the objective data published and to define the real incidence of the so-called PPTE. Method A retrospective review of the published data was conducted. Results No statistically significant data were found in any of the papers reviewed, which could support the conclusion that the amount of hair shedding between pregnant and postpartum women is different. Conclusion PPTE is not a well-defined entity, and the exact incidence is unknown. From our literature review, we could state that the frequency of PPTE is so low and undefined that we dare say that PPTE does not exist. PMID:27386466

  9. [Do's and don'ts in post-partum contraception].

    PubMed

    Buhler, M

    1985-10-01

    It is sometimes difficult to plan contraception with a woman who has just delivered a baby, because she is sometime not motivated in the week following delivery, feeling unable to contemplate intercourse because of perineal pain and other discomforts. Effective contraception should be used beginning with the 25th postpartum day because of the subsequent strong possibility of ovulation before the return of menstruation. The woman should be provided with as much information on contraception as possible during this period, and possible contraindications to specific methods should be sought, such as thromboembolic accidents, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, infection, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and desire for subsequent pregnancy. No request for contraception should be ignored and the same method should not be imposed on all women. The topic of contraception should not be deferred until the postpartum check-up in the 2nd month, because 50% of women will have had intercourse by the end of the 2nd month, often unprotected. Local methods such as spermicides and condoms are effective when the couple is motivated and they are well accepted. The thromboembolic risk appears minimal when oral contraceptives (OCs) are begun on the 15th postpartum day for non-breastfeeding women. OCs should not be prescribed for women after prolonged bedrest, and women who previously used pills should have lipid and glucose tests before the 2nd month postpartum consultation. The low dose progestin pill should be preferred to the low dose combined pill if a potential thromboembolic risk exists. Infants of breastfeeding women using pills receive 1/500 of the estrogen dose administered to the mother and 1/1000 of the progestin dose. No effects of these doses have been found on the growth or genital development of infants, and modifications of milk composition are not constant. A low dose progestin pill beginning on postpartum day 20 may however be preferred. It is better to await the

  10. [IPPF declaration on breast feeding, fertility and postpartum contraception].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Mother's milk protects the newborn against various infections, especially against gastrointestinal infections, as well as strengthening the mother-child bond. Breast-feeding is also associated with birth spacing and plays an important role in the regulation of fertility in countries where the rate of use of contraceptives is low. In breast-feeding women amenorrhea may last several months or even a year, while in women who do not breast-feed menstruation returns 35-40 days postpartum. The risk of getting pregnant in women who rely on amenorrhea for contraception increases with the appearance of the first postpartum menstruation (spotting), with the introduction of food supplement into the diet of the infant, and approximately 6 months after childbirth. Family planning programs have to collaborate with maternal health programs with respect to the need for contraception, including postpartum contraception, which involves the training of nurse-midwives or traditional birth attendants. The choice of contraceptives includes the IUD, with a high degree of efficacy, which is particularly advantageous during breast-feeding. Tubal ligation has no negative effect on breast-feeding, but it also requires proper counseling. Other methods are vasectomy, implants and injectables containing progestational hormones, and estrogen-progesterone containing pills, which should not be used for 6 weeks after childbirth. PMID:12179264

  11. Maternal postpartum complications according to delivery mode in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Stach, Sonia Leme; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine maternal postpartum complications of twin deliveries according to mode of delivery and investigate the associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort review of twin pregnancies with delivery after 26 weeks at a tertiary teaching hospital (1993-2008). The rates of maternal postpartum complications were compared among vaginal, elective cesarean and emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors of complications were investigated with stepwise regression analysis and relative risks were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 90 complications were observed in 56/817 (6.9%) deliveries: 7/131 (5.3%) vaginal, 10/251 (4.0%) elective cesarean and 39/435 (9.0%) emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors included high-risk pregnancy, gestational age at birth and delivery mode. The occurrence of complications was significantly increased in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries (RR = 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal postpartum complications in twin pregnancies are higher in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries and are also related to preexisting complications and earlier gestational age at delivery. PMID:25029574

  12. Ventilation during rest and exercise in pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pernoll, M L; Metcalfe, J; Kovach, P A; Wachtel, R; Dunham, M J

    1975-12-01

    The expiratory minute volume (Ve), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), carbon dioxide production (Vco2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (FETCO2) and pressure (PETCO2) were measured at monthly intervals in 12 normal women during pregnancy and two, six and 12 weeks, and six months postpartum. At eacy study, measurements were made sitting at rest and during steady-state exercise at 306 kpm/min on a bicycle ergometer. During pregnancy, a significant increase in VE occurred, both at rest and during exercise, due to a significantly greater VT. Although VCO2 was significantly increased at rest throughout pregnancy and with exercise in late pregnancy, the respiratory exchange ratio (R) was not significantly altered during pregnancy. The FETCO2 was lower during pregnancy than postpartum, both at rest and during exercise. The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) was greater at rest near term and during exercise throughout pregnancy. However, resting physiologic dead space increased during pregnancy. Alveolar ventilation (VA) was calculated on the basis of three alternative assumptions: (1) that PETCO2 during exercise accurately reflects mean alveolar PCO2; (2) that the physiological dead space does not change during exercise; and (3) that mean alveolar PCO2 does not change from rest to exercise. Exercise VA, calculated on the basis of any of these three assumptions, is greater during pregnancy than postpartum. PMID:1226465

  13. Creating Sacred Places for Children in Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sandra J.

    This guide attempts to help teachers of American Indian children in grades 4-6 provide a culturally relevant education that takes place in the regular classroom, includes content related to Indian students' lives, makes students proud, expands to other experiences, and enhances learning. Creating sacred places means responding appropriately to…

  14. Teachers Guide to Economic Concepts: Grade 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Milo F.

    This grades 4-6 teachers guide is one of five resource guides developed to aid teachers in helping students in South Dakota to achieve a high degree of economic literacy. It is felt that schools must prepare students at all grade levels to develop an understanding of the economy in which they live. This guide was specifically prepared to assist…

  15. Health Promotion Activity Book for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This book of activities is designed to supplement health lessons for students in grades 4-6. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the activities is varied in order to create both…

  16. 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE TRANSFORMATION IN PLANTED, SOIL COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), has been used extensively by the United States military to manufacture explosive devices. Since the conclusion of World War 11, many of these military installations have also been involved in the disposal of surplus and outdated explosives. Both the c...

  17. 4,6-Dinitro-o-cyclohexyl phenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4,6 - Dinitro - o - cyclohexyl phenol ; CASRN 131 - 89 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  18. Learn about Seabirds. Teaching Packet, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Anchorage, AK.

    This teaching packet is designed to teach Alaskan students in grades 4-6 about Alaska's seabird populations, the worldwide significance of seabirds, and the environmental conditions to which seabirds are sensitive. The packet includes a curriculum guide (containing a teacher's background story and 12 teaching activities), a separately published…

  19. Traffic Safety Education for Oregon Schools, 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Instructional materials for teaching traffic safety education to Grades 4-6 students are presented in the document. The learning activities, which are presented separately for each level, focus on the goals of functioning as responsible citizens as pedestrians, bicyclists, car passengers, and school bus passengers. A series of 15 lessons are…

  20. 11. DETAILS: CONCRETE SHEET PILING, CORNERS #4 & #6, DWG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAILS: CONCRETE SHEET PILING, CORNERS #4 & #6, DWG. NO. 11, 1-1/2" = 1 FT., FEB. 12, 1908, MADE BY E.C.L., APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 4.6 Doses to Patients in Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.6 Doses to Patients in Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  2. Council Minutes, February 4-6, 2011: Santa Monica, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents minutes of the American Educational Research Association's meetings held in Santa Monica, California, on February 4-6, 2011. President Kris D. Gutierrez led a discussion of the meeting dates for the summer Executive Board and Council meetings. It was agreed that members of Council will be polled to determine the best dates…

  3. Isolated Left Ventricular Hypoplasia in a Postpartum Patient.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wern Yew; Meah, Mohammed; Rao, Archana; Fairbairn, Timothy; Hasleton, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with lethargy and shortness of breath at 13 weeks postpartum. She was clinically tachypnoeic with signs of fluid overload. Telemetry revealed 2 different morphologies of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, associated with chest discomfort. Cardiac imaging demonstrated a truncated, spherical left ventricle (LV) with severe systolic dysfunction and fatty replacement of the LV apex but no evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The right ventricle was elongated wrapping around the LV apex and had moderate systolic impairment. A diagnosis of "isolated LV apical hypoplasia" was made with possible concomitant peripartum cardiomyopathy. PMID:26706664

  4. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466 686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandéz-Diaź, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366 350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53 292), fathers with separate partners (n=47 054), sister pairs (n=97 228), brother pairs (n=91 168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177 944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total

  5. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future. PMID:27032705

  6. The relationship between postpartum depression, domestic violence, childhood violence, and substance use: epidemiologic study of a large community sample.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Vigod, Simone

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of interpersonal violence and substance use to the prediction of postpartum depressive symptomatology. A community-based sample of 634 women in British Columbia, Canada was screened for interpersonal violence and substance use using the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. Of these women, 497 (78%) subsequently completed questionnaires at 8 weeks postpartum to assess for depressive symptomatology using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A predictive model for postpartum depressive symptomatology (EPDS > 9) was developed using regression analysis. Findings suggest that women who experience past or current interpersonal violence or personal or partner substance use problems should be considered for targeted screening for postpartum depression (PPD). PMID:23660619

  7. Laser photo-oxidative degradation of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Masoudi, H M; Pola, J

    2008-04-01

    Degradation of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (DMDBT), persistent sulfur contaminant in fuel oils has been achieved in non-polar phase by laser-irradiating DMDBT alone and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The most efficient degradation in the presence of molecular oxygen is judged to be the first example of self-sensitized photo-oxygenation of thiophenes, in which DMDBT sequentially acts as 1O2 sensitizer and reactant. PMID:18308366

  8. Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Frøyland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

  9. Postpartum and Alcohol-Related Factors Associated with the Relapse of Risky Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    JAGODZINSKI, TANYA; FLEMING, MICHAEL F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this investigation were (1) to describe postpartum drinking patterns among women who were frequent drinkers before pregnancy and (2) to identify factors correlated with postpartum “risky” drinking among women who were frequent drinkers before pregnancy. Method Information was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire completed at the postpartum visit and a subsequent face-to-face interview of 381 women, recruited from 35 obstetric/gynecologic clinics throughout Wisconsin, who reported frequent drinking before pregnancy. Multivariate analyses were used to identify correlates of postpartum risky drinking, defined as consuming four or more drinks per occasion (heavy episodic drinking) at least twice in the past 28 days or drinking an average of seven or more drinks per week. Results Overall, 37.8% (n = 144) women reported postpartum risky drinking. Eighteen percent reported heavy episodic drinking only, 5% reported frequent drinking only, and 15% reported both behaviors. Postpartum risky drinkers were more likely than other women to have had a partner who engaged in risky drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–4.5), to have been unemployed (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.7), to have smoked following pregnancy (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0–3.5), and to have consumed alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.2–10.6). Women who breast-fed their child were less likely to report risky drinking (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.5). Conclusions In the postpartum period, health care providers may want to focus alcohol screening efforts on former frequent drinkers who are smokers, are unemployed, have a partner who is a risky drinker, or are not breast-feeding. PMID:17960306

  10. Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  11. [The impact of thyroid function in women of reproductive age: infertility, pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor

    2013-12-22

    This article reviews the management and diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum, which was published by any of the endocrine societies in 2012. The author presents human data based on these clinical practice guidelines, however, there are also many unresolved questions. Especially, there are inconsistencies about screening using plasma TSH measurement. In pregnancy the main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves's disease and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. Generally, gestational transient thyrotoxicosis does not require medication, whereas Graves's disease needs antithyroid drug therapy. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs more frequently in antithyroid peroxidase-positive women, who should be screened using serum thyrotropin measurements at 6 to 12 gestation weeks and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Because overt maternal hypothyroidism, due to autoimmune pathophysioloical mechanisms, negatively affects the fetus, timely recognition and treatment are important. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism should also be treated. A link between thyroid dysfunction and infertility has been warranted. PMID:24334133

  12. Prospective Evaluation of Hot Flashes during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Eng, Heather; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, course, and risk factors for hot flashes during pregnancy and postpartum. Study Design Women (N=429) were assessed prospectively during pregnancy (weeks 20, 30, 36) and up to a year after delivery (weeks 2, 12, 26, 52). A clinical interview, physical measurements, and questionnaires were administered at each visit. Results Thirty-five percent of women reported hot flashes during pregnancy and 29% reported hot flashes after delivery. In multivariable binomial mixed effects models, women who were younger (per year: OR(95%CI): 0.94(0.88–0.99)), had a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; per unit increase: OR(95%CI): 1.05(1.01–1.10)), and had less than a college education (OR(95%CI): 2.58(1.19–5.60); vs. college) were more likely to report hot flashes during pregnancy. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with hot flashes during pregnancy (per unit increase: OR(95%CI): 1.08(1.04–1.13)) and after birth (OR(95%CI): 1.19(1.14–1.25), multivariable models). Conclusion Hot flashes, typically considered a menopausal symptom, were reported by over a third of women during pregnancy and/or postpartum. Predictors of hot flashes during this reproductive transition, including depressive symptoms, low education, and higher BMI are similar to those experienced during menopause. Future work should investigate the role of hormonal and affective factors in hot flashes during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:24035604

  13. Relationship between Fathers' Depression and Perceived Social Support and Stress in Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Kamalifard, Mahin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil; Panahi, Samira; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The evidence suggests that some men experience depression after the childbirth of their wife, and this real and unknown phenomenon will adversely affect them as well as their families. Regarding the lack of understanding about the paternal depression and its complex and multifaceted etiology, the present study was done to assess the paternal postpartum depression and its relationship with perceived stress and social support components. Methods: In this descriptive study, 205 new fathers were assessed from 6th to 12th week postpartum in seven health centers, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. Collected data with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation tests and linear regression analysis. Results: 11.7% of the fathers scored 12 or above in the Edinburgh scale, which indicated depression symptom. The postnatal depression scores had a significant positive correlation with the perceived stress scores and a significant negative correlation with the perceived social support components scores. Perceived stress was key predictor of paternal postpartum depression. Perceived social support components cannot significantly predict the paternal postpartum depression. Conclusion: Assessment of paternal postpartum depression and its risk factors is recommended. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to the increasing public awareness, stress management and communication skills training, and support of fathers during the postnatal period. PMID:25276749

  14. Risk factors, cross-cultural stressors and postpartum depression among immigrant Chinese women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiongai; Mori, Emi; Sakajo, Akiko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method design study was to examine factors contributing to depression among immigrant Chinese women (primipara and multipara) (n = 22) delivering a child for the first time in Japan. Data were obtained just after hospital discharge by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Social Support Scale, a new scale to measure cross-cultural stressors in the postpartum setting and a visual analogue scale for stress and a demographic survey. The average EPDS score was 9.0 (SD ± 3.7) at 1-3 weeks postpartum; yet, more than half of the subjects (n = 12; 54.5%) were high risk for depression (EPDS ≥ 10). Low household income and primiparous status were associated with depression scores. New mothers with depression also reported more general stress and more cross-cultural stress in the postpartum setting, although social support appeared to mediate cross-cultural stressors. Semi-structured interviews were held with two immigrant women at high risk for depression; these new mothers described additional stress because they could not follow Zuoyuezi, an important postpartum Chinese tradition, in the Japanese hospital. These findings suggest that immigrant Chinese women are at higher risk for postpartum depression when they give birth for the first time in Japan. PMID:27184701

  15. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin; Sharma, Verinder

    2010-07-01

    The postpartum period is a time of increased risk of new-onset psychiatric illness, hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric care for new mothers. Research into postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, and has overlooked the study of bipolar disorder, particularly bipolar II disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to properly diagnose postpartum bipolar disorder may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment, lead to inappropriate treatment - thereby precipitating (hypo)mania, rapid cycling or a mixed episode - or result in polypharmacy and treatment refractoriness. The most serious consequence, however, is the high risk of infanticide and suicide among women with postpartum bipolar disorder. While no specific screening tools have been validated for postpartum mania or bipolar depression, symptoms of hypomania, atypical depression, a family history of bipolar disorder and a rapid onset of depressive symptoms following delivery may suggest a bipolar diathesis. In the absence of any pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments to guide clinical decision-making, it is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of non-postpartum bipolar depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation. PMID:20586688

  17. POSTPARTUM DOULAS: MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    McComish, Judith Fry; Visger, Joan M.; Rowland, Carolynn A.; Kelleher, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the perceptions of a United States cohort of experienced birth doulas who were among the first in the country to be trained to provide postpartum support. Design A qualitative, longitudinal study using ethnographic methods; participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Setting Midwestern, urban, US; postpartum homecare over three months Participants Four postpartum doulas; 13 families Measurements Participant observation during six postpartum home visits per family; thirteen semi-structured interviews with doulas at the completion of each family’s care; four summative interviews with doulas at the end of the study. Findings When describing their postpartum practice, four themes emerged: supporting women, taking the mother’s perspective, empowering women, and empowering families. When speaking of the motivations three themes emerged: being “called” to practice, interest in preventing negative experiences, and career development. Key conclusions and implications for practice In the US, new mothers see midwives and physicians sporadically after discharge from the hospital. Postpartum doulas fill this gap in continuity of care by providing support for families as they transition to life with their new infant. Understanding the beliefs, values, and practices of these important paraprofessionals will help midwives effectively integrate postpartum doula care into the care of women and infants. PMID:21055853

  18. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  19. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898

  20. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women. PMID:26694498

  1. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome associated with late onset postpartum eclampsia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Qi-Yu; Zhao, Xiu-He; Yang, Xue; Wang, Sheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Late onset postpartum eclampsia (LPE) is defined by its onset at >48 h after delivery. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES) associated with LPE is uncommon, with the majority of RPES cases having a late postpartum onset within 4 weeks after childbirth. The present study reported the case of a 15-year old female presenting with convulsions that began 5 weeks after delivery. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the cortex, subcortical region and deep white matter of the bilateral cerebellum, and occipital, frontal and parietal lobes. The clinical manifestations and radiological abnormalities were readily resolved subsequent to antihypertension and anticonvulsion treatment. In conclusion, the present rare case indicates that LPE should be considered as a potential diagnosis even at 4 weeks after delivery. Furthermore, clinicians should familiarize with the reversible radioimaging features of RPES, since early recognition and adequate treatment are important to the outcome of patients. PMID:27602098

  2. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  3. Postpartum blues: relationship between not-protein bound steroid hormones in plasma and postpartum mood changes.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, A; Schleyer, M; Spingler, H; Albert, P; Knoche, M; Fritze, J; Lanczik, M

    1994-02-01

    The relationship between non-bound steroid hormone levels in plasma and the occurrence of postpartum mood changes was investigated in 26 newly delivered mothers throughout the first 5 days postpartum. Studies with saliva samples had reported higher concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone on the days of symptoms in women experiencing postpartum blues. As there had been a controversy as to how far saliva concentrations reflect free hormone levels in plasma, free hormone levels of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were determined in plasma using ultrafiltration. No significant difference concerning free hormone levels could be found between women with and without postpartum blues. PMID:8201129

  4. Two-stage biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLoop, S.L.; Suidan, M.T.; Moteleb, M.A.; Maloney, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    TNT is the explosive most widely used by the military, but current technologies for treating munitions production wastewater are costly and produce a secondary waste, spent GAC. Bioremediation holds promise as a more effective and less costly treatment strategy. An anaerobic fluidized-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) bioreactor in series with an activated sludge reactor was used to treat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). A wastewater solution of 100 mg/L 2,4,6-TNT, as well as carbonate buffer and nutrient solutions, were fed to the anaerobic reactor. Ethanol and ammonia were supplied for microbial growth at 540 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The mixed anaerobic culture completely transformed the TNT to unknown products. Attempts to detect these products by gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were unsuccessful. The effluent from this reactor was treated further in an activated sludge system. The TNT transformation products were partially oxidized in the aerobic stage, resulting in recovery of 91% of the total influent nitrogen as ammonia, nitrate, and biomass. This corresponds to recovery of 82% of influent TNT nitrogen.

  5. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  6. Perineal Injury During Childbirth Increases Risk of Postpartum Depressive Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Alexis B.; Paul, Sudeshna; Ware, Laurel Z.; Corwin, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Perineal lacerations during childbirth affect more than 65% of women in the United States. Little attention has been given to the long-term biologic consequences associated with perineal lacerations or possible associations with postpartum mental health. In this article we describe the results of a study that explored inflammatory pathways in women who reported perineal lacerations during childbirth and the relationship with stress and depressive symptoms during the first six months postpartum. Methods A repeated measures design was used to explore the relationship between varying degrees of perineal lacerations, inflammatory cytokines, postpartum stress, and depressive symptoms in 153 women over six months. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and maternal stress via the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Plasma was analyzed for pro (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines. Levels of cytokines were compared between women with or without varying degrees of injury. Results A relationship was identified between symptoms of depression and a 2nd degree or more severe perineal laceration starting at 1 month postpartum (P=0.04) and continuing through 3 months (P=0.03). Similarly, stress symptoms were higher at 3 months postpartum (P=0.02). Markers of inflammation were significantly higher among this group with IL-6 increased at 2 weeks postpartum (P=0.02), and remaining elevated through 2 months postpartum (P=0.003); there were also significant differences in pro to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios out to 6 months postpartum. Regression analysis indicated that 2nd degree or more severe lacerations accounted for 5.9% of the variance in EPDS score at one month postpartum (P=0.024, F=2.865, t=2.127), increasing substantially when the 1-month stress score was included as well. Discussion This study suggests that perineal lacerations, inflammation, stress, and depressed mood are

  7. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  8. Long-term postpartum adherence to antiretroviral drugs among women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kreitchmann, Regis; Coelho, Debora Fernandes; Kakehasi, Fabiana Maria; Hofer, Cristina Barroso; Read, Jennifer S; Losso, Marcelo; Haberer, Jessica E; Siberry, George K; Harris, D Robert; Yu, Qilu

    2016-04-01

    Antiretroviral adherence in the postpartum period is crucial for maternal health and decreasing the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and transmission to sexual partners. Self-reported antiretroviral adherence was examined between 6- to 12-weeks and 30 months postpartum among 270 HIV-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study from 2008 to 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence data were collected at each study visit to quantify the proportion of prescribed antiretrovirals taken during the previous three days, assess the timing of the last missed dose, and identify predictors of adherence. Mean adherence rates were 89.5% at 6-12 weeks and 92.4% at 30 months; the proportions with perfect adherence were 80.3% and 83.6%, respectively. The overall trend for perfect adherence was not significant (p = 0.71). In adjusted regression modelling, younger age was associated with an increased probability of non-perfect adherence at 18 and 24 months postpartum. Other factors associated with increased probability of non-perfect adherence were higher parity, current use of alcohol and tobacco, and more advanced HIV disease. Women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads. Interventions for alcohol and tobacco use cessation, and support for young women and those with advanced HIV disease should be considered to improve postpartum adherence. PMID:25931238

  9. Coping strategies for postpartum depression: a multi-centric study of 1626 women.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Labad, Javier; Martín-Santos, Rocío; García-Esteve, Luisa; Gelabert, Estel; Jover, Manuel; Guillamat, Roser; Mayoral, Fermín; Gornemann, Isolde; Canellas, Francesca; Gratacós, Mónica; Guitart, Montserrat; Roca, Miguel; Costas, Javier; Ivorra, Jose Luis; Navinés, Ricard; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Sanjuan, Julio

    2016-06-01

    The transition to motherhood is stressful as it requires several important changes in family dynamics, finances, and working life, along with physical and psychological adjustments. This study aimed at determining whether some forms of coping might predict postpartum depressive symptomatology. A total of 1626 pregnant women participated in a multi-centric longitudinal study. Different evaluations were performed 8 and 32 weeks after delivery. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE) scale was used to measure coping strategies 2-3 days postpartum. Some coping strategies differentiate between women with and without postpartum depression. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships between the predictors of coping strategies and major depression (according to DSM-IV criteria). In this model, the predictor variables during the first 32 weeks were self-distraction (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.33), substance use (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.35-0.97), and self-blame (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.34). In healthy women with no psychiatric history, some passive coping strategies, both cognitive and behavioral, are predictors of depressive symptoms and postpartum depression and help differentiate between patients with and without depression. PMID:26399872

  10. Neurogenesis and anxiety-like behavior in male California mice during the mate's postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hyer, M M; Hunter, T J; Katakam, J; Wolz, T; Glasper, E R

    2016-03-01

    Our understanding of postpartum anxiety (PPA) in fathers is limited, despite the negative consequences of anxiety on the father and child. Offspring contact reduces PPA in mothers; however, parallel investigations in fathers has gone unaddressed. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to anxiety regulation and is altered during the postpartum period, yet the effects of fatherhood on the production, or survival, of newborn cells in the DG, and the role of adult neurogenesis in PPA regulation, have not been examined. Using the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we examined the relationships among postnatal day, anxiety-like behavior and adult neurogenesis in fathers. We hypothesized that attenuated anxiety-like behavior and enhanced adult neurogenesis would be observed when father-offspring contact was increased. We observed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze, but only at PND 16, a time of peak pup retrieval. Fatherhood reduced 1-week survival of newborn cells; however, surviving cells were maintained until 2 weeks postpartum. In contrast, non-fathers experienced a significant reduction in the survival of newborn cells between 1 and 2 weeks postpartum. Fatherhood also increased the numbers of newborn cells that expressed a neuronal phenotype. Collectively, these findings suggest that offspring interaction contributes to reductions in anxiety-like behavior and the maintenance of newborn neurons in the DG of fathers. These data contribute to our knowledge of the postpartum affective state in fathers, findings that may contribute to improved health of both the father and offspring. PMID:26750200

  11. Psychiatric consultation to the postpartum mother.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eleanor A; Kim, Deborah R

    2015-04-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a time of acute vulnerability to mental illness, which presents unique challenges for the psychiatric consultant. Because the postpartum hospital stay is typically brief, the consultant must have a working knowledge of postpartum physiology and the myriad forms of mental illness that may emerge in this vulnerable time, in order to quickly make a diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. This review aims to characterize the most common reasons for postpartum consultation, review postpartum physiology and psychiatric conditions, and propose an evidence-based, practical approach to treatment. A literature search using the terms "postpartum," "obstetric," "consultation," and "psychiatry" yielded six studies that identified reasons for psychiatric consultation to the obstetrics and gynecology services. These studies informed the structure of the article such that we review the most common reasons for consultation and how to approach each issue. The most common reason for consultation is past psychiatric history, often in the absence of current symptoms. For each clinical situation, including depression, adverse birth events, and psychosis, we present a differential diagnosis, as well as risk factors, clinical signs, and recommended treatment. PMID:25764006

  12. Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.M.; Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    Past disposal practices at munitions production facilities have generated numerous acres of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil. We determined the potential of the Fenton reagent (Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to remediate TNT contamination in water, aqueous extracts of contaminated soil, and soil-water slurries. The effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, solution pH, temperature, and initial TNT concentration on transformation and mineralization rates were evaluated. Treating an aqueous TNT solution (70 mg TNT L{sup -1}) with Fenton reagent (1% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 80 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) in the dark resulted in 100% destruction of TNT within 24 h. This coincided with 40% mineralization. Subsequent exposure to light resulted in >90% mineralization. We observed generation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene within 15 min following Fenton oxidation of TNT. This indicates that initial TNT destruction likely occurs by methyl group oxidation and decarboxylation. Subsequent transformations involve nitro moiety removal with ring hydroxylation and cleavage, as evidenced by the stoichiometric recovery of TNT-nitrogen as NO{sub 3}{sup -} and production of oxalic acid as the primary C-containing end product. Upon exposure to light, Fe(II) was regenerated and the oxalate produced from 14C-TNT oxidation disappeared; this coincided with a decrease in solution {sup 14}C activity. Similar observations were made when {sup 14}C-oxalic acid was the starting substrate. Fenton oxidation was also effective in destroying TNT in aqueous extracts of contaminated soil and soil-water slurries. Experimental data provide evidence that the Fenton reagent can effectively remediate TNT-contaminated water and soil. 39 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  14. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    PubMed Central

    Medan, M.S.; EL-Daek, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya. PMID:26623357

  15. The Effects of Bromocriptine on Preventing Postpartum Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients from South China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Qiu; Liuqin, Liang; Hao, Li; Shiwen, Yuan; Zhongping, Zhan; Dongying, Chen; Fan, Lian; Hanshi, Xu; Xiuyan, Yang; Yujin, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Prolactin plays an important role on the disease flare of postpartum SLE patients. 76 pregnant SLE patients were enrolled in this study to evaluate the efficacy of bromocriptine (an inhibitor of prolactin secretion) on preventing the postpartum disease relapse. Methods. Patients were randomly divided into the treatment group (bromocriptine, 2.5 mg oral, twice a day for 14 days after delivery) and the control group. All the patients were followed up for 12 months. Clinical features were recorded every 4 weeks. Serum prolactin and estradiol levels were measured at the second week and the second month after delivery. The endpoint of the study was disease relapse and defined when SLEDAI score increased by ≥3 points from the antenatal baseline. Results. (1) Serum levels of prolactin and estradiol decreased significantly in bromocriptine treatment group at the second week (P < 0.001) and second month (P < 0.05) after delivery compared to control group. (2) The relapse rate of the treatment group was lower than the control group (χ2 = 4.68, P = 0.0305). Conclusions. Two weeks of oral bromocriptine treatment in postpartum SLE patients may relieve the disease from hyperprolactinemia and hyperestrogenemia and may be beneficial in preventing the patients from disease relapse. PMID:25973434

  16. Prepartum and Postpartum Rumen Fluid Microbiomes: Characterization and Correlation with Production Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabio S.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Lima, Svetlana F.; Bicalho, Marcela L. S.; Ganda, Erika K.; de Oliveira Filho, Jose C.; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Trojacanec, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    Microbes present in the rumen of dairy cows are essential for degradation of cellulosic and nonstructural carbohydrates of plant origin. The prepartum and postpartum diets of high-producing dairy cows are substantially different, but in what ways the rumen microbiome changes in response and how those changes may influence production traits are not well elucidated. Here, we sequenced the 16S and 18S rRNA genes using the MiSeq platform to characterize the prepartum and postpartum rumen fluid microbiomes in 115 high-producing dairy cows, including both primiparous and multiparous animals. Discriminant analysis identified differences between the microbiomes of prepartum and postpartum samples and between primiparous and multiparous cows. 18S rRNA sequencing revealed an overwhelming dominance of the protozoan class Litostomatea, with over 90% of the eukaryotic microbial population belonging to that group. Additionally, fungi were relatively more prevalent and Litostomatea relatively less prevalent in prepartum samples than in postpartum ones. The core rumen microbiome (common to all samples) consisted of 64 bacterial taxa, of which members of the genus Prevotella were the most prevalent. The Chao1 richness index was greater for prepartum multiparous cows than for postpartum multiparous cows. Multivariable models identified bacterial taxa associated with increased or reduced milk production, and general linear models revealed that a metagenomically based prediction of productivity is highly associated with production of actual milk and milk components. In conclusion, the structure of the rumen fluid microbiome shifts between the prepartum and first-week postpartum periods, and its profile within the context of this study could be used to accurately predict production traits. PMID:25501481

  17. Breastfeeding difficulties and supports and risk of postpartum depression in a cohort of womenwho have given birth in Calgary: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Kathleen H.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Musto, Richard; Adair, Carol E.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A link exists between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression, and evidence shows that some breastfeeding promotion initiatives may increase maternal stress and contribute to risk of the condition. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine whether breastfeeding difficulties affect the risk of postpartum depression and whether breastfeeding support modifies the relationship between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression. Methods: Between June and October 2010, we recruited 442 women who intended to breastfeed from all maternity hospitals in Calgary within 72 hours of giving birth to full-term, singleton infants. We administered questionnaires at birth and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, measuring breastfeeding difficulties, exposure to breastfeeding supports and postpartum depression. We used qualitative inquiry to measure breastfeeding support experiences. Postpartum depression was defined as a score of 10 or greater on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or a self-reported diagnosis of depression in the first 6 months postpartum. Results: A total of 386 women (87.3%) reported moderate to severe breastfeeding difficulties and 437 (98.9%) received some form of breastfeeding advice, help or support. Among women with breastfeeding difficulties, those who did not report a negative breastfeeding support experience were at decreased risk of postpartum depression (risk ratio 0.36). In the final regression model a negative breastfeeding support experience was a significant effect modifier of the relationship between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression. Interpretation: The quality of breastfeeding support is important not only for breastfeeding promotion but also for maternal mental health. Educating front-line caregivers to ensure that support experiences of breastfeeding women are positive can reduce the risk of postpartum depression. PMID:27280109

  18. Investigation of the effect of religious doctrines on religious knowledge and attitude and postpartum blues in primiparous women

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Mokhtaryan, Tahereh; Amooee, Sedigheh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postpartum blues is a transient change of moods occurring in the first few days after delivery. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of religious doctrines on postpartum blues in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled tria1, 84 primiparous women who had average or weak religious attitude were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, religious doctrines were instructed from 20th to 28th weeks of gestation through 6 weekly sessions of 60–90 min each. The control group, however, just received the routine care. Spielberger's anxiety scale and the questionnaires assessing religious knowledge and attitude were completed by both groups before, immediately after, and 1–2 months after the intervention. Also, postpartum blues were evaluated by Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 10 days after delivery. Then, the data were analyzed using Chi-square, paired t-test, independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed postpartum blues in 59.5% of the study participants. Besides, the results of independent t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean score of postpartum blues (P = 0.036). Although the intervention group's knowledge and attitude scores were higher than those of the control group, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the correlation coefficient between postpartum blues and religious knowledge (P = 0.088) and religious attitude (P = 0.7). Conclusions: The results of the study show that instruction of religious doctrines was effective in increasing the religious knowledge and attitudes and reducing the postpartum blues. PMID:26457094

  19. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  20. The Feasibility of Recruiting and Retaining Perinatal Latinas in a Biomedical Study Exploring Neuroendocrine Function and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Plott, Jasmine; Grewen, Karen; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of enrolling and retaining perinatal immigrant and U.S.-born Latinas in a laboratory-based study that includes the collection of biomarkers implicated in the development of postpartum depression. This prospective study followed Latinas from third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum. Women were enrolled during pregnancy and interviewed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Demographic information, depression status and breastfeeding practices were ascertained using validated Spanish- and English-measures. Blood samples were collected at the 8-week postpartum laboratory visit during infant feeding and pain testing. Feasibility was demonstrated with 85 % retention of the original 34 prenatal women enrolled in the study. The majority (88 %) of women enrolled attended the 8-week laboratory visit regardless of depression status. This is the first study to demonstrate feasibility of enrolling and retaining depressed and nondepressed perinatal immigrant and U.S.-born Latinas in biomedical research. PMID:26976007

  1. Perception of Partner Sleep and Mood: Postpartum Couples' Relationship Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Costello, Chelsea R.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2011-01-01

    Separate research areas indicate that sleep quality, mood, and relationship satisfaction decline among couples during the postpartum period. Furthermore, accurate partner perceptions are associated with positive relationship qualities. Twenty-one first-time postpartum mother-father dyads, contributed one week of continuous wrist actigraphy along with concurrent subjective Palm Pilot monitoring to provide both objective and subjective sleep measures. Parents also reported on their own as well as their perception of their partners’ sleep, mood, and relationship satisfaction. Greater objectively measured total sleep time was associated with greater relationship satisfaction. Mothers underestimated fathers’ self-reported frequency of nocturnal awakenings and relationship satisfaction, and overestimated fathers’ self-reported sleep quality. Fathers underestimated mothers’ self-reported duration of wake at night and sleep quality, and overestimated mothers’ self-reported mood disturbance. Preventative measures that target sleep and improvement in perception of partner’s experiences could be used to buffer against decreases in relationship satisfaction among new parents. PMID:21961447

  2. Chiropractic management of postpartum pubic symphysis diastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the chiropractic management of a 30-year-old female patient with severe postpartum pelvic pain secondary to pubic symphysis diastasis. No literature was found on the chiropractic management of postpartum symphysis pubis diastasis. The existing literature concerning chiropractic care for symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy is limited and indicates a potential benefit. Separation of the pubic symphysis may include ligamentous injury to the sacroiliac joints and may lead to chronic pain. Pubic symphysis separation of 17 millimeters was present on digital radiograph. Management consisted of chiropractic adjustments, trigger point release, electrical stimulation, moist heat, sacroiliac belt, and specific stabilizing exercises. The patient’s pain improved immediately following treatment on the initial visit. Pain was reduced from 8/10 VAS at the first visit to 2/10 at the fourth visit. She was able to resume normal activities and reached a final pain level of 1/10. The diastasis was reduced by 7 millimeters at 14-weeks post radiograph for a final separation of just under 10 millimeters. Collaboration between obstetricians, midwives and chiropractors may be warranted. PMID:25729083

  3. Chiropractic management of postpartum pubic symphysis diastasis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lucian

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the chiropractic management of a 30-year-old female patient with severe postpartum pelvic pain secondary to pubic symphysis diastasis. No literature was found on the chiropractic management of postpartum symphysis pubis diastasis. The existing literature concerning chiropractic care for symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy is limited and indicates a potential benefit. Separation of the pubic symphysis may include ligamentous injury to the sacroiliac joints and may lead to chronic pain. Pubic symphysis separation of 17 millimeters was present on digital radiograph. Management consisted of chiropractic adjustments, trigger point release, electrical stimulation, moist heat, sacroiliac belt, and specific stabilizing exercises. The patient's pain improved immediately following treatment on the initial visit. Pain was reduced from 8/10 VAS at the first visit to 2/10 at the fourth visit. She was able to resume normal activities and reached a final pain level of 1/10. The diastasis was reduced by 7 millimeters at 14-weeks post radiograph for a final separation of just under 10 millimeters. Collaboration between obstetricians, midwives and chiropractors may be warranted. PMID:25729083

  4. Solubility of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in water

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, K.S.; Venugopal, A.; Adrian, D.D.; Constant, D.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Qaisi, K.; Roy, D.

    1996-07-01

    Current literature values of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) solubility in water vary widely from 100 to 200 mg/L at room temperature. The authors investigated the effects of temperature and pH on the solubility of both reference TNT and field neat TNT obtained from the Alabama Army Ammunition Plant (AAAP), Childersburg, AL. The TNT solubility determined from this study was significantly lower than that of Taylor and Rinkenbach, which was cited by several reference chemical handbooks and articles. However, the values reported by the Merck Index and the Lange`s Handbook of Chemistry compared well with the authors` values. TNT solubility dropped rapidly as the pH increased. Three unknown HPLC peaks were observed at high pH, indicating a possibility of forming unknown transformation products. Both reference and field neat TNT solubility agreed well. A semiempirical solubility correlation was developed to predict the solubility of TNT at a temperature range from 6 C to 42 C.

  5. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning in five low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background During the post-partum period, most women wish to delay or prevent future pregnancies. Despite this, the unmet need for family planning up to a year after delivery is higher than at any other time. This study aims to assess fertility intention, contraceptive usage and unmet need for family planning amongst women who are six weeks postpartum, as well as to identify those at greatest risk of having an unmet need for family planning during this period. Methods Using the NICHD Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research’s multi-site, prospective, ongoing, active surveillance system to track pregnancies and births in 100 rural geographic clusters in 5 countries (India, Pakistan, Zambia, Kenya and Guatemala), we assessed fertility intention and contraceptive usage at day 42 post-partum. Results We gathered data on 36,687 women in the post-partum period. Less than 5% of these women wished to have another pregnancy within the year. Despite this, rates of modern contraceptive usage varied widely and unmet need ranged from 25% to 96%. Even amongst users of modern contraceptives, the uptake of the most effective long-acting reversible contraceptives (intrauterine devices) was low. Women of age less than 20 years, parity of two or less, limited education and those who deliver at home were at highest risk for having unmet need. Conclusions Six weeks postpartum, almost all women wish to delay or prevent a future pregnancy. Even in sites where early contraceptive adoption is common, there is substantial unmet need for family planning. This is consistently highest amongst women below the age of 20 years. Interventions aimed at increasing the adoption of effective contraceptive methods are urgently needed in the majority of sites in order to reduce unmet need and to improve both maternal and infant outcomes, especially amongst young women. Study registration Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063346

  6. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  7. Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, J U

    1996-01-01

    Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

  8. Postpartum IUCD: Rediscovering a Languishing Innovation.

    PubMed

    Balsarkar, Geetha Dharmesh; Nayak, Arun

    2015-07-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India, since its inception in 1951, has been able to successfully achieve significant reductions in maternal mortality and fertility. Over the past decade, the need for contraception has changed dramatically in India. Couples no longer desire sterilization, but prefer modern reversible long-term methods of contraception. The ideal time to discuss contraception is in the antenatal period when there is a good rapport between the doctor and the patient. The window period when the patient is admitted in the hospital during delivery can be used effectively to offer postpartum contraception. It has been found that the highest chance of unwanted pregnancy is in the first year after delivery, when women do not report to the doctor if this window period is missed. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices are ideal for a country like India and it can be used to cover the unmet need of contraception if inserted immediately after delivery. There are two types of insertion: post placental, within 10 min of delivery of placenta and postpartum, within 48 h of delivery. Although there is a greater chance of expulsion in the postpartum insertions, it can be significantly reduced with proper training and user experience. Postpartum IUCD should be routinely offered to all patients delivering in institutions to provide complete care to a parturient and to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:26243985

  9. Efficacy of Enhanced HIV Counseling for Risk Reduction during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Heathe Luz; Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Prashini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Methods Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 733) and control arms (n = 747). Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. Results There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.71–1.44) or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.23). The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59–0.88), but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67–1.75). Discussion An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461 PMID:24824050

  10. Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and postpartum depressive symptoms in a pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression is a serious problem for women and their offspring. Micronutrient supplements are recommended for pregnant women because of their documented protective effects for the offspring, but their potential beneficial effects on maternal mental health are unknown. This study investigated the association between prenatal micronutrient supplementation and the risk for symptoms of postpartum depression in a longitudinal pregnancy cohort from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Methods Participants came from a cohort of the first 600 APrON women. Supplemental nutrient intake and symptoms of depression (measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)) were collected at each trimester and 12 weeks postpartum. Results Of the 475 participants who completed the EPDS at least twice in pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum, 416 (88%) scored <10 and 59 (12%) scored ≥10, where an EPDS ≥10 is considered to be “at least probable minor depression”. Mean nutrient intakes from supplements were higher in women with lower EPDS scores, particularly selenium (p = 0.0015) and omega-3s (p = 0.01). Bivariate analyses showed that several demographic and social/lifestyle variables were associated with EPDS ≥10: not having been born in Canada (p = 0.01), greater number of chronic conditions (p = 0.05), greater number of stressful life events during this pregnancy (p = 0.02), and lower prenatal and postnatal support (p = 0.0043 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Adjusting for covariates and nutrients known to be associated with postpartum depression, logistic regression showed that having a prenatal EPDS ≥ 10 increased the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms (second and third trimester OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.55 - 7.01, p = 0.004 and OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 2.05 - 8.85, p < 0.0001, respectively), while prenatal supplemental selenium (per 10 mcg, OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.74 - 0.78, p = 0.0019) and postnatal social support (OR = 0

  11. Ninety-day study of inhaled 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.

    1982-05-28

    Male and female rats were exposed to 2, 10, and 20 mg/m/sup 3/ of 1,3,5-Trichloro-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TCTNB) dust for six hrs daily, five days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood constituents, internal organs, and tissues resulting from TCTNB exposure. Mortality at the high dose level was 37%, with deaths occurring in weeks 1-6. There was no mortality in either the middle-level or low-level exposure groups. In all decedents, signs of respiratory distress were observed in the days before death, and marked pathologic changes in the lung were observed at necropsy. Some pulmonary disease was observed in animals sacrificed at four weeks and, to a lesser extent, in those surviving to the scheduled 13-week sacrifice. Small increases in total erythrocyte counts and hematocrit were observed at four and 13 weeks in treated animals, but no other appreciable hematologic changes were apparent. Weekly body weights remained unaffected by TCTNB exposure. Additional groups of male and female rats were exposed once for six hrs and subsequently challenged twice to see if the mode of death was related to sensitization to TCTNB, but no deaths occurred.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Innovative Postpartum Care Model for Mother-Baby Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Corinne; Dunn, Sandra; Pound, Catherine; Sourial, Nadia; Yasseen, Abdool S.; Millar, David; Rennicks White, Ruth; Walker, Mark; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and maternal satisfaction of a newly established integrative postpartum community-based clinic providing comprehensive support for mothers during the first month after discharge from the hospital. Our primary interests were breastfeeding rates, readmission and patient satisfaction. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, where 472 mothers were randomized via a 1:2 ratio to either receive standard of care (n = 157) or to attend the postpartum breastfeeding clinic (n = 315). Outcome data were captured through questionnaires completed by the participants at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were conducted to determine the effect of the intervention on exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included breastfeeding rate at 2, 4 and 24 weeks, breastfeeding self-efficacy scale, readmission rate, and satisfaction score. Results More mothers in the intervention group (n = 195, 66.1%) were exclusively breastfeeding at 12 weeks compared to mothers in the control group (n = 81, 60.5%), however no statistically significant difference was observed (OR = 1.28; 95% CI:0.84–1.95)). The rate of emergency room visits at 2 weeks for the intervention group was 11.4% compared to the standard of care group (15.2%) (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.39–1.23). The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with the overall care they received for breastfeeding compared to the control group (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 3.50–6.88)). Conclusion This new model of care did not significantly increase exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks. However, there were clinically meaningful improvements in the rate of postnatal problems and satisfaction that support this new service delivery model for postpartum care. A community-based multidisciplinary postpartum clinic is feasible to implement and can provide appropriate and highly satisfactory care to

  13. Case Report: Postpartum Cough and Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum/postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare condition associated with pregnancy in which there is left ventricular (LV) dysfunction resulting in symptoms of heart failure (). This occurs in previously healthy women and is seen in the last month of pregnancy or during the first 5 months postpartum (). Incidence ranges from 1 in 1,300 to 1 in 15,000 pregnancies in the United States (). A case study is presented of a patient with severe impairment of LV function seen in the emergency department (ED). The ED is a common location for initial presentation; therefore, the ED provider should be cognizant of key features of PPCM. The differential diagnosis and medical management of PPCM are discussed. Emergency department management should focus on 3 key elements: an increase in inotropy and a reduction in preload and afterload. Differences between postpartum and peripartum states are outlined. PMID:27482991

  14. Biological Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio; Ramos, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and the further reduction of the released nitrite to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other fungi mineralize TNT under ligninolytic conditions by converting it into reduced TNT intermediates, which are excreted to the external milieu, where they are substrates for ligninolytic enzymes. Most if not all aerobic microorganisms reduce TNT to the corresponding amino derivatives via the formation of nitroso and hydroxylamine intermediates. Condensation of the latter compounds yields highly recalcitrant azoxytetranitrotoluenes. Anaerobic microorganisms can also degrade TNT through different pathways. One pathway, found in Desulfovibrio and Clostridium, involves reduction of TNT to triaminotoluene; subsequent steps are still not known. Some Clostridium species may reduce TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, which are then further metabolized. Another pathway has been described in Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 and involves nitrite release and further reduction to ammonium, with almost 85% of the N-TNT incorporated as organic N in the cells. It was recently reported that in this strain TNT can serve as a final electron acceptor in respiratory chains and that the reduction of TNT is coupled to ATP synthesis. In this review we also discuss a number of biotechnological applications of bacteria and fungi, including slurry reactors, composting, and land farming, to remove TNT from polluted soils. These treatments have been designed to achieve

  15. The association between diabetes and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily S; Peri, Marisa R; Gossett, Dana R

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to estimate if diabetic women were more likely to experience postpartum depression symptoms than women without diabetes. This was a prospective cohort of women who received prenatal care at a hospital-affiliated prenatal clinic serving low-income women in Chicago, Illinois. For the primary analysis, women were divided by diabetes status (i.e., no diabetes or either gestational diabetes or pre-pregnancy diabetes). Postpartum depression was defined as a positive screen on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Rates of postpartum depression were compared, stratified by diabetic status. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for potential confounders. A planned secondary analysis compared women with pre-pregnancy diabetes to those without pre-pre-pregnancy diabetes. Three hundred and five women consented to participate of whom 100 (30.5 %) had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 33 (10.8 %) had pre-pregnancy diabetes. Compared to women without any diabetes, women with diabetes (either GDM or pre-pregnancy diabetes) had similar rates of antenatal [(OR) 0.69, 95 % CI) 0.44-1.08] and postpartum depression (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.33-1.66). However, postpartum depression was more common among women with pre-pregnancy diabetes (34.8 %) compared to non-diabetic women (16.7 %) (OR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.05-6.78). This association persisted even after adjusting for potential confounders (aOR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.05-9.79). Gestational diabetes was not associated with increased rates of depression. However, women with pre-pregnancy diabetes are more likely to experience postpartum depression compared to women without pre-pregnancy diabetes, even after adjusting for related comorbidities. PMID:26184833

  16. [Characteristic of affective disorders of the first week of puerperium].

    PubMed

    Łukasik, Adrian; Błaszczyk, Krzysztof; Wojcieszyn, Michał; Belowska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Prospective studies ware carried in 200 lying-ins. To diagnose affective disorders medical interview and anonymous questionnaire BDI and EPDS were used. During interview 31% showed baby-blues. Signs of postpartum depression occurred in 18.5% women. No case of psychosis as well as critical incident of stress debriefing were stated. Recapitulating postpartum affective disorders occurred in 49.5% of examined group. Among negative psycho-socioeconomic factors pathological course of pregnancy in 14%, incorrect relationship with parents in 9%, low material status in 7%, unemployment in 32% and unwanted pregnancy in 3% of women were observed. Affective disorders in lying-ins women with postpartum depression are correlated with occurring of least 3 of above-mentioned factors. Baby-blues was found in 31%, while signs of depression were found in 17-20% of women during first week of puerperium. Existence of at least 3 negative psycho-socioeconomic factors during pregnancy or labour correlates with appearance of postpartum depression. PMID:14669417

  17. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  18. Predictors of post-partum weight retention in a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julia Elizabeth; Hure, Alexis Jayne; Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Post-partum weight retention (WR) occurs in 60-80% of women with some retaining ≥10 kg with contributing factors reported as pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding. A longitudinal study of pregnancy, with 12-month post-partum follow-up was conducted to determine factors associated with WR. Pregnant women (n = 152) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Pre-pregnancy weight was self-reported; weight was measured four times during pregnancy (for GWG) and in the first 12 months post-partum. Infant feeding data were obtained via questionnaires. Breastfeeding was categorised as exclusive, predominant, complementary or not breastfeeding. Linear mixed models tested the predictors of WR, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with pre-pregnancy weight, 68% of women retained weight at 12 months, median (interquartile range) [4.5 kg (2.1-8.9)]. After adjustment, GWG was positively associated with WR (P < 0.01), but pre-pregnancy weight did not predict WR. For each additional week of any breastfeeding, 0.04 kg less weight was retained. Compared with women who retained weight, those women who did retain had higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding at three months (P < 0.05), but the number of weeks of exclusive breastfeeding failed to predict WR for all women. WR following childbirth is common and associated with GWG, while the number of weeks of 'any' breastfeeding contributed to post-partum weight loss. Whether these factors are modifiable strategies to optimise the weight status of women at this life stage requires further research. PMID:22974518

  19. Free fatty acid levels in fluid of dominant follicles at the preferred insemination time in dairy cows are not affected by early postpartum fatty acid stress.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Gadella, Bart M; van de Lest, Chris H A; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Stout, Tom A E; Roelen, Bernard A J; Vos, Peter L A M

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of high-yielding dairy cows has declined during the last 3 decades, in association with a more profound negative energy balance (NEB) during the early weeks postpartum. One feature of this NEB is a marked elevation in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. During the early postpartum period (≤ d 42), circulatory FFA levels were measured weekly, and progesterone concentrations and the diameter of the dominant follicles were determined thrice weekly. Retrospectively, cows that ovulated within 35 d postpartum were grouped as "normal ovulating" cows (n = 5), and the others were grouped as "delayed ovulating" cows (n = 5). In both groups, high total FFA levels (>500 µM) were evident immediately postpartum. Interestingly, cows with delayed ovulation had higher plasma FFA concentrations in the first weeks postpartum compared with normal ovulating cows. In both cow groups, FFA decreased to control levels of non-NEB cows within 3 wk postpartum. The FFA compositions and concentrations in fluids from the dominant follicles of postpartum cows were not different between the normal and delayed ovulating cows when measured at potential insemination points: d 55, 80, and 105 postpartum. Interestingly, the concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid was higher and that of saturated stearic acid lower in follicular fluids of both groups compared with that in blood. The level of FFA in follicular fluid was correlated with the ratio of 17β-estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) in follicular fluid, with a relatively high level of unsaturated FFA in follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio. Taken together, these results indicate that a more severe NEB early postpartum is related to a delay in the first postpartum ovulation and does not affect FFA composition in follicular fluid at the preferred insemination time. The high FFA level in dominant follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio may be due to a different FFA metabolism in these follicles. The diagnostic value of this

  20. The Postpartum Depressive State in Relation to Perceived Rearing: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Takashi; Murase, Satomi; Aleksic, Branko; Furumura, Kaori; Shiino, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Tamaji, Ai; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between perceived rearing and the postpartum depressive state remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether perceived rearing is a risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and whether the score of perceived rearing is affected by depressive mood (the state dependency of perceived rearing). Methods Pregnant women (n = 448, mean age 31.8±4.2 years) completed the EPDS as a measure of depressive state in early pregnancy (T1), late pregnancy (around 36 weeks), and at 1 month postpartum (T2), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at T1 as a measure of perceived rearing. Changes in the EPDS and the PBI scores from T1 to T2 were compared between the non depressive (ND) group and the postpartum depressive (PD) group. Results There were no significant differences in any PBI category for perceived rearing between the ND and PD groups at T1. EPDS scores did not change significantly from T1 to T2 in the ND group but increased significantly in the PD group. The PBI maternal care score increased significantly in the ND group (p<0.01), while decreasing in the PD group (p<0.05). Additionally, in both the ND and PD groups, significant negative correlation was observed regarding change in the EPDS and PBI maternal care scores from T1 to T2 (r = −0.28, p = 0.013). Conclusions The present study suggests that perceived rearing is not a strong risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the EPDS. Furthermore, the results indicated the state dependency of the PBI maternal care score. PMID:23185582

  1. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Michelle F

    2009-06-01

    Once a low-risk pregnancy has been established, walking in combination with nutritional control may be effective in preventing excessive weight gain in overweight and obese women. Maternal exercise prescription should use the Frequency, Intensity, Time spent and Type of exercise principle, with a frequency of three to four sessions per week as ideal. Intensity based on a target heart-rate zone of 110 to 131 beats per minute for women 20 to 29 years of age and 108 to 127 beats per minute for women 30 to 39 years of age, coupled with use of the rating of perceived exertion scale and the "Talk Test" is suggested. Dieting and exercise together are most effective in reducing weight retention after childbirth and compliance may be improved by incorporating child-care and children into the exercise routine. After medical consultation, postpartum women should begin exercise slowly, starting from 15 minutes, and building to at least 150 minutes of aerobic activity per week, with this activity spread throughout the week. PMID:19501315

  2. Cognitive Efficacy (SIB) of 13.3 Versus 4.6 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch in Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Richard S; Ferris, Steven; Velting, Drew M; Meng, Xiangyi

    2016-05-01

    Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) data from the 24-week, randomized, double-blind ACTivities of daily living and cognitION (ACTION) study suggest that patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) benefit from treatment with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to further examine the cognitive efficacy of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch on individual SIB items, and SIB domains derived using factor analysis of these items. Change from baseline at Week 24 on 9 new factor-defined domains and individual items was calculated and compared using effect sizes (Cohen's d). Numerically less decline was observed with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h patch on all domains and the majority of individual items. Largest least squares mean treatment differences were observed on "visuospatial reasoning," "object naming," "recognition," "design copying," "social agency," "ideational praxis," and "comprehension" domains. These findings suggest 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch demonstrates broad cognitive efficacy across a range of SIB items and domains in patients with severe AD. PMID:26371345

  3. Effect of behavioural-educational intervention on sleep for primiparous women and their infants in early postpartum: multisite randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodnett, Ellen; Kenton, Laura; Lee, Kathryn; Weiss, Shelly; Weston, Julie; Willan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioural-educational sleep intervention delivered in the early postpartum in improving maternal and infant sleep. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Postpartum units of two university affiliated hospitals. Participants 246 primiparous women and their infants randomised while in hospital with an internet based randomisation service to intervention (n=123) or usual care (n=123) groups. Interventions The behavioural-educational sleep intervention included a 45-60 minute meeting with a nurse to discuss sleep information and strategies to promote maternal and infant sleep, a 20 page booklet with the content discussed, and phone contacts at one, two, and four weeks postpartum to reinforce information, provide support, and problem solve. The usual care group received calls at weeks one, two, and four to maintain contact without provision of advice. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was maternal nocturnal (9 pm to 9 am) sleep (minutes) and secondary outcome was longest stretch of infant nocturnal sleep (minutes) measured at six and 12 weeks postpartum by actigraphy. Other outcomes measured at six and 12 weeks were number of maternal and infant night time awakenings by actigraphy, fatigue visual analogue scale, general sleep disturbance scale, and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Rates of exclusive breast feeding were measured at 12 weeks postpartum only. Results All women who completed any outcome measures at six or 12 weeks were included in analysis. Sleep outcomes were completed at one or both of six and 12 weeks postpartum for 215 of 246 (87%) women (110/123 intervention and 105/123 usual care). Longitudinal mixed effects model analyses indicated no significant differences between the groups on any of the outcomes. The estimated mean difference in maternal nocturnal sleep between the intervention and usual care groups was 5.97 minutes (95% confidence interval −7.55 to 19.5 minutes, P=0.39). No

  4. Postpartum depression among women with unintended pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cynthia Nunes de Oliveira; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum depression. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study conducted with 1,121 pregnant aged 18 to 49 years, who attended the prenatal program devised by the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between July 2005 and December 2006. We interviewed 1,121 women during pregnancy and 1,057 after childbirth. Unintended pregnancy was evaluated during the first interview and postpartum depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale. The crude and adjusted odds ratios for the studied association were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The frequency for unintended pregnancy was 60.2%; 25.9% presented postpartum depression symptoms. Those who had unintended pregnancies had a higher likelihood of presenting this symptoms, even after adjusting for confounding variables (OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.09;2.01). When the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) variable was included, the association decreased, however, remained statistically significant (OR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.03;1.97). CONCLUSIONS Unintended pregnancy showed association with subsequent postpartum depressive symptoms. This suggests that high values in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale may result from unintended pregnancy. PMID:26083941

  5. Uterine artery embolization for primary postpartum hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo; Ryu, Ae-Li; Chung, Soo-Ho; Seok Lee, Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and death. A prompt management of uterine artery embolization (UAE) is important for a good outcome. UAE is generally accepted to be a safe and reliable procedure. Objective: To estimate critical patient characteristics influencing the success of UAE for the treatment of emergent primary postpartum hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study that reviewed 121 patients who were diagnosed primary postpartum hemorrhage between February 2002 and December 2009 at a tertiary treatment center among 4,022 deliveries. We evaluated patient clinical characteristics associated with a successful surgical outcome of UAE. Results: The success rate for UAE was 96%. For two cases, UAE complication was associated with fever (>38.5oC). Five patients had problems that required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Conclusion: To increase the surgical success rate and lower the number of ICU admissions, the decision to treat primary postpartum hemorrhage using UAE should be based on individual patient clinical findings under the direction of obstetrics staff and an interventional radiologist. PMID:24639786

  6. The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, David A.; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S.; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8–12, 20–22, 28–30 and 34–36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

  7. Psychiatric Morbidity and Correlates in Postpartum Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narendra; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Koudike, Umashree; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna

    2016-01-01

    Background: A range of psychological disorders occur in women in the postpartum period apart from the traditional blues, postpartum depression and psychosis. These include obsession of infanticide, PTSD, morbid preoccupations regarding child birth and disorders of mother-infant relationships, though they are under emphasized. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study conducted in the tertiary maternity care hospital. A total of 152 study subjects were interviewed on MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) within 2 weeks after delivery. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was seen in 67 (44%) of the study subjects. About 26% of subjects had Depressive disorder NOS. Obsessive harm to the child, Panic disorder, Social phobia were the other disorders identified. There were no cases of Mania, Bipolar disorder, psychosis, post traumatic stress disorder or substance use disorder diagnosed across the sample. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score averaged 87.8. Statistically significant association was seen to be present between psychiatric illness and number of previous still births and dead children before this delivery (P = 0.045). Conclusions: The study reveals that psychiatric co-morbidity is very common in the postpartum period and can be detected as early as first week after delivery. Social phobia identified as a common association is a new finding and needs further replication. It needs a larger sample with a prospective assessment to generalize the findings of our study. PMID:27570341

  8. The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, David A; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K; Marchesi, Julian R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Best, Brookie M.; Burchett, Sandra; Li, Hong; Stek, Alice; Hu, Chengcheng; Wang, Jiajia; Hawkins, Elizabeth; Byroads, Mark; Watts, D. Heather; Smith, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Mirochnick, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tenofovir disoproxol fumarate (TDF) is increasingly used in HAART regimens of pregnant women, but limited data exist on pregnancy pharmacokinetics of chronically-dosed TDF. This study described tenofovir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods IMPAACT P1026s is a prospective, non-blinded pharmacokinetic study of HIV-infected pregnant women that included a cohort receiving 300 mg TDF once daily. Steady-state 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles were measured at 2nd and 3rd trimester and postpartum, with maternal and umbilical cord samples at delivery. Tenofovir was measured by LC-MS. The target AUC was ≥ 1.99 mcg•hr/mL (non-pregnant historical control 10th percentile). Results Median tenofovir AUC was decreased during the 2nd (1.9 mcg•hr/mL) and 3rd (2.4 mcg•hr/mL, p=0.005) trimesters versus postpartum (3.0 mcg•hr/mL). Tenofovir AUC exceeded the target for 2/4 (50%) 2nd trimester; 27/37 (73%; 95% CI: 56%, 86%) 3rd trimester; and 27/32 (84%; 95% CI: 67%, 95%) postpartum women (p>0.05). Median 2nd/3rd trimester troughs were lower (39/54 ng/mL) than postpartum (61 ng/mL). Median 3rd trimester weight was heavier for subjects below target AUC versus those above target (97.9 vs. 74.2 kg, p = 0.006). Median ratio of cord blood to maternal concentrations was 0.88. No infants were HIV infected. Conclusions This study found lower tenofovir AUC and troughs during pregnancy. Transplacental passage with chronic TDF use during pregnancy was high. Standard TDF doses appear appropriate for most HIV-infected pregnant women but therapeutic drug monitoring with dose adjustment should be considered in pregnant women with high weight (> 90kg) or inadequate HIV RNA response. PMID:25959631

  10. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. PMID:25282439

  12. Prenatal depression predicts postpartum maternal attachment in low-income Latina mothers with infants.

    PubMed

    Perry, Deborah F; Ettinger, Anna K; Mendelson, Tamar; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2011-04-01

    Although maternal attachment is an important predictor of infant attachment security and other developmental outcomes, little is known about the formation of maternal attachment in the first few months of the infant's life, particularly among ethnic minority mothers. The current study examined the predictors of postpartum maternal attachment in a sample of 217 Latina women enrolled in a perinatal depression prevention trial. Mothers' attachment to their infants was measured at 6-8 weeks postpartum using the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale. A variety of predictors of early attachment were explored including: depressive symptoms during pregnancy, pregnancy intention, feelings about the pregnancy, and the quality of the partner relationship. The strongest predictor of lower maternal attachment was depressive symptoms late in pregnancy; pregnancy intention was marginally predictive of attachment, with lower scores being associated with unwanted pregnancies. The study fills a critical gap in our understanding of the role of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in shaping mothers' early attachment to their infants. PMID:21402409

  13. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m−2 and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m−2) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  14. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m(-2) and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m(-2)) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  15. New IPPF statement on breastfeeding, fertility and post-partum contraception.

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    of lactation. They are suitable for those who do not wish nonhormonal methods. There are possible consequences, however, of the transfer of the steroid to breast milk. Hormonal methods should not be used earlier than 6 weeks postpartum. High and low dose oral contraceptives adversely affect the quality and quantity of breast milk. They also reduce duration of lactation. They should be withheld until 6 weeks after delivery, or until the infant is weaned--whichever comes first. The efficacy or periodic abstinence in nursing women requires further analysis. PMID:12316285

  16. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog.

    PubMed

    Panciera, David L; Troy, Gregory C; Purswell, Beverly J

    2014-10-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  17. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, David L.; Troy, Gregory C.; Purswell, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  18. Preventing urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum: a review.

    PubMed

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-06-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition in association with pregnancy. Incident UI in pregnancy or postpartum are significant risk factors for UI later in life. Epidemiological studies on UI during pregnancy and postpartum list numerous variables associated with UI. For women, the main focus is on pelvic floor muscle training to prevent UI. However, several other modifiable risk factors are likely to contribute to prevention of UI during pregnancy and postpartum. This review investigated modifiable risk factors for UI during pregnancy and postpartum and also reviewed randomized controlled trials on prevention of UI in association with pregnancy. Systematic searches for publications until September 2012 on prevention of UI during pregnancy and postpartum were performed. Based on available evidence, the following recommendations to prevent UI during pregnancy and postpartum were made: women should be advised not to smoke before or during pregnancy (grade B), aim at normal weight before pregnancy (grade B), and aim at regaining prepregnancy weight postpartum (grade B). Occasional low-intensity training should be advocated (grade B), and constipation should be avoided during pregnancy (grade B) and postpartum (grade C). Women should be advised to perform pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy and postpartum (grade A) and to use perineal warm packs during delivery (grade B). Cesarean section to prevent UI cannot be recommended (grade D). If lifestyle recommendations are addressed in association with pregnancy, incidence of UI during pregnancy and postpartum is likely to decrease. PMID:23436034

  19. Physical Activity Beliefs, Barriers, and Enablers among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Aytur, Semra A.; Borodulin, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background and Methods Physical activity during postpartum is both a recommended and an essential contributor to maternal health. Understanding the beliefs, barriers, and enablers regarding physical activity during the postpartum period can more effectively tailor physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs, barriers, and enablers to physical activity among a cohort of women queried at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Five questions about beliefs and two open-ended questions about their main barriers and enablers regarding physical activity and exercise were asked of 667 women at 3 months postpartum. Among the sample, 530 women answered the same questions about barriers and enablers to physical activity at 12 months postpartum. Results Agreement on all five beliefs statements was high (≥89%), indicating that women thought that exercise and physical activity were appropriate at 3 months postpartum, even if they continued to breastfeed. For the cohort, the most common barriers to physical activity at both 3 and 12 months postpartum were lack of time (47% and 51%, respectively) and issues with child care (26% and 22%, respectively). No barrier changed by more than 5% from 3 to 12 months postpartum. For the cohort, the most common enablers at 3 months postpartum were partner support (16%) and desire to feel better (14%). From 3 to 12 months postpartum, only one enabler changed by >5%; women reported baby reasons (e.g., baby older, healthier, not breastfeeding, more active) more often at 12 months than at 3 months postpartum (32% vs. 10%). Environmental/policy and organizational barriers and enablers were reported less often than intrapersonal or interpersonal barriers at both time points. Conclusions A number of barriers and enablers were identified for physical activity, most of which were consistent at 3 and 12 months postpartum. This study provides information to create more successful interventions to

  20. Effect of feeding calcareous marine algae to Holstein cows prepartum or postpartum on serum metabolites and performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Bernard, J K; Taylor, S J

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows and 12 springing heifers were used in a 9-wk randomized design trial to determine the response of cows fed calcareous marine algae (CMA) beginning 3wk prepartum or after parturition through 6wk postpartum on dry matter intake (DMI), blood and urine metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Within parity and expected calving date, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Prepartum diets were supplemented with calcium carbonate (CON) or 50g/d of CMA with a resulting dietary cation-anion difference of -5.17 and -3.99mEq/100g, respectively. Postpartum diets were formulated to provide either 317g/d of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate (NBC) or 100g/d of CMA, providing a dietary cation-anion difference of 35.58 and 15.64mEq/100g, based on 25kg/d of DMI, respectively. No differences were observed in prepartum DMI or postpartum DMI, milk yield, percentage of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not fat among treatments. Milk protein yield was higher for cows fed CMA prepartum compared with CON. Interactions of prepartum treatment and week were observed for yield of milk fat and energy-corrected milk because of higher yields for cows fed CMA during wk 2 and 6 compared with CON. Serum Na concentrations were greater for cows fed CON prepartum or NBC postpartum compared with CMA. Postpartum urinary concentrations of Na exhibited an interaction among treatments and were higher for CON-NBC and CMA-NBC compared with CON-CMA and CMA-CMA. Similar interactions of treatments were also observed for serum urea N and creatinine postpartum. Postpartum urinary K concentrations were higher for cows fed CMA postpartum compared with NBC. Results of this trial indicate that feeding cows CMA prepartum does not affect DMI or serum metabolites prepartum, but does support higher milk protein yield. Performance and serum metabolite concentrations of cows fed CMA postpartum were comparable with that of cows

  1. Success Providing Postpartum Intrauterine Devices in Private-Sector Health Care Facilities in Nigeria: Factors Associated With Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Eluwa, George IE; Atamewalen, Ronke; Odogwu, Kingsley; Ahonsi, Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Use of modern contraceptive methods in Nigeria remained at 10% between 2008 and 2013 despite substantive investments in family planning services. Many women in their first postpartum year, in particular, have an unmet need for family planning. We evaluated use of postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion and determined factors associated with its uptake in Nigeria. Methods: Data were collected between May 2014 and February 2015 from 11 private health care facilities in 6 southern Nigerian states. Women attending antenatal care in participating facilities were counseled on all available contraceptive methods including the postpartum IUD. Data were abstracted from participating facility records and evaluated using a cross-sectional analysis. Categorical variables were calculated as proportions while continuous variables were calculated as medians with the associated interquartile range (IQR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with uptake of the postpartum IUD while controlling for potential confounding factors, including age, educational attainment, marital status, parity, number of living children, and previous use of contraception. Results: During the study period, 728 women delivered in the 11 facilities. The median age was 28 years, and most women were educated (73% had completed at least the secondary level). The majority (96%) of the women reported they were married, and the median number of living children was 3 (IQR, 2–4). Uptake of the postpartum IUD was 41% (n = 300), with 8% (n = 25) of the acceptors experiencing expulsion of the IUD within 6 weeks post-insertion. After controlling for potential confounding factors, several characteristics were associated with greater likelihood of choosing the postpartum IUD, including lower education, having a higher number of living children, and being single. Women who had used contraceptives previously were less likely to choose the

  2. IMPACT OF A HOSPITAL-BASED PARAPROFESSIONAL BREASTFEEDING CLINIC ON INFANT FEEDING BEHAVIOR AT FOUR WEEKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mothers of healthy, term infants were enrolled at bedside and randomly assigned to normal care (n=267) or scheduled to attend a breastfeeding clinic staffed by paraprofessionals within 1 week postpartum (n=255). The majority (85%) participants were monolingual Hispanic. Women who missed appointments...

  3. Responses of serum neurotrophic factors to exercise in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sandra Rojas; Kleinert, Jens; Sulprizio, Marion; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strüder, Heiko K

    2011-02-01

    It was recently shown in humans that exercise affects the neurotrophic factors known to function as neurogenesis regulators. No data related to exercise and pregnancy, however, is yet available. Thus, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on pregnant women during late pregnancy and women postpartum, on the serum concentration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (COR). Twenty women with uncomplicated pregnancies underwent a graded submaximal exercise test during pregnancy (weeks 32-36 of gestation; T(1)) and postpartum (10-12 weeks after childbirth; T(2)). On two of these test days the women carried out an intensifying exercise test (25 W steps) on a cycle ergometer until a heart rate of 150 bpm was reached. Blood samples were taken in the rest period before beginning the exercise, immediately at the end of the exercise and after recovery periods of 5 and 10 min, respectively. Basal maternal IGF-1, PRL and COR were found to be higher during T(1) (p<.01), while the BDNF was higher during T(2) (p=.00). VEGF was not detectable in the serum of the pregnant women. During T(2), VEGF, which was found to be within the normal range before exercise, was at a higher level after exercise (p<.01). Exercise increased the BDNF and IGF-1 during T(1) and T(2) (p<.01). This study also shows that exercise increases the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and BDNF during pregnancy and postpartum as well as VEGF postpartum. Thus, exercise might be a beneficial lifestyle factor with therapeutic/public health implications i.e. with regard to maternal mood and cognitive performance. PMID:20692101

  4. Effect of postpartum practices of doing the month on Chinese women's physical and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Qun; Maloni, Judith A; Petrini, Marcia A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe Chinese women's postpartum physiological and psychological health and adherence to "doing-the-month" practices. A descriptive repeated measures design was used, with data collected at 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum. The convenience sample consisted of 198 healthy childbearing women with a term birth. Maternal physical health was measured by the Six-Minute Walk (endurance), Chair Stand test (muscle strength), severity of physical symptoms, and physical health subscales of SF36v2. Maternal psychological health was measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale. Adherence was measured by the Adherence to Doing-the-Month Practices questionnaire. Aerobic endurance and lower-body muscle strength improved significantly across time (p < .001) but remained suboptimal for maternal age. Women who delivered by Cesarean section had significantly poorer physical health than those who had a vaginal delivery. Physical functioning significantly increased, but general health and role limitations due to physical health significantly decreased over time. Postpartum physical symptoms decreased in number and severity. Depression increased over time (p < .001). Adherence to doing the month was negatively correlated with aerobic endurance and positively correlated with depression at 6 weeks (p < .05). These findings challenge the assumption that practices of doing the month are healthy for Chinese women's recovery after childbirth. Research-based evidence needs to be integrated into doing-the-month practices. Education of Chinese women and families, whether living at home or abroad, is needed about the adverse health effects of doing the month. Routine screening for postpartum depression is also advised. PMID:23132403

  5. Changes in Physical Activity Among Postpartum Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the KAN-DO Study

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brouwer, Rebecca J. N.; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed physical activity at multiple time points in the postpartum period or used both self-reported and objective measures of assessment. The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity and sedentary behavior at two time points in a cohort of overweight or obese postpartum women using both self-reported and objective measures. In total, 132 women completed physical activity assessments at a median of 24 weeks postpartum and again approximately 10 months later. At both time points, women wore an Actical accelerometer for one week and completed the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey at both time points. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine whether physical activity changed over time for the cohort. Overall counts per minute and moderate to vigorous physical activity increased from baseline to 10-months later, although the absolute levels were modest (median 6.9 to 8.8 minutes/day). A median of 64–71% at baseline and 63–67% at follow-up of their monitored time was sedentary. More intensive interventions are needed to help postpartum women integrate physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. PMID:23705761

  6. Transdermal Estradiol Treatment for Postpartum Depression: A Pilot, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Driscoll, Kara E; Prairie, Beth A; Stika, Catherine S; Eng, Heather F; Dills, John L; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Postpartum depression occurs in 14.5% of women in the first 3 months after birth. This study was an 8-week acute phase randomized trial with 3 cells (transdermal estradiol [E2], sertraline [SERT], and placebo [PL]) for the treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder. However, the study was stopped after batch analysis revealed that the E2 serum concentrations were lower than prestudy projections. This paper explores our experiences that will inform future investigations of therapeutic E2 use. Explanations for the low E2 concentrations were as follows: (1) study patch nonadhesion, which did not explain the low concentrations across the entire sample. (2) Ineffective transdermal patch preparations, although 2 different patch preparations were used and no significant main effect of patch type on E2 concentrations was found. (3) Obesity, at study entry, E2-treated women had body mass index of 32.9 (7.4) (mean [SD]). No pharmacokinetic data comparing E2 concentrations from transdermal patches in obese women versus normal weight controls are available. (4) Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 3A4 and other E2 elimination pathways in pregnancy. CYP4503A4 is induced in pregnancy and is a pathway for the metabolism of E2. Conversion to estrone and phase II metabolism via glucuronidation and sulfation, which also increase in pregnancy, are routes of E2 elimination. The time required for these pathways to normalize after delivery has not been elucidated. The observation that transdermal E2 doses greater than 100 μg/d did not increase serum concentrations was unexpected. Another hypothesis consistent with this observation is suppression of endogenous E2 secretion with increasing exogenous E2 dosing. PMID:26061609

  7. Transdermal Estradiol Treatment for Postpartum Depression: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wisner, Katherine L.; Sit, Dorothy K.Y.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.; Driscoll, Kara E.; Prairie, Beth; Stika, Catherine S.; Eng, Heather F.; Dills, John L; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression occurs in 14.5% of women in the first three months after birth. This study was an 8 week acute phase randomized trial with three cells (transdermal estradiol (E2), sertraline, and placebo) for the treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder. However, the study was stopped after batch analysis revealed that the E2 serum concentrations were lower than pre-study projections. This paper explores our experiences that will inform future investigations of therapeutic E2 use. Explanations for the low E2 concentrations were: 1) Study patch non-adhesion, which did not explain the low concentrations across the entire sample. 2) Ineffective transdermal patch preparations, although two different patch preparations were used and no significant main effect of patch type on E2 concentrations was found. 3) Obesity, at study entry, E2-treated women had mean ± SD BMI=32.9 ±7.4. No pharmacokinetic data comparing E2 concentrations from transdermal patches in obese women vs. normal weight controls are available. 4) Induction of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 3A4 and other E2 elimination pathways in pregnancy. CYP4503A4 is induced in pregnancy and is a pathway for the metabolism of E2. Conversion to estrone and Phase II metabolism via glucuronidation and sulfation, which also increase in pregnancy, are routes of E2 elimination. The time required for these pathways to normalize after delivery has not been elucidated. The observation that transdermal E2 doses greater than 100 mcg/day did not increase serum concentrations was unexpected. Another hypothesis consistent with this observation is suppression of endogenous E2 secretion with increasing exogenous E2 dosing. PMID:26061609

  8. Insomnia treatment in the third trimester of pregnancy reduces postpartum depression symptoms: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Knight, David C; Emamian, Farnoosh; Tahmasian, Masoud

    2013-12-30

    Mental health is an important medical issue in perinatal care, and there is increasing evidence that insomnia during pregnancy is associated with postpartum depression (PPD). Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of insomnia treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy on PPD symptoms. Fifty-four pregnant women with insomnia were randomly assigned to trazodone, diphenhydramine, or placebo treatment. Sleep quality was measured by actigraphy at baseline, and after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, depression was assessed 2 and 6 weeks after delivery. Trazodone and diphenhydramine improved sleep profile compared to placebo after 6 weeks of treatment. Further, depressive symptoms were reduced 2 and 6 weeks after delivery in trazodone and diphenhydramine groups compared to placebo. No differences in depressive symptoms were observed between the trazodone and diphenhydramine groups. These findings indicate that insomnia treatment with trazodone or diphenhydramine during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent PPD. PMID:23993464

  9. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  10. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Mansouri, Akram; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth. PMID:27095995

  11. Influence of photoperiod on the pregnant and postpartum mare.

    PubMed

    Hodge, S L; Kreider, J L; Potter, G D; Harms, P G; Fleeger, J L

    1982-10-01

    Over a 2-year period, mares (n = 32) of predominantly Quarter Horse breeding and their foals were used to study the effects of photoperiod on reproduction during the periparturient period. Specific objectives of the study were (i) to evaluate the effects of an extended photoperiod regimen (16 hours' light) on gestation length, foal development, and postpartum reproductive performance, and (ii) to measure changes in plasma progesterone concentrations during the last trimester of gestation and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations after foaling until ovulation. Mares in the extended daylength treatment group had shorter (10 days) mean gestation length (P less than 0.01) than did control mares (exposed to normal daylight hours). Although foals of mares exposed to long photoperiod were carried for a shorter term, their birth weights tended to be heavier, but not significantly, than those of foals from control mares. Foal size, as determined by body measurements, was not affected by the photoperiod. Neither interval from parturition to 1st ovulation nor onset of estrus to ovulation were significantly affected by the extended photoperiod. Plasma progestogen concentrations increased from basal levels at prepartum weeks 4 and 5 to peak values a week before foaling in both mare groups. The LH profiles from parturition to ovulation were similar for both mare groups. However, mean plasma LH values during the 7 days before the 1st ovulation were higher (P less than 0.05) in mares exposed to extended daylength than in control mares. PMID:7149374

  12. Consequences of maternal complications in women's lives in the first postpartum year: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti; Yadav, Ranjana; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2012-06-01

    Maternal complications are common during and following childbirth. However, little information is available on the psychological, social and economic consequences of maternal complications on women's lives, especially in a rural setting. A prospective cohort study was conducted in southern Rajasthan, India, among rural women who had a severe or less-severe, or no complication at the time of delivery or in the immediate postpartum period. In total, 1,542 women, representing 93% of all women who delivered in the field area over a 15-month period and were examined in the first week postpartum by nurse-midwives, were followed up to 12 months to record maternal and child survival. Of them, a subset of 430 women was followed up at 6-8 weeks and 12 months to capture data on the physical, psychological, social, or economic consequences. Women with severe maternal complications around the time of delivery and in the immediate postpartum period experienced an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in the first postpartum year: 2.8% of the women with severe complications died within one year compared to none with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications also had higher rates of perinatal mortality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.98, confidence interval (CI) 1.96-8.1, p=0.000] and mortality of babies aged eight days to 12 months (AOR=3.14, CI 1.4-7.06, p=0.004). Compared to women in the uncomplicated group, women with severe complications were at a higher risk of depression at eight weeks and 12 months with perceived physical symptoms, had a greater difficulty in completing daily household work, and had important financial repercussions. The results suggest that women with severe complications at the time of delivery need to be provided regular follow-up services for their physical and psychological problems till about 12 months after childbirth. They also might benefit from financial support during several months in the postpartum period to prevent severe

  13. Effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose levels and postpartum screening in mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi Roozbahani, Rezvan; Geranmayeh, Mehrnaz; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Mehran, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. GDM, defined as glucose intolerance, first diagnosed or initiated during pregnancy affects 1-14% of pregnancies based on various studies. Screening and early diagnosis and appropriate glycemic control can improve prenatal outcomes. Telephone follow-up seems to be a reasonable way for pregnant women follow-up. The present study evaluated the effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose level during pregnancy and postpartum screening. Methods: Eighty mothers with GDM were enrolled in this clinical trial and randomly divided into intervention and control groups. All mothers were asked to check their blood sugar levels fivetimes daily. In intervention group, telephone intervention was performed for 10 weeks. In each follow-up, individuals were followed for insulin injections, diet, clinical tests and reminding the next visit. In control group, three times of telephone call was established to record blood sugar levels. Another telephone call was established at 6 weeks of postpartum in both study groups to evaluate the performance of the screening test for blood sugar. Results: The mean age of mothers was 30.9±5 years in the control and 30.7±5.1 years in the intervention groups In intervention group, mean level of blood glucose, 2 hours after lunch at 28 weeks of pregnancy was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Mean differences in levels of fasting blood glucose between 28 weeks and 32 and between 28 and 36 weeks of pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (P<0.05). Rate of postpartum glucose screening test was significantly higher in the intervention group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that telephone follow-up could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose levels in mothers with gestational diabetes and also increased the rate of postpartum screening test. PMID:26793640

  14. Relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor-I and genotype during the postpartum interval in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J; Chase, C C; Rutter, L M

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and week postpartum on serum concentrations of IGF-I, body condition score (BCS), BW, and ovarian function in beef cows. Cows from the following genotypes were utilized in two consecutive years: Angus (A x A; n = 9), Brahman (B x B; n = 10), Charolais (C x C; n = 12), Angus x Brahman (A x B; n = 22), Brahman x Charolais (B x C; n = 19) and Angus x Charolais (A x C; n = 24). Serum concentrations of IGF-I, BCS, and BW were determined between wk 2 and 9 postpartum. Rectal ultrasound was used to determine days postpartum to first medium (6 to 9 mm) and first large (> or = 10 mm) follicle. Averaged across genotype, BCS decreased (P < 0.05) from 5.0 +/- 0.1 on wk 3 to 4.8 +/- 0.1 on wk 6 postpartum, and BW decreased (P < 0.05) between wk 2 and 3 and again between wk 4 and 9 postpartum. Averaged over year and week postpartum, serum IGF-I concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in B x B cows (46 +/- 5 ng/mL) compared with all other genotypes; lowest in A x A (12 +/- 4 ng/mL), C x C (13 +/- 4 ng/mL), and A x C cows (18 +/- 3 ng/mL); and intermediate (P < 0.05) in A x B (28 +/- 3 ng/mL) and B x C (26 +/- 3 ng/mL) cows compared with all other genotypes. Serum IGF-I concentrations did not change (P > 0.10) with week postpartum in C x C, A x A, and A x C cows, but increased (P < 0.05) between wk 2 and 7 postpartum in B x C, A x B, and B x B cows. Average interval to first medium (16 +/- 2 d) and first large (35 +/- 2 d) follicle did not differ (P > 0.10) among genotypes. Serum IGF-I concentrations correlated with BCS (r = 0.53 to 0.72, P < 0.001) but not with days to first large follicle (r = -0.19 to -0.22, P > 0.10). Averaged across genotypes, cows that lost BCS postpartum had lower (P < 0.01) serum IGF-I concentrations. Cows that calved with adequate BCS (i.e., > or = 5) had greater (P < 0.01) serum IGF-I concentrations postpartum than cows that calved with inadequate BCS (i.e., < 5) but days to first large

  15. Metabolic and energy status during the dry period is crucial for the resumption of ovarian activity postpartum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Kawashima, C; van Dorland, H A; Morel, I; Miyamoto, A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the degree of negative energy balance in high-producing dairy cows is the major cause of delayed resumption of the ovarian cyclicity that closely relates to fertility. Recent evidence suggests that the energetic situation during early lactation critically affects nutrient partitioning, metabolism, and the reproductive axis, whereas the effect of energy status during the dry period is widely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of energy status throughout the entire dry period until early lactation on the onset of the ovarian cyclicity. Blood samples were taken in 23 cows from dry off at 8 wk before expected parturition to 8 wk postpartum for the analyses of metabolites and hormones, and milk samples were obtained 3 times weekly from d 7 of lactation onward to confirm luteal activity and pregnancy by milk progesterone analysis. Energy balance (EB) was measured weekly during the last 6 wk of the dry period and every other week after parturition. Liver biopsies were obtained at 8 wk before expected calving, within 1 d after calving, and at 4 wk postpartum to measure the mRNA abundance of various gluconeogenic enzymes and metabolic hormone receptors. Cows showing luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as ovulatory during the first follicular wave postpartum (OC), whereas cows without luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as anovulatory (AC). Energy balance and, concomitantly, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were higher in OC than in AC during the dry period. Plasma thyroxine concentrations and body condition score during the postpartum period were higher in OC than in AC. At the mRNA level (19 cows), hepatic insulin receptor decreased from dry off to early lactation, and mRNA of pyruvate carboxylase was highest at parturition and decreased in early lactation in AC only, whereas both parameters remained unchanged

  16. Fordyce happiness program and postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Leili; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Masoudi, Reza; Hasheminia, Sayed Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is endangering the health of mothers and has negative impacts on the evolution of social communication and newborns evolution. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Fordyce Happiness program on the postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention carried out on postpartum mothers that referred to 4 health centers in Isfahan. A total of 133 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and then randomly allocated in two groups (63 and 70 mothers for intervention and control respectively). Maternal depression 3 times before, immediate and 1 months after intervention in both groups was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II-Persian standardized questionnaires. Educational sessions based on the Fordyce happiness program were conducted for intervention group. Data was analyzed in SPSS17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) descriptive and analytic statistical tests at significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05). No significant differences in depression scores in the two groups before training. However after 2 months a significant difference in depression score was observed between two groups (control group: 19.38 ± 3.94; intervention group: 16.24 ± 4.8; P < 0.001). Furthermore in intervention group showed significant differences in depression scores before and after intervention (19.15 ± 3.41 and 16.24 ± 4.83; P < 0.001). However in the control group had not any significant change. Conclusion: Fordyce happiness program was effective in reducing postpartum depression in our study. With attention to the effectiveness and low cost of this program, it is recommended that this program might be considered for all mothers after childbirth in health centers or other community-based settings. PMID:24949034

  17. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated. PMID:7476012

  18. Persistence of uterine bacterial infection, and its associations with endometritis and ovarian function in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    GHANEM, Mohamed Elshabrawy; TEZUKA, Erisa; DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki; OSAWA, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the persistence of uterine bacterial infections with cytologically determined endometritis and ovarian function in 65 postpartum Holstein cows. Vaginal mucus discharges were collected, and endometrial smear samples (n = 130) were collected for cytological and bacteriological examinations from the cows at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were collected at weeks 3, 5 and 7 pp to determine plasma progesterone concentrations to monitor ovarian activity. According to the bacteriological examination, cows were classified into four groups. The first group (n = 32; 49%) comprised cows negative for bacteria at weeks 5 and 7 pp. The second group (n = 11; 17%) comprised cows with bacterial infections at week 5 pp but that were clear of infection at week 7 pp. The third group (n = 12; 19%) comprised cows without bacteria at week 5 pp but that acquired an infection by week 7 pp. The fourth group (n = 10; 15%) comprised cows with bacterial infections at weeks 5 and 7 pp (persistence of infection). A positive correlation (P < 0.001) was noted between the severity of cytologically determined endometritis, purulent vaginal discharge and the persistence of infection. Cows with persistent infections had a significantly (P < 0.01) prolonged luteal phase compared with cows without infection. In conclusion, the prevalence of cytologically determined endometritis and prolonged luteal phase were significantly increased in cows with persistent infections. PMID:25482111

  19. Persistence of uterine bacterial infection, and its associations with endometritis and ovarian function in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Tezuka, Erisa; Devkota, Bhuminand; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the persistence of uterine bacterial infections with cytologically determined endometritis and ovarian function in 65 postpartum Holstein cows. Vaginal mucus discharges were collected, and endometrial smear samples (n = 130) were collected for cytological and bacteriological examinations from the cows at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were collected at weeks 3, 5 and 7 pp to determine plasma progesterone concentrations to monitor ovarian activity. According to the bacteriological examination, cows were classified into four groups. The first group (n = 32; 49%) comprised cows negative for bacteria at weeks 5 and 7 pp. The second group (n = 11; 17%) comprised cows with bacterial infections at week 5 pp but that were clear of infection at week 7 pp. The third group (n = 12; 19%) comprised cows without bacteria at week 5 pp but that acquired an infection by week 7 pp. The fourth group (n = 10; 15%) comprised cows with bacterial infections at weeks 5 and 7 pp (persistence of infection). A positive correlation (P < 0.001) was noted between the severity of cytologically determined endometritis, purulent vaginal discharge and the persistence of infection. Cows with persistent infections had a significantly (P < 0.01) prolonged luteal phase compared with cows without infection. In conclusion, the prevalence of cytologically determined endometritis and prolonged luteal phase were significantly increased in cows with persistent infections. PMID:25482111

  20. Women with postpartum depression: "my husband" stories

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Bailey, Pat; Purdon, Sheri Johnson; Snelling, Susan J; Kauppi, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background The research on Postpartum Depression (PPD) to date suggests that there is a knowledge gap regarding women's perception of their partners' role as carer and care activities they perform. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe women's understanding of their partners' or husbands' involvement in the midst of PPD. Methods This study used interview data from a larger study of northern and rural Ontario women's stories of help-seeking for PPD. The interpretive description approach was used to illustrate the complexity of women's spousal connections in PPD. Data from a purposive community sample of 27 women who self-identified as having been diagnosed with PPD was used. From the verbatim transcribed interviews a number of data excerpts were identified and labeled as "my husband" stories. Narrative analysis was employed to examine these stories. Results During this time of vulnerability, the husbands' physical, emotional and cognitive availability positively contributed to the women's functioning and self-appraisals as wife and mother. Their representations of their husbands' 'doing for' and/or 'being with' promoted their well-being and ultimately protected the family. Conclusion Given that husbands are perceived to be central in mitigating women's suffering with PPD, the consistent implementation of a triad orientation, that includes woman, child and partner rather than a more traditional and convenient dyadic orientation, is warranted in comprehensive postpartum care. Finally, this study contributes a theoretical understanding of responsive as well as reactive connections between women and family members during the postpartum period. PMID:19732461

  1. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

    2014-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. PMID:24961478

  2. Women’s Stress, Depression, and Relationship Adjustment Profiles as They Relate to Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Moore, Todd M.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study applied latent class analysis to examine whether homogeneous subgroups of women emerged based on their self-reported stress, depression, and relationship adjustment during pregnancy. We also examined whether women in different groups experienced different intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum. Method 180 women completed assessments during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and 122 completed follow-up assessments six weeks postpartum. Results A two-class solution best fit the data. One group reported higher mean stress and depression and poorer relationship adjustment compared to the other group. The high severity class reported more psychological IPV victimization and perpetration and more physical IPV victimization during pregnancy compared to the low severity class. Membership in the high severity class was associated with higher postpartum depression. Conclusions Findings highlight the associations between different profiles of mental and relational health during pregnancy and postpartum. Future studies should explore the utility of dyadic interventions aimed at reducing stress, depression, and IPV, and improving relationship adjustment as a means to improve women’s health during pregnancy and postpartum. These findings also highlight the potential utility of applying person-centered analytic approaches to the study of women’s and couples’ health during this time period. PMID:25642352

  3. Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with Phanaerochaete chrysosporium in agitated cultures at pH 4. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, J.; Halasz, A.; Beaudet, S.; Paquet, L. . Biotechnology Research Inst.); Ampleman, G.; Thiboutot, S. . Defence Research Establishment Valcartier)

    1999-07-01

    The biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with molasses and citric acid at pH 4.5 was studied. In less than 2 weeks, TNT disappeared completely, but mineralization did not exceed 1%. A time study revealed the presence of several intermediates, marked by the initial formation of two monohydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes (2- and 4-HADNT) followed by their successive transformation to several other products, including monoaminodinitrotoluenes (ADNT). A group of nine acylated intermediates were also detected. They included 2-N-acetylamido-4,6-dinitrotoluene and its p isomer, 2-formylamido-4,6-dinitrotoluene and its p isomer (as acylated ADNT), 4-N-acetylamino-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene and 4-N-formylamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene (as acetylated DANT), 4-N-acetylhydroxy-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-N-acetoxy-2,6-dinitrotoluene (as acetylated HADNT), and finally 4-N-acetylamido-2-hydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene. Furthermore, a fraction of HADNTs were found to rearrange to their corresponding phenolamines, while another group dimerized to azoxytoluenes which in turn transformed to azo compounds and eventually to the corresponding hydrazo derivatives. After 30 days, all of these metabolites, except traces of 4-ADNT and the hydrazo derivatives, disappeared, but mineralization did not exceed 10% even after the incubation period was increased to 120 days.

  4. Lavender Fragrance Essential Oil and the Quality of Sleep in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz Afshar, Mahnaz; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Bekhradi, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Mokhtari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor and delivery is a stressful stage for mothers. During these periods, sleep-related disorders have been reported. The problems of inadequate sleep include decrease in concentration, judgment, difficulty in performing daily activities, and an increase in irritability. Even the effects of moderate sleep loss on life and health quality can be similar to sleep deprivation. some research aggravated by aromatherapy on sleep quality in different periods of life so might be useful for the improve of sleep quality in postpartum women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in postpartum women. The sample was recruited from medical health centers of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with the control group. A total of 158 mothers in postpartum period (with certain inclusion criteria) were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of control and intervention. Lavender fragrance (made by Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Co.) was used by participants in the intervention group nightly before sleeping. The fragrance was dropped on cotton balls, which were placed on a cylindrical container at mothers’ disposal. Keeping the container at a projected distance of 20 cm, the participants inhaled 10 deep breaths and then the container was placed beside their pillow until morning. This procedure was done 4 times a week for 8 weeks. For the control group, the same intervention was done with the placebo. The instrument for collecting data was Pittsburgh sleep quality index, which was completed at the baseline, fourth, and eighth weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t test and repeated measures analysis of variance calculated by SPSS16. Results: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences between mothers in two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks follow up, a significant improvement appeared in

  5. Baseline results from Hawaii's Nā Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  6. Reversal of Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Hypersensitivity in the Postpartum Period: Role of Spinal Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Liu, Baogang; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Houle, Timothy T.; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical injury, including surgery, can result in chronic pain; yet chronic pain following childbirth, including cesarean delivery in women, is rare. The mechanisms involved in this protection by pregnancy or delivery have not been explored. Methods We examined the effect of pregnancy and delivery on hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli of the rat hindpaw induced by peripheral nerve injury (spinal nerve ligation) and after intrathecal oxytocin, atosiban and naloxone. Additionally, oxytocin concentration in lumbar spinal cerebrospinal fluid was determined. Results Spinal nerve ligation performed at mid-pregnancy resulted in similar hypersensitivity to nonpregnant controls, but hypersensitivity partially resolved beginning after delivery. Removal of pups after delivery prevented this partial resolution. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of oxytocin were greater in normal postpartum rats prior to weaning. To examine the effect of injury at the time of delivery rather than during pregnancy, spinal nerve ligation was performed within 24 h of delivery. This resulted in acute hypersensitivity that partially resolved over the next 2–3 weeks. Weaning of pups resulted only in a temporary return of hypersensitivity. Intrathecal oxytocin effectively reversed the hypersensitivity following separation of the pups. Postpartum resolution of hypersensitivity was transiently abolished by intrathecal injection of the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban. Conclusions These results suggest that the postpartum period rather than pregnancy protects against chronic hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury and that this protection may reflect sustained oxytocin signaling in the central nervous system during this period. PMID:23249932

  7. Recurrent secondary postpartum hemorrhages due to placental site vessel subinvolution and local uterine tissue coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) represents a serious problem for women and obstetricians. Because of its association with hemorrhagic shock and predisposition to disseminated coagulopathy, it is a leading cause of maternal deaths worldwide. Furthermore, the jeopardy of PPH is rising with the secondary form of PPH occurring between 24 hours and 6 weeks postpartum, when women are already discharged home. The causes of this pathology are severe inflammation (endometritis), inherited coagulation disorders, consumptive coagulopathy, and retained products of conceptions. Others are of rare occurrence, such as vessel subinvolution (VSI) of the placental implantation site, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm, or trauma. Case presentation We present a rare form of recurrent secondary postpartum hemorrhage in a woman after uncomplicated cesarean delivery, with review of the literature linked to the management of this situation originating in the rare local VSI in the placental implantation site, defective decidual homeostasis, and coagulopathy confined to the uterus. Conclusion The placental site VSI is one of the rare causes of secondary PPH, and this situation is frequently underdiagnosed by clinicians. The histological confirmation of dilated “clustered”-shaped myometrial arteries partially occluded by thrombi of variable “age” together with the presence of endovascular extravillous trophoblasts confirms the diagnosis. PMID:24558972

  8. What are postpartum women doing while the rest of the world is asleep?

    PubMed

    McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2015-06-01

    Large individual differences characterize maternal postpartum sleep and adjustment. Our goal was to explore aspects of mothers' nocturnal environments and behaviours that may explain differences in postpartum adjustment. A total of 201 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months completed an online survey with demographics, number and duration of nocturnal awakenings, caretaking behaviours, environment and nocturnal activities during 'one typical night during the past week'. Mothers reported 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) ± 1.7] nocturnal awakenings, each lasting 33.9 (SD ± 22.5) min. Infant age was related inversely to duration but unrelated to number of awakenings. Falling asleep while feeding was less frequent among exclusively formula-feeders. Among the entire sample, mothers used a cellphone (59%), backlit tablet (25%), TV (20%) and computer (16%) during nocturnal awakenings. Watching TV and using a computer were each associated with longer nocturnal awakenings. Eighty-nine per cent of women used ≥1 extra light source during nocturnal awakenings: night light (35%), light from a cracked door (28%), desk lamp (25%), electronic device (19%) or room light (14%). Light source(s) was unrelated to number or duration of nocturnal awakenings. These data suggest that, although supplemental light sources were not associated with awakenings, TV and computer use accounted for longer awakenings. Feeding method and technology use may help to explain individual differences in postpartum adjustments and may be targets for more effective interventions. PMID:25431167

  9. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  10. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Pelvic Floor Support 1 Year Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Johnson, Benjamin; Li, Fangyong; King, William C; Connell, Kathleen A; Guess, Marsha K

    2016-02-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with the incidence, prevalence, and progression of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study investigated the effect of peripartum BMI on pelvic floor support 1 year postpartum (PP1y). One hundred eight nulliparous women had their BMI recorded and underwent POP assessments using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System at baseline, third trimester (36th to 38th week of pregnancy [G36-38w]), and PP1y. Pelvic organ prolapse was defined as ≥stage II. Women gained on average 1.9 kg between baseline and PP1y. After adjustment, increasing BMI PP1y was associated with increasing anterior wall descent (P < .0001) and higher odds of having POP PP1y (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.97, P = .045). Trial of labor compared to unlabored cesarean delivery, POP G36-38w, and decreased fetal weight were independently associated with anterior vaginal wall laxity PP1y. Our finding suggests that postpartum BMI influences pelvic floor laxity 1 year after delivery. Postpartum weight reduction may serve as a strategy for POP prevention in some women. PMID:26494698

  11. Treatment-resistant, five-year long, postpartum-onset Capgras episode resolving after electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Del Casale, Antonio; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Serata, Daniele; Danese, Emanuela; Sani, Gabriele; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum psychosis, which rarely presents with Capgras syndrome (delusional misidentification), requires rapid symptom resolution. First-line drugs have important drawbacks, such as delayed onset of clinical response and secretion in breast milk. In this report, we report successful treatment of a treatment-resistant woman presenting with treatment-resistant Capgras syndrome, with onset during postpartum. A 36-year-old woman had presented with Capgras syndrome during postpartum. For more than five years, she believed her son and other family members were substituted by impostors. All adequately administrated treatments were unsuccessful. We suggested electroconvulsive therapy to overcome treatment resistance. After six electroconvulsive therapy sessions, delusions of doubles subsided and other symptoms improved. She was discharged two weeks later with a mood stabilizer and low-dose atypical antipychotic combination and is well at the one-and-a-half-year follow-up. Electroconvulsive therapy followed by a mood stabilizer-antipsychotic drug combination showed rapid, permanent, and effective control of long-standing Capgras syndrome in a young woman. PMID:25926594

  12. Considering a Relational Model for Depression in Women with Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Reg A.; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To extend testing of a relational theory that a low sense of belonging, delayed or impaired bonding, and loneliness are salient risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) in women. Methods Data for this theory-testing analysis came from a larger prospective longitudinal cohort study and included women who were retained to the end of the study at the 6 week postpartum interview (n=564). Structural equation modeling was used to test the “fit” of the model and determine significance of direct and indirect paths. Results The model explained 35% of the variance in postpartum depression with impaired bonding and loneliness as the strongest indicators. Lower sense of belonging, less perceived social support from a healthcare practitioner and a partner, and lower parenting sense of competence were additional predictors. Conclusion Study findings challenge current thinking about the relationship between impaired bonding and PPD as this study raises the possibility that impaired bonding is a risk for PPD as opposed to the reverse relationship. The study provided evidence of the importance of healthcare practitioners’ alliance with patients. This paper contributes to advancing the science of women’s mental health in relation to depression by considering additional predictors which might be amenable to intervention. PMID:25705566

  13. The role of filaggrin mutations during pregnancy and postpartum: atopic dermatitis and genital skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Bager, P; Wohlfahrt, J; Boyd, H; Thyssen, J P; Melbye, M

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the epidermal filaggrin gene (FLG) are associated with skin barrier dysfunction (dry skin, less acidic skin, and fissured skin), and atopic dermatitis (AD) with a severe and persistent course. Because pregnancy and delivery further impairs normal skin barrier functions (immune suppression, mechanical stress), we studied the possible role of FLG mutations on the risk of AD flares, genital infections, and postpartum problems related to perineal trauma. FLG-genotyping was performed in a population-based sample of 1837 women interviewed in the 12th and 30th weeks of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum as part of the Danish National Birth Cohort study 1996-2002. We found that FLG mutations also influence pregnancy-related skin disease; thus, women with FLG mutations had an increased risk of AD flares during pregnancy (OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.6-30.5) and of enduring postpartum physical problems linked to perineal trauma during delivery (OR 11.1, 95% CI 1.1-107.7). PMID:26835886

  14. Metabolic predictors of post-partum disease and culling risk in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Hesam A; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; Duffield, Todd F

    2011-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and calcium (Ca) with the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis and culling in Holstein cows. Eight hundred and forty-nine cows from 16 farms were sampled weekly for the first 3 weeks post-partum. The cows were under clinical observation from calving until 60 days in milk (DIM) and during this time there were 22 cases of DA, 31 cases of clinical ketosis and 39 cows were culled. Elevated concentrations of BHBA were associated with DA, clinical ketosis and culling. In the first week after calving, cows with serum BHBA ≥1000μmol/L had 13.6 times greater odds of developing DA than cows with lower values. Serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations during week 1 were associated with the subsequent occurrence of clinical ketosis. The odds of clinical ketosis were 6.3 times greater in cows with serum NEFA ≥ 1.0mmol/L in the first week after calving. In addition, cows with BHB ≥1200μmol/L in the first week after calving, were at 4.7 times greater risk of developing clinical ketosis. In the first and second weeks after calving the serum Ca concentration was associated with subsequent culling. In addition, cows with NEFA concentration ≥ 1.0mmol/L were 3.6 times more likely to be culled within the following 2 months. The study indicated that early post-partum serum BHBA, NEFA and Ca concentrations have potential as indicators of disease and culling risk in dairy cows. PMID:20457532

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-6 - Contributory defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contributory defined benefit plans. 1.401(a)(4)-6 Section 1.401(a)(4)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-6 Contributory defined...

  16. Pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding influences gene expression in the reproductive tract of cyclic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Degrelle, S A; Déjean, S; Marot, G; Dubois, O; Germain, G; Humblot, P; Ponter, A A; Charpigny, G; Grimard, B

    2013-06-01

    Undernutrition before and after calving has a detrimental effect on the fertility of dairy cows. The effect of nutritional stress was previously reported to influence gene expression in key tissues for metabolic health and reproduction such as the liver and the genital tract early after calving, but not at breeding, that is, between 70 and 90 days post-partum. This study investigated the effects of pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding on global gene expression in the oviduct, endometrium and corpus luteum of eight multiparous Holstein cows during the early and middle phases of an induced cycle 80 days post-partum. Four control cows received 100% of energy and protein requirements during the dry period and after calving, while four underfed received 80% of control diet. Oestrous synchronization treatment was used to induce ovulation on D80 post-partum. Oviducts, ovaries and the anterior part of each uterine horn were recovered surgically 4, 8, 12 and 15 days after ovulation. Corpora lutea were dissected from the ovaries, and the endometrium was separated from the stroma and myometrium in each uterine horn. The oviduct segments were comprised of ampulla and isthmus. RNAs from ipsi- and contralateral samples were pooled on an equal weight basis. In each tissue, gene expression was assessed on a custom bovine 10K array. No differentially expressed gene (DEG) in the corpus luteum was identified between underfed and control, conversely to 293 DEGs in the oviduct vs 1 in the endometrium under a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.10 and 1370 DEGs vs 3, respectively, under FDR < 0.15. Additionally, we used dedicated statistics (regularized canonical correlation analysis) to correlate the post-partum patterns of six plasma metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism measured weekly between calving and D80 with gene expression. High correlations were observed between post-partum patterns of IGF-1, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate and the expression in the oviduct of

  17. Overcoming functional impairment in postpartum depressed or anxious women: a pilot trial of desvenlafaxine with flexible dosing

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Swift, Elena; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Shankar, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Antidepressants are the first line treatment for moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in perinatal and general populations. However, there appears to be paucity of evidence around antidepressant use in women with postpartum depression or anxiety. Selection of an appropriate antidepressant is crucial in promoting efficacy, optimizing tolerability, and managing comorbid anxiety or depression. Our aim was to investigate the treatment effect and tolerability profile of desvenlafaxine, and to examine the functionality of women with postpartum depression or anxiety after desvenlafaxine treatment. Methods: Fifteen postpartum women with depression or anxiety completed this 12-week prospective pilot study with a flexible dose of desvenlafaxine (50–100 mg). Participants were recruited at a tertiary care level program. Measures of depression (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAM-A), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, PSWQ) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale, SDS) were completed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 17), the majority of women responded to medication (88.2%, n = 15), and reached remission of depressive (82.4%, n = 14) and anxiety symptoms (82.4%, n = 14). Remission of depression was achieved in a mean of 6.9 weeks [standard deviation (SD) = 3.01] at a mean dose of 71 mg/day (SD = 25.7). Significant decreases were observed on PSWQ worry scores (p < 0.0001) and SDS scores for social (p < 0.0001) and family life impairment (p < 0.0001). The medication was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: The results of our prospective pilot study suggest that treatment with desvenlafaxine of postpartum mothers with depression or anxiety can lead to symptom remission and restoration of functionality. PMID:27536346

  18. Adherence to extended postpartum antiretrovirals is associated with decreased breastmilk HIV-1 transmission: Results of the BAN study

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, Nicole L.; MILLER, William C.; HUDGENS, Michael G.; CHASELA, Charles S.; SICHALI, Dorothy; KAYIRA, Dumbani; NELSON, Julie A. E.; STRINGER, Jeffrey S. A.; ELLINGTON, Sascha R.; KOURTIS, Athena P.; JAMIESON, Denise J; VAN DER HORST, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimate association between postpartum antiretroviral adherence and breastmilk HIV-1 transmission Design Prospective cohort study Methods Mother-infant pairs were randomized after delivery to immediately begin receiving 28 weeks of either triple maternal antiretrovirals (zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine, nelfinavir, or lopinavir-ritonavir) or daily infant nevirapine as part of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. Associations between postpartum antiretroviral adherence and rate of breastmilk HIV-1 transmission were estimated using Cox models. We measured adherence over four postpartum time intervals using pill count, suspension bottle weight, and maternal self-report. Adherence was categorized and lagged by one interval. Missing adherence measures were multiply imputed. Infant HIV-1 infection was determined by DNA PCR every 2-6 weeks. The primary endpoint was infant HIV-1 infection by 38 weeks of age among infants alive and uninfected at 5 weeks. Results Analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs and 45 transmission events. Using pill count and bottle weight information, 22-40% of mother-infant pairs at any given interval were <90% adherent. Having ≥90% adherence was associated with a 52% (95% CI 3-76%) relative reduction in the rate of breastmilk HIV-1 transmission, compared with having <90% adherence when controlling for study arm, breastfeeding status, and maternal characteristics. Complete case analysis rendered similar results (n=501; relative reduction 59%, 95% CI 6-82%). Conclusion Non-adherence to extended postpartum ART regimens in ‘real world’ settings is likely to be higher than that seen in BAN. Identifying mothers with difficulty adhering to antiretrovirals, and developing effective adherence interventions, will help maximize benefits of ARV provision throughout breastfeeding. PMID:25493600

  19. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake. PMID:26938997

  20. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake. PMID:26938997

  1. Effects of prepartum ingestion of Ipomoea carnea on postpartum maternal and neonate behavior in goats.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Andre T; Pfister, James A; Ferreira, Marcos Barbosa; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2011-04-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grows in tropical areas, and is readily consumed by grazing goats. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects on dams and kids of prenatal ingestion of this plant. Freshly harvested leaves of I. carnea (10 g/kg body weight) were fed daily to nine pregnant goats from the fifth to the 16th week of gestation; five pregnant goats were controls. Dam and kid behavior were evaluated during 2-hr postpartum. Further evaluation of the offspring was performed using various tests after birth: (1) reaching and discriminating their dam from an alien doe (two tests at 12-hr postpartum), and (2) navigating a progressive maze (2, 4, and 6 days postpartum). Postnatal (n = 2) and fetal (n = 2) mortality were observed in the treated group. Intoxicated kids had difficulty in standing at birth, and only one was able to suckle within 2 hr of birth. Treated kids were slower than controls to arrive at their dam in the discrimination test; treated kids often (seven of nine completed tests) incorrectly chose the alien dam (controls: 0/10 tests). During some runs on days 2, 4, and 6 postpartum, treated kids were slower to leave the starting point of the maze, and were slower to arrive at the dam on all test days. This study suggests that the offspring of pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays. PMID:21465638

  2. Endocrine milieu and developmental dynamics of ovarian cysts and persistent follicles in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roth, Z; Biran, D; Lavon, Y; Dafni, I; Yakobi, S; Braw-Tal, R

    2012-04-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts and persistent follicles are follicular pathologies involved in reduced fertility of dairy cows. Two separate experiments were performed on high-yielding Holstein cows to characterize ovarian cyclicity and evaluate the developmental dynamics of follicle pathologies postpartum. In experiment 1, 58 cows were monitored by ultrasonography twice weekly from d 18±1 to 69±2 postpartum. First ovulation occurred 38±3, 27±2, 20±1, and 25±3 d postpartum in cows with 1 cycle (n=11), 2 cycles (n=21), 3 cycles (n=13), and 4 cycles (n=7), respectively. Follicular pathologies were developed in cows that were either acyclic (n=6) or had 1 or 2 cycles, but not in cows with more than 2 cycles. In experiment 2, 47 cows were monitored twice weekly from 10 d postpartum to second ovulation. Follicles ≥17 mm in diameter in 2 consecutive scans were aspirated, and concentrations of various hormones were measured. Cows were defined as cyclic (n=30; 64%) or with the potential to develop follicular pathology (n=17; 36%). Aspirated follicles (n=27) were classified into 3 main groups based on follicular growth rate, follicular diameter, and ovarian activity before and after follicular aspiration. Dominant follicles (n=4) were defined as large follicles (20 mm in diameter) with growth rate ≤1 mm/d and normal ovarian activity. Persistent follicles (n=6) had the same growth rate and diameter as the dominant follicles, but persisted at the same diameter for ≥10 d. Ovarian cysts (n=17) were defined as the largest follicular structures (19 to 32 mm in diameter), with abnormal growth rate (>1 mm/d) and abnormal ovarian activity. Single or turnover cysts did not differ in their growth parameters and were therefore combined and further classified according to follicular-fluid hormone concentrations. Estradiol-dominant cysts (n=7) were characterized by normal estradiol (284 to 659 ng/mL) and progesterone (20 to 113 ng/mL) concentrations, similar to those of the

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mathisen, Siv Elin; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Lars; Lagerløv, Per

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder with negative consequences for women, infants, and the family as a whole. Most studies of this disorder have been conducted in Western countries, and studies from developing countries are few. In this paper, we report the first – as far as we are aware – study of the prevalence and risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina. Materials and methods The study participants were 86 women attending 6 week checkups, (range 4–12 weeks) postpartum at a private health care center in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting demographic and obstetric data. Data were described as proportions (percentages). Differences between proportions were assessed with chi-squared tests. To control for possible confounders, we fitted bivariate logistic regression models in which the dependent variable was an EPDS sum score of <10 versus a score of ≥10. Results We found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 32 women (37.2%) had an EPDS score of ≥10, 16 (18.6%) had a score between 10 and 12, and 16 (18.6%) had a score of ≥13. In our sample, an EPDS score of ≥10 was significantly associated with multiparity (odds ratio [OR] =3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–11.30; P=0.030), pregnancy complications (OR =3.40; 95% CI: 1.03–11.26; P=0.045), labor complications (OR =11.43; 95% CI: 1.71–76.61; P=0.012), cesarean section (OR =4.19; 95% CI: 1.10–16.01; P=0.036), and incomplete breast-feeding (OR =5.00; 95% CI: 1.42–17.54; P=0.012). Conclusion Our results indicate that postpartum depression may be prevalent in Argentina, and may be associated with incomplete breast-feeding, cesarean section, perinatal complications and multiparity. The prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression has not been described previously and is a considerable health-related problem among

  4. Prehypertension During Normotensive Pregnancy and Postpartum Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiong; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Yu-Heng; Mai, Cai-Yuan; Hou, Ming-Min; Lv, Li-Juan; Duan, Dong-Mei; Wen, Ji-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Peizhong P; Ling, Xuefeng B; Li, Yu-Ming; Niu, Jian-Min

    2016-08-01

    The nonstratification of blood pressure (BP) levels may underestimate future cardiovascular risk in pregnant women who present with BP levels in the range of prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg). We prospectively evaluated the relationship between multiple antepartum BP measurements (from 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks' gestation to term) and the occurrence of postpartum metabolic syndrome in 507 normotensive pregnant women after a live birth. By using latent class growth modeling, we identified the following 3 distinctive diastolic BP (DBP) trajectory groups: the low-J-shaped group (34.2%; DBP from 62.5±5.8 to 65.0±6.8 mm Hg), the moderate-U-shaped group (52.6%; DBP from 71.0±5.9 to 69.8±6.2 mm Hg), and the elevated-J-shaped group (13.2%; DBP from 76.2±6.7 to 81.8±4.8 mm Hg). Notably, the elevated-J-shaped trajectory group had mean DBP and systolic BP levels within the range of prehypertension from 37(+0) and 26(+0) weeks of pregnancy, respectively. Among the 309 women who completed the ≈1.6 years of postpartum follow-up, the women in the elevated-J-shaped group had greater odds of developing postpartum metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 6.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-23.92; P=0.004) than the low-J-shaped group. Moreover, a parsimonious model incorporating DBP (membership in the elevated-J-shaped group but not in the DBP prehypertension group as identified by a single measurement) and elevated levels of fasting glucose (>4.99 mmol/L) and triglycerides (>3.14 mmol/L) at term was developed, with good discrimination and calibration for postpartum metabolic syndrome (c-statistic, 0.764; 95% confidence interval, 0.674-0.855; P<0.001). Therefore, prehypertension identified by DBP trajectories throughout pregnancy is an independent risk factor for predicting postpartum metabolic syndrome in normotensive pregnant women. PMID:27354425

  5. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  6. Women's Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…

  7. Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Carol A.; Byers, Alison Daly; Malard, Sarah Deann; Dawson, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    With recent media attention and a growing awareness in popular culture, the appropriate treatment for postpartum depression has taken center stage as a prevalent women's health issue. There is little agreement on the definition, existence and treatment of postpartum depression. Contributing to this factor is the lack of research that exists to…

  8. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  9. Transformation ability of fungi isolated from cork and grape to produce 2,4,6-trichloroanisole from 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Maggi, L; Mazzoleni, V; Fumi, M D; Salinas, M R

    2008-03-01

    The ability of eight fungal strains to transform 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) was studied. These fungi were isolated from cork, belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Chrysonilia, and from grapes Botrytis cinerea. All, except Chrysonilia, produced TCA when grown directly on cork in the presence of TCP, Aspergillus and Botrytis cinerea being the ones with the highest level of production. It is the first time that Botrytis cinerea, a microorganism often present on grapes and in winery environments, has been shown to transform TCP into TCA. This result can partially explain the wine cork taint before being bottled. PMID:18311620

  10. 100 Weekly Sky Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    100 Aum Weekly Sky Maps for mission weeks 4 to 44, and the 100 Aum Annual Average Map. Shows sky coverage each week of the DIRBE mission over the period during which the COBE cryogen supply lasted. As the Earth, with COBE in orbit, revolved around the Sun, DIRBE viewed the sky from an ever-changing vantage point in the solar system, enabling light reflected and emitted by the interplanetary dust cloud to be modeled.

  11. Perspective of Postpartum Depression Theories: A Narrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Zarghami, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression. Three theories, namely, biological, psychosocial, and evolutionary were discussed. One theory or combinations of psychosocial, biological, and evolutionary theories were considered for postpartum depression. The most important factor that makes clinicians' choice of intervention is their theoretical perspectives. Healthcare providers and physicians should help women to make informed choices regarding their treatment based on related theories. PMID:27500126

  12. Modern use of extracorporeal life support in pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, Scott C; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use during pregnancy and the postpartum period are thought to be associated with an increased risk for maternal or fetal bleeding complications. We present our recent institutional experience in managing pregnant and postpartum patients with ECMO. We also performed a literature review of modern use of ECMO in pregnant and postpartum patients utilizing Pubmed and Embase databases. ECMO was used for severe cardiopulmonary failure due to multiple conditions. Based on published reports, overall maternal and fetal survival on ECMO were 80% and 70%, respectively. Mild-to-moderate vaginal bleeding was reported in a few cases, with rare occurrences of catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. There was no consensus on an optimal anticoagulation strategy in these patients, though most preferred to keep anticoagulation at lower therapeutic levels. We conclude that ECMO, in well-selected pregnant and postpartum patients, appears to be safe and associated with low risk of maternal and fetal complications. PMID:25248040

  13. Perspective of Postpartum Depression Theories: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Zarghami, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression. Three theories, namely, biological, psychosocial, and evolutionary were discussed. One theory or combinations of psychosocial, biological, and evolutionary theories were considered for postpartum depression. The most important factor that makes clinicians’ choice of intervention is their theoretical perspectives. Healthcare providers and physicians should help women to make informed choices regarding their treatment based on related theories. PMID:27500126

  14. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  15. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  16. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  17. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  18. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  19. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6 Section 2650.4-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally §...

  20. Postpartum Mood Disorders Screening in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia; Mischel, Rebecca; Munson, Margi; Bulaevskaya, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression is increasingly recognized as the leading complication of childbearing. A mother's mental health impacts the well-being and long-term outcomes of her children. This column will discuss a systematic approach to screening for maternal postpartum mood disorders (PPMDs) and referring women to resources according to an established algorithm. This work was undertaken in a tertiary referral NICU and performed by dedicated NICU personnel with the goals of optimizing NICU infants' outcomes and supporting maternal and family health and well-being. PMID:27461203

  1. Emotional memory in pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marissa E; Becker, Suzanna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Wong, Queenie; Cudney, Lauren E; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2015-10-30

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with debilitating effects on mothers and their infants. A previous history of depression is considered the strongest risk factor for PPD. Depressed individuals recall more negative than positive content and higher levels of stress hormones released during encoding are associated with enhanced recall of emotional stimuli. This study examined the impact of a previous history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and pregnancy on emotional memory. Seventy-seven participants completed the study [44 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy with and without a lifetime history of MDD and 33 non-pregnant women with and without a lifetime history of MDD]. All completed an encoding task and provided salivary cortisol (sCORT) and alpha-amylase (sAA) samples. Participants returned one week later for a surprise incidental recognition memory task. Women with a history of MDD had worse recognition than women without a history of MDD for negative, but not positive images; this effect was independent of sCORT and sAA levels. Pregnancy did not affect emotional memory. Considering that several previous studies found enhanced memory bias for negative content during depressive states, our results suggest that clinical remission may be associated with an opposite cognitive processing of negative emotional content. PMID:26272023

  2. Postpartum retroperitoneal fasciitis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Kotaro; Satoh, Shoji; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Nozaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Hitoo

    2005-02-01

    We present a case of a postpartum female with iliopsoas fasciitis in the puerperium. Two days after a spontaneous vaginal delivery at 38 weeks without any complications, the patient complained of pain in the left thigh and hip, associated with a temperature of 38 degrees C. Consequently, she could not walk 4 days after delivery and her body temperature had increased to 39 degrees C. Extreme left flank pain and tenderness in the left pelvic wall were prominent, whereas the tenderness in the pelvis was moderate. Magnetic resonance imaging led us to diagnose iliopsoas fasciitis. This was complicated by sepsis but improved after a protracted antibiotic treatment without any surgical intervention. A literature review revealed that serious complications, including sepsis or permanent functional disturbance, could arise although retroperitoneal fasciitis and/or abscesses are very rare after vaginal delivery. Iliopsoas fasciitis could be considered when patients complain of extreme pain in the pelvic wall, sacroiliac joint region, or thigh-symptoms that are uncommon in uncomplicated endometritis. PMID:15731991

  3. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Hamuro, Akihiro; Misugi, Takuya; Motoyama, Koka; Morioka, Tomoaki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using a retrospective design. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. RESULTS Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment β-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. CONCLUSIONS Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves. PMID:26688669

  4. The Specific Role of Relationship Life Events in the Onset of Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicola; Hill, Jonathan; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background The precipitating role of life events in the onset of depression is well-established. The present study sought to examine whether life events hypothesised to be personally salient would be more strongly associated with depression than other life events. In a sample of women making the first transition to parenthood, we hypothesised that negative events related to the partner relationship would be particularly salient and thus more strongly predictive of depression than other events. Methods A community-based sample of 316 first-time mothers stratified by psychosocial risk completed interviews at 32 weeks gestation and 29 weeks postpartum to assess dated occurrence of life events and depression onsets from conception to 29 weeks postpartum. Complete data was available from 273 (86.4%). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine risk for onset of depression in the 6 months following a relationship event versus other events, after accounting for past history of depression and other potential confounders. Results 52 women (19.0%) experienced an onset of depression between conception and 6 months postpartum. Both relationship events (Hazard Ratio = 2.1, p = .001) and other life events (Hazard Ratio = 1.3, p = .020) were associated with increased risk for depression onset; however, relationship events showed a significantly greater risk for depression than did other life events (p = .044). Conclusions The results are consistent with the hypothesis that personally salient events are more predictive of depression onset than other events. Further, they indicate the clinical significance of events related to the partner relationship during pregnancy and the postpartum. PMID:26645963

  5. Oxytocin receptor DNA methylation in postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Mary; Clive, Makena; Gispen, Fiona; Guintivano, Jerry; Brown, Tori; Cox, Olivia; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fasching, Peter A; Osborne, Lauren M; Binder, Elisabeth; Payne, Jennifer L; Kaminsky, Zachary

    2016-07-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is a key regulator of stress and anxiety and may be regulated by both psychosocial risk factors and gonadal hormones, making it an attractive candidate for study in postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to investigate both serum hormone and PPD specific DNA methylation variation in the OXTR. Illumina HM450 microarray data generated in a prospective PPD cohort identified significant associations (P=0.014) with PPD in an intronic region in the OXTR located 4bp proximal to an estrogen receptor (ER) binding region. Pyrosequencing confirmed moderate evidence for an interaction of CpGs in the region with childhood abuse status to mediate PPD. These CpGs located on chr3 at positions 8810078 and 8810069 exhibited significant associations with postpartum depression scores from an independent cohort of 240 women with no prior psychiatric history. Hormone analysis suggested a PPD specific negative correlation of DNA methylation in the region with serum estradiol levels. Estradiol levels and OXTR DNA methylation exhibited a significant interaction to associate with the ratio of allopregnanolone to progesterone. Cumulatively, the data corroborate our previous hypotheses of a PPD specific increased sensitivity of epigenetic reprogramming at estrogen target genes and suggests that OXTR epigenetic variation may be an important mediator of mood relevant neuroactive steroid production. PMID:27108164

  6. Metabolic Reprogramming of Pancreatic Cancer Mediated by CDK4/6 Inhibition Elicits Unique Vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jorge; Balaji, Uthra; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Knudsen, Erik S

    2016-02-01

    Due to loss of p16ink4a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), pharmacological suppression of CDK4/6 could represent a potent target for treatment. In PDA models, CDK4/6 inhibition had a variable effect on cell cycle but yielded accumulation of ATP and mitochondria. Pharmacological CDK4/6 inhibitors induce cyclin D1 protein levels; however, RB activation was required and sufficient for mitochondrial accumulation. CDK4/6 inhibition stimulated glycolytic and oxidative metabolism and was associated with an increase in mTORC1 activity. MTOR and MEK inhibitors potently cooperate with CDK4/6 inhibition in eliciting cell-cycle exit. However, MTOR inhibition fully suppressed metabolism and yielded apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth in xenograft models. The metabolic state mediated by CDK4/6 inhibition increases mitochondrial number and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Concordantly, the suppression of ROS scavenging or BCL2 antagonists cooperated with CDK4/6 inhibition. Together, these data define the impact of therapeutics on PDA metabolism and provide strategies for converting cytostatic response to tumor cell killing. PMID:26804906

  7. Postpartum osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in two patients treated with enoxaparin during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, D; Tam, A A; Dirikoc, A; Ersoy, R; Cakir, B

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum osteoporosis (PPO) is a rare disease associated with pregnancy and lactation period. Here, we report severe PPO and multiple vertebral compression fractures in two patients treated with enoxaparin--low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)--throughout their pregnancy. A 34-year-old woman who has delivered her second baby 3 months ago presented with severe low-back pain. She was treated with enoxaparin 40 mg/day for 8 months during her pregnancy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showed low T- and Z-scores in lumbar (L) vertebras. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), severe height losses in thoracic (T) 12, L1, and L2 vertebras were detected. She was diagnosed to have severe PPO and multiple vertebral compression fractures and was prescribed risedronate 35 mg/week, calcium, and vitamin D. The other patient was a 36-year-old woman diagnosed with PPO and vertebral fractures at the third week postpartum. She was also treated with enoxaparin 60 mg/day during her pregnancy. Severe osteoporosis in L vertebras and height losses indicative for compression fractures in T5-8, T11-12, and L2-5 vertebras were detected by DEXA and MRI, respectively. She was treated with calcitonin 200 U/day, calcium, and vitamin D. These findings suggest that vertebral compression fractures and PPO may be one of the causes of severe back pain in postpartum patients. Treatment with LMWH during pregnancy might be considered as a new risk factor for this rare condition. PMID:25138263

  8. Do changes in subjective sleep and biological rhythms predict worsening in postpartum depressive symptoms? A prospective study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-08-01

    Abnormalities of sleep and biological rhythms have been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, less is known about the influence of biological rhythm disruptions across the perinatal period on postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between subjective changes in both sleep and biological rhythms and worsening of depressive symptoms from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with and without mood disorders. Eighty-three participants (38 euthymic women with a history of a mood disorder and 45 healthy controls) were studied. Participants completed subjective assessments of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), biological rhythm disturbances (Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) prospectively at two time points: third trimester of pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Multivariate regression analyses showed that changes in biological rhythms across the perinatal period predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in both groups. Moreover, women with a history of a mood disorder showed higher levels of sleep and biological rhythm disruption during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. These findings suggest that disruptions in biological rhythms during the perinatal period increase the risk for postpartum mood worsening in healthy pregnant as well as in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders. PMID:26920913

  9. Penta- and 2,4,6-tri-chlorophenol biodegradation during municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Limam, Intissar; Limam, Rim Driss; Mezni, Mohamed; Guenne, Angéline; Madigou, Céline; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Bouchez, Théodore; Mazeas, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    In this study isotopic tracing using (13)C labelled pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is proposed as a tool to distinguish the loss of PCP and 2,4,6-TCP due to biodegradation from other physical processes. This isotopic approach was applied to accurately assess in situ PCP and 2,4,6-TCP degradation under methanogenic conditions in several microcosms made up of household waste. These microcosms were incubated in anaerobic conditions at 35°C (mesophilic) and 55°C (thermophilic) without agitation. The volume of biogas produced (CH4 and CO2), was followed for a period of 130 days. At this stage of stable methanogenesis, (13)C6-PCP and (13)C6-2,4,6-TCP were introduced anaerobically in microcosms and its monitoring at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was performed in parallel by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). This study proved the almost total dechlorination of bioavailable PCP and 2,4,6-TCP into 4-CP at 35°C. Nevertheless, high rate adsorption in particular materials of the two compounds was observed. Furthermore, Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C-NMR) Spectroscopy analysis of (13)C labelled 2,4,6-TCP mesophilic incubations showed the partial mineralization of 4-CP at 35°C to acetate and then to HCO(3-). Consequently, NMR results confirm the biogas isotopic results indicating the mineralization of (13)C labelled 2,4,6-TCP into (13)C (CH4 and CO2). Concerning (13)C labelled PCP mesophilic incubations, the isotopic composition of the biogas still natural until the day 262. In contrast, no dechlorination was observed at 55°C. Thus PCP and 2,4,6-TCP were persistent in thermophilic conditions. PMID:27151678

  10. Texting improves testing: a randomized trial of two-way SMS to increase postpartum prevention of mother-to-child transmission retention and infant HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Odeny, Thomas A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Yuhas, Krista; Camlin, Carol S.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many sub-Saharan African countries report high postpartum loss to follow-up of mother–baby pairs. We aimed to determine whether interactive text messages improved rates of clinic attendance and early infant HIV testing in the Nyanza region of Kenya. Design Parallel-group, unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Methods HIV-positive pregnant women at least 18 years old and enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme were randomized to receive either text messages (SMS group, n = 195) or usual care (n = 193). Messages were developed using formative focus group research informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model. The SMS group received up to eight text messages before delivery (depending on gestational age), and six messages postpartum. Primary outcomes included maternal postpartum clinic attendance and virological infant HIV testing by 8 weeks postpartum. The primary analyses were intention-to-treat. Results Of the 388 enrolled women, 381 (98.2%) had final outcome information. In the SMS group, 38 of 194 (19.6%) women attended a maternal postpartum clinic compared to 22 of 187 (11.8%) in the control group (relative risk 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.02–2.70). HIV testing within 8 weeks was performed in 172 of 187 (92.0%) infants in the SMS group compared to 154 of 181 (85.1%) in the control group (relative risk 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.16). Conclusions Text messaging significantly improved maternal postpartum visit attendance, but overall return rates for these visits remained low. In contrast, high rates of early infant HIV testing were achieved in both arms, with significantly higher testing rates in the SMS compared to the control infants. PMID:25313586

  11. Feasibility and Perception of Using Text Messages as an Adjunct Therapy for Low-Income, Minority Mothers With Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ladley, Amy S; Rhyne, Elizabeth A; Halloran, Donna R

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common medical problem among new mothers that can have a negative impact on infant health. Traditional treatments are often difficult for low-income mothers to complete, particularly given the numerous barriers families face. Objective Among low-income, primarily racial, and ethnic minority mothers with postpartum depression, our aim was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of sending supportive text messages, and (2) the perception of receiving private, supportive text messages for postpartum depression. Methods Mothers found to be at risk for postpartum depression received supportive text messages four times weekly for 6 months in addition to receiving access to traditional counseling services based within an academic pediatric office. Feasibility was evaluated along with cellular and text messaging use, access, and perception of the message protocol. Perception of the message protocol was evaluated at study completion via a Likert scale questionnaire and open-ended qualitative survey. Results In total, 4158/4790 (86.81%) text messages were successfully delivered to 54 mothers over a 6-month period at a low cost (US $777.60). Among the 96 scripted messages, 37 unique messages (38.54%) allowed for a response. Of all sent messages that allowed for responses, 7.30% (118/1616) were responded to, and 66.1% of those responses requested a call back; 46% (25/54) of mothers responded at least once to a text message. Mothers felt that messages were easily received and read (25/28, 89%) and relevant to them personally (23/28, 82%). Most shared texts with others (21/28, 75%). Conclusions Text messaging is feasible, well-accepted, and may serve as a simple, inexpensive adjunct therapy well-suited to cross socioeconomic boundaries and provide private support for at-risk mothers suffering from postpartum depression. PMID:26543910

  12. Elevated Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Human Pregnancy Increases the Risk of Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Ilona S.; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin J.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Context Postpartum depression (PPD) is common and has serious implications for the mother and her newborn. A possible link between placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) and PPD incidence has been discussed, but there is a lack of empirical evidence. Objective To determine whether accelerated pCRH increases throughout pregnancy are associated with PPD symptoms. Design Pregnant women were recruited into this longitudinal cohort study. Blood samples were obtained at 15, 19, 25, 31 and 37 weeks gestational age (GA) for assessment of pCRH, cortisol and ACTH. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a standardized questionnaire at the last four pregnancy visits and postpartum. Setting Subjects were recruited from two Southern California Medical Centers, and visits were conducted in university research laboratories. Participants 100 adult women with a singleton pregnancy. Main Outcome Measure PPD symptoms were assessed 8.7 weeks (SD = 2.94 wks) after delivery with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results Sixteen women developed PPD symptoms. At 25 weeks GA, pCRH was a strong predictor of PPD symptoms (R2 = .21, β = .46, p < .001), an effect that remained significant after controlling for prenatal depressive symptoms. No significant associations were found for cortisol and ACTH. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses revealed that pCRH at 25 weeks GA is a useful diagnostic test (area under the curve = .78, p = .001). Sensitivity (.75) and specificity (.74) at the ideal cut-off point (56.86 pg/ml pCRH) were high. Growth curve analyses indicated that pCRH trajectories in women with PPD symptoms are significantly accelerated between 23 and 26 weeks GA. Conclusion There is a critical period in mid-pregnancy during which pCRH is a sensitive and specific early diagnostic test for PPD symptoms. If replicated, these results have implications for identification and treatment of pregnant women at risk of PPD. PMID:19188538

  13. On the common modulus attack into the LUC4,6 cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tze Jin; Said, Mohd Rushdan Md; Othman, Mohamed; Koo, Lee Feng

    2015-05-01

    The LUC4,6 cryptosystem is a system analogy with RSA cryptosystem and extended from LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. The process of encryption and decryption are derived from the fourth order linear recurrence sequence and based on Lucas function. This paper reports an investigation into the common modulus attack on the LUC4,6 cryptosystem. In general, the common modulus attack will be succeeded if the sender sends the plaintext to two users used same RSA-modulus and both of encryption keys of them are relatively prime to each other. However, based on the characteristics of high order Lucas sequence, the LUC4,6 cryptosystem is unattackable

  14. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  15. Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; p<0.0001). In a proportional hazards model, later gestational age at initiation (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00–1.07; p=0.030) and being newly diagnosed with HIV (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33; p=0.022) were significant predictors of disengagement after adjusting for patient age, starting CD4 cell count and site of ART initiation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that missed visits and disengagement from care occur frequently, particularly post-delivery, among HIV-positive women initiating ART during pregnancy. Women who are newly diagnosed with HIV may be particularly vulnerable and there is an urgent need for interventions both to promote retention overall, as well as

  16. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toni, F; Vincenti, L; Ricci, A; Schukken, Y H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300 days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7 ± 3 days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P < 0.01) and resulted in a lower conception rate at first insemination and a increase in days open (odds ratio: 0.64, P < 0.05). Clinical endometritis had a strong deleterious effect on first AI conception rate (odds ratio: 0.34, P < 0.05) and days open across all lactations (hazard ratio: 0.68, P < 0.05). Persistent metritis, defined as the presence of both clinical metritis and clinical endometritis in the same animal in the same lactation, caused low conception rate both in the first-lactation and in older cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the impact of endometritis on fertility was true across lactation groups. A good management and precocious diagnosis of the pathologies is not resolutive to restore good fertility parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older

  17. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  18. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  19. Seeking help for postpartum depression in the Israeli Jewish orthodox community: factors associated with use of professional and informal help.

    PubMed

    Bina, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has potentially devastating personal and familial consequences. However, very few women receive treatment, either professional or informal. Use patterns and factors associated with both professional and informal help for PPD have not yet been investigated. This study examined factors associated with use of professional and informal help for PPD in an Israeli sample that included women from secular, traditional, orthodox, and ultra-orthodox Jewish religious groups. One to two days postpartum, 1,059 women were recruited from a large hospital in Jerusalem, Israel, and completed an initial survey; 805 women (76%) participated at the 6-week follow-up; 94 women (12%) screened positive for PPD symptoms at the 6-week follow-up and were referred for help; and 88 women completed the 6-month postpartum follow-up interview. Of the women referred for help, 69% used some sort of help, with 24% using professional help and 45% using informal help. Confidence in mental health professionals and higher levels of PPD symptomatology were associated with use of professional help. Recognition of personal need for professional psychological help was negatively associated with use of informal help. Findings from this study highlight the importance of routine screening for PPD and culturally sensitive referrals using informal sources of help. PMID:24791859

  20. [Hospital readmission after postpartum discharge of term newborns in two maternity wards in Stockholm and Marseille].

    PubMed

    Boubred, F; Herlenius, E; Andres, V; des Robert, C; Marchini, G

    2016-03-01

    The consequences of early postpartum discharge (EPPD, within 2days after birth) on newborn health remain debated. Early discharge has been associated with increased neonatal morbidity. However, neonatal re-hospitalization can be prevented by careful follow-up during the 1st week after birth. We compared the early neonatal hospitalization of term newborns over 2years in two hospitals: Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm (n=7300births), which allowed early discharge from 6h after birth with specific neonatal follow-up, and Marseille University Hospital (AP-HM) (n=4385) where postpartum discharge was more conventional after 72h. During the study period, the EPPD rate was 41% vs. 2% in Stockholm and Marseille, respectively (P<0.001). Hospital readmission was comparable (5.6‰ vs. 7‰, P=0.2). The leading cause associated with hospitalization was icterus in Stockholm (76% vs. 26%, P<0.001) and feeding difficulties in Marseille (17% vs. 48%, P<0.001). In conclusion, close neonatal follow-up during the 1st week of life associated with restricted maternal and neonatal eligibility criteria for EPPD are required to prevent early neonatal re-hospitalization. PMID:26899902

  1. Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Two Case Reports in Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ruchi; Butt, Qurat-Ul-Ain; Hamaoui, Abraham; Henderson, Cassandra; McCalla, Sydney; Gilak, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Despite studies suggesting that triple negative breast cancer is more often seen in women of African ancestry, we report here two cases of pregnancy associated triple negative breast cancer in Hispanic women. Cases. Case one is a 37-year-old female para 2-0-0-2, who presented with a left breast mass, at 19 weeks of gestation, the biopsy of which reported an invasive ductal carcinoma, found to be triple receptor negative. The patient underwent chemotherapy during the pregnancy and was delivered with a cesarean at 37 weeks for obstetric indication. After delivery, the patient completed her chemotherapy that was followed by radical mastectomy and radiotherapy. Case two is a 28-year-old female para 6-0-1-5, who presented while breast-feeding with signs and symptoms of mastitis, and an engorged and tender right breast, five months postpartum. However, the sonogram revealed a fluid filled cavity. Aspiration and cytology did not reflect an infection and were negative for malignancy. High suspicion and lack of improvement led to biopsy that identified an invasive ductal carcinoma, found to be triple negative. The patient underwent chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy. Conclusions. Triple negative breast cancer, during pregnancy or postpartum, poses a unique challenge and requires a multidisciplinary team to optimize treatment for these women. PMID:26448887

  2. Short communication: Changes in the composition of yak colostrum during the first week of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mi, J D; Zhou, J W; Ding, L M; Wang, L; Long, R J

    2016-01-01

    Although the great interest has been paid to colostrum utilization for calves, no systematic studies evaluating the compositional changes of yak colostrum during the first week after parturition have been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate such postpartum nutritional changes. Colostrum samples from 12 multiparous (2-7 lactations) yaks, grazed on alpine pasture, were collected at exactly 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h postpartum. Gross composition (fat, total solids, protein, and ash) were measured, as well as fat and water-soluble vitamins, fatty acid and mineral composition, and IgG. The colostrum, collected 1h postpartum, had the highest concentrations of crude protein, total solids, ash, vitamin A and E, β-carotene, and most minerals (Na, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe). These components decreased rapidly within 24h. Similarly, at 24h postpartum, IgG content decreased to 7.5% of the value (87.78 mg/mL) at 1h postpartum. In contrast, the concentration of vitamin C increased from 1 to 24h and then decreased consistently thereafter to the lowest value at 168 h. Phosphorus and Ca contents showed an increasing trend from 24 to 168 h after calving. Lactose content increased from 2.88% at 1h to 4.96% at 48 h postpartum and was steady to 168 h. Total n-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-3-to-n-6 fatty acid ratio were proportionally similar as a percentage of total fatty acid methyl esters during the first 168 h of milk production. However, the proportion of total n-6 fatty acid content to total fatty acid methyl esters decreased from 3.07% at 1h to 2.60% at 24h. In summary, experimental results indicate colostrum should be provided to yak calves as soon as possible after birth to provide nutrients and enhance passive immunity. PMID:26547651

  3. Postpartum Sexuality and the Lactational Amenorrhea Method for Contraception.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2015-12-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on postpartum coital behavior, anovulatory and ovulatory bleeding episodes, and the methodology and efficacy of Lactational Amenorrhea Method and progesterone-only oral contraceptives. Of interest is the finding that breastfeeding women may resume coital behavior earlier postpartum, but report increased discomfort over time. The high efficacy of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method is confirmed and data illustrating possible relaxation of some criteria are presented. The conflicting guidance of CDC and WHO concerning immediate postpartum use of progestin-only methods is presented. The dearth of recent studies calls for new research on these topics. PMID:26457855

  4. The impact of psychosocial stressors on postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Neal D; Rogers, Stephanie; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention are implicated in future morbidity in women. To understand whether psychosocial stressors contribute to weight retention, we used data collected in a cohort of postpartum women and analyzed measures of stress, depression, social support, and health-related quality of life. Depressive symptoms at delivery and worse health-related quality of life and lower stress at 3 months postpartum were associated with 3-month weight retention. Interventions targeting depression and improving quality of life may further reduce weight retained. PMID:26907459

  5. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence. PMID:25803402

  6. COMPARISON OF BIOMARKERS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, the notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, we developed methods to biomonitor w...

  7. Spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes: synthesis and application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchikov, L. G.; Nefedov, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This review integrates and describes systematically the data in the field of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes published in the past 15 years. The changes in the development of studies that took place during this period are noted. The methods for the synthesis, the reactivity details and key chemical transformations of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes are considered, with the emphasis on applications of these compounds in organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 207 references.

  8. Synthesis of Heteroaryl Sulfonamides from Organozinc Reagents and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl Chlorosulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A method for the preparation of aryl and heteroaryl sulfonamides using 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl chlorosulfate (TCPC) is described. The reaction of 2-pyridylzinc reagents with TCPC resulted in 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl (TCP) pyridine-2-sulfonates, and the parent pyridine-2-sulfonate was shown to react with amines. Less electron-rich aryl- and heteroarylzinc reagents reacted with TCPC to afford sulfonyl chlorides that were converted in situ to sulfonamides. PMID:26065317

  9. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. PMID:26372084

  10. Inhibitory activities against rice pathogens of 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide from Agrocybe sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yongbiao; Xu, Xiaoping; Wu, Yabin

    2016-03-01

    8-Hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide, a natural polyacetylene with inhibitory activities against rice pathogens, was isolated from the liquid fermentation broth of strain Agrocybe sp. YB2005 during screening for new natural chemical agents to control rice pathogens. 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide was purified by consecutive chromatography over a Cl8 reversed phase silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. The chemical structure of 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide was elucidated through spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Bioassays showed that 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide could significantly inhibit growth of Xanthomonas oryzae with an MIC of 53.1 μM in a 96-well plate and the growth of Rhizoctonia solani at 1.02 mM in a 24-well plate. When rice leaves were inoculated with Magnaporthe grisea and cultured in artificial nutrition liquid containing 0.34 mM 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide, no rice blast was observed. The present study implied that 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-octatriynamide could be a candidate agent against rice pathogens. PMID:26861586

  11. Rapunzel Syndrome: A Rare Postpartum Case

    PubMed Central

    Tegene, Teshome; Foda, Yahia; Hussain, Omar; Manikonda, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    The Rapunzel syndrome describes a disorder in which a significant amount of hair is swallowed, forming a trichobezoar that extends past the stomach into the small intestines. Given the indigestible nature of hair, it subsequently leads to obstruction within the gastrointestinal system. Clinically, patients may present with symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction, including abdominal complaints such as pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, due to its broad and nonspecific presenting symptoms, the diagnosis of Rapunzel syndrome warrants consideration once other common etiologies have been excluded. Surgical intervention is often required to remove the abdominal mass. This unusual syndrome is often associated with psychiatric disorders, affecting young women most commonly. In this report, we will discuss a unique case of Rapunzel syndrome in a one-month postpartum woman. PMID:24171124

  12. Postpartum septic sacroiliitis misdiagnosed as sciatic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Li, Fang-Cai; Wang, Jia-Wei; Wang, Shuang

    2010-03-01

    Early diagnosis of septic sacroiliitis is difficult because symptoms are nonspecific, especially during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We describe a female patient with left buttock pain radiating down the thigh after an uncomplicated induction delivery. She was afebrile and had no apparent abnormality on pelvic x-ray or computed tomography scan. A sensory deficit in the lateral portion of her left lower limb was found, and electromyography showed neurogenic abnormalities in the left lower limb. She was initially misdiagnosed as sciatic neuropathy. As her symptoms worsened, septic sacroiliitis is considered. Bone scintigraphy showed increased Tc-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the left sacroiliac joint, and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a signal abnormality in the left sacroiliac joint. The diagnosis of septic sacroiliitis was then confirmed by the rapid efficacy of antibiotic therapy. This report suggests that irritation and injury of spinal nerves can be the presenting signs in septic sacroiliitis. PMID:20090512

  13. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  14. Rapunzel syndrome: a rare postpartum case.

    PubMed

    Tegene, Teshome; Foda, Yahia; Hussain, Omar; Oloniyo, Kolawole; Ha, Ngoc-Tram; Manikonda, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    The Rapunzel syndrome describes a disorder in which a significant amount of hair is swallowed, forming a trichobezoar that extends past the stomach into the small intestines. Given the indigestible nature of hair, it subsequently leads to obstruction within the gastrointestinal system. Clinically, patients may present with symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction, including abdominal complaints such as pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, due to its broad and nonspecific presenting symptoms, the diagnosis of Rapunzel syndrome warrants consideration once other common etiologies have been excluded. Surgical intervention is often required to remove the abdominal mass. This unusual syndrome is often associated with psychiatric disorders, affecting young women most commonly. In this report, we will discuss a unique case of Rapunzel syndrome in a one-month postpartum woman. PMID:24171124

  15. Preventing postpartum depression: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth; Miller, Maia; Osborne, Lauren M; Kuzava, Sierra; Monk, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 20 % of mothers will experience an episode of major or minor depression within the first 3 months postpartum, making it the most common complication of childbearing. Postpartum depression (PPD) is significantly undertreated, and because prospective mothers are especially motivated for self-care, a focus on the prevention of PPD holds promise of clinical efficacy. This study is a qualitative review of existing approaches to prevent PPD. A PubMed search identified studies of methods of PPD prevention. The search was limited to peer-reviewed, published, English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological, and psychosocial interventions. Eighty articles were initially identified, and 45 were found to meet inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs of biological interventions were identified and 37 RCTs of psychological or psychosocial interventions. Results were mixed, with 20 studies showing clear positive effects of an intervention and 25 showing no effect. Studies differed widely in screening, population, measurement, and intervention. Among biological studies, anti-depressants and nutrients provided the most evidence of successful intervention. Among psychological and psychosocial studies, 13/17 successful trials targeted an at-risk population, and 4/7 trials using interpersonal therapy demonstrated success of the intervention versus control, with a further two small studies showing trends toward statistical significance. Existing approaches to the prevention of PPD vary widely, and given the current literature, it is not possible to identify one approach that is superior to others. Interpersonal therapy trials and trials that targeted an at-risk population appear to hold the most promise for further study. PMID:25422150

  16. Psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression in diverse groups of women.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M C; Usui, W

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the extent to which a causal model developed from a theoretical formulation of postpartum depression was consistent with data collected from three groups of postpartum women. In this cross-sectional, correlational design, the samples consisted of primarily middle-class, Caucasian mothers of term infants and preterm infants, and low-income, African American mothers of term infants. Instruments included the CES-D Depression instrument, the Postpartum Support Questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem instrument, and a question regarding closeness to partner. The causal model was tested with structural equation modeling. Importance of support, support received, and closeness to partner were significant predictors of both self-esteem and depression. Predictors of postpartum depression are the same across diverse samples of women, as proposed in the causal model. PMID:11569330

  17. Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

  18. A case of postpartum Group B streptococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Gayford, Kylie; McCarthy, Ana; Hague, William M

    2011-01-01

    A case of postpartum Group B streptococcal meningitis, a rare complication of an invasive infection by a common maternal commensal bacterium, which demonstrates the need to develop rapid and accurate antepartum and intrapartum screening methods for this organism.

  19. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  20. Dad's Last Week.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    I had intended to spend our spring break week in Montana with my kids and my dad, going to parks and museums together. Instead, I spent the week in the hospital, helping my dad make end-of-life choices and learning more about the importance of communication in health care settings and the preciousness of close relationships in life. I am a better person and a better physician because my dad trusted me to be there while he was dying. During his last week, I was grateful to have spent years studying medicine and years getting to know my dad. This combination of professional and personal knowledge enabled me to help him choose his own end-of-life path. As someone who does not like hospitals, I have always wondered why I became a doctor; now I know. PMID:27185000

  1. Earth Science Week evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earth Science Week, October 7-13, is an annual grassroots effort sponsored by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and its member societies, of which AGU is the largest. This year, for the first time, Earth Science Week has a general theme, evolution in Earth history. The Earth Science Week information kit for 2001, available from AGI, includes a variety of posters, bookmarks, and other materials that illustrate this concept. The kit contains a new 32-page “Ideas and Activities” booklet that emphasizes evolution in Earth history through an array of activities about rocks, fossils, and geologic time. It also has information on the upcoming Public Broadcasting Service series, “Evolution,” which is to be aired in late September.

  2. [Postpartum mania induced by Bromocriptine: a case report].

    PubMed

    Misdrahi, D; Chalard, R; Verdoux, H

    2006-02-01

    The postpartum period is a high-risk period for occurrence of mood disorders (depression, mania) particularly for women with a history of bipolar disorder. We report the case of a woman with a postpartum mania episode with psychotic features induced by bromocriptine. This case report highlights the need to systematically explore the personal history of pregnant women in search of mood disorder which may proscribe use of bromocriptine. PMID:16446616

  3. Postpartum Depression and Social Support in China: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Zhu, Ruijuan; Zhang, Xueying

    2016-09-01

    This study explored how Chinese culture affects the relationship between social support and postpartum depression. In-depth interviews with 38 mothers in mainland China showed that discrepancies between expected and perceived available social support and conflicts among social support providers are two major contributors to the stress associated with postpartum depression. These dynamics are deeply rooted in the context of Chinese culture with its distinctive gender roles and family dynamics. These cultural norms further prevent women from seeking social support. PMID:27491938

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Postpartum Depression: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Fiorelli, Marco; Aceti, Franca; Marini, Isabella; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Macci, Enrica; Tinelli, Emanuele; Calistri, Valentina; Meuti, Valentina; Caramia, Francesca; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a frequent and disabling condition whose pathophysiology is still unclear. In recent years, the study of the neural correlates of mental disorders has been increasingly approached using magnetic resonance techniques. In this review we synthesize the results from studies on postpartum depression in the context of structural, functional, and spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies of major depression as a whole. Compared to the relative wealth of data available for major depression, magnetic resonance studies of postpartum depression are limited in number and design. A systematic literature search yielded only eleven studies conducted on about one hundred mothers with postpartum depression overall. Brain magnetic resonance findings in postpartum depression appear to replicate those obtained in major depression, with minor deviations that are not sufficient to delineate a distinct neurobiological profile for this condition, due to the small samples used and the lack of direct comparisons with subjects with major depression. However, it seems reasonable to expect that studies conducted in larger populations, and using a larger variety of brain magnetic resonance techniques than has been done so far, might allow for the identification of neuroimaging signatures for postpartum depression. PMID:26347585

  5. Antimony(III) complexes with 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidines: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Turgay; Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sarı, Musa; Karacan, Nurcan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Novel pyrimidine compound bearing disulfide bridge, 5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine) (3) was synthesized by reduction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-5-thiocyanatopyrimidine for the first time, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Novel binuclear antimony(III) compound of (3), {Sb[5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine)]Cl3}2 (4) and mononuclear antimony(III) compounds, SbL2Cl3, [L: 2-amino-5-thiol-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine (2) and 2-amino-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (6)] were synthesized and characterized with the help of elemental analysis, molecular conductivity, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS techniques. The geometrical structures optimized by a DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ method of the compounds, indicated that monomeric compounds have square pyramidal shape. Both antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica promastigote and glutathione reductase inhibitory activity were determined in vitro. The results showed that (3) has the best biological activity. PMID:26427018

  6. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  7. Project Week at Yeovil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadd, K. F.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes an approach to science teaching in which secondary school students and faculty members lived and worked together for a week at Yeovil College, concentrating on science project work. The projects investigated during this time are briefly described. (GA)

  8. A Week for Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K-2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3-5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your…

  9. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  10. A Week of Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colasacco, Jenne

    2011-01-01

    Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

  11. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation, n 15), very preterm (28-<32 weeks of gestation, n 15), moderately preterm (32-<37 weeks of gestation, n 15) and term infants (37-41 weeks of gestation, n 15). Total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, soluble CD14 receptor (sCD14), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), α defensin 5 (HD5), β defensins 1 (HBD1) and 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, TNF-α and lysozyme (LZ) were quantified in milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk. PMID:26891901

  12. Does Impulsiveness Moderate Response to Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women?

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Alexa A.; Skelly, Joan M.; White, Thomas J.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether impulsiveness moderates response to financial incentives for cessation among pregnant smokers. All participants were randomized to either a condition wherein financial incentives were delivered contingent on smoking abstinence or to a control condition wherein incentives were delivered independent of smoking status. The study was conducted in two steps: First, we examined associations between baseline impulsiveness scores and abstinence at late pregnancy and 24-weeks postpartum as part of a planned prospective study of this topic using data from a recently completed, randomized controlled clinical trial (N = 118). Next, to increase statistical power, we conducted a second analysis collapsing results across that recent trial and two prior trials involving the same contingent incentive and control conditions (N = 236). Impulsivity was assessed using a delay discounting (DD) of hypothetical monetary rewards task in all three trials and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in the most recent trial. Neither DD nor BIS predicted antepartum or postpartum smoking status in the single or combined trials. Receiving abstinence-contingent incentives, lower baseline smoking rate (cigs/day), and a history of quit attempts pre-pregnancy predicted greater odds of antepartum abstinence across the single and combined trials. No variable predicted postpartum abstinence across the single and combined trials, although a history of antepartum quit attempts and receiving abstinence-contingent incentives predicted in the single and combined trials, respectively. Overall, this study provides no evidence that impulsiveness as assessed by DD or BIS moderates response to this treatment approach while underscoring a substantial association of smoking rate and prior quit attempts with abstinence across the contingent incentives and control treatment conditions. PMID:25730417

  13. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods Expectant AI women (mean age = 18.15; N = 47) were randomized (1:1) to either the Living in Harmony program (LIH, an 8 lesson cognitive-behaviorally based program) or an Educational–Support program (ES, an 8 lesson education program). Both interventions were delivered by AI paraprofessionals. Adolescents were evaluated during their pregnancy at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (CES-D). Additional measures of depression included the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD; assessed via computerized diagnostic interview) and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Secondary outcomes included changes in mothers' global functioning and social support. Results At all post intervention assessments, mothers in both groups showed similar reductions in depressive symptoms and similar rates of MDD (0 and 6% in LIH and ES respectively). Both groups of participants also showed similar improvements in global functioning. No changes in either group were found on the measure of social support. Conclusions Findings suggest that both paraprofessional-delivered interventions may reduce symptoms of depression among AIs. Replication with a larger sample, a usual care control condition, blinded evaluators, and a longer follow-up is needed. PMID:22701296

  14. Relationship between fatigue and sleepiness with general health of mothers in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Khayamim, Nafiseh; Bahadoran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue and changes in sleep patterns are one of the impressive features in the first year after birth, which have negative effects on work, family life, and social relationships. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and Stanford sleepiness with the general health of mothers in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: The current research is a descriptive correlational study which was performed on 190 mothers between 2 and 24 postpartum weeks, referring to the health centers of Isfahan in 2014. All mothers meeting the inclusion criteria were selected through cluster purposive sampling. Data were collected by use of four questionnaires including profile and fertility, fatigue, Stanford sleepiness, and general health. Data were analyzed by statistical tests at a significance level of ≤0.05. Results: The results showed that 5.3%, 59.5%, and 35.3% of subjects had mild, moderate, and severe fatigue, respectively. In addition, 26.3% of women showed a public health disorder, and according to Stanford sleepiness, 20.5% of subjects had sleepiness. The statistical results indicated that there were significant relationships between fatigue (P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.52) and Stanford sleepiness (P = 0.04, r = 0.14), and mothers’ general health. Conclusions: According to prevalence of fatigue and sleepiness in the postpartum period and its relationship with maternal health, application of sleep health education and appropriate counseling during pregnancy and after delivery is recommended to prevent mothers’ mental complications in order to achieve a safe pregnancy. PMID:27563322

  15. Randomized Trial of Psychological Interventions to Preventing Postpartum Depression among Iranian First-time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Azizi, Mohammed Parsa; Saheb-Alzamani, Sayeh Moosavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on the reduction postpartum mood disorder and increasing the self-esteem of at-risk Iranian mothers. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 135 at-risk mothers were selected from the population by means of cluster sampling and randomly assigned into one of two groups: Intervention (n = 64), or control (n = 71). The control group received usual medical care, and the intervention group received an eight sessions’ cognitive behavior program during pregnancy. Assessments were administered at two time points (pretest at the beginning of the third trimester and posttest at 2 weeks postpartum). Beck anxiety, beck depression, Edinburgh postpartum depression, (PPD) Coopersmith self-esteem, and religious attitude questionnaire were used to collect data. Results: The mean age of participants was 25.8 ± 3.7 years. One-third of them had either bachelor or higher degrees in education (33%). About two-third of participants were unemployment with similar distribution in both the groups (intervention = 80%, control = 83%). The majority (70%) of the participants had cesarean section deliveries. There were no statistically significant differences respects to sociodemographic characteristics between the control and intervention groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis of covariance results showed that the average scores of PPD were reduced significantly in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Also while the mean score of anxiety in the intervention group decreased from 23.31 (standard error [SE] =12.11) to 16.64 (SE = 8.33) and self-esteem increased from 29.09 (SE = 3.51) to 31.81 (SE = 2.76), no change was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: According to the findings of the present study, cognitive behavior intervention is effective in reducing PPD in at-risk mothers. PMID:26682030

  16. Oral L-arginine supplementation impacts several reproductive parameters during the postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dale E; Warren, Lori K; Mortensen, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    L-arginine is an amino acid which can alter pituitary function and increase blood flow to the reproductive tract. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementing 100g of L-arginine on plasma arginine concentrations, follicular dynamics and ovarian and uterine artery blood flow during the estrus that occurs subsequent to foaling. In Experiment 1, mares were fed 100g L-arginine for 1 day during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy and plasma samples taken for every hour for the first 4h and every other hour until 12h.L-arginine supplementation elevated plasma arginine concentrations from 1 to 8h post feeding; arginine peaked at 6h (arginine: 515±33μmol/L; control: 80±33μmol/L). In Experiment 2, mares received either 100g L-arginine or control diets beginning 21 d before the expected foaling date and continued for 30 d postpartum. The reproductive tract was evaluated by transrectal Doppler ultrasonography from Day 1 postpartum through Day 30. There were no differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian or uterine resistance indices between groups. Vascular perfusion of the F1 follicular wall was greater in L-arginine supplemented mares (37.3±2.6%) than controls (25.4±2.7%; P<0.05). L-arginine supplemented mares had a smaller uterine body and horns and accumulated less uterine fluid than controls (P<0.05). The combination of reducing uterine fluid accumulation, while not altering follicular development, raises the possible use of L-arginine supplementation as a breeding management tool during the postpartum period to increase reproductive success. PMID:23523236

  17. Who should be screened for postpartum anemia? An evaluation of current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Miller, William C; Cogswell, Mary E; McDonald, Thad

    2002-11-15

    The authors evaluated the utility of selective screening criteria for postpartum anemia developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) versus criteria developed among low-income women using prevalence-based screening principles. Pregnant women in Raleigh, North Carolina, were followed up to the postpartum visit in 1997-1999 (n = 345). Prevalence of postpartum anemia was 19.1%. Independent risk markers, arrived at through multivariate logistic regression, were multiparity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8, 2.9), obesity (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.5), anemia at 24-29 weeks' gestation (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4), anemia before delivery (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 6.7), and not exclusively breastfeeding (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.7). Risk scores were calculated by counting risk markers present. Likelihood ratios were determined for all possible risk scores of our algorithm and CDC's algorithm. Anemia screening decisions differed depending on clinic anemia prevalence. For example, if low test thresholds are assumed, when clinic prevalence is 10%, women with risk scores >3 on the authors' algorithm and >0 on CDC's algorithm should be screened. The authors' algorithm, in combination with prevalence information, can save clinics more money than CDC's current algorithm because a broader range of likelihood ratios was obtained, indicating a better ability to distinguish high- from low-risk women. However, if resources are available, universal screening should be considered in high-prevalence settings. PMID:12419762

  18. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene under controlled eH/pH conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Hayes, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    The presence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil and groundwater can present serious environmental problems. The processes that control the mobility and transformation of TNT in these environments are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of redox potential (Eh) and pH on the transformation of TNT. Soil components responsible for the transformation of TNT were also investigated. Laboratory investigations included testing at four different redox potentials and four pH levels. A 10:1 (water: soil) suspension spiked with 100 micro g of TNT/g, dry weight soil was used. The aqueous phase was sampled over a 2-week period for TNT and its transformation products. Soils were analyzed at completion of the 2-week incubation period. Results showed that redox potential and pH of the soil suspensions had a marked effect on TNT stability and transformation. The TNT was not stable under any Eh/pH conditions. TNT was least stable at any pH under highly reduced conditions. Results indicated that TNT persisted only under moderately reducing conditions and at lower pH levels.

  19. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Mobile Phone-Based Case Management Intervention to Retain Mothers and Infants from an Option B+ Program in Postpartum HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Clouse, Kate; Yende, Nompumelelo; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Ratshefola, Mamothe; Pettifor, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a cell phone based case manager intervention targeting HIV-infected pregnant women on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Pregnant women ≥36 weeks gestation attending antenatal care and receiving HAART through the Option B+ program at a primary care clinic in South Africa were enrolled into a prospective pilot intervention to receive text messages and telephone calls from a case manager through 6 weeks postpartum. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were assessed along with infant HIV testing rates and 10-week and 12-month postpartum maternal retention in care. Retention outcomes were compared to women of similar eligibility receiving care prior to the intervention. Fifty women were enrolled into the pilot from May to July 2013. Most (70%) were HAART-naive at time of conception and started HAART during antenatal care. During the intervention, the case manager sent 482 text messages and completed 202 telephone calls, for a median of 10 text messages and 4 calls/woman. Ninety-six percent completed the postpartum interview and 47/48 (98%) endorsed the utility of the intervention. Engagement in 10-week postpartum maternal HIV care was >90% in the pre-intervention (n = 50) and intervention (n = 50) periods; by 12-months retention fell to 72% and was the same across periods. More infants received HIV-testing by 10-weeks in the intervention period as compared to pre-intervention (90.0 vs. 63.3%, p < 0.01). Maternal support through a cell phone based case manager approach was highly acceptable among South African HIV infected women on HAART and feasible, warranting further assessment of effectiveness. PMID:25656728

  20. Weight change in the postpartum period. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crowell, D T

    1995-01-01

    Women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy are at risk for postpartum weight retention and long-term obesity. Familiarity with current research related to postpartum weight loss can aid the nurse-midwife in providing sound, clinical advice to women at risk for postpartum weight retention. This article provides a review of current literature and research studies related to postpartum weight loss, weight retention, and weight gain. An overview of gestational weight gain and fetal growth, recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, complications of maternal obesity, postpartum weight-loss patterns, and factors that affect postpartum weight loss are discussed. PMID:7472647

  1. White upconversion luminescence nanocrystals for the simultaneous and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingxin; Huang, Sheng; Deng, Mingliang; Wang, Leyu

    2014-05-28

    A highly water stable and strong upconversion (UC) luminescence NaYF4@PSI-NH nanosensor for the simultaneous and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) was successfully developed. Via the 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, these nanosensors emit strong white UC luminescence with five typical emission peaks centered at 363, 455, 475, 546, and 654 nm. The UC emission at both 363 and 546 nm was quenched by the addition of TNT; however, the ratio of luminescence intensity at 363 nm to 546 nm (I363/I546) had no change with the increase of TNT concentration. Meanwhile, only violet UC emission at 363 nm was dramatically quenched via the addition of TNP, and the I363/I546 ratio is negatively proportional to the TNP concentration in the range of 0.01-4.5 μg/mL of TNP. On the other hand, the green UC emission intensity at 546 nm is in negative proportion to the concentration of TNT. Moreover, cyclohexane, toluene, and other nitroaromatics (such as 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and nitrobenzene (NB)) have no influence on the detection. Therefore, we developed a facile method for the simultaneous and selective detection of TNT and TNP in the mixture solution of nitroaromatics independent of complicated instruments and sample pretreatment. PMID:24734988

  2. Theoretical design of energetic nitrogen-rich derivatives of 1,7-diamino-1,7-dinitrimino-2,4,6-trinitro-2,4,6-triazaheptane.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming

    2013-08-01

    The heats of formation (HOFs), energetic properties, and thermal stability of a series of 1,7-diamino-1,7-dinitrimino-2,4,6-trinitro-2,4,6-triazaheptane derivatives with different substituents, different numbers of substituents, and different original chains are found by using the DFT-B3LYP method. The results show that -NO2 or -NH2 is an effective substituent for increasing the gas-phase HOFs of the title compounds, especially -NO2 group. As the numbers of substitutents increase, their HOFs enhance obviously. Increasing the length of original chain is helpful for improving their HOFs. The substitution of -NO2 is useful for enhancing their detonation performances and the effects of the length of original chains on detonation properties are coupled with those of the substituents. An analysis of the BDE of the weakest bonds indicates that the substitution of the -NH2 groups and replacing the -NO2 groups of N-NO2 by the -NH2 groups are favorable for improving their thermal stability, while the substitution of -NO2 and increasing the length of original chain decrease their thermal stability. Considering the detonation performance and thermal stability, seven compounds may be considered as the potential candidates of high energy density compounds. PMID:23559097

  3. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1996-10-29

    The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6,trinitrobenzene (TATB) by: (a) reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0 and 50 C for between about 0.1 and 24 hr, a trinitroaromatic compound of the structure shown within where X, Y, and Z are each independently selected from --H, or --NH{sub 2}, with the proviso that at least 1 or 2 of X, Y, and Z are hydrogen, with an amount effective to produce DATB or TATB, or 1,1,1-trialkylhydrazinium halide wherein alkyl is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl and halide is selected from chloride, bromide or iodide, in the presence of a strong base selected from sodium butoxide, potassium butoxide, potassium propoxide, sodium propoxide, sodium ethoxide, potassium ethoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, and combinations thereof; in a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethylsulfoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoramide, dimethylformide, dimethylacetamide and mixtures thereof, provided that when alcohols are present primarily DATB and picramide is formed; and (b) isolating the DATB or TATB produced. DATB and TATB are useful specialty explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  4. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Schmidt, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene (TATB) by: (a) reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0.degree. and 50.degree. C. for between about 0.1 and 24 hr, a trinitroaromatic compound of structure V: ##STR1## wherein X, Y, and Z are each independently selected from --H, or --NH.sub.2, with the proviso that at least 1 or 2 of X, Y, and Z are hydrogen, with an amount effective to produce DATB or TATB of 1,1,1-trialkylhydrazinium halide wherein alkyl is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl and halide is selected from chloride, bromide or iodide. in the presence of a strong base selected from sodium butoxide, potassium butoxide, potassium propoxide, sodium propoxide, sodium ethoxide, potassium ethoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, and combinations thereof; in a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoramide, dimethylformide, dimethylacetamide and mixtures thereof, provided that when alcohols are present primarily DATB and picramide is formed; and (b) isolating the DATB or TATB produced. DATB and TATB are useful specialty explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  5. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. PMID:25244078

  6. L-Arginine supplementation 0.5% of diet during the last 90 days of gestation and 14 days postpartum reduced uterine fluid accumulation in the broodmare.

    PubMed

    Mesa, A M; Warren, L K; Sheehan, J M; Kelley, D E; Mortensen, C J

    2015-08-01

    L-Arginine is an essential amino acid in many species that has been shown to influence reproduction. However, in horses a dose of 1% L-arginine of total dietary intake impaired absorption of other amino acids, whereas a dose of 0.5% did not. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate postpartum parameters on mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine through the last 90d of gestation and 14d postpartum. Sixteen light-horse mares were randomly divided in two groups: 8 mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine and 8 mares fed an isonitrogenous equivalent. Gestation length, days to uterine clearance and days to first ovulation were compared. Uterine body depth, diameter of uterine horns, and length of largest pocket of uterine fluid were recorded daily via transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foal weight, height, and cannon bone circumference were recorded for 9 weeks. Arginine treatment had no effect on gestation length (P=0.58). Supplemented mares cleared fluid quicker postpartum (6.8±0.53d; P=0.026) compared to control (9.0±0.38d). Mares supplemented with L-arginine had smaller diameter of fluid present in the postpartum uterus (P≤0.05). Days to first postpartum ovulation were not affected by treatment nor any influence on uterine involution. Finally, treatment had no effect on any foal's measured parameters. L-Arginine supplementation fed at 0.5% of daily intake during the last 90d of gestation and early postpartum in mares decreased uterine fluid accumulation, yet did not appear to have any effect on any other parameters measured. PMID:26036908

  7. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  8. Transvaginal follicular aspiration and embryo development in superstimulated early postpartum beef cows and subsequent fertility after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Aller, J F; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Ríos, G; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate in early postpartum suckled beef cows with and without FSH pre-stimulation: (i) the influence of the postpartum period on the number and quality of oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up (OPU), (ii) the overall efficiency of the OPU/IVP embryos from days 30 to 80 postpartum and (iii) if repeated OPU negatively affect fertility following a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol. After parturition suckled Angus cows (n = 30) were divided in three groups (n = 10 group(-1)). All cows were anestrous at the commencement of experimental treatments (30.0 +/- 3.2 days postpartum, mean +/- SD; range 25-34 days). Group 1 treatments included: dominant follicle ablation (DFA), FSH treatment and OPU procedure 5 days after DFA. A total of 9 mg FSH (Ovagen) was administered s.c. once a day over 2 days at equal doses (4.5 + 4.5mg). For fertility test the cows received an intravaginal progesterone treatment from Days 78 to 86 postpartum and were fixed-time artificially inseminated (FTAI) at 56 and 72 h after device removal. Group 2: as cited for Group 1 with no FSH treatment. In both groups, OPU was repeated four times (Days 35, 49, 63 and 77 postpartum) and the collected oocytes classified as viable were in vitro matured, fertilized and presumptive embryos cultured for 8 days. Group 3 (Control FTAI): cows that had not previously aspirations were FTAI as Groups 1 and 2. Pregnancy was diagnosed by means ultrasonography 39 days after FTAI. The numbers (mean +/- SEM) of follicles visible and aspirated at the time of OPU in FSH-treated cows were greater (P < 0.05) than in non-treated cows (10.6 +/- 0.6 and 8.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.5 and 4.6 +/- 0.3, respectively). Following FSH treatment, the number (mean +/- SEM) of recovered oocytes per cow per OPU session and percentage of viable oocytes were greater in the treated (P < 0.05) than in non-treated animals (3.0 +/- 0.1 and 39.5% vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 30.0%). The cleavage and embryo development

  9. Chiral, triformylphenol-derived salen-type [4 + 6] organic cages.

    PubMed

    Petryk, M; Szymkowiak, J; Gierczyk, B; Spólnik, G; Popenda, Ł; Janiak, A; Kwit, M

    2016-08-21

    A one-pot synthesis of chiral [4 + 6] tetrahedral cage compounds containing a salen fragment on each face is presented. The formation of the [4 + 6] products remains in contrast to the reaction of 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol with chiral diamines where [2 + 3] keto-enamine pseudocyclophanes are formed exclusively. The presence of OH groups determines the structural and spectroscopic properties of these cage compounds while a change in the reaction conditions facilitates the isolation of the microcrystalline products of the specific surface area varying from 5 to 578 m(2) g(-1). PMID:27420910

  10. Toxicological characterization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, its transformation products, and two nitramine explosives.

    PubMed

    Neuwoehner, Judith; Schofer, Andrea; Erlenkaemper, Bibiane; Steinbach, Klaus; Hund-Rinke, T Kerstin; Eisentraeger, Adolf

    2007-06-01

    The soil and groundwater of former ordnance plants and their dumping sites have often been highly contaminated with the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) leading to a potential hazard for humans and the environment. Further hazards can arise from metabolites of transformation, by-products of the manufacturing process, or incomplete combustion. This work examines the toxicity of polar nitro compounds relative to their parent compound 2,4,6-TNT using four different ecotoxicological bioassays (algae growth inhibition test, daphnids immobilization test, luminescence inhibition test, and cell growth inhibition test), three genotoxicological assays (umu test, NM2009 test, and SOS Chromotest), and the Ames fluctuation test for detection of mutagenicity. For this study, substances typical for certain steps of degradation/transformation of 2,4,6-TNT were chosen for investigation. This work determines that the parent compounds 2,4,6-TNT and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene are the most toxic substances followed by 3,5-dinitrophenol, 3,5-dinitroaniline and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene. Less toxic are the direct degradation products of 2,4,6-TNT like 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene. A weak toxic potential was observed for 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid, 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonic acid, and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene. Octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine show no hint of acute toxicity. Based on the results of this study, we recommend expanding future monitoring programs of not only the parent substances but also potential metabolites based on conditions at the contaminated sites and to use bioassays as tools for estimating the toxicological potential directly by testing environmental samples. Site-specific protocols should be developed. If hazardous substances are found in relevant concentrations, action should be taken to prevent

  11. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Zain, Z; Lim, W L; Lim, C T

    1997-10-01

    Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (> 27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34). Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, < or = 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor. The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates. PMID:9364127

  12. Expression of genes associated with immunity in the endometrium of cattle with disparate postpartum uterine disease and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Shan; Lilly, Sonia T; Santos, Natalia R; Gilbert, Robert O; Goetze, Leopold; Bryant, Clare E; White, John O; Cronin, James; Sheldon, I Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background Contamination of the uterine lumen with bacteria is ubiquitous in cattle after parturition. Some animals develop endometritis and have reduced fertility but others have no uterine disease and readily conceive. The present study tested the hypothesis that postpartum cattle that develop persistent endometritis and infertility are unable to limit the inflammatory response to uterine bacterial infection. Methods Endometrial biopsies were collected several times during the postpartum period from animals that were subsequently infertile with persistent endometritis (n = 4) or had no clinical disease and conceived to first insemination (n = 4). Quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of candidate genes in the endometrial biopsies, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR 1 to 10) family of innate immune receptors, inflammatory mediators and their cognate receptors. Selected proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results The expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukins (IL1A, IL1B and IL6), and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) were higher during the first week post partum than subsequently. During the first week post partum, there was higher gene expression in infertile than fertile animals of TLR4, the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1A and IL1B, and their receptor IL1R2. The expression of genes encoding other Toll-like receptors, transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) or prostaglandin E2 receptors (PTGER2 and PTGER4) did not differ significantly between the animal groups. Gene expression did not differ significantly between infertile and fertile animals after the first week postpartum. However, there were higher ratios of IL1A or IL1B mRNA to the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10, during the first week post partum in the infertile than fertile animals, and the protein products of these genes were mainly localised to the epithelium of the endometrium

  13. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  14. Monoclinic structure of hydroxylpyromorphite Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2 - hydroxylmimetite Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2 solid solution series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giera, Alicja; Manecki, Maciej; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Zelek, Sylwia; Rakovan, John; Bajda, Tomasz; Marchlewski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Seven samples of hydroxyl analogues of pyromorphite-mimetite solid solutions series were synthesized from aqueous solutions at 80° C in a computer-controlled chemistate: 200 mL aqueous solutions of 0.05M Pb(NO3)2 and 0.03M KH2AsO4 and/or KH2PO4 were dosed with a 0.25 mL/min rate to a glass beaker, which initially contained 100 mL of distilled water. Constant pH of 8 was maintained using 2M KOH. The syntheses yielded homogeneous fine-grained white precipitates composition of which was close to theoretical Pb10[(PO4)6‑x(AsO4)x](OH)2, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data were obtained in transmission geometry at the beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, USA). The structure Rietveld refinements based on starting parameters of either hexagonal hydroxylpyromorphite or monoclinic mimetite-M were performed using GSAS+EXPGUI software. Apatite usually crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with the space group P63/m. For the first time, however, the lowering of the hexagonal to monoclinic crystal symmetry was observed in the hydroxyl variety of pyromorphite-mimetite solid solution series. This is indicated by better fitting of the modeled monoclinic structure to the experimental data. The same is not the case for analogous calcium hydroxylapatite series Ca5(PO4)3OH - Ca5(AsO4)3OH (Lee et al. 2009). Systematical linear increase of unit cell parameters is observed with As substitution from a=9.88, b=19.75, and c=7.43 for Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2 to a=10.23, b=20.32, and c=7.51 for Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2. A strong pseudohexagonal character (γ ≈ 120° and b ≈ 2a) of the analyzed monoclinic phases was established. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319 and partially by Polish NCN grant No 2011/01/M/ST10/06999. Lee Y.J., Stephens P.W., Tang Y., Li W., Philips B.L., Parise J.B., Reeder R.J., 2009. Arsenate substitution in hydroxylapatite: Structural characterization

  15. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect cow weight or condition score (P > 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) than heifers. Once-daily suckling shortened postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) and positively influenced the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 40 d post partum (P < 0.02). Alfaprostol did not affect postpartum interval (P > 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P < 0.03). Lasalocid did not affect postpartum interval or cumulative frequency of return to estrus (P > 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in

  16. Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, L G D; Abade, C C; da Silva, E M; Litherland, N B; Hansen, L B; Hansen, W P; Chebel, R C

    2014-02-01

    Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites and haptoglobin peripartum, uterine health and involution, and follicle growth and resumption of cyclicity of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred cows. Cows (52 HO and 52 crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45 d before expected calving date. Cows had body weight and body condition score recorded on d -45, -14, 0, 1, 28, and 56 relative to calving. Dry matter intake was calculated for a subgroup of cows (25 HO and 38 crossbred) from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 56 relative to calving for determination of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; from d -7 to 21 relative to calving for determination of haptoglobin concentration; and from d 14 to 56 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Cows were examined at calving and on d 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum for diagnosis of postparturient diseases, on d 24 postpartum for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge, and on d 42 postpartum for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Uteri and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography every 3 d from d 14 to 41 postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured monthly and yield of milk, fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk were recorded for the first 90 d postpartum. Body weight was not different between Holstein and crossbred cows, but HO cows had reduced body condition score compared with crossbred cows. Even though DMI from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving tended to be greater for HO cows (16.8 ± 0.7 vs. 15.3 ± 0.5 kg/d), HO cows tended to have more pronounced decline in dry matter intake, expressed in percentage of body weight from d -15 to 0 relative to calving. Energy-corrected milk and nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not different between breeds. No differences were observed in incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, and

  17. Investigating analgesic and psychological factors associated with risk of postpartum depression development: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Suhitharan, Thangavelautham; Pham, Thi Phuong Tu; Chen, Helen; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sultana, Rehena; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Tan, Ene-Choo; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripartum analgesic and psychological factors that may be related to postpartum depression (PPD). Methods This case–control study was conducted in pregnant females who delivered at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital from November 2010 to October 2013 and had postpartum psychological assessment. Demographic, medical, and postpartum psychological status assessments, intrapartum data including method of induction of labor, mode of labor analgesia, duration of first and second stages of labor, mode of delivery, and pain intensity on hospital admission and after delivery were collected. PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment by the psychiatrist. Results There were 62 cases of PPD and 417 controls after childbirth within 4–8 weeks. The odds of PPD was significantly lower (33 of 329 [10.0%]) in females who received epidural analgesia for labor compared with those who chose nonepidural analgesia (29 of 150 [19.3%]) ([odds ratio] 0.47 (0.27–0.8), P=0.0078). The multivariate analysis showed that absence of labor epidural analgesia, increasing age, family history of depression, history of depression, and previous history of PPD were independent risk factors for development of PPD. Conclusion The absence of labor epidural analgesia remained as an independent risk factor for development of PPD when adjusted for psychiatric predictors of PPD such as history of depression or PPD and family history of depression. PMID:27354803

  18. Management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Aytac, Erman; Ozuner, Gokhan; Isik, Ozgen; Gorgun, Emre; Stocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience on management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period (< 6 mo), between 8/1997 and 4/2013, in our department were reviewed. Patient characteristics, operations, fetal health and follow-up during pregnancy, type of delivery and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Eight patients met our study criteria. Median age at the time of diagnosis of colorectal cancer was 31 years. Median follow-up after surgery was 36 mo. Median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 16 wk. Three patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy and underwent surgery prior to delivery. None of the patients received adjuvant treatment during pregnancy. Five patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within a median of 2.1 mo after delivery and underwent surgery. No adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. All deliveries were at term (2 cesarean sections) except for one preterm delivery following low anterior resection on the 34th week of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: There has been a significant delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer which is probably due to overlap of symptoms and signs between these tumors and a normal pregnancy. Surgery for colorectal cancer during pregnancy can be performed safely without compromising maternal and fetal outcomes.

  19. New evidence on breastfeeding and postpartum depression: the importance of understanding women's intentions.

    PubMed

    Borra, Cristina; Iacovou, Maria; Sevilla, Almudena

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the effects of breastfeeding on mothers' mental health measured at 8 weeks, 8, 21 and 32 months postpartum. The estimated effect of breastfeeding on PPD differed according to whether women had planned to breastfeed their babies, and by whether they had shown signs of depression during pregnancy. For mothers who were not depressed during pregnancy, the lowest risk of PPD was found among women who had planned to breastfeed, and who had actually breastfed their babies, while the highest risk was found among women who had planned to breastfeed and had not gone on to breastfeed. We conclude that the effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers' mental health during pregnancy. Our results underline the importance of providing expert breastfeeding support to women who want to breastfeed; but also, of providing compassionate support for women who had intended to breastfeed, but who find themselves unable to. PMID:25138629

  20. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm in the setting of delayed postpartum hemorrhage: successful treatment with emergency arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur M; Burbridge, Brent E

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal mortality. Though uncommon, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm can follow uterine dilatation and curettage (D + C) and needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis. This 30-year-old G1P1 woman presented with right upper quadrant pain and vaginal bleeding. She was afebrile but her white blood count was significantly increased (22.2 × 10(9) /L). One week prior, she had undergone a Cesarean delivery which was complicated by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome (HELLP), fetal dystocia, and chorioamnionitis. Uterine dilatation and curettage (D & C) and placement of a Bakri intrauterine balloon, performed for suspected retained products of conception, failed to control her postpartum bleeding. The patient wished to have a hysterectomy only as a last resort in order to preserve fertility. Emergency uterine artery angiography revealed a left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm and contrast extravasation. The patient was successfully treated with selective embolization. Computed tomography (CT) later revealed dehiscence of her uterine Cesarean section incision with an intra-abdominal fluid collection. This collection was drained. She also developed disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) syndrome as well as multiple pulmonary emboli which were both successfully treated. We discuss this unique case of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm with associated uterine dehiscence. PMID:22606544

  1. Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm in the Setting of Delayed Postpartum Hemorrhage: Successful Treatment with Emergency Arterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur M.; Burbridge, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal mortality. Though uncommon, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm can follow uterine dilatation and curettage (D + C) and needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis. This 30-year-old G1P1 woman presented with right upper quadrant pain and vaginal bleeding. She was afebrile but her white blood count was significantly increased (22.2 × 109 /L). One week prior, she had undergone a Cesarean delivery which was complicated by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome (HELLP), fetal dystocia, and chorioamnionitis. Uterine dilatation and curettage (D & C) and placement of a Bakri intrauterine balloon, performed for suspected retained products of conception, failed to control her postpartum bleeding. The patient wished to have a hysterectomy only as a last resort in order to preserve fertility. Emergency uterine artery angiography revealed a left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm and contrast extravasation. The patient was successfully treated with selective embolization. Computed tomography (CT) later revealed dehiscence of her uterine Cesarean section incision with an intra-abdominal fluid collection. This collection was drained. She also developed disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) syndrome as well as multiple pulmonary emboli which were both successfully treated. We discuss this unique case of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm with associated uterine dehiscence. PMID:22606544

  2. Teaching New Literacies in Grades 4-6: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Barbara, Ed.; Lapp, Diane, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Upper-elementary students encounter a sometimes dizzying array of traditional and nontraditional texts both in and outside of the classroom. This practical handbook helps teachers in grades 4-6 harness the instructional potential of fiction, poetry, and plays; informational texts; graphic novels; digital storytelling; Web-based and multimodal…

  3. Living in Water. An Aquatic Science Curriculum for Grades 4-6. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

    This document is a scientific study of water, aquatic environments and the plants and animals that live in water. It was written for grades 4-6 but many activities may also be of interest for use with older students. This curriculum covers both marine and freshwater habitats. Each of five sections addresses a question about water which is then…

  4. A Large-Scale Evaluation of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 4-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Little, Todd D.; Poskiparta, Elisa; Kaljonen, Anne; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program using a large sample of 8,237 youth from Grades 4-6 (10-12 years). Altogether, 78 schools were randomly assigned to intervention (39 schools, 4,207 students) and control conditions (39 schools, 4,030 students). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that after 9 months of…

  5. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  6. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2001: Lesson Plans for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide on the 50 state quarters produced by the United States Mint includes six lesson plans that fit easily into the social studies curriculum for grades 4-6. The lesson plans include reproducible student work pages that coincide with each lesson; state facts and information about the 2001 state quarter designs (New York, North…

  7. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2002: Lesson Plans for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide on the 50 state quarters emitted by the United States Mint includes 6 "teacher-friendly" lesson plans that fit easily into the curriculum for grades 4-6; reproducible student worksheets that coincide with each lesson; "fun" state facts and information on the new quarter designs; and USA map template with state outlines. These…

  8. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen. [Teaching Guide]. Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide for grades 4-6 focuses on the 1999-2000 United States Mint 50 State Quarters Program, which includes new quarter designs for the following states: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, and Virginia. The guide includes six lesson plans that fit easily…

  9. Texas School Survey of Substance Use among Students: Grades 4-6, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Liu, Liang Y.

    This booklet reports on the results of the 1998 Texas School Survey of Substance Use among Students: Grades 4-6. The statewide school survey monitors trends in substance use among public school students, identifies emerging problem areas, and serves as a basis of comparison for local school surveys which are conducted annually by various school…

  10. Travel On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Jane; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual for grades 4-6 covers all four topics. Materials in four chapters comprising fourteen mini-units cover…

  11. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  12. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  13. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  14. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  15. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  16. Steps Towards Healthy Growth. Health Education Curriculum Guide; Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dippo, Jeanette, Ed.

    Grades or Ages: Grades 4-6. Subject Matter: Health Education (includes chapters covering the following: (a) health status; (b) nutrition; (c) sensory Perception; (d) dental health; (e) disease prevention and control; (f) smoking and health; (g) alcohol education; (h) drug education; (i) personality development; (j) human sexuality; (k) family life…

  17. The Navajo Way of Life: A Resource Unit with Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Dahlia

    A resource unit on the Navajo way of life, for grades 4-6, contains sections on Navajo history, art, and crafts, homes, music, poetry and games; Navajo and Pueblo cookery (including recipes); traditional Navajo dress, ceremony and legends; and successful Navajos, past and present. Sections include text, vocabulary words, drawings, maps, and…

  18. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Career Capers for 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, this notebook of student and teacher activities is designed for use with the monthly Factivities for grades 4-6 (CE 023 596). Each activity corresponds to one of the nine monthly topics: "me, myself, and I"; exploring the telephone book; transportation;…

  19. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  20. SOIL REDUCES 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE BIOAVAILABILITY AND GENOTOXICITY IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil Reduces 2,4,6- Trinitrotoluene Bioavailability and Genotoxicity In Vivo

    As chemicals age in soil, irreversible binding of chemical contaminants to organic components in the soil may occur, impacting the amount of chemical that is biologically available upon exp...

  1. PCE/K-10 Activities for Career Education, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Area II Office.

    The Portland (Oregon) Public School Project Career Education (PCE) Activities for grades 4-6 is based on the city's overall Area 2 program goals for career education which proposed that children completing school should have sufficient knowledge and competencies to enter into a field of employment or an advanced training program in that field.…

  2. Study of Vermont: A Curriculum Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubuque, Martha L.

    Designed for use in grades 4-6, this guide consists of four basic units related to the study of Vermont: Indian Civilization, Vermont History, Geography and Economics, and Cities and Towns. Each unit lists key concepts, content objectives, skills objectives, and related objectives. Next, specialized vocabulary as well as common, essential…

  3. Teaching Writing in Grades 4-6 in Urban Schools in the Greater China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, Tien Ping; Graham, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of 1102 grade 4-6 Chinese language arts teachers in Beijing, Macao, and Taipei City were surveyed about their instructional writing practices. Seventy-eight percent (n = 857) of the teachers completed the survey. Teachers were generally positive about the usefulness of their college teacher preparation program. They slightly agreed…

  4. Planet Patrol. An Environmental Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This classroom unit was developed for use in grades 4-6 to help teach the concept of solid waste management. The teacher's guide provides an overview of the issue of solid waste disposal, a description of government, industry, and consumer roles in resolving the solid waste issue, and four lessons involving sanitary landfills, the reduction of…

  5. Overcoming Therapeutic Resistance in HER2-Positive Breast Cancers with CDK4/6 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shom; Wang, Qi; Watt, April C; Tolaney, Sara M; Dillon, Deborah A; Li, Wei; Ramm, Susanne; Palmer, Adam C; Yuzugullu, Haluk; Varadan, Vinay; Tuck, David; Harris, Lyndsay N; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Liu, X Shirley; Sicinski, Piotr; Winer, Eric P; Krop, Ian E; Zhao, Jean J

    2016-03-14

    Using transgenic mouse models, cell line-based functional studies, and clinical specimens, we show that cyclin D1/CDK4 mediate resistance to targeted therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer. This is overcome using CDK4/6 inhibitors. Inhibition of CDK4/6 not only suppresses Rb phosphorylation, but also reduces TSC2 phosphorylation and thus partially attenuates mTORC1 activity. This relieves feedback inhibition of upstream EGFR family kinases, resensitizing tumors to EGFR/HER2 blockade. Consequently, dual inhibition of EGFR/HER2 and CDK4/6 invokes a more potent suppression of TSC2 phosphorylation and hence mTORC1/S6K/S6RP activity. The suppression of both Rb and S6RP enhances G1 arrest and a phenotype resembling cellular senescence. In vivo, CDK4/6 inhibitors sensitize patient-derived xenograft tumors to HER2-targeted therapies and delay tumor recurrence in a transgenic model of HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:26977878

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-6 - Contributory defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributory defined benefit plans. 1.401(a)(4...)-6 Contributory defined benefit plans. (a) Introduction. This section provides rules necessary for...) Excess plans with varying contribution rates. In the case of a defined benefit excess plan described...

  7. Spontaneous magnetization of the Ising model on the union jack and 4-6 lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Wang, S. C.

    1988-03-01

    Spontaneous magnetization of the Ising model on the anisotropic Union Jack and 4-6 lattices are derived exactly. The conjecture by Lin and Wang is confirmed. Our result is a generalization of the recent work on the isotropic Union Jack lattice by Choy and Baxter.

  8. The Synthesis of 4,6,8-Trimethylazulene: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Michael E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A two-stage synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene was developed for use in the undergraduate experiment, highlighting concepts not usually covered in the laboratory. The experiment requires purification procedures of chromatography and of sublimation and illustrates concepts of aromaticity, molecular orbital theory, and carbodium ion reactivity. (JN)

  9. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  10. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  11. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  12. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  13. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  14. Absorption, balance and metabolism of /sup 14/C-2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol in hydroponic tomato plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fragiadakis, A.; Sotiriou, N.; Korte, F.

    1981-12-01

    Most of the 2, 4, 6-TCP applied in the nutrient solution of the hydroculture test was volatilised; a proportion was absorbed by the developed plant roots and to a small extent isomerised. Significant portions of the non-extractable tomato plant residues were found in the isolated lignin and cellulose fractions.

  15. A Curriculum in Written Composition, 4-6: A Guide for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This guide for teaching composition in grades 4-6 (1) objectives for a curriculum in written composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrative learning experiences, and (4) units for teaching specific skills. The units for each grade are "Structuring a…

  16. TOXICITY OF TETRYL (N-METHYL-N,2,4,6-TETRANITROANILINE) IN F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of tetryl (N-methyl-N,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline) in male and female F344 rats was evaluated after adminstration in the diet for 14 or 90 days. The 14-day study diet concentrations used were 0, 500, 1250, 2000, 2500, and 5000 ppm; the 90-day study diet concentrations we...

  17. Kids, Crops, & Critters in the Classroom: An Agricultural Literacy Resource Guide for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Farm Bureau, Bloomington.

    This resource guide provides teachers of grades 4-6 with ideas and materials to integrate agricultural concepts into classroom activities. The guide is organized into six categories: math, science, language arts, social studies, fine arts, and health/nutrition/safety. Each category contains 10 lessons organized in the following topic order:…

  18. Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Education Teacher's Guide, [Grades] 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide is one in a series of four resource guides specifically designed for those interested in aviation education. Activities and lessons that can be used in a variety of content areas and grade levels are featured. Grades 4-6 are the focus of this guide, which is organized under the broad topics of properties of air, lighter than air flight,…

  19. Biotransformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by Denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. Strain FA1

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Bharat; Paquet, Louise; Spain, Jim C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-01-01

    The microbial and enzymatic degradation of a new energetic compound, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), is not well understood. Fundamental knowledge about the mechanism of microbial degradation of CL-20 is essential to allow the prediction of its fate in the environment. In the present study, a CL-20-degrading denitrifying strain capable of utilizing CL-20 as the sole nitrogen source, Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1, was isolated from a garden soil. Studies with intact cells showed that aerobic conditions were required for bacterial growth and that anaerobic conditions enhanced CL-20 biotransformation. An enzyme(s) involved in the initial biotransformation of CL-20 was shown to be membrane associated and NADH dependent, and its expression was up-regulated about 2.2-fold in CL-20-induced cells. The rates of CL-20 biotransformation by the resting cells and the membrane-enzyme preparation were 3.2 ± 0.1 nmol h−1 mg of cell biomass−1 and 11.5 ± 0.4 nmol h−1 mg of protein−1, respectively, under anaerobic conditions. In the membrane-enzyme-catalyzed reactions, 2.3 nitrite ions (NO2−), 1.5 molecules of nitrous oxide (N2O), and 1.7 molecules of formic acid (HCOOH) were produced per reacted CL-20 molecule. The membrane-enzyme preparation reduced nitrite to nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study of native enzymes, deflavoenzymes, and a reconstituted enzyme(s) and their subsequent inhibition by diphenyliodonium revealed that biotransformation of CL-20 is catalyzed by a membrane-associated flavoenzyme. The latter catalyzed an oxygen-sensitive one-electron transfer reaction that caused initial N denitration of CL-20. PMID:12957905

  20. 1What do first-time mothers worry about? A study of usage patterns and content of calls made to a postpartum support telephone hotline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Telephone hotlines designed to address common concerns in the early postpartum could be a useful resource for parents. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using a telephone as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. We also aimed to test to use of algorithms to address parental concerns through a telephone hotline. Methods Healthy first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum wards of hospitals throughout Lebanon. Participants were given the number of a 24-hour telephone hotline that they could access for the first four months after delivery. Calls were answered by a midwife using algorithms developed by the study team whenever possible. Callers with medical complaints were referred to their physicians. Call patterns and content were recorded and analyzed. Results Eighty-four of the 353 women enrolled (24%) used the hotline. Sixty percent of the women who used the service called more than once, and all callers reported they were satisfied with the service. The midwife received an average of three calls per day and most calls occurred during the first four weeks postpartum. Our algorithms were used to answer questions in 62.8% of calls and 18.6% of calls required referral to a physician. Of the questions related to mothers, 66% were about breastfeeding. Sixty percent of questions related to the infant were about routine care and 23% were about excessive crying. Conclusions Utilization of a telephone hotline service for postpartum support is highest in the first four weeks postpartum. Most questions are related to breastfeeding, routine newborn care, and management of a fussy infant. It is feasible to test a telephone hotline as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. Algorithms can be developed to provide standardized answers to the most common questions. PMID:20946690

  1. Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%-15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin. PMID:23459664

  2. A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.

    PubMed

    Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

    2013-04-01

    A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

  3. Pharmacotherapy of postpartum depression: an update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deborah R; Epperson, C Neill; Weiss, Amy R; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and serious illness that affects up to 14% of women in the first month after childbirth. We present an update on the pharmacologic treatment of PPD, although there continues to be a lack of large, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Areas covered A review of the literature on the use of antidepressants, hormonal supplements and omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention and the treatment of PPD published since the original review in 2009 and the authors’ opinion on the current status of the pharmacological treatment of PPD are covered. An electronic search was performed by using PubMed, Medline and PsychINFO. Inclusion criteria were: i) empirical articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals; ii) well-validated measures of depression; and iii) a uniform scoring system for depression among the sample. Expert opinion Since the last Expert Opinion review, four antidepressant treatment studies and one prevention study of PPD have been published. Six RCTs evaluating the use of omega-3 fatty acids (four for prevention and two for treatment) have been published. There continues to be lack of data regarding the pharmacotherapy of PPD. However, serotonin reuptake inhibitors should be considered first-line for women with PPD after it has been determined that the proper diagnosis is not bipolar disorder. It is important to individualize treatment for women with PPD and consider the risks and benefits of treatment while breastfeeding. PMID:24773410

  4. Do changes in mood and concerns about weight relate to smoking relapse in the postpartum period?

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M. D.; Marcus, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The majority of women who quit smoking during pregnancy will resume smoking during the postpartum period. Little is known, however, about the predictors of postpartum relapses to smoking. Changes in mood and increases in concerns about weight are common during the postpartum period, and these factors may affect women's postpartum smoking behavior. In this paper, we present a model of the relationship among mood, weight concerns and postpartum smoking. Data from previous postpartum relapse prevention trials are reviewed and evidence of a connection between changes in mood and weight concerns to postpartum relapse is presented. Directions for future research on the prevention of smoking relapses during the postpartum period, and the roles of mood and weight concerns in smoking relapse are presented. PMID:15241661

  5. Committee Opinion No. 670 Summary: Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has the potential to reduce unintended and short-interval pregnancy. Women should be counseled about all forms of postpartum contraception in a context that allows informed decision making. Immediate postpartum LARC should be offered as an effective option for postpartum contraception; there are few contraindications to postpartum intrauterine devices and implants. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should discuss LARC during the antepartum period and counsel all pregnant women about options for immediate postpartum initiation. Education and institutional protocols are needed to raise clinician awareness and to improve access to immediate postpartum LARC insertion. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should incorporate immediate postpartum LARC into their practices, counsel women appropriately about advantages and risks, and advocate for institutional and payment policy changes to support provision. PMID:27454730

  6. Committee Opinion No. 670: Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has the potential to reduce unintended and short-interval pregnancy. Women should be counseled about all forms of postpartum contraception in a context that allows informed decision making. Immediate postpartum LARC should be offered as an effective option for postpartum contraception; there are few contraindications to postpartum intrauterine devices and implants. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should discuss LARC during the antepartum period and counsel all pregnant women about options for immediate postpartum initiation. Education and institutional protocols are needed to raise clinician awareness and to improve access to immediate postpartum LARC insertion. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should incorporate immediate postpartum LARC into their practices, counsel women appropriately about advantages and risks, and advocate for institutional and payment policy changes to support provision. PMID:27454734

  7. Women Who've Battled Postpartum Depression Often Limit Family Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157855.html Women Who've Battled Postpartum Depression Often Limit Family Size They're unlikely to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who've had postpartum depression may not have more than two children, a ...

  8. Food Insecurity During Pregnancy Leads to Stress, Disordered Eating, and Greater Postpartum Weight Among Overweight Women

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines food insecurity during and after pregnancy and how that affects postpartum weight retention. The results show that food insecurity was associated with higher levels of stress, eating behaviors, dietary fat intake, and higher postpartum weight status.

  9. Relationship Factors and Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence among South African Women during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K.; McNaughton-Reyes, H. Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

  10. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  11. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chou, Shinn-Yi

    2016-07-18

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  12. 17 CFR 4.6 - Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term âcommodity trading advisor.â 4.6 Section 4.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.6 Exclusion for...

  13. Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems (SAP 4.6)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the final report entitled, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6: Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems . This Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 (SAP 4.6) focuses on impacts of global climate change, es...

  14. Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods/Design Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n = 150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n = 150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29 weeks gestation) to 12 months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in

  15. Postpartum dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and lupus anticoagulant: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Daniel; New, David; Kelly, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A 32-year-old Caucasian woman presented with shortness of breath four weeks postpartum. She was known to suffer from systemic lupus erythematosus with cutaneous, joint and minor renal involvement. During pregnancy, the patient had developed nephrotic syndrome for which she was managed with prophylactic anticoagulation and corticosteroid therapy. A leg deep vein thrombosis had arisen following caesarean section following antepartum haemorrhage. Examination revealed a heart murmur, and pulmonary signs. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram showed cardiomegaly and bilateral pleural effusions but no pulmonary embolus. Echocardiogram demonstrated dilated cardiomyopathy. An initial diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy was considered, with lupus myocarditis and coronary in situ thrombosis among the differential diagnoses.

  16. a week in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  17. Postpartum Management of Women Begun on Levothyroxine during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the thyroid gland must produce 50% more thyroid hormone to maintain the euthyroid state. Women with decreased thyroid reserve preconception, most typically due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, may develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Data over the last 20 years have reported a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and adverse maternal/fetal events. As a result of this association, an increasing number of women are being screened for thyroid disease either preconception or at the first prenatal visit. Consequently, an ever increasing number of women are being initiated on levothyroxine for the first time during pregnancy. At present, there are very limited guidelines related to the management of the thyroid disease in these women postpartum. Based on an understanding of the physiology of the thyroid gland during pregnancy and postpartum, and the personal clinical experience of the author, recommendations for the postpartum management of women who were started on levothyroxine during pregnancy are presented. PMID:26648909

  18. Disposition of firocoxib in late pregnant and early postpartum mares.

    PubMed

    Giguère, S; Macpherson, M L; Benson, S M; Cox, S; McNaughten, J W; Pozor, M A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces several physiologic changes that might impact the bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on the disposition of oral firocoxib in mares. Seven pony mares received oral firocoxib paste at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg during late pregnancy and again 12 to 33 days postpartum. Firocoxib concentrations were measured in plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Maximum plasma concentrations were significantly lower in pregnant (50.0 ± 21.8 ng/mL) than in postpartum (73.7 ± 25.6 ng/mL) mares. Plasma concentrations 24 h after administration, time to maximum plasma concentrations, and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve were not significantly different between late pregnancy and the postpartum period in mares. PMID:26202842

  19. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence postpartum.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bethany; Woodward, Sue

    The offering of pelvic floor muscle exercises to all women during their first pregnancy is recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Pelvic floor muscles suffer significant trauma throughout pregnancy and childbirth, which may sometimes lead to urinary incontinence postpartum. However, it is uncertain how effective pelvic floor muscle exercises are in treating this incontinence. Several trials have been analysed to try to understand this question. Issues such as when the exercises were undertaken, how often they were performed and in what circumstances they were carried out, have all been considered. While it is still uncertain whether they are effective in reducing urinary incontinence postpartum, as they are non-invasive and fairly simple to carry out, they are still the first-line management for urinary incontinence postpartum with other treatments being considered if this is ineffective. PMID:26067791

  20. The hydrogen bond in 2-( N,N-dimethylamino- N-oxymethyl)-4,6-dimethylophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rospenk, M.; Koll, A.; Głowiak, T.; Sobczyk, L.

    1989-04-01

    The X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out on the monohydrate of 2-( N,N-dimethylamino- N-oxymethyl)-4,6-dimethylophenol ( I). The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c, with a = 21.921(6) Å, b = 5.058(2) Å, c = 11.748(3) Å; β = 113.66(4)°, V = 1193.1(4) Å 3, Z = 4. The length of the intramolecular OH⋯O hydrogen bond is 2.541(6) Å. The crystallographic data and the UV and IR absorption spectra indicate that this bond is considerably weaker than that reported previously for 2-( N,N-diethylamino- N-oxymethyl)-4,6-dichlorophenol ( II), where a quasisymmetric bridge was found.

  1. A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program: grades 4-6.

    PubMed

    Kärnä, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Little, Todd D; Poskiparta, Elisa; Kaljonen, Anne; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program using a large sample of 8,237 youth from Grades 4-6 (10-12 years). Altogether, 78 schools were randomly assigned to intervention (39 schools, 4,207 students) and control conditions (39 schools, 4,030 students). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that after 9 months of implementation, the intervention had consistent beneficial effects on 7 of the 11 dependent variables, including self- and peer-reported victimization and self-reported bullying. The results indicate that the KiVa program is effective in reducing school bullying and victimization in Grades 4-6. Despite some evidence against school-based interventions, the results suggest that well-conceived school-based programs can reduce victimization. PMID:21291444

  2. Multiple Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Patrick J.; Bisi, John E.; Strum, Jay C.; Combest, Austin J.; Darr, David B.; Usary, Jerry E.; Zamboni, William C.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Perou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate cell proliferation and coordinate the cell cycle checkpoint response to DNA damage. Although inhibitors with varying selectivity to specific CDK family members have been developed, selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as the most attractive antineoplastic agents because of the importance of CDK4/6 activity in regulating cell proliferation and the toxic effects associated with inhibition of other CDKs (eg, CDK1 and CDK2). Methods FVB/N wild-type mice (n = 13) were used to evaluate carboplatin-induced myelosuppression in bone marrow by complete blood cell counts after treatment with the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991. Genetically engineered murine models of retinoblastoma (Rb)-competent (MMTV-c-neu) and Rb-incompetent (C3-TAg) breast cancer (n = 16 MMTV-c-neu mice in the carboplatin plus vehicle control group, n = 17 MMTV-c-neu mice in the carboplatin plus PD0332991 group, n = 17 C3-TAg mice in the carboplatin plus vehicle control group, and n = 14 C3-TAg mice in the carboplatin plus PD0332991 group) were used to investigate the antitumor activity of PD0332991 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Coadministration of PD0332991 with carboplatin compared with carboplatin alone in FVB/N wild-type mice increased hematocrit (51.2% vs 33.5%, difference = 17.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −26.7% to −8.6%, P < .001), platelet counts (1321 vs 758.5 thousand cells per μL, difference = 562.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = −902.8 to −222.6, P = .002), myeloid cells (granulocytes and monocytes; 3.1 vs 1.6 thousand cells per μL, difference = 1.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = −2.23 to −0.67, P < .001), and lymphocytes (7.9 vs 5.4 thousand cells per μL, difference = 2.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = −4.75 to −0.18, P = .02). Daily administration of PD0332991 exhibited antitumor activity in MMTV-c-neu mice as a single agent. However, the combination of

  3. Decreased transpiration in poplar trees exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Guffey, A.P.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The improper handling of the toxic compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has led to the contamination of soil and groundwater, and the uptake of TNT by a variety of plants has been established. This article discusses the effects of various concentrations of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the transpiration of hybrid poplar trees growing in hydroponic media. Transpiration was measured daily by gravimetric means. The rapid removal of TNT from hydroponic solutions was a result of plant uptake and required a daily dosage of TNT to ensure a relatively constant exposure over time. Transpiration decreased with increasing TNT concentrations {ge}5 mg/L. Decreases in transpiration were accompanied by leaf chlorosis and abscission. A comparison between a laboratory study and a pilot-scale experiment showed good scale-up potential.

  4. Electronic structure and spectral-luminescent properties of 1,2,4,6-tetrasubstituted pyridinium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Korunova, A.F.; Krainov, I.P.; Protsenko, E.G.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of the electronic excitation of 1,2,4,6-tetrasubstituted pyridinium salts was studied by quantum-chemical calculations carried out by the SCF PPP CI method, using excitation-localization numbers on the atoms and fragments, and interfragmentary charge transfer numbers. The nature of the absorption bands observed in the spectra and certain structural factors causing the spectral-luminescent properties were established.

  5. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  6. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  7. Reflectance spectra of mafic silicates and phyllosilicates from .6 to 4.6 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Singer, Robert B.; Mccord, Thomas B.

    1987-01-01

    The results of spectral measurements for mafic silicates are given. The study provided valuable spectral reflectance information about mafic silicates and phyllosilicates in the 2.5 to 4.6 micron wavelength region. It was shown that the reflectance of these materials is strongly affected by the presence of H2O and OH. Therefore, the identification of these absorbing species is greatly enhanced.

  8. Postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Adams, M G; Kelly, P J; Kodkany, B S; Derman, R J

    2006-03-01

    Despite the strong interest of international health agencies, worldwide maternal mortality has not declined substantially over the past 10 years. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of maternal death across the world, responsible for more than 25% of deaths annually. Although effective tools for prevention and treatment of PPH are available, most are not feasible or practical for use in the developing world where many births still occur at home with untrained birth attendants. Application of many available clinical solutions in rural areas would necessitate substantial changes in government infrastructure and in local culture and customs surrounding pregnancy and childbirth. Before treatment can be administered, prompt and accurate diagnosis must be made, which requires training and appropriate blood measurement tools. After diagnosis, appropriate interventions that can be applied in remote settings are needed. Many uterotonics known to be effective in reducing PPH in tertiary care settings may not be useful in community settings because they require refrigeration and/or skilled administration. Moreover, rapid transfer to a higher level of care must be available, a challenge in many settings because of distance and lack of transportation. In light of these barriers, low-technological replacements for treatments commonly applied in the developed-world must be utilized. Community education, improvements to emergency care systems, training for birth attendants, misoprostol, and Uniject have shown promise as potential solutions. In the short term, it is expedient to capitalize on practical opportunities that utilize the existing strengths and resources in each community or region in order to implement appropriate solutions to save the lives of women during childbirth. PMID:16427056

  9. Applying polygenic risk scores to postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Enda M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Sallis, Hannah M; Viktorin, Alexander; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Boschloo, Lynn; van Grootheest, Gerard; McMahon, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be heterogeneous, but postpartum depression (PPD) is hypothesized to represent a more homogenous subset of MDD. We use genome-wide SNP data to explore this hypothesis. Method We assembled a total cohort of 1,420 self-report cases of PPD and 9,473 controls with genome-wide genotypes from Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. We estimated the total variance attributable to genotyped variants. We used association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) of Bipolar Disorder (BPD) and MDD to create polygenic scores in PPD and related MDD data sets to estimate the genetic overlap between the disorders. Results We estimated that the percentage of variance on the liability scale explained by common genetic variants to be 0.22 with a standard error of 0.12, p = 0.02. The R2 from a logistic regression of PPD case-control status in all four cohorts on a SNP profile score weighted by PGC-BPD association results was small (0.1%) but significant (p= 0.004) indicating a genetic overlap between BPD and PPD. The results were highly significant in the Australian and Dutch cohorts (R2 > 1.1%, p < 0.008), where the majority of cases met criteria for MDD. The genetic overlap between BPD and MDD was not significant in larger Australian and Dutch MDD case-control cohorts after excluding PPD cases (R2 =0.06%, p= 0.08), despite the larger MDD group affording more power. Conclusions Our results suggest empirical genetic evidence for a more important shared genetic etiology between BPD and PPD, than between BPD and MDD. PMID:25037970

  10. Hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Too, Gloria T; Hill, James B

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension affects 10% of pregnancies, many with underlying chronic hypertension, and approximately 1-2% will undergo a hypertensive crisis at some point during their lives. Hypertensive crisis includes hypertensive urgency and emergency; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists describes a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy as persistent (lasting 15 min or more), acute-onset, severe hypertension, defined as systolic BP greater than 160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Pregnancy may be complicated by hypertensive crisis, with lower blood pressure threshold for end-organ damage than non-pregnant patients. Maternal assessment should include a thorough history. Fetal assessment should include heart rate tracing, ultrasound for growth and amniotic assessment, and Doppler evaluation if growth restriction is suspected. Initial management of hypertensive emergency (systolic BP >160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) generally includes the rapid reduction of blood pressure through the use of intravenous antihypertensive medications, with goal systolic blood pressure between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg and diastolic pressure between 90 mmHg and 100 mmHg. First-line intravenous drugs include labetalol and hydralazine, but other agents may be used, including esmolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, and, as a last resort, sodium nitroprusside. Among patients with hypertensive urgency, slower blood pressure reduction can be provided with oral agents. The objective of this article is to review the current understanding, diagnosis, and management of hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:23916027

  11. Efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 μg rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

  12. Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Pregnancy and postpartum are associated with dramatic alterations in steroid and peptide hormones which alter the mothers' hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Dysregulations in these endocrine axes are related to mood disorders and as such it should not come as a major surprise that pregnancy and the postpartum period can have profound effects on maternal mood. Indeed, pregnancy and postpartum are associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms in women. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Maternal attachment, sensitivity and parenting style are essential for a healthy maturation of an infant's social, cognitive and behavioral skills and depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and more harsh or disrupted parenting behaviors, which may contribute to reports of adverse child outcomes in children of depressed mothers. Here we review, in honor of the "father of motherhood", Jay Rosenblatt, the literature on postnatal depression in the mother and its effect on mother-infant interactions. We will cover clinical and pre-clinical findings highlighting putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying postpartum depression and how they relate to maternal behaviors and infant outcome. We also review animal models that investigate the neurobiology of maternal mood and disrupted maternal care. In particular, we discuss the implications of endogenous and exogenous manipulations of glucocorticoids on maternal care and mood. Lastly we discuss interventions during gestation and postpartum that may improve maternal symptoms and behavior and thus may alter developmental outcome of the offspring. PMID:26319224

  13. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  14. 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole is a potent suppressor of olfactory signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hiroko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kurahashi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of single olfactory receptor cells to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), a compound known for causing cork taint in wines. Such off-flavors have been thought to originate from unpleasant odor qualities evoked by contaminants. However, we here show that TCA attenuates olfactory transduction by suppressing cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, without evoking odorant responses. Surprisingly, suppression was observed even at extremely low (i.e., attomolar) TCA concentrations. The high sensitivity to TCA was associated with temporal integration of the suppression effect. We confirmed that potent suppression by TCA and similar compounds was correlated with their lipophilicity, as quantified by the partition coefficient at octanol/water boundary (pH 7.4), suggesting that channel suppression is mediated by a partitioning of TCA into the lipid bilayer of plasma membranes. The rank order of suppression matched human recognition of off-flavors: TCA equivalent to 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, which is much greater than 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Furthermore, TCA was detected in a wide variety of foods and beverages surveyed for odor losses. Our findings demonstrate a potential molecular mechanism for the reduction of flavor. PMID:24043819

  15. p18 inhibits reprogramming through inactivation of Cdk4/6

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shaohua; Cao, Jiani; Sun, Hongyan; Liu, Kun; Li, Yaqiong; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), show atypical cell cycle regulation characterized by a high proliferation rate and a shorter G1 phase compared with somatic cells. The mechanisms by which somatic cells remodel their cell cycle to achieve the high proliferation rate of PSCs during reprogramming are unclear. Here we identify that the Ink4 protein p18, which is expressed at high levels in somatic cells but at low levels in PSCs, is a roadblock to successful reprogramming. Mild inhibition of p18 expression enhances reprogramming efficiency, while ectopic expression of p18 completely blocks reprogramming. Mechanistic studies show that expression of wild-type p18, but not a p18D68N mutant which cannot inhibit Cdk4/6, down-regulates expression of Cdk4/6 target genes involved in DNA synthesis (TK, TS, DHFR, PCNA) and cell cycle regulation (CDK1 and CCNA2) and thus inhibits reprogramming. These results indicate that p18 blocks reprogramming by targeting Cdk4/6-mediated cell cycle regulation. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway that inhibits somatic cell reprogramming, and provide a new target to enhance reprogramming efficiency. PMID:27484146

  16. New double molybdate Na9Fe(MoO4)6: Synthesis, structure, properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Aleksandra A.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Basovich, Olga M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Belov, Dmitry A.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Gudkova, Irina A.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.; Lazoryak, Bogdan I.; Khaikina, Elena G.

    2013-09-01

    A new double molybdate Na9Fe(MoO4)6 was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Mössbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na9Fe(MoO4)6 were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group R3¯, a=14.8264(2), c=19.2402(3) Å, V=3662.79(9) Å3, Z=6, R=0.0132). The structure is related to that of sodium ion conductor II-Na3Fe2(AsO4)3. The basic structure units are polyhedral clusters composed of central FeО6 octahedron sharing edges with three Na(1)О6 octahedra. The clusters share common vertices with bridging МоО4 tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework where the cavities are occupied by Na(2) and Na(3) atoms. The compound melts incongruently at 904.7±0.2 K. Arrhenius type temperature dependence of electric conductivity σ has been registered in solid state (σ=6.8×10-2 S сm-1 at 800 K), thus allowing considering Na9Fe(MoO4)6 as a new sodium ion conductor.

  17. CDK4/6 Inhibitor PD0332991 in Glioblastoma Treatment: Does It Have a Future?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Lisette B. W.; McDonald, Kerrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is aggressive, highly infiltrating, and the most frequent malignant form of brain cancer. With a median survival time of only 14.6 months, when treated with the standard of care, it is essential to find new therapeutic options. A specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, PD0332991, obtained accelerated approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced estrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer. Common alterations in the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-retinoblastoma 1 pathway in glioblastoma make PD0332991 also an interesting drug for the treatment of glioblastoma. Promising results in in vitro studies, where patient derived glioblastoma cell lines showed sensitivity to PD0332991, gave motive to start in vivo studies. Outcomes of these studies have been contrasting in terms of PD0332991 efficacy within the brain: more research is necessary to conclude whether CDK4/6 inhibitor can be beneficial in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26649278

  18. Bidirectional psychoneuroimmune interactions in the early postpartum period influence risk of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Pajer, Kathleen; Paul, Sudeshna; Lowe, Nancy; Weber, Mary; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-10-01

    More than 500,000 U.S. women develop postpartum depression (PPD) annually. Although psychosocial risks are known, the underlying biology remains unclear. Dysregulation of the immune inflammatory response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with depression in other populations. While significant research on the contribution of these systems to the development of PPD has been conducted, results have been inconclusive. This is partly because few studies have focused on whether disruption in the bidirectional and dynamic interaction between the inflammatory response and the HPA axis together influence PPD. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that disruption in the inflammatory-HPA axis bidirectional relationship would increase the risk of PPD. Plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on Days 7 and 14, and Months 1, 2, 3, and 6 after childbirth. Saliva was collected 5 times the day preceding blood draws for determination of cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Of the 152 women who completed the EPDS, 18% were depressed according to EDPS criteria within the 6months postpartum. Cortisol AUC was higher in symptomatic women on Day 14 (p=.017). To consider the combined effects of cytokines and cortisol on predicting symptoms of PPD, a multiple logistic regression model was developed that included predictors identified in bivariate analyses to have an effect on depressive symptoms. Results indicated that family history of depression, day 14 cortisol AUC, and the day 14 IL8/IL10 ratio were significant predictors of PPD symptoms. One unit increase each in the IL8/IL10 ratio and cortisol AUC resulted in 1.50 (p=0.06) and 2.16 (p=0.02) fold increases respectively in the development of PPD. Overall, this model correctly classified 84.2% of individuals in their respective groups. Findings

  19. An unusual cause of postpartum abdominal pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Gregory J; Fagen, Kimberly; Shepherd, Matthew; Boswell, Gilbert

    2009-08-01

    Abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in the Emergency Department. It extends to all populations regardless of age, sex, or socioeconomic status. After gathering a history and examining the patient, most Emergency Physicians form a differential diagnosis and initiate an appropriate work-up. However, in the postpartum woman, additional causes must be considered and treated accordingly, knowing that there are consequences for both mother and child. We present a case of a postpartum woman presenting with right-sided abdominal pain, the cause of which, although atypical, has potential for significant morbidity and mortality if it goes undiscovered. PMID:18572346

  20. [Infanticide as a consequence of postpartum bonding disorder].

    PubMed

    Hornstein, C; Trautmann-Villalba, P

    2007-05-01

    Parental killing of their own children in the 1st year constitutes a rare phenomenon. Studies on infanticide show that mothers who kill their children are frequently psychiatrically disturbed. Depression is the most common postpartum disorder and may represent a vital danger for both mother and child. The association between depression and infanticide can usually be explained by maternal psychopathologic symptoms. The importance of a mother's bonding to her infant has not often been examined in respect to infanticide. The present case report underlines the importance of postpartum bonding disorder and its relation to a higher risk of infanticide. PMID:17464496

  1. The problem of post-partum fistulas in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Steiner, A K

    1996-12-30

    Postpartum fistulas are frequent in the tropical environment. They are mostly found in very young women who live in remote areas. Without treatment women with fistulas will be condemned to the disconsolate life of social outcasts. Good operative treatment is crucial. The different operative methods are discussed. The operation through vaginal approach can be performed in any hospital. It does not need special surgical skill. More important than surgery is prevention of postpartum fistulas through a well-organised primary health care program which reaches out into the villages and which includes adequate prenatal controls and competent midwifery. PMID:9028407

  2. A fatal postpartum Clostridium sordellii associated toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bitti, A; Mastrantonio, P; Spigaglia, P; Urru, G; Spano, A I; Moretti, G; Cherchi, G B

    1997-01-01

    Clostridium sordellii is an infrequent human pathogen. It has been demonstrated to be occasionally responsible for myonecrosis or gas gangrene. Interestingly, in the obstetric literature, some cases of postpartum maternal deaths have been associated with C sordellii infection causing a rapidly lethal toxin mediated syndrome. This is the first reported case of postpartum death in a 29 year old woman, in which a toxigenic C sordellii was isolated from the patient's blood antemortem during the fatal toxic shock, strongly indicating its role in this rare syndrome. PMID:9155682

  3. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: postpartum decompensation and use of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lorello, G; Cubillos, J; McDonald, M; Balki, M

    2014-02-01

    The utility of a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (NICOM™) in guiding the peripartum management and identification of postpartum complications in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is reported. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman at 35 weeks of gestation presented with a three-week history of worsening dyspnea and progressive functional deterioration. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction <20%. Cardiac status was monitored using NICOM™ during labor and delivery. The baseline values were: cardiac output 5.3 L/min, total peripheral resistance 1549 dynes.sec/cm(5), stroke volume 42.1 mL and stroke volume variation 18%. She received early epidural analgesia during labor, titrated slowly with a loading dose of 0.0625% bupivacaine 10 mL and fentanyl 25 μg, followed by patient-controlled epidural analgesia (0.0625% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2 μg/mL, infusion at 10 mL/h, bolus dose 5 mL and lockout interval 10 min). After epidural drug administration, total peripheral resistance decreased, cardiac output increased, and satisfactory analgesia was obtained. She had an uneventful vaginal delivery with a forceps-assisted second stage after prophylactic administration of furosemide 20 mg. NICOM™ was discontinued after delivery. Fifteen hours post-delivery, the patient developed cardiogenic shock, which resolved after aggressive therapy with inotropes and furosemide. NICOM™ can be used to guide treatment during labor and delivery in patients with critical peripartum cardiomyopathy. We suggest that use of NICOM™ be extended into the postpartum period to detect signs of cardiac decompensation in such patients. PMID:24360329

  4. Effects and bioavailability of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spiked and field-contaminated soils to indigenous microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, P.; Siciliano, S.D.; Greer, C.W.; Paquet, L.; Hawari, J.; Sunahara, G.I.

    1999-12-01

    The response of potential nitrification activity (PNA), nitrogen-fixation activity (NFA), and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was assessed. Two garden soils of contrasting texture were spiked with TNT. Soil microbial activities and TNT residues were analyzed 1 week later. The estimated IC50 ranged from 39 to 533 mg/kg of the acetonitrile-extractable (AE) TNT, depending on indicators and soils. The lowest LOEC (lowest-observed-effect concentration) was 1 mg AE TNT/kg. Field soil was collected from three known contaminated sites in an abandoned TNT manufacturing facility. Microbial toxicity significantly correlated to TNT levels in these soils. The LOEC and NOEC (no-observed-effect concentration) values were site and indicator specific, with the lowest LOEC being 1 mg AE TNT/kg and the lowest NOEC being 0.4 mg AE TNT/kg. The IC50 of the pooled field samples was 51 mg AE TNT/kg for PNA or 157 mg AE TNT/kg for DHA. These results indicate that microbial responses were consistent and comparable between the laboratory and the field and that TNT could significantly inhibit soil microbial activities at very low levels. Both AE TNT and deionized water-extractable (DW) TNT concentrations correlated well with microbial toxicity, but AE TNT provided a better evaluation of TNT bioavailability than did DW TNT.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Gobi, K Vengatajalabathy; Sakai, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Miura, Norio

    2005-03-15

    We have examined the sensing characteristics of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay for the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) using an immunoreaction between 2,4,6-trinitrophenol-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA) conjugate and anti-2,4,6-trinitrophenol antibody (anti-TNP antibody). TNP-OVA conjugate was attached to a SPR-gold sensing surface by means of physical immobilization, which undergoes binding interaction with anti-TNP antibody. Both the immobilization and binding processes were studied from a change in the SPR-resonance angle. The quantification of TNT is based on the principle of indirect competitive immunoassay, in which the immunoreaction between the TNP-OVA conjugate and anti-TNP antibody was inhibited in the presence of free TNT in solution. The decrease in the resonance angle shift is proportional to an increase in concentration of TNT used for incubation. The immunoassay exhibited excellent sensitivity for the detection of TNT in the concentration range from 0.09 to 1000 ng/ml with good stability and reproducibility. The immunosensor developed could detect TNT as low as 0.09 ng/ml, within a response time of approximately 22 min. The sensor surface was regenerated by a brief flow of pepsin solution, which disrupts the antigen-antibody complex without destroying the conjugate biofilm. Cross-reactivity of the SPR sensor to some structurally related nitroaromatic derivative and the detection of TNT in the presence of these nitroaromatic compounds were investigated. The cross-reactivity of the SPR sensor to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-4,6-DNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A-2,6-DNT) were very low (< or =1.1%). The analytical characteristics of the proposed immunosensor are highly promising for the development of new field-portable sensors for on-site detection of landmines. PMID:15681190

  6. Glucose intolerance in early postpartum in women with gestational diabetes: Who is at increased risk?

    PubMed

    Leuridan, Liesbeth; Wens, Johan; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Benhalima, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the years after the index pregnancy. Some women with GDM already develop glucose intolerance in early postpartum. The best screening strategy for glucose intolerance in early postpartum among women with a history of GDM is still debated. We review the most important risk factors of women with GDM to develop glucose intolerance within one year postpartum. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening in early postpartum and the many challenges to organize postpartum follow up in primary care. PMID:25899304

  7. Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis-based equations for estimation of body composition in postpartum rural Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Schulze, Kerry J; Kurpad, Anura; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee S-F; Rashid, Mahbubar; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2013-02-28

    Equations for predicting body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters are age-, sex- and population-specific. Currently there are no equations applicable to women of reproductive age in rural South Asia. Hence, we developed equations for estimating total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass in rural Bangladeshi women using BIA, with ²H₂O dilution as the criterion method. Women of reproductive age, participating in a community-based placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation, were enrolled at 19·7 (SD 9·3) weeks postpartum in a study to measure body composition by ²H₂O dilution and impedance at 50 kHz using multi-frequency BIA (n 147), and resistance at 50 kHz using single-frequency BIA (n 82). TBW (kg) by ²H2O dilution was used to derive prediction equations for body composition from BIA measures. The prediction equation was applied to resistance measures obtained at 13 weeks postpartum in a larger population of postpartum women (n 1020). TBW, FFM and fat were 22·6 (SD 2·7), 30·9 (SD 3·7) and 10·2 (SD 3·8) kg by ²H₂O dilution. Height²/impedance or height²/resistance and weight provided the best estimate of TBW, with adjusted R² 0·78 and 0·76, and with paired absolute differences in TBW of 0·02 (SD 1·33) and 0·00 (SD 1·28) kg, respectively, between BIA and ²H₂O. In the larger sample, values for TBW, FFM and fat were 23·8, 32·5 and 10·3 kg, respectively. BIA can be an important tool for assessing body composition in women of reproductive age in rural South Asia where poor maternal nutrition is common. PMID:22716500

  8. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  9. Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health

  10. Effect of supplementation with vitamins E, C and β-carotene on antioxidative/oxidative status parameters in sows during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vitamins E, C and β-carotene supplementation in sows on the parameters of antioxidative/oxidative status during the postpartum period was investigated. Twenty four primiparous sows, divided into two groups (experimental and control), were included in the study. After the half-way point of pregnancy until farrowing, each experimental sow received feed supplemented twice a week with 200 mg of vitamin E and 1000 mg of vitamin C, and additionally, 70 mg of β-carotene were administered via intramuscular injection, on day 14 and day 7 before farrowing. The control group was not supplemented. Blood samples were collected before supplementation (gestational day 57-58), 48 hours and 7 days after parturition. The following antioxidative and oxidative parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), vitamin C, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and sulfhydryl groups (SH groups). In supplemented sows the erythrocyte activity of GSH-Px and CAT was found to be significantly higher on day 7 after farrowing and the activity of SOD was significantly higher at 48 hours postpartum, compared to the control group. The concentration of vitamins C and E in plasma of the supplemented group was found to be significantly higher and the content of TBARS was found significantly lower at both postpartum measurement points, compared to the control group. The content of SH groups was significantly higher on day 7 postpartum, compared to the control group. The study findings indicate that supplementation of pregnant sows with vitamins E, C and β-carotene in the second half of pregnancy has beneficial effects on the antioxidative/oxidative balance in the postpartum period by increasing the antioxidative potential and reducing lipid and protein peroxidation. PMID:26172179

  11. Reduction of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymes from aquatic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Beelen, P. van; Burris, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    Enzymes were extracted from aquatic sediments. Some of these enzymes reduced 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as an electron donor under aerobic conditions. The origin of these enzymes was not clear as the enzymes were extracted from a sediment containing plant roots and microorganisms. Aquatic plants were determined to e a source of TNT-reducing enzymes. Chemical reduction was not a rate-limiting process in the assays as the enzymatic activity was inhibited by heating or the addition of proteases. Enzymatic activity in the extracts was further characterized. Partial purifications of enzymes from the sediment extracts shows that several proteins capable of reducing NT with NADPH were present. The enzymes did not require flavins and preferred NADPH over NADH as the electron donor. The pH optimum for the stability of the enzymes was near neutral, and the temperature optimum was in the 37 to 45 C range. Addition of dithiothreitol improved the stability of the enzymes. The enzymes reduced 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene, and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene under aerobic conditions with NADPH. When used as a starting substrate, the aminodinitrotoluenes were not reduced by the enzymes. It might be possible that the hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes are reduced to di[hydroxylamine]nitrotoluenes prior to the formation of the diaminonitrotoluenes. Sediments from 11 surface water bodies were examined for the presence of TNT-reducing enzymes, and 10 were found to have activity. These enzymes appear to be ubiquitous and are present in both freshwater and saltwater sediments. Reduction of TNT by sediment enzymes can be a significant environmental fate process for TNT in aquatic systems.

  12. Novel La3Fe(MoO4)6 phase: magnetic properties and ethanol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Colmont, Marie; Bucataru, Georgiana; Borowiec, Anita; Capron, Mickaël; Dumeignil, Franck; Huvé, Marielle; Capet, Frédéric; Damay, Françoise; Mentré, Olivier; Roussel, Pascal

    2015-08-28

    Single crystals of a new oxide, La3Fe(MoO4)6, were grown from fluxes of oxide precursors, and a polycrystalline sample was also prepared by a standard solid state reaction. La3Fe(MoO4)6 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with unit cell parameters a = 19.3164(11), b = 10.4143(5) and c = 22.0594(12) Å. This crystal structure exhibits a singular architectural type built on infinite chains of Fe(MoO4)4, each of them being surrounded by two isolated MoO4 tetrahedra and three isolated La(3+) cations. Fe(3+) ions in La3Fe(MoO4)6 are antiferromagnetically ordered below TN = 6.6 K in chains and between chains, as refined from neutron diffraction data. Further the redox stability of this compound - pure powder - was checked using temperature-programmed X-ray diffraction under a controlled atmosphere; under air, we observed a reversible phase transition above 523 K. The same phenomenon was observed under a reductive atmosphere, followed by a destruction of the as-formed phase above 923 K owing to iron III to II reduction. Reactivity of ethanol was then evaluated to get insights into the redox properties of the material under working conditions. After 4 hours of reaction at 648 K, the ethanol conversion was 97% with a selectivity to acetaldehyde of ∼60%, the other products being formaldehyde (∼10%) and CO2 (∼30%), underlining a better acetaldehyde selectivity than that of the La-free conventional Fe2(MoO4)3 catalytic formulation. PMID:26204096

  13. Analysis of the Contribution of Individual Substituents in 4,6-Aminoglycoside-Ribosome Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hobbie, Sven N.; Pfister, Peter; Brüll, Christian; Westhof, Eric; Böttger, Erik C.

    2005-01-01

    The 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamines interfere with protein biosynthesis by specifically targeting the ribosomal A site. These drugs show subtle variations in the chemical groups of rings I, II, and III. In the present study we used site-directed mutagenesis to generate mutant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 SMR5 ΔrrnB with mutations in its single rRNA allele, rrnA. This genetic procedure gives rise to strains carrying homogeneous populations of mutant ribosomes and was used to study the contribution of individual chemical substituents to the binding of 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides. X-ray crystal structures of geneticin and tobramycin complexed to oligonucleotides containing the minimal bacterial ribosomal A site were used for interpretation of MICs determined for a panel of 4,6-aminoglycosides, including tobramycin, kanamycin A, kanamycin B, amikacin, gentamicin, and geneticin. Surprisingly, the considerable differences present within ring III did not seem to alter the interaction of the drug with the ribosome, as determined by site-directed mutagenesis of the A site. In contrast, subtle variations in ring I significantly influenced binding: (i) a 4′-hydroxyl moiety participates in the proper drug target interaction; and (ii) a 2′-amino group contributes an additional positive charge to ring I, making the drug less susceptible to any kind of sequence alteration within the decoding site, most notably, to conformational changes induced by transversion of U1495 to 1495A. The 4-amino-2-hydroxyl-1-oxobutyl extension at position 1 of ring II of amikacin provides an additional anchor and renders amikacin less dependent on the structural conformation of nucleotide U1406 compared to the dependencies of other kanamycins. Overall, the set of interactions forming the complex between drug substituents and nucleotides of the A site constitutes a network in which the interactions can partly compensate for each other when they are disrupted. PMID:16304180

  14. Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Anabaena sp. cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlostathis, S.G.; Jackson, G.H.

    1999-03-01

    The transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was investigated in cultures of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. by conducting a series of batch assays. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene was added to Anabaena sp. cultures in single and consecutive additions, at various initial concentrations, to determine its transformation kinetics, to identify products formed, to evaluate potential toxicity, and to determine the effect of light deprivation on the TNT transformation process. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene disappearance occurred only in the presence of Anabaena sp. cultures maintained under a normal 16-h photoperiod. Toxicity leading to culture chlorosis and death was observed in batch systems with an initial TNT concentration greater than 10 mg/L. A low rate and extent of TNT disappearance was observed in light-deprived cultures, which were inhibited even at low TNT concentrations. At pH values between 7.5 and 8.5, azoxy-tetranitrotoluene isomers were detected in both the culture medium and solvent extracts of biomass and accounted for only 20 and 4.4% of the initially added TNT moles, respectively. At a culture pH range between 5.6 and 5.9, achieved by aeration with a 5% CO{sub 2}/air mixture, hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene equimolar to the TNT addition was produced and then depleted from the culture medium with prolonged incubation. Although TNT reduction in Anabaena sp. cultures occurred, yielding low levels of azoxy-tetranitrotoluene isomers or hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene, uptake and other transformation reactions of TNT and/or its transformation products by Anabaena sp. may have taken place. Based on a less than 15% observed increase of biomass concentration over the relatively short incubation periods and by considering the mean biomass concentration constant, the TNT disappearance rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The biomass carbon-normalized TNT disappearance rates in Anabaena sp. cultures were about three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported TNT

  15. Promoting Postpartum Exercise: An Opportune Time for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Erika N.

    2002-01-01

    During the postpartum period clinicians can promote the importance of physical fitness, help patients incorporate exercise into lifestyle changes, and encourage them to overcome barriers to exercise. New responsibilities, physical changes, and time constraints may make exercise seem impossible. By emphasizing weight control, stress reduction, and…

  16. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  17. Knowledge of blood loss at delivery among postpartum patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Claire M.; Ramachandran, Bharathi; Hegde, Priya; Akbar, Kulsum; Goodnough, Lawrence Tim; Butwick, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of obstetric morbidity. There is limited understanding of patients’ knowledge about blood loss at delivery, PPH, and PPH-related morbidities, including transfusion and anemia. Methods We surveyed 100 healthy postpartum patients who underwent vaginal or cesarean delivery about blood loss, and whether they received information about transfusion and peripartum hemoglobin (Hb) testing. Responses were compared between women undergoing vaginal delivery vs. cesarean delivery; P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results In our cohort, 49 women underwent vaginal delivery and 51 women underwent cesarean delivery. Only 29 (29%) of women provided blood loss estimates for their delivery. Women who underwent cesarean delivery were more likely to receive clear information about transfusion therapy than those undergoing vaginal delivery (43.1% vs. 20.4% respectively; P = 0.04). Women who underwent vaginal delivery were more likely to receive results of postpartum Hb tests compared to those undergoing cesarean delivery (49% vs. 29.4%; P = 0.02). Conclusion Our findings suggest that women are poorly informed about the magnitude of blood loss at delivery. Hematologic information given to patients varies according to mode of delivery. Further research is needed to better understand the clinical implications of patients’ knowledge gaps about PPH, transfusion and postpartum anemia.

  18. The Nurse Clinician: A Teaching Model for Postpartum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungy, Claibourne I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Deficiencies observed in health education and infant bonding in the postpartum service at the University of California-Irvine Medical Center prompted the creation of a nurse clinician position to coordinate health education for the largely indigent patient population, to expand in-service training, facilitate delivery of services, and to serve as…

  19. Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage from Uterine Atony: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Montufar-Rueda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Laritza; Jarquin, José Douglas; Barboza, Alejandra; Bustillo, Maura Carolina; Marin, Flor; Ortiz, Guillermo; Estrada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an important cause of maternal mortality (MM) around the world. Seventy percent of the PPH corresponds to uterine atony. The objective of our study was to evaluate multicenter PPH cases during a 10-month period, and evaluate severe postpartum hemorrhage management. Study Design. The study population is a cohort of vaginal delivery and cesarean section patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. The study was designed as a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, during 10 months in 13 teaching hospitals. Results. Total live births during the study period were 124,019 with 218 patients (0.17%) with severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPHH). Total maternal deaths were 8, for mortality rate of 3.6% and a MM rate of 6.45/100,000 live births (LB). Maternal deaths were associated with inadequate transfusion therapy. Conclusions. In all patients with severe hemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemic shock, the most important therapy is intravascular volume resuscitation, to reduce the possibility of target organ damage and death. Similarly, the current proposals of transfusion therapy in severe or massive hemorrhage point to early transfusion of blood products and use of fresh frozen plasma, in addition to packed red blood cells, to prevent maternal deaths. PMID:24363935

  20. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  1. Reply: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for postpartum depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To the Editors: We appreciate the interest and the comments of Chiu et al. concerning our recently published study investigating the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to prevent postpartum depression (PPD). We agree with many of their criticisms and, in fact, discussed th...

  2. Early Interactions between Infants and Their Postpartum Depressed Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…

  3. Predicting Change in Postpartum Depression: An Individual Growth Curve Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Trey

    Recently, methodologists interested in examining problems associated with measuring change have suggested that developmental researchers should focus upon assessing change at both intra-individual and inter-individual levels. This study used an application of individual growth curve analysis to the problem of maternal postpartum depression.…

  4. A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

  5. The Structure of Women's Mood in the Early Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Melissa M.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom structure of women's mood…

  6. Do obstetrical providers counsel women about postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Hacker, Michele R.; Dodge, Laura E.; Elkadry, Eman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess prenatal counseling practices of obstetrical providers related to postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction at centers with integrated urogynecology services. Study Design A cross-sectional survey was distributed to obstetrical providers through urogynecology colleagues. The survey included questions about level of training as well as counseling practices related to common postpartum pelvic floor symptoms. All statistical tests were two sided, and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results One hundred ninety-two surveys were received; 19 respondents did not perform their own prenatal counseling and were excluded. Among the remaining 173 respondents, 94 (56.3%) of those who answered the question reported never discussing postpartum urinary incontinence, and 73.7% reported never discussing postpartum fecal incontinence during prenatal counseling. Obstetrics and gynecology residents were significantly less likely than attending physicians to report discussing various pelvic floor dysfunction topics in prenatal counseling. Among those who reported not counseling women regarding pelvic floor dysfunction, the most common reason cited was lack of time (39.9%) followed by lack of sufficient information (30.1%). Conclusion Prenatal counseling of pelvic floor dysfunction risk is lacking at all levels of obstetrical training. Limitations of time and information are the obstacles most often cited by providers. PMID:26126305

  7. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  8. Endovascular Therapies for Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage: Techniques and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Matthew G.; Smith, Mitchell T.

    2013-01-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted for acute management of hemorrhagic complications in obstetric and gynecologic patients. The aim of this article is to review the common indications for vascular embolization in obstetric and gynecologic emergencies, specifically in the setting of primary postpartum hemorrhage, and to discuss the technique and outcomes of endovascular treatment. PMID:24436559

  9. Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Mothers observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum interacting with their infants were given attitude questionnaires. Mothers who had reported preganancy problems were more depressed and anxious and expressed more punitive childrearing attitudes than mothers not reporting pregnancy problems. (Author/NH)

  10. The Association Between Postpartum Depression and Pica During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeddin, Neda; Zavoshy, Roza; Noroozi, Mostafa; Sarichloo, Mohammad Ebrahim; Jahanihashemi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder and social debilitating that has adverse effects on the mother, child and family. Pica is an eating disorder characterized by persistent ingestion of substances that the consumer does not define as food. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of postpartum depression with pica during pregnancy. Method: This is case-control study was carried out in health centers in west Tehran. 152 depressed women (case group) and 148 non-depressed women (control group) were selected randomly from these health care centers. In addition to collecting demographic and pica data, the Edinburgh Depression Scale was used. The data was analyzed by both descriptive and analytic analyses such as chi-squared and logistic regression in SPSS version 16. Result: In this study, there wasn’t a significant association between PPD and pica during pregnancy (P=0.153, OR=2.043, CI=0.767, 5.438), but, postpartum depression has a significant association with type (clay) (P= 0.024) and duration (more than 2 months) (P= 0.023) of pica practice. Conclusions: In the present study, pregnancy pica was not important risk factor for PPD but there were similar risk factors such as iron supplementation during and postpartum pregnancy with pica and PPD. PMID:26573027

  11. Chemical stability of molten 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Chellappa, Raja S.; Bowden, Patrick R.; Coe, Joshua D.; Margevicius, Madeline A.

    2014-01-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a molecular explosive that exhibits chemical stability in the molten phase at ambient pressure. A combination of visual, spectroscopic, and structural (x-ray diffraction) methods coupled to high pressure, resistively heated diamond anvil cells was used to determine the melt and decomposition boundaries to >15 GPa. The chemical stability of molten TNT was found to be limited, existing in a small domain of pressure-temperature conditions below 2 GPa. Decomposition dominates the phase diagram at high temperatures beyond 6 GPa. From the calculated bulk temperature rise, we conclude that it is unlikely that TNT melts on its principal Hugoniot.

  12. UV photolysis for enhanced phenol biodegradation in the presence of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    PubMed

    Song, Jiaxiu; Wang, Wenbing; Li, Rongjie; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-02-01

    A bacterial strain isolated from activated sludge and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens could biodegrade phenol, but 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) inhibited phenol biodegradation and biomass growth. UV photolysis converted TCP into dichlorocatechol, monochlorophenol, and dichlorophenol, and this relieved inhibition by TCP. Phenol-removal and biomass-growth rates were significantly accelerated after UV photolysis: the monod maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) increased by 9% after TCP photolysis, and the half-maximum-rate concentration (K(S)) decreased by 36%. Thus, the major benefit of UV photolysis in this case was to transform TCP into a set of much-less-inhibitory products. PMID:26747251

  13. Examination of the estrogenicity of 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 104), its hydroxylated metabolite 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachloro-4-biphenylol (HO-PCB 104), and a further chlorinated derivative, 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 155).

    PubMed Central

    Fielden, M R; Chen, I; Chittim, B; Safe, S H; Zacharewski, T R

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have reported that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit estrogenic activity; however, it is not clear if these responses are associated with the polychlorinated hydrocarbon or its hydroxylated metabolite. In order to further test this hypothesis, a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays were used to investigate the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 104), its para-hydroxylated derivative 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachloro-4-biphenylol (HO-PCB 104), and its para-chlorinated derivative 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 155). PCB 104 was found to 1) compete with tritiated 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the mouse uterine estrogen receptor (ER); 2) induce gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transiently transfected with the Gal4-human ER chimeric construct (Gal4-HEGO) and the Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc); and 3) increase MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. HO-PCB 104 exhibited greater estrogenic activity than PCB 104 in the in vitro assays examined. However, gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric analysis of extracts prepared from MCF-7 cells incubated with PCB 104 failed to detect the presence of the expected major metabolite HO-PCB 104. The estrogenic activity of the para-chlorinated derivative, PCB 155, was minimal compared to PCB 104 and HO-PCB 104, but it did exhibit significant antiestrogenic activity following co-treatment with 1 nM E2. Co-treatment of PCB 104 with 1 nM E2 had no effect on reporter gene expression compared to E2 alone, while 10 microM HO-PCB 104 exhibited additivity with 1 nM E2. At a dose of 202 mg/kg,PCB 104 increased uterine wet weight in ovariectomized CD-1 mice and induced vaginal epithelial cell cornification at 202, 16, and 1.7 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that in addition to the hydroxylated metabolites, selected parent PCB congeners may also exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic

  14. Toxicity and mutagenicity of 2,4,-6-trinitrotoluene and its microbial metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Won, W D; DiSalvo, L H; Ng, J

    1976-01-01

    TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) of explosive grade is highly toxic to marine forms that included fresh water unicellular green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), tidepool copepods (Tigriopus californicus), and oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas), and mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. On the basis of mutagenic assays carried out with a set of histidine-requiring strains of the bacterium, TNT was detected as a frameshift mutagen that significantly accelerates the reversion rate of a frameshift tester, TA-98. In contrast, the major microbial metabolites of TNT appeared to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic. Images PMID:773306

  15. Factors affecting 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recent microcosm studies at an inactive ordnance works at Weldon Spring, Missouri indicated that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of complete transformation oaf 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) within approximately 22 days. However, the continuing presence of TNT at the Weldon Spring site suggests that some combination of environmental factors is inhibiting microbial degradation at the site. This paper briefly summarizes the results of investigations of the effects of carbon substrate availability, soil moisture content, TNT concentration, and oxygen condition on TNT degradation by the microorganisms indigenous to Weldon Spring.

  16. 2,4,6,8-Tetrachlorodibenzothiophene in the Newark Bay Estuary: the likely source and reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Parette, Robert; Pearson, Wendy N

    2014-09-01

    Historic industrial activity along the Newark Bay Estuary has resulted in pollution from a number of contaminants; one of which is 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzothiophene (2,4,6,8-TCDT), a unique chemical contaminant whose origins have not been adequately explained. This research demonstrates that the probable source of 2,4,6,8-TCDT was the chlorination of phenol produced via the sulfonation method. Thiophenol, the major impurity in this type of phenol, was likely converted to 2,4,6,8-TCDT through one or more pathways during the production of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), or 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. From a mass balance standpoint, production of these chemicals at an industrial plant along the Passaic River could account for the 2,4,6,8-TCDT in the Newark Bay Estuary. PMID:24997913

  17. [Anemia and its treatment with peroral anti-anemia agents in women during the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Mára, M; Eretová, V; Zivný, J; Kvasnicka, J; Umlaufová, A; Márová, E

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum is according to the literature and many years clinical experience high. In the submitted work we investigated the incidence of sideropenic anaemia in women during the first three months after a spontaneous delivery, changes of clinical and laboratory indicators of anaemia during this period and the possible effect exerted by administration of iron and iron plus folic acid resp. Ninety pregnant women in the 35th to 39th week of pregnancy were at random divided into three equally sized groups and the following were assessed: haemogram, indicators of iron reserves, serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12, erythropoetin and soluble transferrin receptor, liver tests, total protein + electrophoresis, acute stage proteins. In the first group (T) the women were given, starting on the 4th day after delivery 1 tablet of Tardyferon per day for two months. To the second group (F) for an equal period 1 tablet of Tardyferon Fol per day was administered. Women in the control group (K) had no medication. In the investigation women with medium and severe pregnancy anaemia were not included nor women taking during pregnancy or previously iron preparations or those treated in the past by blood transfusion. After spontaneous delivery (women who had Caesarean section or forceps delivery were eliminated from the study) the women were subjected to the same examinations as before delivery. These examinations were made on the fourth day after delivery and then after monthly intervals for a period of three months. At the same time the subjective condition of the mothers was evaluated after delivery, focused on the development of symptoms typical for anaemia and the possible effect of administered treatment. The investigation was completed by 60 women. During treatment no allergic or other serious side-reactions to the administered drugs calling for discontinuation of treatment were recorded. The results of the investigation

  18. 40 CFR 721.9750 - 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9750 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine... identified generically as 2-chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride (PMN P-91-659)...

  19. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  20. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-07-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mgg(-1)), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. PMID:17240499