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Sample records for 4-79 molybdenum permalloy

  1. Magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy/molybdenum multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Romera, M.; Ciudad, D.; Maicas, M.; Aroca, C.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy (Py: Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/molybdenum (Mo) multilayer thin films. We show that it is possible to maintain a low coercivity and a high permeability in thick sputtered Py films when reducing the out-of-plane component of the anisotropy by inserting thin film spacers of a non-magnetic material like Mo. For these kind of multilayers, we have found coercivities which are close to those for single layer films with no out-of-plane anisotropy. The coercivity is also dependent on the number of layers exhibiting a minimum value when each single Py layer has a thickness close to the transition thickness between Neel and Bloch domain walls.

  2. Molybdenum

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Molybdenum ; CASRN 7439 - 98 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  3. Electrodeposition of Nanostructured Permalloy and Permalloy-Magnetite Composite Coatings and Investigation of Their Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazli, Sara; Bahrololoom, M. E.

    2016-08-01

    Permalloy and permalloy-magnetite coatings were electrodeposited with the average thickness of 100 µm with certain operating parameters, such as the current density of 100 mA/cm2, pH 3.8, and the temperature of 298 K (25 °C), to fabricate alloy and composite coatings, respectively. The aim was to promote the magnetic properties of permalloy coating in order to extend its magnetic applications. For this purpose, nanocrystalline permalloy and permalloy-magnetite coatings were electrodeposited. The effect of the content of magnetite particles in the bath on magnetic properties of the samples was investigated. Vibrating sample magnetometry was performed to investigate the variation of magnetic properties of the coatings. The optimum amount of magnetite (2 g/L) was determined according to the highest amount of saturated magnetization and a sensible amount of coercivity. The morphology, phase, elemental analyses of the coatings and the chemical composition analysis of the bath were performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, quantometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The magnetization was increased initially and then decreased (after a limited amount of magnetite) by enhancing the content of magnetite particles in the bath. Also, the coercivity was decreased by increasing the amount of magnetite particles in the coatings, which was due to the reduction of the grain size of the permalloy matrix.

  4. Electroplating of low stress permalloy for MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yonghua

    2006-08-15

    With the wafer-bending method and spectrophotometry, the internal stress in electroplated Ni-Fe alloy for MEMS has been investigated as a function of bath concentration. This investigation demonstrated that low concentration plating solution is useful for the decrease of the residual stress in the electrodeposits, and the stress could further decrease with an increase of saccharin additive content. And the change of stress from tensile to compressive was not observed with the increase of the additive content in plating path. The low stress permalloy (Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}) was reached in our experimental conditions. A bistable electromagnetic RF MEMS switch with deformation-free bilayer cantilever beam was fabricated successfully by electroplated permalloy.

  5. Magnetization patterns of permalloy square frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Wei, Zung-Hang; Chang, Ching-Ray; Wu, J. C.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Usov, Nickolai A.; Lai, Jun-Yang; Yao, Y. D.

    2003-05-01

    Four different magnetization configurations of micron- and submicron-sized permalloy square frames are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Beside the pure conventional 90° Neel type wall with zero net magnetic pole, we also obtain numerically another high energy domain wall with positive or negative net magnetic poles in the corner. These three kinds of domain walls constitute four different patterns in square frames. We compare the magnetic pole density distributions derived from the spin configurations of simulation results with the images taken by magnetic force microscopy, and find reasonable agreement between them.

  6. Circular single domains in hemispherical Permalloy nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, Clodoaldo I. L de Fonseca, Jakson M.; Sinnecker, João P.; Delatorre, Rafael G.; Garcia, Nicolas; Pasa, André A.

    2014-11-14

    We have studied ferromagnetic Permalloy clusters obtained by electrodeposition on n-type silicon. Magnetization measurements reveal hysteresis loops almost independent on temperature and very similar in shape to those obtained in nanodisks with diameter bigger than 150 nm. The spin configuration for the ground state, obtained by micromagnetic simulation, shows topological vortices with random chirality and polarization. This behavior in the small diameter clusters (∼80 nm) is attributed to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that arises in its hemispherical geometries. This magnetization behavior can be utilized to explain the magnetoresistance measured with magnetic field in plane and out of sample plane.

  7. Development of high permeability nanocrystalline permalloy by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seet, H. L.; Li, X. P.; Zhao, Z. J.; Kong, Y. K.; Zheng, H. M.; Ng, W. C.

    2005-05-01

    In this study, for developing microsensors for weak magnetic field, methods for developing high permeability nanocrystalline permalloy by electrodeposition and the relationship between the grain size and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline permalloy are investigated. By dc plating with and without saccharin added and pulse plating with saccharin added, permalloy samples of grain sizes from 52 nm to 11 nm are obtained. The coercivity and magnetoimpedance (MI) ratio of the samples are tested against the grain size variation. Results show that the coercivity decreases rapidly and MI ratio increases greatly with grain size decrease from 52 nm to 11 nm.

  8. Development of high permeability nanocrystalline permalloy by electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Seet, H.; Li, X.P.; Zhao, Z.J.; Kong, Y.K.; Zheng, H.M.; Ng, W.C.

    2005-05-15

    In this study, for developing microsensors for weak magnetic field, methods for developing high permeability nanocrystalline permalloy by electrodeposition and the relationship between the grain size and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline permalloy are investigated. By dc plating with and without saccharin added and pulse plating with saccharin added, permalloy samples of grain sizes from 52 nm to 11 nm are obtained. The coercivity and magnetoimpedance (MI) ratio of the samples are tested against the grain size variation. Results show that the coercivity decreases rapidly and MI ratio increases greatly with grain size decrease from 52 nm to 11 nm.

  9. Temperature dependence of the magnetic and electrical properties of Permalloy/gadolinium/Permalloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranchal, R.; Aroca, C.; Maicas, M.; López, E.

    2007-09-01

    The magnetic and electrical properties of Permalloy/gadolinium/Permalloy (Py/Gd/Py) trilayers have been studied as a function of temperature by using vibrating sample magnetometer and transport measurements with current in plane configuration. The observed dependence of the magnetic moment with temperature can be explained by a paramagnetic contribution. Electrical measurements show that this contribution is originated by the formation of Gd1-xNix alloys at the Py/Gd interfaces because of the Ni diffusion. Despite the Ni diffusion, we find no evidence of amorphization from either the Py layer or the Py/Gd interfaces. We also obtain the Curie temperature of the Gd1-xNix alloys by the position of inflexion points in the resistance versus temperature curve.

  10. Effect of spacer layer on the magnetization dynamics of permalloy/rare-earth/permalloy trilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chen Yin, Yuli; Zhang, Dong; Jiang, Sheng; Yue, Jinjin; Zhai, Ya; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2015-05-07

    The permalloy/rare-earth/permalloy trilayers with different types (Gd and Nd) and thicknesses of spacer layer are investigated using frequency dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements at room temperature, which shows different behaviors with different rare earth spacer layers. By fitting the frequency dependence of the FMR resonance field and linewidth, we find that the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy retains its value for all samples, the perpendicular anisotropy remains almost unchanged for different thickness of Gd layer but the values are tailored by different thicknesses of Nd layer. The Gilbert damping is almost unchanged with different thicknesses of Gd; however, the Gilbert damping is significantly enhanced from 8.4×10{sup −3} to 20.1×10{sup −3} with 6 nm of Nd and then flatten out when the Nd thickness rises above 6 nm.

  11. Domain Wall structures in wide permalloy strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2015-03-01

    We analyze numerically the equilibrium micromagnetic domain wall structures encountered in Permalloy strips of a wide range of thicknesses and widths, with strip widths up to several micrometers. By performing an extensive set of micromagnetic simulations, we show that the equilibrium phase diagram of the domain wall structures exhibits in addition to the previously found structures (symmetric and asymmetric transverse wall and vortex wall) also a double-vortex domain wall for large enough strip widths and thicknesses. In general, shape anisotropy is less important for wider strips, and thus energy minima with more complex spin structures closing the flux more efficiently than those found before for narrow strips may appear. Also several metastable domain wall structures are found, such as structures with three or four vortices or two vortices and an antivortex. We discuss the details of the relaxation process, including the effect of varying the magnitude of the Gilbert damping constant, and the role of using different initial conditions. Finally, we also consider the field-driven dynamics of the double-vortex domain wall.

  12. Tunable transport in magnetically coupled MoGe/permalloy hybrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Belkin, A.; Novosad, V.; Iavarone, M.; Fedor, J.; Pearson, J.; Petrean-Troncalli, A.; Karapetrov, G.; Materials Science Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Austin Coll.

    2008-08-18

    We demonstrate controlled magnetotransport anisotropy of magnetically coupled superconductor-ferromagnet MoGe/Permalloy hybrids. The rotatable anisotropy Permalloy ferromagnet with stripe domain structure induces in-plane anisotropy in superconducting order parameter. We show that near the superconductor-normal state phase boundary the superconductivity in MoGe is localized in narrow mesoscopic channels just above the magnetic domain walls. Changing the in-plane direction of magnetic stripe domains it is possible to reconfigure the direction of the superconducting channels and controllably rotate the direction of the in-plane anisotropy axis in the superconductor.

  13. Recovery of molybdenum from molybdenum disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderpool, C.D.; MacInnis, M.B.

    1986-07-08

    A process is described for recovering molybdenum from molybdenum disulfide. The process consists of: (a) forming a slurry of the molybdenum disulfide in a solution of an alkali metal hydroxide, the amount of alkali metal hydroxide being sufficient to react with at least a portion of the molybdenum disulfide to form an alkali metal molybdate and an alkali sulfate; (b) heating the slurry in an oxidizing atmosphere at an elevated temperature and pressure and for a sufficient time to convert at least a portion of the molybdenum disulfide to the alkali metal molybdate and provide a pregnant liquor of the alkali metal molybdate and a residue; (c) separating the pregnant liquor from the residue; (d) adding a sufficient amount of a hexamine to the pregnant liquor to form an hexamine-molybdenum compound containing the major portion of the molybdenum which is in the pregnant liquor; (e) adjusting the pH of the resulting hexamine-treated pregnant liquor to from about 1.5 to about 3.8 to precipitate the major portion of the hexamine-molybdenum compound; and (f) separating the hexamine-molybdenum compound from the resulting mother liquor.

  14. Spin wave spectra in perpendicularly magnetized permalloy rings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Kostylev, M.

    2015-03-16

    The dynamic behavior of perpendicularly magnetized permalloy circular rings is systematically investigated as a function of film thickness using broadband field modulated ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observed the splitting of one spin wave mode into a family of dense resonance peaks for the rings, which is markedly different from the single mode observed for continuous films of the same thickness. As the excitation frequency is increased, the mode family observed for the rings gradually converges into one mode. With the increase in the film thickness, a sparser spectrum of modes is observed. Our experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the dynamic micromagnetic simulations.

  15. Controllable Magnetization Processes Induced by Nucleation Sites in Permalloy Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Jiun Chen,; Chia-Jung Hsu,; Chun-Neng Liao,; Hao-Ting Huang,; Chiun-Peng Lee,; Yi-Hsun Chiu,; Tzu-Yun Tung,; Mei-Feng Lai,

    2010-02-01

    Different arrangements of notches as nucleation sites are demonstrated experimentally and numerically to effectively control the magnetization processes of permalloy rings. In the ring with notches at the same side with respect to field direction, two same-helicity vortex domain walls in the onion state lead to two-step switching going through flux-closure state; in the ring with diagonal notches two opposite-helicity vortex domain walls lead to one-step switching skipping flux-closure state. The switching processes are repeatable in contrast to rings without notches where helicites of two vortex domain walls are random so the switching processes can not be controlled.

  16. Damping factor estimation using spin wave attenuation in permalloy film

    SciTech Connect

    Manago, Takashi; Yamanoi, Kazuto; Kasai, Shinya; Mitani, Seiji

    2015-05-07

    Damping factor of a Permalloy (Py) thin film is estimated by using the magnetostatic spin wave propagation. The attenuation lengths are obtained by the dependence of the transmission intensity on the antenna distance, and decrease with increasing magnetic fields. The relationship between the attenuation length, damping factor, and external magnetic field is derived theoretically, and the damping factor was determined to be 0.0063 by fitting the magnetic field dependence of the attenuation length, using the derived equation. The obtained value is in good agreement with the general value of Py. Thus, this estimation method of the damping factor using spin waves attenuation can be useful tool for ferromagnetic thin films.

  17. The molybdenum cofactor.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R

    2013-05-10

    The transition element molybdenum needs to be complexed by a special cofactor to gain catalytic activity. Molybdenum is bound to a unique pterin, thus forming the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), which, in different variants, is the active compound at the catalytic site of all molybdenum-containing enzymes in nature, except bacterial molybdenum nitrogenase. The biosynthesis of Moco involves the complex interaction of six proteins and is a process of four steps, which also require iron, ATP, and copper. After its synthesis, Moco is distributed, involving Moco-binding proteins. A deficiency in the biosynthesis of Moco has lethal consequences for the respective organisms.

  18. Magnetic domain-wall dynamics in wide permalloy strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in soft permalloy strips may exhibit various equilibrium micromagnetic structures depending on the width and thickness of the strip, ranging from the well-known transverse and vortex walls in narrow and thin strips to double and triple vortex walls recently reported in wider strips [V. Estévez and L. Laurson, Phys. Rev. B 91, 054407 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.054407]. Here, we analyze the field driven dynamics of such domain walls in permalloy strips of widths from 240 nm up to 6 μ m , using the known equilibrium domain wall structures as initial configurations. Our micromagnetic simulations show that the domain wall dynamics in wide strips is very complex, and depends strongly on the geometry of the system, as well as on the magnitude of the driving field. We discuss in detail the rich variety of the dynamical behaviors found, including dynamic transitions between different domain wall structures, periodic dynamics of a vortex core close to the strip edge, transitions towards simpler domain wall structures of the multi-vortex domain walls controlled by vortex polarity, and the fact that for some combinations of the strip geometry and the driving field the system cannot support a compact domain wall.

  19. Molybdenum disilicide composites

    DOEpatents

    Rodriguez, Robert P.; Petrovic, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Molybdenum disilicide/.beta.'-Si.sub.6-z Al.sub.z O.sub.z N.sub.8-z, wherein z=a number from greater than 0 to about 5, composites are made by use of in situ reactions among .alpha.-silicon nitride, molybdenum disilicide, and aluminum. Molybdenum disilicide within a molybdenum disilicide/.beta.'-Si.sub.6-z Al.sub.z O.sub.z N.sub.8-z eutectoid matrix is the resulting microstructure when the invention method is employed.

  20. Magnetoresistance in permalloy/GaMnAs circular microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Justin Michael

    When two ferromagnetic materials are deposited directly on top of one another, their magnetic moments lock together and will no longer switch independently. This effect is known as exchange spring coupling. Reports in literature indicate that a bilayer composed of GaMnAs and permalloy may be a rare exception. Such a bilayer would allow for independent switching and, as a result, giant magnetoresistance. For this thesis, we verified the independent switching of continuous films of GaMnAs and expanded on existing literature. We also investigated GMR in bilayers. Samples were fabricated and measured using novel techniques and software developed specifically for this project. Transport measurements of GaMnAs/Py bilayers revealed a minimal to non-existent GMR effect; instead, the main discernible effect was due to AMR of the bulk substrate of the samples. This thesis also details the construction process of an inexpensive, temporary cleanroom environment.

  1. Coupled Vortex Oscillations in Spatially Separated Permalloy Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Andreas; Kamionka, Thomas; Martens, Michael; Meier, Guido; Drews, Andre; Chou, Kang Wei; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Stoll, Hermann; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2011-04-01

    We experimentally study the magnetization dynamics of pairs of micron-sized permalloy squares coupled via their stray fields. The trajectories of the vortex cores in the Landau-domain patterns of the squares are mapped in real space using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. After excitation of one of the vortex cores with a short magnetic-field pulse, the system behaves like coupled harmonic oscillators. The coupling strength depends on the separation between the squares and the configuration of the vortex-core polarizations. Considering the excitation via a rotating in-plane magnetic field, it can be understood that only a weak response of the second vortex core is observed for equal core polarizations.

  2. Magnetoresistance measurement of permalloy thin film rings with triangular fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Hsu, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chun-Neng; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2010-01-01

    Magnetization reversals in permalloy rings controlled by nucleation sites using triangular fins at the same side and diagonal with respect to the field direction are demonstrated by magnetoresistance measurement and micromagnetic simulation. In the ring with triangular fins at the same side, there exists two-step reversal from onion to flux-closure state (or vortex state) and then from flux-closure (or vortex state) to reverse onion state; in the ring with diagonal triangular fins, one-step reversal occurs directly from onion to reverse onion state. The reversal processes are repeatable and controllable in contrast to an ideal ring without triangular fins where one-step and two-step reversals occur randomly in sweep-up and sweep-down processes.

  3. Synthesis and Compositional Analysis of Permalloy Powder Prepared by Arc-Discharge.

    PubMed

    Murmu, P P; Kennedy, J; Williams, G V M; Prakash, T; Leveneur, J; Chong, S V; Rubanov, S

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis, compositional, structural and magnetic properties of permalloy powders prepared using an arc-discharge method under different atmospheres. Ion beam analysis results showed that powder prepared in air had a higher concentration of oxygen than those prepared under nitrogen or argon atmospheres. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that powders prepared in air contained magnetite (Fe3O4) and other phases, while powders prepared under nitrogen or argon predominately contained permalloy. The permalloy powders contained a broad range of particle sizes, and nanoparticles as small as 10 nm were evident from transmission electron microscopy data. The saturation magnetizations were significantly lower for the powders prepared in air than those prepared under nitrogen or argon. This can be attributed to oxidation, where the saturation magnetization is predominately from Fe3O4 for powders made in air. The coercive fields were also significantly larger for powders prepared in air, which is consistent with the powders containing different phases when compared with the permalloy powders. Our results show that permalloy powders can be made in nitrogen and argon, allowing for the production of low oxygen content permalloy powders for device applications. Our results also suggest that the use of an iron anode could result in Fe3O4 powders. PMID:26682386

  4. Molybdenum nutriture in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum is a trace element that functions as a cofactor for at least four enzymes: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. In each case, molybdenum is bound to a complex, multi-ring organic component called molybdopterin, forming the e...

  5. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Carter, David H.; Gac, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

  6. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Carter, David H.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

  7. Depinning of domain walls in permalloy nanowires with asymmetric notches.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; You, B; Ruan, X Z; Liu, M Y; Yang, H L; Zhan, Q F; Li, Z; Lei, N; Zhao, W S; Pan, D F; Wan, J G; Wu, J; Tu, H Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Xu, Y B; Du, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective control of the domain wall (DW) motion along the magnetic nanowires is of great importance for fundamental research and potential application in spintronic devices. In this work, a series of permalloy nanowires with an asymmetric notch in the middle were fabricated with only varying the width (d) of the right arm from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The detailed pinning and depinning processes of DWs in these nanowires have been studied by using focused magneto-optic Kerr effect (FMOKE) magnetometer, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and micromagnetic simulation. The experimental results unambiguously exhibit the presence of a DW pinned at the notch in a typical sample with d equal to 500 nm. At a certain range of 200 nm < d < 500 nm, both the experimental and simulated results show that the DW can maintain or change its chirality randomly during passing through the notch, resulting in two DW depinning fields. Those two depinning fields have opposite d dependences, which may be originated from different potential well/barrier generated by the asymmetric notch with varying d. PMID:27600627

  8. Magnetization reversal of an individual exchange-biased permalloy nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchter, A.; Wölbing, R.; Wyss, M.; Kieler, O. F.; Weimann, T.; Kohlmann, J.; Zorin, A. B.; Rüffer, D.; Matteini, F.; Tütüncüoglu, G.; Heimbach, F.; Kleibert, A.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.; Grundler, D.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Poggio, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the magnetization reversal mechanism in an individual permalloy (Py) nanotube (NT) using a hybrid magnetometer consisting of a nanometer-scale SQUID (nanoSQUID) and a cantilever torque sensor. The Py NT is affixed to the tip of a Si cantilever and positioned in order to optimally couple its stray flux into a Nb nanoSQUID. We are thus able to measure both the NT's volume magnetization by dynamic cantilever magnetometry and its stray flux using the nanoSQUID. We observe a training effect and a temperature dependence in the magnetic hysteresis, suggesting an exchange bias. We find a low blocking temperature TB=18 ±2 K, indicating the presence of a thin antiferromagnetic native oxide, as confirmed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy on similar samples. Furthermore, we measure changes in the shape of the magnetic hysteresis as a function of temperature and increased training. These observations show that the presence of a thin exchange-coupled native oxide modifies the magnetization reversal process at low temperatures. Complementary information obtained via cantilever and nanoSQUID magnetometry allows us to conclude that, in the absence of exchange coupling, this reversal process is nucleated at the NT's ends and propagates along its length as predicted by theory.

  9. Micromagnetic simulation of hysteresis loop of elliptic permalloy nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amaresh Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic hysteresis behavior of isotropic permalloy elliptic nanorings of outer semi-major axis length (aout) 100 nm and thickness (t) 20 nm were studied with respect to the variation of two parameters: outer semiminor axis length (bout) and the difference between outer and inner dimensions (r). The outer semiminor axis length (bout) varied from 90 nm to 20 nm which covers from nearly circular nanoring to elliptic nanoring of high aspect ratio. The value of r varied in steps of 10 nm. Micromagnetic simulation of in-plane hysteresis curve of these nanorings revealed that the remanent state of all of these elliptic rings are onion states if the magnetic field is applied along the longer side of the elliptic rings. If the magnetic field is applied along the shorter side, then the remanent states turn out to be vortex state. The hysteresis loss indicated by area of the hysteresis loop was found to be decreasing gradually with the increment of either r or bout. On the other hand, the remanent magnetization increased with increment of r but decreased with the increment of bout. The changes were attributed to three parameters mainly: inner curvature, exchange energy and demagnetization energy. The changes in loop area were discussed in light of variation of these three parameters.

  10. Depinning of domain walls in permalloy nanowires with asymmetric notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; You, B.; Ruan, X. Z.; Liu, M. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Zhan, Q. F.; Li, Z.; Lei, N.; Zhao, W. S.; Pan, D. F.; Wan, J. G.; Wu, J.; Tu, H. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Y. B.; Du, J.

    2016-09-01

    Effective control of the domain wall (DW) motion along the magnetic nanowires is of great importance for fundamental research and potential application in spintronic devices. In this work, a series of permalloy nanowires with an asymmetric notch in the middle were fabricated with only varying the width (d) of the right arm from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The detailed pinning and depinning processes of DWs in these nanowires have been studied by using focused magneto-optic Kerr effect (FMOKE) magnetometer, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and micromagnetic simulation. The experimental results unambiguously exhibit the presence of a DW pinned at the notch in a typical sample with d equal to 500 nm. At a certain range of 200 nm < d < 500 nm, both the experimental and simulated results show that the DW can maintain or change its chirality randomly during passing through the notch, resulting in two DW depinning fields. Those two depinning fields have opposite d dependences, which may be originated from different potential well/barrier generated by the asymmetric notch with varying d.

  11. Ferromagnetic Resonance of a Single Magnetochiral Metamolecule of Permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Satoshi; Kato, Takeshi; Oshima, Daiki; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Hosoito, Nobuyoshi; Yanagi, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of a single chiral structure of a ferromagnetic metal—the magnetochiral (MCh) metamolecule. Using a strain-driven self-coiling technique, micrometer-sized MCh metamolecules of metallic permalloy (Py) are fabricated without any residual Py films. The magnetization curves of ten Py MCh metamolecules obtained by an alternating gradient magnetometer show soft magnetic behavior. In cavity FMR with a magnetic-field sweep and coplanar-waveguide (CPW) FMR with a frequency sweep, the Kittel-mode FMR of the single Py metamolecule is observed. The CPW-FMR results, which are consistent with the cavity-FMR results, bring about the effective g factor, effective magnetization, and Gilbert damping of the single metamolecule. Together with calculations using these parameters, the angle-resolved cavity FMR reveals that the magnetization in the Py MCh metamolecule is most likely to be the hollow-bar type of configuration when the external magnetic field is applied parallel to the chiral axis, although the expected magnetization state at remanence is the corkscrew type of configuration.

  12. Depinning of domain walls in permalloy nanowires with asymmetric notches.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; You, B; Ruan, X Z; Liu, M Y; Yang, H L; Zhan, Q F; Li, Z; Lei, N; Zhao, W S; Pan, D F; Wan, J G; Wu, J; Tu, H Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Xu, Y B; Du, J

    2016-09-07

    Effective control of the domain wall (DW) motion along the magnetic nanowires is of great importance for fundamental research and potential application in spintronic devices. In this work, a series of permalloy nanowires with an asymmetric notch in the middle were fabricated with only varying the width (d) of the right arm from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The detailed pinning and depinning processes of DWs in these nanowires have been studied by using focused magneto-optic Kerr effect (FMOKE) magnetometer, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and micromagnetic simulation. The experimental results unambiguously exhibit the presence of a DW pinned at the notch in a typical sample with d equal to 500 nm. At a certain range of 200 nm < d < 500 nm, both the experimental and simulated results show that the DW can maintain or change its chirality randomly during passing through the notch, resulting in two DW depinning fields. Those two depinning fields have opposite d dependences, which may be originated from different potential well/barrier generated by the asymmetric notch with varying d.

  13. Depinning of domain walls in permalloy nanowires with asymmetric notches

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y.; You, B.; Ruan, X. Z.; Liu, M. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Zhan, Q. F.; Li, Z.; Lei, N.; Zhao, W. S.; Pan, D. F.; Wan, J. G.; Wu, J.; Tu, H. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Y. B.; Du, J.

    2016-01-01

    Effective control of the domain wall (DW) motion along the magnetic nanowires is of great importance for fundamental research and potential application in spintronic devices. In this work, a series of permalloy nanowires with an asymmetric notch in the middle were fabricated with only varying the width (d) of the right arm from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The detailed pinning and depinning processes of DWs in these nanowires have been studied by using focused magneto-optic Kerr effect (FMOKE) magnetometer, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and micromagnetic simulation. The experimental results unambiguously exhibit the presence of a DW pinned at the notch in a typical sample with d equal to 500 nm. At a certain range of 200 nm < d < 500 nm, both the experimental and simulated results show that the DW can maintain or change its chirality randomly during passing through the notch, resulting in two DW depinning fields. Those two depinning fields have opposite d dependences, which may be originated from different potential well/barrier generated by the asymmetric notch with varying d. PMID:27600627

  14. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  15. Effects of exchange bias on magnetotransport in permalloy kagome artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Le, B. L.; Rench, D. W.; Misra, R.; O’Brien, L.; Leighton, C.; Samarth, N.; Schiffer, P.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the magnetotransport properties of connected kagome artificial spin ice networks composed of permalloy nanowires. Our data show clear evidence of magnetic switching among the wires, both in the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance. An unusual asymmetry with field sweep direction appears at temperatures below about 20 K that appears to be associated with exchange bias resulting from surface oxidation of permalloy, and which disappears in alumina-capped samples. These results demonstrate that exchange bias is a phenomenon that must be considered in understanding the physics of such artificial spin ice systems, and that opens up new possibilities for their control.

  16. Diffusion mechanism of exchange bias formation in permalloy-manganese nanostructures at thermo-magnetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Blinov, I V; Krinitsina, T P; Matveev, S A; Milyaev, M A; Sedova, P N; Popov, V V; Ustinov, V V

    2012-09-01

    A mechanism of unidirectional exchange anisotropy formation at thermo-magnetic treatment of permalloy-manganese bilayers has been studied. A shift of hysteresis loops appears at annealing beginning from 230 degrees C. The maximal exchange field of 155 Oe is reached after the 250 degrees C annealing for 2 h. As demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, the exchange bias and the coercivity growth result from an ordered anti-ferromagnetic NiFeMn phase formation due to the diffusion interaction of permalloy and manganese at annealing. PMID:23035517

  17. Tunable permalloy-based films for magnonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yuli; Pan, Fan; Ahlberg, Martina; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Houshang, Afshin; Haidar, Mohammad; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhai, Ya; Dumas, Randy K.; Delin, Anna; Åkerman, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Using both broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we study the magnetodynamic properties of permalloy (Py,Ni80Fe20) and Py100 -xMx films with M as platinum (Pt), gold (Au), or silver (Ag). From the uniform FMR mode, we extract the saturation magnetization (MS), damping (α ), and inhomogeneous broadening (Δ H0) ; from the first perpendicular standing spin-wave (PSSW) mode, we extract the exchange stiffness (A ). MS and A are found to decrease with increasing alloying, most strongly for Au and less so for Pt. On the other hand, α increases rapidly with both Pt and Au content, while being virtually independent of Ag content. The physical origins of the observed trends in α , MS, and A are analyzed and explained using density functional theory calculations in the coherent potential approximation. The calculated trends quantitatively agree with the experimental observations. The drastically different impacts of Pt, Au, and Ag on the various fundamental magnetodynamic properties will allow for significant design freedom, where different properties can be varied independently of others through careful combinations of the Pt, Au, and Ag contents of Py100 -xMx films. By empirical approximations of each property's concentration dependence, we can dial in any desired combination of magnetodynamic properties within this parameter space. As a proof-of-principle demonstration we design a set of Py100 -x -yPtxAgy films, where the saturation magnetization stays constant throughout the set and the damping can be tuned by a factor of 4.

  18. Preparation of thick molybdenum targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thick natural molybdenum deposits on nickel plated copper substrates were prepared by thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexacarbonyl vapors on a heated surface in an inert gas atmosphere. The molybdenum metal atoms are firmly bonded to the substrate atoms, thus providing an excellent thermal contact across the junction. Molybdenum targets thus prepared should be useful for internal bombardment in a cyclotron where thermal energy inputs can exceed 10 kW.

  19. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOEpatents

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  20. Incorporation of molybdenum in rubredoxin: models for mononuclear molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Silveira, Célia M; Todorovic, Smilja; Carreira, Cintia; Carepo, Marta S P; Grazina, Raquel; Moura, Isabel; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, José J G

    2015-07-01

    Molybdenum is found in the active site of enzymes usually coordinated by one or two pyranopterin molecules. Here, we mimic an enzyme with a mononuclear molybdenum-bis pyranopterin center by incorporating molybdenum in rubredoxin. In the molybdenum-substituted rubredoxin, the metal ion is coordinated by four sulfurs from conserved cysteine residues of the apo-rubredoxin and two other exogenous ligands, oxygen and thiol, forming a Mo((VI))-(S-Cys)4(O)(X) complex, where X represents -OH or -SR. The rubredoxin molybdenum center is stabilized in a Mo(VI) oxidation state, but can be reduced to Mo(IV) via Mo(V) by dithionite, being a suitable model for the spectroscopic properties of resting and reduced forms of molybdenum-bis pyranopterin-containing enzymes. Preliminary experiments indicate that the molybdenum site built in rubredoxin can promote oxo transfer reactions, as exemplified with the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate.

  1. Molybdenum Trafficking for Nitrogen Fixation†

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Jose A.; George, Simon J.; Rubio, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    The molybdenum nitrogenase is responsible for most biological nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic metabolic process that determines the global biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon. Here we describe the trafficking of molybdenum for nitrogen fixation in the model diazotrophic bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. The genes and proteins involved in molybdenum uptake, homeostasis, storage, regulation, and nitrogenase cofactor biosynthesis are reviewed. Molybdenum biochemistry in A. vinelandii reveals unexpected mechanisms and a new role for iron-sulfur clusters in the sequestration and delivery of molybdenum. PMID:19772354

  2. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a severe autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism first described in 1978. It is characterized by a neonatal presentation of intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, severe developmental delay, microcephaly with brain atrophy and coarse facial features. MoCD results in deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. The resultant accumulation of sulfite, taurine, S-sulfocysteine and thiosulfate contributes to the severe neurological impairment. Recently, initial evidence has demonstrated early treatment with cyclic PMP can turn MoCD type A from a previously neonatal lethal condition with only palliative options, to near normal neurological outcomes in affected patients. We review MoCD and focus on describing the currently published evidence of this exciting new therapeutic option for MoCD type A caused by pathogenic variants in MOCD1.

  3. Metabolism of molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R

    2013-01-01

    The transition element molybdenum is of essential importance for (nearly) all biological systems. It needs to be complexed by a special cofactor in order to gain catalytic activity. With the exception of bacterial Mo-nitrogenase, where Mo is a constituent of the FeMo-cofactor, Mo is bound to a pterin, thus forming the molybdenum cofactor Moco, which in different versions is the active compound at the catalytic site of all other Mo-containing enzymes. In eukaryotes, the most prominent Mo enzymes are nitrate reductase, sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, and the mitochondrial amidoxime reductase. The biosynthesis of Moco involves the complex interaction of six proteins and is a process of four steps, which also requires iron, ATP, and copper. After its synthesis, Moco is distributed to the apoproteins of Mo enzymes by Moco-carrier/binding proteins. A deficiency in the biosynthesis of Moco has lethal consequences for the respective organisms. In humans, Moco deficiency is a severe inherited inborn error in metabolism resulting in severe neurodegeneration in newborns and causing early childhood death. Eubacteria possess different versions of the pteridin cofactor as reflected by a large number of enzymes such as nitrate reductase, formate dehydrogenase, and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, while in archaea a tungsten atom replaced molybdenum as catalytic metal in the active center.

  4. Correlation between magnetization performance and magnetic microstructure of patterned permalloy films fabricated by microcontact printing

    SciTech Connect

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Shi Ji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Nittono, Osamu

    2004-11-01

    Permalloy films were patterned by two simple methods, direct etching and lift-off, which are based on the microcontact printing method. Several kinds of patterns, including chessboard, stripe, grid, and rectangular dot patterns, have been produced. These patterned permalloy films reveal varied magnetization behavior that originate from the differences in the shape of the pattern-consisting elements. The magnetic structure of the chessboard pattern film was investigated by Fresnel and Foucault modes of Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the square elements of the patterned film exhibit vortexlike magnetization closures, although some connections between the elements remained due to insufficient etching. The macroscopic magnetization process of the chessboard-patterned film was explained in reference to the in situ magnetization-distribution observation of the specimen along a minor magnetization loop. We also tried to control the rotational sense of the 'vortices' in the square elements by using a gradient field.

  5. Magnetic vortex dynamics on a picosecond timescale in a hexagonal permalloy pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, J.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, K.-J.; Anderson, E. H.; Fischer, P.

    2009-12-02

    We have observed a motion of magnetic vortex core in a hexagonal Permalloy pattern by means of Soft X-ray microscopy. Pump-probe stroboscopic observation on a picosecond timescale has been carried out after exciting a ground state vortex structure by an external field pulse of 1 ns duration. Vortex core is excited off from the center position of the hexagonal pattern but the analysis of the core trajectory reveals that the motion is nongyrotropic.

  6. The Electric, Magnetic, and Optical Characterization of Permalloy Oxide Grown by Dual-Ion Beam Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Maclyn; Leblanc, Elizabeth; Geerts, Wilhelmus; Simpson, Nelson; Robinson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) is a commonly used soft magnetic material in magnetic reading heads. Its magnetic properties do not depend on stress, a parameter difficult to control in thin film devices. Permalloy Oxide (PyO) on the other hand, has a high resistivity (>4 .103 Ω cm), is anti-ferromagnetic and has recently been shown to strongly enhance the performance of lateral spin valve devices. Historically, the oxidation of permalloy has been seen as a defect that should be avoided by appropriate encapsulation and very little is known on its electric and optical properties. We deposited thin PyO films by Dual Ion Beam Sputtering (DIBS) at room temperature on various substrates. Van der Pauw and Hall measurements were carried out from 77K to 400K and at magnetic fields up to 9T in order to determine its electronic bandgap, resistivity, free carrier concentration, and its mobility. The dielectric properties and defects were studied using a CV-setup and an impedance analyzer. Magnetic measurements were conducted on a Quantum Design PPMS VSM to determine the state of oxidation. Optical properties were measured by a M2000 Woollam variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. These properties were used to determine film thickness, bandgap and the optical constants of PyO. The authors would like to thank Research Corporation for financial support.

  7. Measurements of magnetic spin excitations in Permalloy microstructures using nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. J. Jason; Yoon, Seungha; McMichael, Robert

    The magnetic properties of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have enabled emerging applications in fields ranging from cell biology to quantum computing. An NV center is a lattice defect, which behaves like a spin-1 system. NV centers can be prepared in the mz = 0 state by excitation with green light, and the spin state can be detected by the center's fluorescence of red light. The Zeeman splitting of the mz = +/-1 state, combined with a spin coherence time that can approach 1 ms, makes the NV center a sensitive, atom-sized magnetometer. Recently, NV centers have been used to measure spin wave excitations and vortex core dynamics in a Permalloy microdisk. In this talk, we present current NV center measurements on Permalloy micro and nanostructures that build on previous work. Permalloy structures were fabricated on top of a microstrip antenna and the measurements were conducted on a home-built confocal microscope. Preliminary measurements show photoluminescence contrast of ~12% and field detectivity on the order of µT/Hz1/2. This allows for fine field mapping of stray magnetic fields produced by micro and nanostructures, which are typically a few milliteslas in magnitude. Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: molybdenum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désire E.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers information about the mineral molybdenum. Sources includes byproduct or coproduct copper-molybdenum deposits in the Western Cordillera of North and South America. Among the uses of molybdenum are stainless steel applications, as an alloy material for manufacturing vessels and as lubricants, pigments or chemicals. Also noted is the role played by molybdenum in renewable energy technology.

  9. Molybdenum enzymes in higher organisms

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Russ; Nishino, Takeshi; Bittner, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in our understanding of the structural and catalytic properties of molybdenum-containing enzymes in eukaryotes is reviewed, along with aspects of the biosynthesis of the cofactor and its insertion into apoprotein. PMID:21516203

  10. A simulation study of magnetic vortex structures and spin dynamic modes in permalloy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao

    Transverse spin wave modes of a long thin-film permalloy stripe have been studied using micromagnetic simulations and a semi-analytical theory. Lower frequency modes were found localized near the edge of the stripe and higher frequency modes exhibited a crossover property. These features result from the inhomogeneous distribution of the equilibrium magnetization and internal field across the stripe, which is adjusted by an applied field across the width of the stripe. Mode frequencies and wave profiles show distinct characteristics under different applied fields. Mode softening happens at two critical fields corresponding to a symmetry transition of the magnetic system. Spin dynamic modes of a magnetic antivortex in asteroid-shaped permalloy samples were systematically explored using micromagnetic simulations. A gyrotropic mode was found due to the shift of the antivortex from its equilibrium position. Azimuthal and radial spin wave modes have been excited by a pulsed magnetic field in different directions. Coupling between gyrotropic and azimuthal modes splits the degeneracy of paired azimuthal modes. Frequencies of the spin wave modes decrease with asteroid size and thickness while the frequency of the gyrotropic mode increases with asteroid thickness but decreases with asteroid size. The vortex dynamics of a magnetic vortex-antivortex-vortex structure in elliptical permalloy samples was studied using a theoretical model and micromagnetic simulations. Three gyrotropic modes were found to exist and each of them can be excited by a special initial configuration of core displacements. The polarizations of three cores play an important role on the mode frequencies and relative core movements in each mode. The annihilation process of a magnetic vortex pair confined in stadium-shaped permalloy samples was investigated using micromagnetic simulations. With the strength of an applied magnetic field across the width of stadia increasing, the equilibrium magnetization of

  11. Magnetic force microscopy investigation of the magnetization reversal of permalloy particles at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgazizov, N. I.; Khanipov, T. F.; Bizyaev, D. A.; Bukharaev, A. A.; Chuklanov, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    The magnetization reversal of an array of permalloy particles formed by scanning probe lithography on the silicon dioxide surface has been investigated in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 K. Using scanning magnetic force microscopy and numerical calculations of the magnetic anisotropy field of a particle at different temperatures, it has been shown that an increase in the temperature leads to a decrease in the external magnetic field required to reverse the magnetization direction of the particle. From the obtained results, it has been concluded that the magnetization reversal of the studied particles is accompanied by the formation of an intermediate state with an inhomogeneous magnetization structure.

  12. Microwave-assisted magnetization reversal using transient precession of magnetization in permalloy hexagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Genki; Nozaki, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization reversal utilizing a transient precession of magnetization was demonstrated in a permalloy hexagon by applying a 25-ns-wide microwave field and a 500-ps-wide pulsed field with a tunable delay to the microwave field. The switching field in a combination of these two fields becomes smaller than that in only the microwave field, and this additional reduction in switching field oscillates relative to the delay time. From the comparison with the results of micromagnetic simulations, we found that the oscillatory behavior is attributed to the beats in transient precession that occurs in the early stage of microwave-field-induced magnetization excitation.

  13. Annealing effects in plated-wire memory elements. II - Recrystallization in Permalloy films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquardt, S. J.; Kench, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of grain-size measurements in Permalloy platings suggest that recrystallization is possible at temperatures as low as 200 C, but that it is an extremely heterogeneous process. No worthwhile correlation was found to exist between observed grain size and magnetic dispersion in samples aged in the temperature range from 180 to 230 C. It is suggested that the magnetic aging which occurs under these conditions may be due to some other diffusion-controlled process than recrystallization; a process such as chemical homogenization is tentatively preferred.

  14. Oxide strengthened molybdenum-rhenium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, William R. Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Provided is a method of making an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy which includes the steps of: (1) forming a slurry containing molybdenum oxide and a metal salt dispersed in an aqueous medium, the metal salt being selected from nitrates or acetates of lanthanum, cerium or thorium; (2) heating the slurry in the presence of hydrogen to form a molybdenum powder comprising molybdenum and an oxide of the metal salt; (3) mixing rhenium powder with the molybdenum powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium powder; (4) pressing the molybdenum-rhenium powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium compact; (5) sintering the molybdenum-rhenium compact in hydrogen or under a vacuum to form a molybdenum-rhenium ingot; and (6) compacting the molybdenum-rhenium ingot to reduce the cross-sectional area of the molybdenum-rhenium ingot and form a molybdenum-rhenium alloy containing said metal oxide. The present invention also provides an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy made by the method.

  15. Oxide strengthened molybdenum-rhenium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr., R. William

    2000-01-01

    Provided is a method of making an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy which includes the steps of: (a) forming a slurry containing molybdenum oxide and a metal salt dispersed in an aqueous medium, the metal salt being selected from nitrates or acetates of lanthanum, cerium or thorium; (b) heating the slurry in the presence of hydrogen to form a molybdenum powder comprising molybdenum and an oxide of the metal salt; (c) mixing rhenium powder with the molybdenum powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium powder; (d) pressing the molybdenum-rhenium powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium compact; (e) sintering the molybdenum-rhenium compact in hydrogen or under a vacuum to form a molybdenum-rhenium ingot; and (f) compacting the molybdenum-rhenium ingot to reduce the cross-sectional area of the molybdenum-rhenium ingot and form a molybdenum-rhenium alloy containing said metal oxide. The present invention also provides an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy made by the method. A preferred Mo--Re-ODS alloy contains 7-14 weight % rhenium and 2-4 volume % lanthanum oxide.

  16. Exchange Bias and Magnetotransport in Permalloy Connected Kagome Artificial Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Brian; Rench, David; Misra, Rajiv; O'Brien, Liam; Leighton, Chris; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice consists of nanoscale ferromagnets arranged in a periodic lattice, with the resultant magnetostatic interactions emulating the local magnetic behavior of spin ice. Kagome artificial spin ice consists of elongated ferromagnetic islands or nanowires arranged in a honeycomb lattice. We present magnetotransport results in connected kagome artificial spin ice composed of permalloy (Ni81Fe19) nanowires. Magnetoresistance was measured as a function of applied field strength at different temperatures. At temperatures below 20 K, the field reversal symmetry of the magnetoresistance is broken. This asymmetry appears to be associated with exchange bias due to the surface oxidation of permalloy and is suppressed in aluminum-capped samples. These results signify that exchange bias can play a substantial role in the physics of artificial spin ice that has potential as a new mode of controlling its behavior. Supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under grant number DE-SC0010778. Work at the University of Minnesota was supported by the NSF MRSEC under award DMR-0819885 and a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (project no. 299376).

  17. Modifying magnetic switching in permalloy film nanostructures using the native oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojem, A.; Bassett, D.; Wesenberg, D.; Mason, S. J.; Avery, A. D.; Zink, B. L.

    2014-03-01

    Thin films of nickel-iron alloys of the nominal concentration near 80% Ni, are very commonly used in applications and in fundamental studies of spin, charge and heat transport in nanomagnetic systems. These permalloy (Py) films are straightforward to grow by various techniques and typically produce predictable, controllable and repeatable magnetic properties, including small coercivity, low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and low magnetostriction. We have found that greater complexity can be added to the switching behavior of thin films of permalloy by oxidation of thin (~4 nm) layers followed by subsequent growth of Py. Under some circumstances, this can cause apparent negative coercivity in the switching observed in anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of micromachined strips with an expected shape anisotropy. Here we will present results on growth and AMR measurements of the effects in various oxidized Py-Py layered samples. It is not yet clear if the effects are reproducible enough to be used for intentional manipulation of switching behavior in Py nanostructures. We acknowledge support from the NSF CAREER award (DMR-0847796).

  18. Exchange bias in a nanocrystalline hematite/permalloy thin film investigated with polarized neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortie, D. L.; Lin, K.-W.; Shueh, C.; Hsu, H.-F.; Wang, X. L.; James, M.; Fritzsche, H.; Brück, S.; Klose, F.

    2012-08-01

    We investigated a hematite α-Fe2O3/permalloy Ni80Fe20 bilayer film where the antiferromagnetic layer consisted of small hematite grains in the 2 to 16 nm range. A pronounced exchange bias effect occurred below the blocking temperature of 40 K. The magnitude of exchange bias was enhanced relative to reports for identical compounds in large grain, epitaxial films. However, the blocking temperature was dramatically reduced. As the Néel temperature of bulk α-Fe2O3 is known to be very high (860 K), we attribute the low-temperature onset of exchange bias to the well-known finite-size effect which suppresses the Morin transition for nanostructured hematite. Polarized neutron reflectometry was used to place an upper limit on the concentration and length scale of a layer of uncompensated moments at the antiferromagnetic interface. The data were found to be consistent with an induced magnetic region at the antiferromagnetic interface of 0.5-1.0 μB per Fe atom within a depth of 1-2 nm. The field dependence of the neutron spin-flip signal and spin asymmetry was analyzed in the biased state, and the first and second magnetic reversal were found to occur by asymmetric mechanisms. For the fully trained permalloy loop, reversal occurred symmetrically at both coercive fields by an in-plane spin rotation of ferromagnetic domains.

  19. The origin of noise and magnetic hysteresis in crystalline permalloy ring-core fluxgate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narod, B. B.

    2014-06-01

    6-81.3 Mo permalloy, developed in the 1960s for use in high performance ring-core fluxgate sensors, remains the state-of-the-art for permalloy-cored fluxgate magnetometers. The magnetic properties of 6-81.3, namely magnetocrystalline and magnetoelastic anisotropies and saturation induction are all optimum in the Fe-Ni-Mo system. In such polycrystalline permalloy fluxgate sensors a single phenomenon may cause both fluxgate noise and magnetic hysteresis, explain Barkhausen jumps, remanence and coercivity, and avoid domain denucleation. The phenomenon, domain wall reconnection, is presented as part of a theoretical model. In the unmagnetized state a coarse-grain high-quality permalloy foil ideally forms stripe domains, which present at the free surface as parallel, uniformly spaced domain walls that cross the entire thickness of the foil. Leakage flux "in" and "out" of alternating domains is a requirement of the random orientation, grain-by-grain, of magnetic easy axes' angles with respect to the foil free surface. Its magnetostatic energy together with domain wall energy determines an energy budget to be minimized. Throughout the magnetization cycle the free surface domain pattern remains essentially unchanged, due to the magnetostatic energy cost such a change would elicit. Thus domain walls are "pinned" to free surfaces. Driven to saturation, domain walls first bulge then reconnect via Barkhausen jumps to form a new domain configuration this author has called "channel domains", that are attached to free surfaces. The approach to saturation now continues as reversible channel domain compression. Driving the permalloy deeper into saturation compresses the channel domains to arbitrarily small thickness, but will not cause them to denucleate. Returning from saturation the channel domain structure will survive through zero H, thus explaining remanence. The Barkhausen jumps being irreversible exothermic events are sources of fluxgate noise, powered by the energy

  20. The origin of noise and magnetic hysteresis in crystalline permalloy ring-core fluxgate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narod, B. B.

    2014-09-01

    Developed in the 1960s for use in high-performance ring-core fluxgate sensors, 6-81.3 Mo permalloy remains the state of the art for permalloy-cored fluxgate magnetometers. The magnetic properties of 6-81.3, namely magnetocrystalline and magnetoelastic anisotropies and saturation induction, are all optimum in the Fe-Ni-Mo system. In such polycrystalline permalloy fluxgate sensors, a single phenomenon may cause both fluxgate noise and magnetic hysteresis; explain Barkhausen jumps, remanence and coercivity; and avoid domain denucleation. This phenomenon, domain wall reconnection, is presented as part of a theoretical model. In the unmagnetized state a coarse-grain high-quality permalloy foil ideally forms stripe domains, which present at the free surface as parallel, uniformly spaced domain walls that cross the entire thickness of the foil. Leakage flux "in" and "out" of alternating domains is a requirement of the random orientation, grain by grain, of magnetic easy axes' angles with respect to the foil free surface. Its magnetostatic energy together with domain wall energy determines an energy budget to be minimized. Throughout the magnetization cycle the free-surface domain pattern remains essentially unchanged, due to the magnetostatic energy cost such a change would elicit. Thus domain walls are "pinned" to free surfaces. Driven to saturation, domain walls first bulge then reconnect via Barkhausen jumps to form a new domain configuration that I have called "channel domains", which are attached to free surfaces. The approach to saturation now continues as reversible channel domain compression. Driving the permalloy deeper into saturation compresses the channel domains to arbitrarily small thickness, but will not cause them to denucleate. Returning from saturation the channel domain structure will survive through zero H, thus explaining remanence. The Barkhausen jumps, being irreversible exothermic events, are sources of fluxgate noise powered by the energy

  1. Genetics Home Reference: molybdenum cofactor deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... molybdenum, is essential to the function of several enzymes. These enzymes help break down (metabolize) different substances in the ... molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. Without the cofactor, the metabolic enzymes that rely on it cannot function. The resulting ...

  2. Silicon nitride reinforced with molybdenum disilicide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of silicon nitride and molybdenum disilicide and methods of making the compositions, where the molybdenum disilicide is present in amounts ranging from about 5 to about 50 vol. %.

  3. Nitrogen reduction: Molybdenum does it again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrock, Richard R.

    2011-02-01

    Nature reduces dinitrogen under mild conditions using nitrogenases, the most active of which contains molybdenum and iron. The only abiological dinitrogen reduction catalyst that avoids the harsh conditions of the Haber-Bosch process contains just molybdenum.

  4. Determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Wells, R.C.

    1943-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores. After removing iron and other major constituents the molybdenum thiocyanate color is developed in water-acetone solutions, using ammonium citrate to eliminate the interference of tungsten. Comparison is made by titrating a blank with a standard molybdenum solution. Aliquots are adjusted to deal with amounts of molybdenum ranging from 0.01 to 1.30 mg.

  5. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  6. Spin wave amplification using the spin Hall effect in permalloy/platinum bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladii, O.; Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Cheng, C.; Xavier, S.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Henry, Y.; Kim, J.-V.; Anane, A.; Bailleul, M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of an electrical current on the attenuation length of a 900 nm wavelength spin-wave in a permalloy/Pt bilayer using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The modification of the spin-wave relaxation rate is linear in current density, reaching up to 14% for a current density of 2.3 × 1011 A/m2 in Pt. This change is attributed to the spin transfer torque induced by the spin Hall effect and corresponds to an effective spin Hall angle of 0.13, which is among the highest values reported so far. The spin Hall effect thus appears as an efficient way of amplifying/attenuating propagating spin waves.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Temperature-Dependent Gilbert Damping in Permalloy Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuelei; Song, Qi; Yang, See-Hun; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The Gilbert damping of ferromagnetic materials is arguably the most important but least understood phenomenological parameter that dictates real-time magnetization dynamics. Understanding the physical origin of the Gilbert damping is highly relevant to developing future fast switching spintronics devices such as magnetic sensors and magnetic random access memory. Here, we report an experimental study of temperature-dependent Gilbert damping in permalloy (Py) thin films of varying thicknesses by ferromagnetic resonance. From the thickness dependence, two independent contributions to the Gilbert damping are identified, namely bulk damping and surface damping. Of particular interest, bulk damping decreases monotonically as the temperature decreases, while surface damping shows an enhancement peak at the temperature of ~50 K. These results provide an important insight to the physical origin of the Gilbert damping in ultrathin magnetic films.

  8. Characterization of spin pumping effect in Permalloy/Cu/Pt microfabricated lateral devices

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya Seki, Takeshi; Takanashi, Koki; Ono, Shimpei

    2014-05-07

    We studied ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for microfabricated lateral devices consisting of a Permalloy (Py) rectangular element and a Pt nano-element bridged by a Cu wire, which were located on a coplanar waveguide. A change in the resonance linewidth (Δf) was observed in the FMR spectra when the distance between Py and Pt (d) was varied. For devices with d < 400 nm, Δf definitely increased, suggesting the enhancement of the Gilbert damping constant (α). We discussed a possible reason for the this enhancement taking into account the increase in the efficiency of spin pumping into Cu due to the spin absorption of the attached Pt.

  9. Research update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Sklenar, Joseph; Hsu, Bo; Jiang, Wanjun; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Xiao, Jiao; Fradin, Frank Y.; Liu, Yaohua; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; et al

    2016-03-03

    We observe current induced spin transfertorque resonance in permalloy (Py) grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Furthermore, our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.

  10. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance State Space of Permalloy Nanowires with Domain Wall Pinning Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Corte-León, Héctor; Nabaei, Vahid; Manzin, Alessandra; Fletcher, Jonathan; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Schumacher, Hans W.; Kazakova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The domain wall-related change in the anisotropic magnetoresistance in L-shaped permalloy nanowires is measured as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the applied magnetic field. The magnetoresistance curves, compiled into so-called domain wall magnetoresistance state space maps, are used to identify highly reproducible transitions between domain states. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic modelling are correlated with the transport measurements of the devices in order to identify different magnetization states. Analysis allows to determine the optimal working parameters for specific devices, such as the minimal field required to switch magnetization or the most appropriate angle for maximal separation of the pinning/depinning fields. Moreover, the complete state space maps can be used to predict evolution of nanodevices in magnetic field without a need of additional electrical measurements and for repayable initialization of magnetic sensors into a well-specified state. PMID:25116470

  11. Head-to-head domain wall structures in wide permalloy strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the equilibrium micromagnetic domain wall structures encountered in Permalloy strips of a wide range of thicknesses and widths, with strip widths up to several micrometers. By performing an extensive set of micromagnetic simulations, we show that the equilibrium phase diagram of the domain wall structures exhibits in addition to the previously found structures (symmetric and asymmetric transverse walls, vortex wall) also double vortex and triple vortex domain walls for large enough strip widths and thicknesses. Also several metastable domain wall structures are found for wide and/or thick strips. We discuss the details of the relaxation process from random magnetization initial states towards the stable domain wall structure and show that our results are robust with respect to changes of, e.g., the magnitude of the Gilbert damping constant and details of the initial conditions.

  12. Magnetic vortex-antivortex dynamics on a picosecond timescale in a rectangular Permalloy pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.-H.; Mesler-Lai, B.; Anderson, E.; Fischer, P.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, K.-J.

    2009-06-25

    We report our experimental finding that there exists a pair of magnetic vortex and antivortex generated during an excited motion of a magnetic vortex core. Two vortices structure in 2 x 4 {micro}m{sup 2} rectangular Permalloy pattern is excited by an external field pulse of 1-ns duration, where each vortex is excited and followed by the vortex core splitting. X-ray microscopy with high spatiotemporal resolution enables us to observe a linking domain between two temporarily generated pairs of vortex-antivortex cores only surviving for several hundreds of picoseconds. The linking domain structure is found to depend on the combinational configuration of two original vortex cores, which is supported by micromagnetic simulations with a very good agreement.

  13. Exchange-coupling modified spin wave spectra in the perpendicularly magnetized Permalloy nanodot chain arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jian; Hernandez, Sarah C.; Yu, Chengtao; Pechan, Michael J.; Folks, Liesl; Katine, Jordan A.; Carey, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Spin wave spectra in exchange-coupled nanoscale dot chain arrays were studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The dot chain arrays, with dot diameters of 300 nm and thicknesses of 40 nm, coupled via Permalloy bridges of width ranging from 0 (no bridge) to 60 nm, were fabricated using e-beam lithography. In the perpendicularly magnetized isolated dots, multiple sharp ferromagnetic resonant peaks were observed, which are associated with the quantized in-plane wave vector due to the finite dot radius. These spectrum lines shift to higher fields for samples with wider bridges due to the increasing effective demagnetizing factor. For coupled dots, additional satellite peaks were observed at both sides of higher order spin wave modes and at the lower field side of the uniform mode. We show that these satellite peaks can be attributed to the excitation in each bridged dot and the interdot exchange coupling, respectively.

  14. Microstructure investigation and magnetic study of permalloy thin films grown by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamrani, Sabrina; Guittoum, Abderrahim; Schäfer, Rudolf; Pofahl, Stefan; Neu, Volker; Hemmous, Messaoud; Benbrahim, Nassima

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of thickness on the structural and magnetic properties of permalloy thin films, evaporated on glass substrate. The films thicknesses range from 16 to 90 nm. From X-ray diffraction spectra analysis, we show that the thinner films present a "1,1,1" preferred orientation. However, the thicker films exhibit a random orientation. The grains size increases and the lattice parameter decreases with increasing thickness. The magnetic force microscopy observations display cross-tie walls features only for the two thicker films (60 and 90 nm thick films). The magnetic microstructure, carried out by Kerr microscopy technique, shows the presence of magnetic domains changing with the direction of applied magnetic field. The coercive field, Hc, was found to decrease from 6.5 for 16 to 1.75 Oe for 90 nm. All these results will be discussed and correlated.

  15. Electrical detection of ferromagnetic resonance in single layers of permalloy: Evidence of magnonic charge pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, A.; Cunha, R. O.; Estrada, F.; Alves Santos, O.; Mendes, J. B. S.; Vilela-Leão, L. H.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    The generation of a DC voltage in single layers of permalloy (Ni81Fe19 ) when the magnetization is undergoing ferromagnetic resonance is investigated in a series of samples with thickness varying from 4.0 to 150 nm. By sweeping the external field at a fixed microwave frequency, we measure a DC voltage at the ends of the layer as a function of the in-plane angle for each sample. The asymmetric voltage signal generated at the resonance field is a superposition of symmetric Lorentzian and antisymmetric Lorentzian derivative line shapes. The in-plane dependence of both symmetric and antisymmetric signals cannot be explained as due to spin rectification (SRE) only. The results are well explained by a model that takes into account in addition to the SRE the contribution of the recent discovered effect of magnonic charge pumping that converts magnetization dynamics into charge current by means of the spin orbit coupling.

  16. Systematic Angular Study of Magnetoresistance in Permalloy Connected Kagome Artificial Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungsik; Le, Brian; Watts, Justin; Leighton, Chris; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    Artificial spin ices are nanostructured two-dimensional arrays of ferromagnetic elements, where frustrated interactions lead to unusual collective magnetic behavior. Here we report a room-temperature magnetoresistance study of connected permalloy (Ni81Fe19) kagome artificial spin ice networks, wherein the direction of the applied in-plane magnetic field is systematically varied. We measure both the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance in these structures, and we find certain transport geometries of the network show strong angular sensitivity - even small variations in the applied field angle lead to dramatic changes of the magnetoresistance response. We also investigate the magnetization reversal of the networks using magnetic force microscopy (MFM), demonstrating avalanche behavior in the magnetization reversal. The magnetoresistance features are analyzed using an anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) model. Supported by the US Department of Energy. Work at the University of Minnesota was supported by Seagate Technology, NSF MRSEC, and a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Temperature-Dependent Gilbert Damping in Permalloy Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuelei; Song, Qi; Yang, See-Hun; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The Gilbert damping of ferromagnetic materials is arguably the most important but least understood phenomenological parameter that dictates real-time magnetization dynamics. Understanding the physical origin of the Gilbert damping is highly relevant to developing future fast switching spintronics devices such as magnetic sensors and magnetic random access memory. Here, we report an experimental study of temperature-dependent Gilbert damping in permalloy (Py) thin films of varying thicknesses by ferromagnetic resonance. From the thickness dependence, two independent contributions to the Gilbert damping are identified, namely bulk damping and surface damping. Of particular interest, bulk damping decreases monotonically as the temperature decreases, while surface damping shows an enhancement peak at the temperature of ~50 K. These results provide an important insight to the physical origin of the Gilbert damping in ultrathin magnetic films. PMID:26961411

  18. Enhanced molybdenum uptake in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a cofactor for nitrate reductase. When nitrate reductase activity is limited by Mo deficiency, crop yields are also potentially limited. Plant deficiencies in Mo often occur in acidic soil due to mineral fixation. The long-term goal is to identify genes that can be used to develop...

  19. SURFACE TREATMENT OF MOLYBDENUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Coffer, C.O.

    1961-12-01

    A process of descaling molybdenum articles comprises first immersing them in an aqueous sodium hydroxide-potassium permanganate solution of between 60 and 85 deg C, rinsing, and then immersing them in an aqueous solution containing a mixture of sulfuric, hydrochloric, and chromic acids.

  20. Molybdenum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blossom, John W.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the flow of molybdenum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which molybdenum was recycled. Molybdenum was mostly recycled from products of molybdenum-bearing steels and superalloys, with some molybdenum products recovered specifically for their high molybdenum content. In 1998, 8,000 metric tons (t) of molybdenum was estimated to have been recycled, and the recycling rate was calculated to be 33 percent, with recycling efficiency at about 30 percent.

  1. Proximity effect of magnetic permalloy nanoelements used to induce AMR changes in magnetic biosensor nanowires at specific receptor sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Iain; Ding, An; Xu, Yongbing

    2015-08-01

    We present simulated, substrate bound, permalloy nanowires with receptor sites for magnetic, aqueously suspended nanoelements that are able to induce an anisotropic magnetoresistive effect in nanowire circuits. The permalloy nanoelements were also simulated to determine the remanent spin configuration and were designed to be bound by antibody mediated interactions with biological ligands at the receptor sites in order to act as a biosensor. All results were simulated using micromagnetic simulations by the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). The simulations revealed that anisotropic magnetoresistive changes were induced at the bridging sections between adjacent nanowires, next to the receptor sites, which connect the two adjacent nanowires. The electrical resistance across the nanowires reduced after the inclusion of the nanoelements at the receptor sites. We therefore conclude that this nanowire configuration is useful for an inexpensive diagnostic biosensor.

  2. The magnetic properties of plasma-sprayed thick-film manganese zinc ferrite (MZF) and nickel iron alloy (Permalloy) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, S.; Gambino, R. J.; Sampath, S.; Raja, M. M.

    2006-04-15

    MnZn ferrite/Permalloy composites have potential in high frequency magnetic applications and can be made into thick-film devices by air plasma spray. The as-sprayed composites have lower saturation magnetization than the starting powder. After annealing below 600 deg. C, the magnetic properties and electrical resistivity improve significantly. The changes in magnetic and electrical properties were correlated to structural changes and studied by x-ray-diffraction analysis, vibrating-sample magnetometer measurements, and microstructural analysis.

  3. The influence of Nd dopants on spin and orbital moments in Nd-doped permalloy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chen Zhang, Wen E-mail: yazhai@seu.edu.cn; Zhai, Ya E-mail: yazhai@seu.edu.cn; Wong, P. K. J.; You, Biao; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2014-08-25

    Magnetic properties of Nd{sub X}-Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20(1−X)} thin films have been investigated using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at room temperature. With the Nd concentration increasing, the ratio of orbital-to-spin moment of Ni and Fe increases significantly, indicating that the spin-orbit coupling in permalloy thin films is enhanced due to the Nd impurities. The spin and orbital moments have been obtained by the sum rules analysis, which shows that the Nd impurities lead to a strong dispersion of spin moments of Fe and Ni while have no effect on orbital moments in Nd-doped permalloy thin films. Element-specific XMCD hysteresis loops suggest an antiferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of Nd and permalloy at room temperature. The static magnetic properties have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometer for comparison, which shows a nice agreement with the XMCD results.

  4. Neutron scattering and models : molybdenum.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-05-26

    A comprehensive interpretation of the fast-neutron interaction with elemental and isotopic molybdenum at energies of {le} 30 MeV is given. New experimental elemental-scattering information over the incident energy range 4.5 {r_arrow} 10 MeV is presented. Spherical, vibrational and dispersive models are deduced and discussed, including isospin, energy-dependent and mass effects. The vibrational models are consistent with the ''Lane potential''. The importance of dispersion effects is noted. Dichotomies that exist in the literature are removed. The models are vehicles for fundamental physical investigations and for the provision of data for applied purposes. A ''regional'' molybdenum model is proposed. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

  5. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    PubMed

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  6. Mechanical properties of electron-beam-melted molybdenum and dilute molybdenum-rhenium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of molybdenum and three dilute molybdenum-rhenium alloys was undertaken to determine the effects of rhenium on the low temperature ductility and other mechanical properties of molybdenum. Alloys containing 3.9, 5.9, and 7.7 atomic percent rhenium exhibited lower ductile-brittle transition temperatures than did the unalloyed molybdenum. The maximum improvement in the annealed condition was observed for molybdenum - 7.7 rhenium, which had a ductile-brittle transition temperature approximately 200 C (360 F) lower than that for unalloyed molybdenum. Rhenium additions also increased the low and high temperature tensile strengths and the high temperature creep strength of molybdenum. The mechanical behavior of dilute molybdenum-rhenium alloys is similar to that observed for dilute tungsten-rhenium alloys.

  7. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.

    1991-12-03

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.

  8. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  9. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  10. Zirconia-molybdenum disilicide composites

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of molybdenum disilicide and zirconium oxide in one of three forms: pure, partially stabilized, or fully stabilized and methods of making the compositions. The stabilized zirconia is crystallographically stabilized by mixing it with yttrium oxide, calcium oxide, cerium oxide, or magnesium oxide and it may be partially stabilized or fully stabilized depending on the amount of stabilizing agent in the mixture.

  11. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Gary E.; Seraphin, Bernhard O.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: molybdenum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magyar, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Molybdenum is a metallic element that is most frequently used in alloy and stainless steels, which together represent the single largest market for molybdenum. Molybdenum has also proven invaluable in carbon steel, cast iron and superalloys. Its alloying versatility is unmatched because its addition enhances material performance under high-stress conditions in expanded temperature ranges and in highly corrosive environments. The metal is also used in catalysts, other chemicals, lubricants and many other applications.

  13. Emergence of the stripe-domain phase in patterned permalloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltan, S.; Cirillo, C.; Snijders, H. J.; Lahabi, K.; García-Santiago, A.; Hernández, J. M.; Attanasio, C.; Aarts, J.

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of stripe domains in ferromagnetic permalloy (Py =Fe20Ni80) is a well-known phenomenon which has been extensively observed and characterized. This peculiar magnetic configuration appears only in films with a thickness above a critical value (dc r), which is strongly determined by the sputtering conditions (i.e., deposition rate, temperature, magnetic field). So far, dc r has usually been presented as the boundary between the homogeneous (H) and stripe-domain (SD) regime, respectively, below and above dc r. In this work we study the transition from the H to the SD regime in thin films and microstructured bridges of Py with different thicknesses. We find there is an intermediate regime, over a quite significant thickness range below dc r, which is signaled in confined structures by a quickly changing domain-wall configuration and by a broadening of the magnetoresistance dip at the coercive field. We call this the emerging stripe-domain (ESD) regime. The transition from the ESD to the SD regime is accompanied by a sharp increase of the magnetoresistance ratio at the thickness where stripes appear in MFM.

  14. Current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with a rectangular cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, J. H.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Hu, An; Ding, H. F.

    2011-11-01

    We performed micromagnetic simulations of the current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the absence of the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, a threshold current, J{sub c} is required to drive the domain wall moving continuously. We find that J{sub c} is proportional to the maximum cross product of the demagnetization field and magnetization orientation of the domain wall and the domain wall width. With varying both the wire thickness and width, a minimum threshold current in the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} is obtained when the thickness is equivalent to the wire width. With the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, the calculated domain wall velocity {nu} equals to the adiabatic spin transfer velocity u when the current is far above the Walker limit J{sub w}. Below J{sub w}, {nu}=({beta}/{alpha})u, where {beta} is the nonadiabatic parameter and {alpha} is the damping factor. For different {beta}, we find the Walker limit can be scaled as J{sub w}=({alpha}/{beta}-{alpha})J{sub c}. Our simulations agree well with the one dimensional analytical calculation, suggesting the findings are the general behaviors of the systems in this particular geometry.

  15. Nanolaminated Permalloy Core for High-Flux, High-Frequency Ultracompact Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Kim, M; Galle, P; Herrault, F; Shafer, R; Park, JY; Allen, MG

    2013-09-01

    Metallic magnetic materials have desirable magnetic properties, including high permeability, and high saturation flux density, when compared with their ferrite counterparts. However, eddy-current losses preclude their use in many switching converter applications, due to the challenge of simultaneously achieving sufficiently thin laminations such that eddy currents are suppressed (e.g., 500 nm-1 mu m for megahertz frequencies), while simultaneously achieving overall core thicknesses such that substantial power can be handled. A CMOS-compatible fabrication process based on robot-assisted sequential electrodeposition followed by selective chemical etching has been developed for the realization of a core of substantial overall thickness (tens to hundreds of micrometers) comprised of multiple, stacked permalloy (Ni80Fe20) nanolaminations. Tests of toroidal inductors with nanolaminated cores showed negligible eddy-current loss relative to total core loss even at a peak flux density of 0.5 T in the megahertz frequency range. To illustrate the use of these cores, a buck power converter topology is implemented with switching frequencies of 1-2 MHz. Power conversion efficiency greater than 85% with peak operating flux density of 0.3-0.5 T in the core and converter output power level exceeding 5 W was achieved.

  16. Application of sub-micrometer patterned permalloy thin film in tunable radio frequency inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, B. M. Farid; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Wang, Tengxing; Peng, Yujia; Wang, Guoan

    2015-05-01

    Electrical tunable meander line inductor using coplanar waveguide structures with patterned permalloy (Py) thin film has been designed and implemented in this paper. High resistivity Si substrate is used to reduce the dielectric loss from the substrate. Inductor is implemented with a 60 nm thick Py deposited and patterned on top of the gold meander line, and Py film is patterned with dimension of 440 nm × 10 μm to create the shape anisotropy field, which in turn increases the FMR frequency. Compared to a regular meanderline inductor without the application of sub-micrometer patterned Py thin film, the inductance density has been increased to 20% for the implemented inductor with patterned Py. Measured FMR frequency of the patterned Py is 4.51 GHz without the application of any external magnetic field. This has enabled the inductor application in the practical circuit boards, where the large external magnet is unavailable. Inductance tunability of the implemented inductor is demonstrated by applying a DC current. Applied DC current creates a magnetic field along the hard axis of the patterned Py thin film, which changes the magnetic moment of the thin film and thus, decreases the inductance of the line. Measured results show that the inductance density of the inductor can be varied 5% by applying 300 mA DC current, larger inductance tunability is achievable by increasing the thickness of Py film.

  17. Differential Domain Wall Propagation in Y-Shaped Permalloy Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipul; Chen, Ting-Chieh; Shiu, Deng-Shiang; Horng, Lance; Wu, Jong-Ching

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report an investigation of magnetic domain wall (DW) evolution and propagation in Y-shaped permalloy (Py) nanowire (NW) devices. The devices are fabricated using standard electron-beam lithography technique. Each device consists of three connected NWs that form a Y-junction structure with one branch connecting either symmetrically or asymmetrically to a circular disk for DW nucleation. The DW dynamics in the devices are studied by in situ magnetic force microscopy (MFM) by pinning the DWs to triangular notches at each branch of the two devices. We observe that the DW injection field values differ depending on whether they are connected to the circular disks symmetrically or asymmetrically. However, after they pass the Y-junctions, a selection is made by the DWs to propagate easily either through both or through only one particular outgoing branch of the devices. The experimental observations are analyzed by micromagnetic simulation. It can be inferred from the results that the influence of detailed geometrical shape of the devices leads to significantly different interactions among the innate topological defects and the notches with the injected DWs.

  18. Exchange-coupling modified spin wave spectra in the perpendicularly magnetized permalloy nanodot chain arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jian; Hernandez, Sarah C.; Yu, Chengtao; Pechan, Michael J.; Folks, Liesl; Katine, Jordan A.; Carey, Matthew J.

    2009-03-01

    Spin wave spectra in exchange coupled nanoscale dot chain arrays were studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The dot chain arrays, with dot diameters of 300 nm and thicknesses of 40 nm, coupled via permalloy bridges of width ranging from 0 to 60 nm, were fabricated using e-beam lithography. In the perpendicularly magnetized isolated dots, multiple sharp ferromagnetic resonant peaks were observedootnotetextG.N.Kakazei et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 443 (2004), which is associated with the quantized in-plane wave vector due to the finite dot radius. These spectrum lines shift to higher fields for samples with wider bridges due to the increasing effective demagnetizing factor. Additional higher order spin wave modes were observed as satellite peaks near the resonance peaks at both higher and lower fields, with larger separation between adjacent spin wave peaks for wider bridge samples. These extra spin wave modes, associated with the inter-dot exchange coupling,will be described in detail. This work is supported by US Dept. of Energy at MU.

  19. Spin wave eigenmodes in single and coupled sub-150 nm rectangular permalloy dots

    SciTech Connect

    Carlotti, G. Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Gubbiotti, G.; Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W.

    2015-05-07

    We present the results of a Brillouin light scattering investigation of thermally excited spin wave eigenmodes in square arrays of either isolated rectangular dots of permalloy or twins of dipolarly coupled elements, placed side-by-side or head-to-tail. The nanodots, fabricated by e-beam lithography and lift-off, are 20 nm thick and have the major size D in the range between 90 nm and 150 nm. The experimental spectra show the presence of two main peaks, corresponding to modes localized either at the edges or in the center of the dots. Their frequency dependence on the dot size and on the interaction with adjacent elements has been measured and successfully interpreted on the basis of dynamical micromagnetic simulations. The latter enabled us also to describe the spatial profile of the eigenmodes, putting in evidence the effects induced by the dipolar interaction between coupled dots. In particular, in twinned dots the demagnetizing field is appreciably modified in proximity of the “internal edges” if compared to the “external” ones, leading to a splitting of the edge mode. These results can be relevant for the exploitation of sub-150 nm magnetic dots in new applications, such as magnonic metamaterials, bit-patterned storage media, and nano-magnetic logic devices.

  20. Spin-orbit interaction enhancement in permalloy thin films by Pt doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabec, A.; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; Spencer, C. S.; Arenholz, E.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Stamps, R. L.; Marrows, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    The spin-orbit interaction is an inherent part of magnetism, which links up the independent world of spins to the atomic lattice, thus controlling many functional properties of magnetic materials. In the widely used 3 d transition metal ferromagnetic films, the spin-orbit interaction is relatively weak, due to low atomic number. Here we show that it is possible to enhance and tune the spin-orbit interaction by adding 5 d platinum dopants into permalloy (Ni81Fe19 ) thin films by a cosputtering technique. This is achieved without significant changes of the magnetic properties, due to the vicinity of Pt to meeting the Stoner criterion for the ferromagnetic state. The spin-orbit interaction is investigated by means of transport measurements (the anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect), ferromagnetic resonance measurements to determine the Gilbert damping, as well as by measuring the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the L3 and L2 x-ray absorption edges to reveal the ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moments. It is shown that the effective spin-orbit interaction increases with Pt concentration within the 0%-10% Pt concentration range in a way that is consistent with theoretical expectations for all four measurements.

  1. Engineered smart substrate with embedded patterned permalloy thin film for radio frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yujia; Rahman, B. M. Farid; Wang, Tengxing; Nowrin, Chamok; Ali, Mohammod; Wang, Guoan

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional and frequency-agile devices are promising components that satisfy multiple standards of modern wireless communication system. This paper provides a unique method to develop tunable RF components based on engineered smart substrate where the smart substrate contain patterned Permalloy (Py) thin film on high-resistivity silicon. The permeability of Py can be adjusted by changing the DC current, thus allowing tunable RF circuits and components. Single or multi-layer patterns can be developed. To demonstrate tunability of the smart substrate, a frequency reconfigurable patch antenna was fabricated on Liquid Crystal Polymer substrate and bonded to the proposed smart substrate. The patch antenna was tested, which revealed that the center frequency of operation could be tuned from 2.38 GHz to 2.43 GHz by changing the DC current from 0 mA to 500 mA. Similarly, a transmission line based phase shifter was also fabricated on another smart substrate, which showed that the phase shifter could provide continuous 90° phase shift from 2.35 GHz to 2.15 GHz under different DC current bias conditions.

  2. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    DOEpatents

    Eagan, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum, and adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures of between about 900.degree. and about 950.degree.C. to form a hermatically sealed insulator body.

  3. Molybdenum Enzymes, Cofactors, and Model Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgmayer, S. J. N; Stiefel, E. I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (l) molybdoenzymes (examining their distribution and metabolic role, composition and redox strategy, cofactors, substrate reactions, and mechanistic possibilities); (2) structural information on molybdenum (Mo) centers; (3) modeling studies (Mo-co models, nitrogenase models, and the MO-S duo); and (4) the copper-molybdenum antagonism.…

  4. Dynamic Modeling of Molybdenum Metabolism in Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum is an essential nutrient in the human diet and is a cofactor for several enzymes. While intakes can vary widely with geographical region, both deficiency and toxicity in humans are rare. To determine if humans have adaptive mechanisms for maintaining molybdenum status under varying inta...

  5. Physicochemical speciation of molybdenum in rain water.

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, S; Hashi, S; Iwatsuki, M

    2001-07-01

    A combination of a sensitive catalytic determination method with filtration and ultrafiltration has been used for the physicochemical speciation of molybdenum in natural and synthetic rain water samples. The concentration (CL) of labile molybdenum was evaluated by a direct catalytic determination. The total concentration (CT ) of molybdenum was determined after the acid decomposition of the sample to calculate the non-labile concentration (CT-CL). From the speciation results, molybdenum species in the successive rainfall sample were found in a fraction with smaller molecular weights < 10(3) Da and characterized as labile forms, i.e. simple molybdate ions. Non-labile molybdenum existed in particulate matter (> or = 0.45 microm in particle size) and distributed predominantly in the initial rainfall sample. The coprecipitation with Fe(III) hydroxide contributed to the formation of the non-labile molybdenum. In the initial rainfall sample, a small part of molybdenum was labile in the particle fraction (> or = 0.45 microm). This type of molybdenum was associated with the formation of humic iron aggregates.

  6. Polarized neutron reflection study of the unidirectional magnetic anisotropy of Permalloy on Ni 0.5Co 0.5O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felcher, G. P.; Huang, Y. Y.; Carey, M.; Berkowitz, A.

    1993-03-01

    Couples of ferromagnetic Permalloy/antiferromagnetic metal oxide exhibit unidirectional magnetic anisotropy along a magnetic field applied during cooling. Polarized neutron reflection has been used to check if the effect is due to a bias of the antiferromagnetic configuration in the oxide, where the layer immediately adjacent to the Permalloy is polarized parallel to the easy direction of magnetization. The measurements were made on a sample consisting of 300ÅPermalloy/500ÅNi 0.5Co 0.5O. Polarized neutron reflectivities were taken at the four corners of the magnetic hysteresis loop at 20 K. A faint magnetic signal consistent with the unidirectional bias of the F / AF structure was observed. This behavior is discussed in the light of the current theories.

  7. Efficient spin transport through native oxides of nickel and permalloy with platinum and gold overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, B. L.; Manno, M.; O'Brien, L.; Lotze, J.; Weiler, M.; Bassett, D.; Mason, S. J.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Johnson, M.; Leighton, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of spin pumping detected by the inverse spin Hall effect voltage and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy in a series of metallic ferromagnet/normal metal thin film stacks. We compare heterostructures grown in situ to those where either a magnetic or nonmagnetic oxide is introduced between the two metals. The heterostructures, either nickel with a platinum overlayer (Ni/Pt) or the nickel-iron alloy permalloy (Py) with a gold overlayer (Py/Au), were also characterized in detail using grazing-incidence x-ray reflectivity, Auger electron spectroscopy, and both SQUID and alternating-gradient magnetometry. We verify the presence of oxide layers, characterize layer thickness, composition, and roughness, and probe saturation magnetization, coercivity, and anisotropy. The results show that while the presence of a nonmagnetic oxide at the interface suppresses spin transport from the ferromagnet to the nonmagnetic metal, a thin magnetic oxide (here the native oxide formed on both Py and Ni) somewhat enhances the product of the spin-mixing conductance and the spin Hall angle. We also observe clear evidence of an out-of-plane component of magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Pt samples that is enhanced in the presence of the native oxide, resulting in perpendicular exchange bias. Finally, the dc inverse spin Hall voltages generated at ferromagnetic resonance in our Py/Au samples are large, and suggest values for the spin Hall angle in gold of 0.04 <αSH<0.22 , in line with the highest values reported for Au. This is interpreted as resulting from Fe impurities. We present indirect evidence that the Au films described here indeed have significant impurity levels.

  8. Magnetostatic dipolar domain-wall pinning in chains of permalloy triangular rings.

    SciTech Connect

    Vavassori, P.; Bisero, D.; Bonanni, V.; Busato, A.; Grimsditch, M.; Lebecki, K. M.; Metlushko, V.; Ilic, B.; Materials Science Division; CIC nanoGUNE Consolider; Univ. di Ferrara; CNR-INFM National Research Centre; Polish Academy of Science; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Cornell Univ.

    2008-01-01

    In a combined experimental and numerical study, we investigated the details of the motion and pinning of domain walls in isolated and interacting permalloy triangular rings (side 2 {micro}m, width 250 nm, and thickness 25 nm). To induce interaction between the rings, they were arranged either in vertical chains with an apex of each triangle in proximity to the edge center of the triangle above it or in horizontal chains where the proximity is between the adjacent corners of the triangles. Using longitudinal and diffraction magneto-optic Kerr effects, magnetic force microscopy, and micromagnetic simulations, we determined the field dependence of the spin structure in the rings. In all cases the remnant state of each ring is an 'onion' state characterized by two domain walls - one head to head the other tail to tail - pinned at the apexes. In isolated rings the magnetization reversal occurs between two onion states via the formation of an intermediate vortex state, which arises from the motion and annihilation of the two domain walls. In the case of the horizontal chains the reversal mechanism is unchanged except that the dipolar interaction affects the field range in which the rings are in the vortex state. In the case of vertical chains an additional intermediate state is observed during reversal. The new state involves a domain wall pinned at the center of the edge that is in close proximity to the apex of its neighbor. We show that the domain-wall motion in this last case can be modeled by a triple potential well. Because the new state requires that a domain wall be pinned at the neighboring apex, our observations can be viewed as a very elementary form of magnetic logic.

  9. Collective spin excitations in bicomponent magnonic crystals consisting of bilayer permalloy/Fe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.; Yang, Z.; Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Kostylev, M.

    2016-05-01

    In the developing field of magnonics, it is very important to achieve tailoring of spin wave propagation by both a proper combination of materials with different magnetic properties and their nanostructuring on the submicrometric scale. With this in mind, we have exploited deep ultraviolet lithography, in combination with the tilted shadow deposition technique, to fabricate arrays of closely spaced bilayer nanowires (NWs), with separation d =100 nm and periodicity a =440 nm , having bottom and top layers made of permalloy and iron, respectively. The NWs have either a "rectangular" cross section (bottom and upper layers of equal width) or an "L-shaped" cross section (upper layer of half width). The frequency dispersion of collective spin wave excitations in the above bilayered NW arrays has been measured by the Brillouin light-scattering technique while sweeping the wave vector perpendicularly to the wire length over three Brillouin zones of the reciprocal space. For the rectangular NWs, the lowest-frequency fundamental mode, characterized by a quasiuniform profile of the amplitude of the dynamic magnetization across the NW width, exhibits a sizable and periodic frequency dispersion. A similar dispersive mode is also present in L-shaped NWs, but the mode amplitude is concentrated in the thin side of the NWs. The width and the center frequency of the magnonic band associated with the above fundamental modes have been analyzed, showing that both can be tuned by varying the external applied field. Moreover, for the L-shaped NWs it is shown that there is also a second dispersive mode, at higher frequency, characterized by an amplitude concentrated in the thick side of the NW. These experimental results have been quantitatively reproduced by an original numerical model that includes a two-dimensional Green's function description of the dipole field of the dynamic magnetization and interlayer exchange coupling between the layers.

  10. Physicochemical characteristics of electrochemically deposited molybdenum sulfide and polypyrrole-tetrathiomolybdate/molybdenum trisulfide composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, D.; Laperriere, G.; Girard, F. ); Guay, D.; Tourillon, G. )

    1993-06-01

    Amorphous molybdenum sulfide and polypyrrole-tetrathiomolybdate/molybdenum sulfide thin films obtained by electrodeposition from aqueous solutions of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and pyrrole + ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, respectively, have been characterized by elemental analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The authors' data revealed that the structure of electrochemically and thermally produced molybdenum trisulfide are identical but that additional sulfur is also present in the electrodeposited material. On the other hand, polypyrrole films grown in the presence of tetrathiomolybdate as the counterion also contains molybdenum trisulfide. Elemental analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of polypyrrole-tetrathiomolybdate/molybdenum trisulfide thin film suggest that 30% of molybdenum is under the MoS[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  11. Separation of molybdenum and technetium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. D.; Gagnon, K.; Wilson, J. S.; Romaniuk, J.; Abrams, D. N.; McQuarrie, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    After the production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction, there is a requirement for separating 99mTc from bulk 100Mo. Although a number of separation methods have been demonstrated, the possibility of using a cartridge-based system is particularly attractive for routine use in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulatory environment. This study confirmed that hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) solid phase extraction (SPE) with PEG as stationary phase is an efficient and easily automated method for separating molybdate and pertechnetate, and that PEG degradation in the conditions used does not affect the performance of the resin. In addition, reversed phase SPE using Waters Oasis® HLB shows promise for successful separation of molybdenum and technetium and work continues to extend this technology to readily available commercial SPE cartridges.

  12. High-yield fabrication of 60 nm Permalloy nanodiscs in well-defined magnetic vortex state for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goiriena-Goikoetxea, M.; García-Arribas, A.; Rouco, M.; Svalov, A. V.; Barandiaran, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    Permalloy disc structures in magnetic vortex state constitute a promising new type of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. They present high saturation magnetisation and lack of remanence, which ease the remote manipulation of the particles by magnetic fields and avoid the problem of agglomeration, respectively. Importantly, they are also endowed with the capability of low-frequency magneto-mechanical actuation. This effect has already been shown to produce cancer cell destruction using functionalized discs, about 1 μm in diameter, attached to the cell membrane. Here, Permalloy nanodiscs down to 60 nm in diameter are obtained by hole-mask colloidal lithography, which is proved to be a cost-effective method for the uniform patterning of large substrate areas, with a high production yield of nanostructures. The characterisation of the magnetic behaviour of the nanodiscs, complemented with micromagnetic simulations, confirms that they present a very well defined magnetic vortex configuration, unprecedented, to our knowledge, for nanostructures of this size prepared by a high-yield method. The successful detachment of the gold-covered nanodiscs from the substrate is also demonstrated by the use of sacrificial layers.

  13. Transfer of molybdenum disulfide to various metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, G. C.; Pepper, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with molybdenum disulfide single crystals in contact with sputter cleaned surfaces of copper, nickel, gold, and 304 stainless steel. Transfer of the molybdenum disulfide to the metals was monitored with Auger electron spectroscopy. Results of the investigation indicate molybdenum disulfide transfers to all clean metal surfaces after a single pass over the metal surface with film thickness observed to increase with repeated passes over the same surfaces. Large particle transfer occurs when the orientation of the crystallites is other than basal. This is frequently accompanied by abrasion of the metal. Adhesion of molybdenum disulfide films occurred readily to copper and nickel, less readily to 304 stainless steel, and even less effectively to the gold, which indicates a chemical effect.

  14. Upper critical field of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum sulfides appear to show similar anomalies.

  15. Molybdenum Isotopes and Soil Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygenation state of Earth's oceans is a driver of evolution and extinction events as well as climate change. In recent years stable isotope fractionation of redox sensitive elements such as molybdenum (Mo) have been used as quantitative tracers of past redox-conditions in a number of marine environments. However, little is known about the processes controlling the Mo isotope compositions of the riverine inputs to the oceans and their short- and long-term variations. Several recent studies [Archer & Vance, 2008; Pearce et al., 2010] have shown that many river waters have heavy Mo isotope compositions. In some terrestrial weathering environments dissolved Mo isotope compositions in rivers are controlled by the catchment lithology [Neubert et al., 2011]. However, many rivers show fractionation of Mo isotopes relative to their catchment lithology. Possible mechanisms causing this fractionation are chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. This study has investigated the behavior of Mo isotopes during weathering of basalt under different conditions. Results from oxic to reducing soil profiles in Hawaii show that redox conditions during soil formation can control Mo isotope compositions in soils. Reducing soil profiles have light isotope compositions whereas oxidizing profiles are heavy. This general isotope behavior is confirmed by results from soil profiles from Iceland. Here reducing layers within the profiles show marked negative isotope excursions. In oxic profiles a surprisingly strong interaction of Mo with organic matter can be observed producing significant Mo isotope fractionation. This behavior might explain long term retention of Mo in soils besides its high mobility in molybdate form. Mo associated with organic matter is bioavailable and essential for processes like nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observe that fractionation relative to the source rock is dependent on the degree of weathering, i.e. relatively un-weathered profiles do not show

  16. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  17. Molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in Serratia sp. Strain DRY5 is catalyzed by a novel molybdenum-reducing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Rahman, M F A; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-01-01

    The first purification of the Mo-reducing enzyme from Serratia sp. strain DRY5 that is responsible for molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in the bacterium is reported. The monomeric enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 105 kDalton. The isoelectric point of this enzyme was 7.55. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.0 and maximum activity between 25 and 35°C. The Mo-reducing enzyme was extremely sensitive to temperatures above 50°C (between 54 and 70°C). A plot of initial rates against substrate concentrations at 15 mM 12-MP registered a V max for NADH at 12.0 nmole Mo blue/min/mg protein. The apparent K m for NADH was 0.79 mM. At 5 mM NADH, the apparent V max and apparent K m values for 12-MP of 12.05 nmole/min/mg protein and 3.87 mM, respectively, were obtained. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of the Mo-reducing enzyme was 5.47 M(-1) s(-1). The purification of this enzyme could probably help to solve the phenomenon of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue first reported in 1896 and would be useful for the understanding of the underlying mechanism in molybdenum bioremediation involving bioreduction.

  18. Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue in Serratia sp. Strain DRY5 Is Catalyzed by a Novel Molybdenum-Reducing Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Shukor, M. Y.; Halmi, M. I. E.; Rahman, M. F. A.; Shamaan, N. A.; Syed, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The first purification of the Mo-reducing enzyme from Serratia sp. strain DRY5 that is responsible for molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in the bacterium is reported. The monomeric enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 105 kDalton. The isoelectric point of this enzyme was 7.55. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.0 and maximum activity between 25 and 35°C. The Mo-reducing enzyme was extremely sensitive to temperatures above 50°C (between 54 and 70°C). A plot of initial rates against substrate concentrations at 15 mM 12-MP registered a Vmax for NADH at 12.0 nmole Mo blue/min/mg protein. The apparent Km for NADH was 0.79 mM. At 5 mM NADH, the apparent Vmax and apparent Km values for 12-MP of 12.05 nmole/min/mg protein and 3.87 mM, respectively, were obtained. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the Mo-reducing enzyme was 5.47 M−1 s−1. The purification of this enzyme could probably help to solve the phenomenon of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue first reported in 1896 and would be useful for the understanding of the underlying mechanism in molybdenum bioremediation involving bioreduction. PMID:24724104

  19. Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Parada, R.

    1981-02-01

    Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

  20. Effect of using stencil masks made by focused ion beam milling on permalloy (Ni81Fe19) nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bates, J R; Miyahara, Y; Burgess, J A J; Iglesias-Freire, O; Grütter, P

    2013-03-22

    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is a common fabrication technique to make nanostencil masks which has the unintended consequence of gallium ion implantation surrounding milled features in silicon nitride membranes. We observe major changes in film structure, chemical composition, and magnetic behaviour of permalloy nanostructures deposited by electron beam evaporation using silicon nitride stencil masks made by a FIB as compared to stencil masks made by regular lithography techniques. We characterize the stenciled structures and both types of masks using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, magnetic force microscopy and kelvin probe force microscopy. All these techniques demonstrate distinct differences at a length scale of a 1-100 nm for the structures made using stencil mask fabricated using a FIB. The origin of these differences seems to be related to the presence of implanted ions, a detailed understanding of the mechanism however remains to be developed. PMID:23449320

  1. Thermoinduced laser-assisted deposition of molybdenum from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemirovsky, Vladimir V.; Logunov, Lev S.; Zhigley, Elvira S.; Baranauskaite, Valeriia

    2015-05-01

    Local molybdenum deposit obtainment is promising for micro thermocouples creation on dielectric surfaces. This paper is dedicated to development of method of laser-induced molybdenum deposition from water-based solution of inorganic salt on Sitall st-50 and glass dielectric substrates, as well as research of solution composition, pH and substrate optical properties influence on result of laser-induced molybdenum deposition from solution. It was shown that depending on dielectric substrate type, as a result of laser-induced deposition metallic molybdenum or molybdenum dioxide deposit forms: molybdenum dioxide deposits in case of optically clear substrate and metallic molybdenum deposits in case of opaque glass-ceramics. While modelling interim case via using clouded glass, mixture of molybdenum and its oxide was successfully obtained.

  2. Effect of molybdenum treatment on molybdenum concentration and nitrate reduction in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Béla; Puskás-Preszner, Anita; Huzsvai, László; Lévai, László; Bódi, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Since 1940 molybdenum has been known as an essential trace element in plant nutrition and physiology. It has a central role in nitrogen metabolism, and its deficiency leads to nitrate accumulation in plants. In this study, we cultivated maize seedlings (Zea mays L. cv. Norma SC) in nutrient solution and soil (rhizoboxes) to investigate the effect of molybdenum treatment on the absorption of molybdenum, sulfur and iron. These elements have been previously shown to play important roles in nitrate reduction, because they are necessary for the function of the nitrate reductase enzyme. We also investigated the relationship between molybdenum treatments and different nitrogen forms in maize. Molybdenum treatments were 0, 0.96, 9.6 and 96 μg kg(-1) in the nutrition solution experiments, and 0, 30, 90, 270 mg kg(-1) in the rhizobox experiments. On the basis of our results, the increased Mo level produced higher plant available Mo concentration in nutrient solution and in soil, which resulted increased concentration of Mo in shoots and roots of maize seedlings. In addition it was observed that maize seedlings accumulated more molybdenum in their roots than in their shoots at all treatments. In contrast, molybdenum treatments did not affect significantly either iron or sulfur concentrations in the plant, even if these elements (Mo, S and Fe) play alike important roles in nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, the physiological molybdenum level (1× Mo = 0.01 μM) reduced NO3-N and enhanced the NH4-N concentrations in seedlings, suggesting that nitrate reduction was more intense under a well-balanced molybdenum supply.

  3. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  4. Pre-treatment for molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy articles to be plated

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Ralph R.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for etching a molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy surface to promote the formation of an adherent bond with a subsequently deposited metallic plating. In a typical application, the method is used as a pre-treatment for surfaces to be electrolessly plated with nickel. The pre-treatment comprises exposing the crystal boundaries of the surface by (a) anodizing the surface in acidic solution to form a continuous film of gray molybdenum oxide thereon and (b) removing the film.

  5. Recovery of the molybdenum catalyst for fossil fuel hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Zekel; N.P. Goryunova; N.V. Krasnobaeva; G.B. Skripchenko; M. Y. Shpirt

    2009-07-01

    The composition and the properties of molybdenum-containing residues remaining after catalytic hydrogenation of coals and bitumen were studied. The chemical and the mineralogical composition of the products and the forms of molybdenum compounds were established. The techniques of concentration of molybdenum compounds (flotation, magnetic separation, and oxidative sublimation of MoO{sub 3}) were considered.

  6. Isotope fractionation studies of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, M. E.; de Laeter, J. R.; Varner, M. D.

    2007-08-01

    Mass spectrometric studies of the isotopic composition of molybdenum have become an active area of research in stable isotope geochemistry, biogeochemistry and cosmochemistry. The redox chemistry of Mo, together with its proclivity for covalent bonding, indicates its importance in isotope fractionation studies such as palaeoceanography. The measurement of the magnitude of isotope fractionation of Mo in natural systems is a challenging task, in that natural fractionation has to be carefully distinguished from chemical and instrumental isotope fractionation. An ion exchange chemical separation procedure has been developed with high efficiency and low blank, to ensure that the isobaric elements Zr and Ru are removed from the samples before mass spectrometric analysis. The isotope fractionation resulting from this procedure is 0.14[per mille sign] per u. The isotopic composition of Mo of a Laboratory Standard has been measured by positive and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS and N-TIMS, respectively), to give an isotope fractionation of 6.4[per mille sign] and 0.5[per mille sign] per u, respectively, with respect to the absolute isotope abundances of Mo. In both cases the lighter isotopes are enhanced with respect to the heavier isotopes. An ascorbic acid activator has enabled the sensitivity of P-TIMS to be improved as compared to traditional methods. The same experiment was repeated using a multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) to give an isotope fractionation of approximately 17.0[per mille sign] per u. In this case the heavier isotopes are enhanced with respect to the lighter isotopes. The strengths and weaknesses of these three mass spectrometric techniques are evaluated. We conclude that MC-ICP-MS is the optimum mass spectrometric method for accurately measuring the isotope fractionation of Mo in natural materials, provided chemical and instrumental isotope fractionation can be resolved from naturally

  7. Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinhua; Hu, Zhixin; Probert, Matt; Li, Kun; Lv, Danhui; Yang, Xinan; Gu, Lin; Mao, Nannan; Feng, Qingliang; Xie, Liming; Zhang, Jin; Wu, Dianzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jin, Chuanhong; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Defects usually play an important role in tailoring various properties of two-dimensional materials. Defects in two-dimensional monolayer molybdenum disulphide may be responsible for large variation of electric and optical properties. Here we present a comprehensive joint experiment–theory investigation of point defects in monolayer molybdenum disulphide prepared by mechanical exfoliation, physical and chemical vapour deposition. Defect species are systematically identified and their concentrations determined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, and also studied by ab-initio calculation. Defect density up to 3.5 × 1013 cm−2 is found and the dominant category of defects changes from sulphur vacancy in mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition samples to molybdenum antisite in physical vapour deposition samples. Influence of defects on electronic structure and charge-carrier mobility are predicted by calculation and observed by electric transport measurement. In light of these results, the growth of ultra-high-quality monolayer molybdenum disulphide appears a primary task for the community pursuing high-performance electronic devices. PMID:25695374

  8. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  9. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOEpatents

    Schmatz, Duane J.

    1989-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  10. The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactors.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R; Leimkühler, Silke

    2015-03-01

    The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactors (Moco) is an ancient, ubiquitous, and highly conserved pathway leading to the biochemical activation of molybdenum. Moco is the essential component of a group of redox enzymes, which are diverse in terms of their phylogenetic distribution and their architectures, both at the overall level and in their catalytic geometry. A wide variety of transformations are catalyzed by these enzymes at carbon, sulfur and nitrogen atoms, which include the transfer of an oxo group or two electrons to or from the substrate. More than 50 molybdoenzymes were identified to date. In all molybdoenzymes except nitrogenase, molybdenum is coordinated to a dithiolene group on the 6-alkyl side chain of a pterin called molybdopterin (MPT). The biosynthesis of Moco can be divided into three general steps, with a fourth one present only in bacteria and archaea: (1) formation of the cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate, (2) formation of MPT, (3) insertion of molybdenum into molybdopterin to form Moco, and (4) additional modification of Moco in bacteria with the attachment of a nucleotide to the phosphate group of MPT, forming the dinucleotide variant of Moco. This review will focus on the biosynthesis of Moco in bacteria, humans and plants.

  11. Molybdenum accumulation in chlD mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D; Amy, N K

    1989-01-01

    The content of molybdenum in wild-type and chlD cells was measured under a variety of growth conditions to determine if cells with a defective chlD gene were able to accumulate molybdenum. The chlD cells accumulated less molybdenum than wild-type cells did but concentrated molybdenum to a level at least 20-fold higher than the concentration in the culture medium. Molybdenum was present within spheroplasts of chlD cells and was not dialyzable. The chlD cells accumulated as much molybdenum as wild-type cells did when grown in medium containing 0.1 mM molybdate; thus, the capability of incorporation of molybdenum into cellular component(s) was equivalent to that of the wild type under these conditions. PMID:2646274

  12. Post-Irradiation Fracture Toughness of Unalloyed Molybdenum, ODS molybdenum, and TZM molybdenum following irradiation at 244C to 507C

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, Brian V; Byun, Thak Sang; Leonard, Keith J; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available unalloyed molybdenum (Low Carbon Arc Cast (LCAC)), Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) molybdenum, and TZM molybdenum were neutron irradiated at temperatures of nominally 244 C, 407 C, and 509 C to neutron fluences between 1.0 to 4.6x1025 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV). Post-irradiation fracture toughness testing was performed. All alloys exhibited a Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature that was defined to occur at 30 4 MPa-m1/2. The highest post-irradiated fracture toughness values (26-107 MPa-m1/2) and lowest DBTT (100-150 C) was observed for ODS molybdenum in the L-T orientation. The finer grain size for ODS molybdenum results in fine laminates that improve the ductile laminate toughening. The results for ODS molybdenum are anisotropic with lower post-irradiated toughness values (20-30 MPa-m1/2) and higher DBTT (450-600 C) in the T-L orientation. The results for T-L ODS molybdenum are consistent or slightly better than those for LCAC molybdenum (21-71 MPa-m1/2 and 450-800 C DBTT). The fracture toughness values measured for LCAC and T-L ODS molybdenum at temperatures below the DBTT were determined to be 8-18 MPa-m1/2. Lower non-irradiated fracture toughness values were measured for TZM molybdenum that are attributed to the large carbide precipitates serving as preferential fracture initiation sites. The role of microstructure and grain size on post-irradiated fracture toughness was evaluated by comparing the results for LCAC molybdenum and ODS molybdenum.

  13. Kinetics of Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by Bacillus sp. Strain A.rzi

    PubMed Central

    Othman, A. R.; Bakar, N. A.; Halmi, M. I. E.; Johari, W. L. W.; Ahmad, S. A.; Jirangon, H.; Syed, M. A.; Shukor, M. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum is very toxic to agricultural animals. Mo-reducing bacterium can be used to immobilize soluble molybdenum to insoluble forms, reducing its toxicity in the process. In this work the isolation of a novel molybdate-reducing Gram positive bacterium tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. strain A.rzi from a metal-contaminated soil is reported. The cellular reduction of molybdate to molybdenum blue occurred optimally at 4 mM phosphate, using 1% (w/v) glucose, 50 mM molybdate, between 28 and 30°C and at pH 7.3. The spectrum of the Mo-blue product showed a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of bacterial electron transport system (ETS) such as rotenone, sodium azide, antimycin A, and potassium cyanide could not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing activity. At 0.1 mM, mercury, copper, cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, cobalt, and zinc showed strong inhibition on molybdate reduction by crude enzyme. The best model that fitted the experimental data well was Luong followed by Haldane and Monod. The calculated value for Luong's constants pmax, Ks, Sm, and n was 5.88 μmole Mo-blue hr−1, 70.36 mM, 108.22 mM, and 0.74, respectively. The characteristics of this bacterium make it an ideal tool for bioremediation of molybdenum pollution. PMID:24369531

  14. High-Strength Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Permalloy Nanoparticle/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Multifunctional Nanocomposite Fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gengheng; Wang, Yi-Qi; Byun, Joon-Hyung; Yi, Jin-Woo; Yoon, Sang-Su; Cha, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Jea-Uk; Oh, Youngseok; Jung, Byung-Mun; Moon, Ho-Jun; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2015-11-24

    Magnetic nanocomposite fibers are a topic of intense research due to their potential breakthrough applications such as smart magnetic-field-response devices and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. However, clustering of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix is a recognized challenge for obtaining a property-controllable nanocomposite fiber. Another challenge is that the strength and ductility of the nanocomposite fiber decrease significantly with increased weight loading of magnetic nanoparticles in the fiber. Here, we report high-strength single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/permalloy nanoparticle (PNP)/poly(vinyl alcohol) multifunctional nanocomposite fibers fabricated by wet spinning. The weight loadings of SWNTs and PNPs in the fiber were as high as 12.0 and 38.0%, respectively. The tensile strength of the fiber was as high as 700 MPa, and electrical conductivity reached 96.7 S m(-1). The saturation magnetization (Ms) was as high as 24.8 emu g(-1). The EMI attenuation of a fabric woven from the prepared fiber approached 100% when tested with electromagnetic waves with a frequency higher than 6 GHz. The present study demonstrates that a magnetic-field-response device can be designed using the fabricated multifunctional nanocomposite fiber. PMID:26431310

  15. Using permalloy based planar hall effect sensors to capture and detect superparamagnetic beads for lab on a chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volmer, Marius; Avram, Marioara

    2015-05-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out on planar Hall effect (PHE) sensors used to detect magnetic nanoparticles employed as labels for biodetection applications. Disk shaped sensors, 1 mm diameter, were structured on Permalloy film, 20 nm thick. To control the sensor magnetisation state and thus the field sensitivity and linearity, a DC biasing field has been applied parallel to the driving current. Maghemite nanoparticles (10 nm) functionalised with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were immobilised over the sensor surface using particular magnetisation state and applied magnetic fields. In order to obtain a higher response from the magnetic nanoparticles, it was used a detection setup which allows the application of magnetic fields larger than 100 Oe but avoiding saturation of the PHE signal. Based on this setup, two field scanning methods are presented in this paper. During our experiments, low magnetic moments, of about 1.87×10-5 emu, have been easily detected. This value corresponds to a mass of 9.35 μg of maghemite nanoparticles functionalised with PEG 6000. The results suggest that this type of structure is feasible for building low cost micrometer sized PHE sensors to be used for high-resolution bio sensing applications.

  16. Spin dynamics in thin nanometric elliptical Permalloy dots: A Brillouin light scattering investigation as a function of dot eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Carlotti, G.; Okuno, T.; Grimsditch, M.; Giovannini, L.; Montoncello, F.; Nizzoli, F.

    2005-11-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectra have been measured in arrays of cylindrical Permalloy dots with elliptical cross section, 200nm wide, 15nm thick, and eccentricities from 1 to 3. Several spin modes are observed and their frequencies tracked as a function of the direction of the applied 1.5kOe magnetic field H . The experimental data are interpreted within the framework of the recently introduced dynamical matrix method to calculate spin excitations in magnetic particles. We find that the mode frequencies strongly depend on the eccentricity of the dots and on the direction of the applied field. For fields along the principal axes the solutions can be classified into: (i) modes localized near the particle ends, (ii) modes with nodal lines perpendicular to H (backwardlike modes), (iii) modes with nodal lines parallel to H (Damon-Eshbach-like modes) and (iv) modes with both parallel and perpendicular nodal lines. In cases where the frequencies of two modes in different families are similar, some hybridization between the modes is observed. For H along nonsymmetry directions only the modes of type (i) remain reasonably well defined, other modes can at best be described as hybrids of modes in the above categories. Determining which of the modes is active in BLS experiments leads to excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Critical currents in sputtered copper molybdenum sulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Kammerdiner, L.; Luo, H.-L.

    1977-01-01

    Critical currents in a sputtered Chevrel-phase copper molybdenum sulfide have been measured at 4.2 K as a function of applied magnetic field. Self-field critical-current values up to 10 to the 9th A/sq m were found, decreasing to 10 to the 8th A/sq m at 3 T. Graphs of pinning forces versus field were found to be independent of field direction, and the pinning mechanism is sample independent. Critical-current densities for sputtered lead molybdenum sulphide are estimated to be about 10 to the 8th A/sq m at 26 T based on a scaling law for pinning.

  18. Reactively evaporated films of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, K. C.; Dillon, R. O.; Bunshah, R. F.; Alterovitz, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Films of superconducting Chevrel-phase copper molybdenum sulfide CuxMo6S8 were deposited on sapphire substrates by reactive evaporation using H2S as the reacting gas. Two superconducting temperatures (10.0 K and 5.0 K) of the films were found, corresponding to two different phases with different copper concentrations. All films were superconducting above 4.2 K and contained Chevrel-phase compound as well as free molybdenum. The critical current was measured as a function of applied field. One sample was found to deviate from the scaling law found for co-evaporated or sputtered samples, which possibly indicates a different pinning mechanism or inhomogeneity of the sample.

  19. The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

  20. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  1. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in rocks with thiocyanate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillie, E.G.; Greenland, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    A rapid procedure for the determination of microgram amounts of molybdenum in rocks is described. After acid decomposition, molybdenum is extracted from a hydrochloric acid solution into xylene with tributyl phosphate. After back-extraction with water, molybdenum is extracted as the ??-benzoinoximate into chloroform, stripped into hydrochloric acid extracted as the thiocyanate into amyl alcohol, and determined spectrophotometrically. The molybdenum thiocyanate color produced is stable, sensitive, and reproducible. Results of analyses of several of the U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks are given. ?? 1974.

  3. Nickel-zinc ferrite/permalloy (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/Ni-Fe) soft magnetic nanocomposites fabricated by electro-infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao; Kelly, Stefan J.; Andrew, Jennifer S.; Arnold, David P.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetically soft NiZn ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanoparticles are embedded within a permalloy (Ni-Fe) matrix via an electro-infiltration process as thin films intended for use as on-chip inductor cores in the MHz frequency regime. A layer of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles is first deposited, and then permalloy is electroplated through the voids to encapsulate the particles and form three-dimensional ferrite/alloy nanocomposites. The composites are estimated to contain 37% ferrite by volume and exhibit a relative permeability of ˜320, a saturation of ˜1.15 T, and an operational bandwidth of 93 MHz. Compared to a permalloy thin film of similar thickness, the nanocomposite exhibits 39% higher electrical resistivity and 50% higher bandwidth.

  4. Predicting Boron, Molybdenum, Selenium, and Arsenic Adsorption in Soil Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical surface complexation model was applied to boron, molybdenum, selenium, and arsenic adsorption on up to 49 soils selected for variation in soil properties. The surface complexation model was able to fit boron, molybdenum, selenite, and arsenate adsorption on the soils. General regression...

  5. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

  6. Influence of Soil Solution Salinity on Molybdenum Adsorption by Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum (Mo) adsorption on five arid-zone soils from California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution Mo concentration (0-30 mg L-1), solution pH (4-8), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 8 dS m-1). Molybdenum adsorption decreased with increasing pH. An adsorption maximum...

  7. Normal state properties of the ternary molybdenum sulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    By making a large number of normal state and superconducting properties measurements, all on the same ternary molybdenum sulfide samples, we obtain values for Fermi surface and superconducting parameters. From these we conclude that sputtered ternary molybdenum sulfides are not completely in the dirty superconductor limit, and that they are d-band metals with a high electron carrier density.

  8. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  9. Molybdenum oxide nanocubes: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Muthamizh, S.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Kumar, S. Praveen; Munusamy, S.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2015-06-24

    Molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were prepared by Solid state synthesis. The MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by using commercially available ammonium heptamolybdate. The XRD pattern reveals that the synthesized MoO{sub 3} has orthorhombic structure. In addition, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD data. The Raman analysis confirm the presence of Mo-O in MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. DRS-UV analysis shows that MoO{sub 3} has a band gap of 2.89 eV. FE-SEM analysis confirms the material morphology in cubes with nano scale.

  10. Molybdenum oxide nanocubes: Synthesis and characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthamizh, S.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Kumar, S. Praveen; Munusamy, S.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were prepared by Solid state synthesis. The MoO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by using commercially available ammonium heptamolybdate. The XRD pattern reveals that the synthesized MoO3 has orthorhombic structure. In addition, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD data. The Raman analysis confirm the presence of Mo-O in MoO3 nanoparticles. DRS-UV analysis shows that MoO3 has a band gap of 2.89 eV. FE-SEM analysis confirms the material morphology in cubes with nano scale.

  11. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  12. The Role of Molybdenum in Agricultural Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    KAISER, BRENT N.; GRIDLEY, KATE L.; NGAIRE BRADY, JOANNE; PHILLIPS, THOMAS; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background The importance of molybdenum for plant growth is disproportionate with respect to the absolute amounts required by most plants. Apart from Cu, Mo is the least abundant essential micronutrient found in most plant tissues and is often set as the base from which all other nutrients are compared and measured. Molybdenum is utilized by selected enzymes to carry out redox reactions. Enzymes that require molybdenum for activity include nitrate reductase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase. • Scope Loss of Mo-dependent enzyme activity (directly or indirectly through low internal molybdenum levels) impacts upon plant development, in particular, those processes involving nitrogen metabolism and the synthesis of the phytohormones abscisic acid and indole-3 butyric acid. Currently, there is little information on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution and redistribute it within the plant. In this review, the role of molybdenum in plants is discussed, focusing on its current constraints in some agricultural situations and where increased molybdenum nutrition may aid in agricultural plant development and yields. • Conclusions Molybdenum deficiencies are considered rare in most agricultural cropping areas; however, the phenotype is often misdiagnosed and attributed to other downstream effects associated with its role in various enzymatic redox reactions. Molybdenum fertilization through foliar sprays can effectively supplement internal molybdenum deficiencies and rescue the activity of molybdoenzymes. The current understanding on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution or later redistribute it once in the plant is still unclear; however, plants have similar physiological molybdenum transport phenotypes to those found in prokaryotic systems. Thus, careful analysis of existing prokaryotic molybdate transport mechanisms, as well as a re-examination of know anion transport mechanisms present in plants, will help to

  13. Biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor and the molybdenum cofactor in Klebsiella pneumoniae: effect of sulfur source

    SciTech Connect

    Ugalde, R.A.; Imperial, J.; Shah, V.K.; Brill, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    NifQ/sup -/ and Mol/sup -/ mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae show an elevated molybdenum requirement for nitrogen fixation. Substitution of cystine for sulfate as the sulfur source in the medium reduced the molybdenum requirement of these mutants to levels required by the wild type. Cystine also increased the intracellular molybdenum accumulation of NifQ/sup -/ and Mol/sup -/ mutants. Cystine did not affect the molybdenum requirement or accumulation in wild-type K. pneumoniae. Sulfate transport and metabolism in K. pneumoniae were repressed by cystine. However, the effect of cystine on the molybdenum requirement could not be explained by an interaction between sulfate and molybdate at the transport level. The data show that cystine does not have a generalized effect on molybdenum metabolism. Millimolar concentrations of molybdate inhibited nitrogenase and nitrate reductase derepression with sulfate as the sulfur source, but not with cystine. The inhibition was the result of a specific antagonism of sulfate metabolism by molybdate. This study suggests that a sulfur donor and molybdenum interact at an early step in the biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor. This interaction might occur nonenzymatically when the levels of the reactants are high.

  14. Characterization of molybdenum cofactor from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Amy, N K; Rajagopalan, K V

    1979-01-01

    Molybdenum cofactor activity was found in the soluble fraction of cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli grown aerobically in media supplemented with molybdate. Cofactor was detected by its ability to complement the nitrate reductase-deficient mutant of Neurospora crossa, nit-1, resulting in the vitro formation of nitrate reductase activity. Acid treatment of E. coli extracts was not required for release of cofactor activity. Cofactor was able to diffuse through a membrane of nominal 2,000-molecular-weight cutoff and was insensitive to trypsin. The cofactor was associated with a carrier molecule (approximately 40,000 daltons) during gel filtration and sucrose gradient centrifugation, but was easily removed from the carrier by dialysis. The carrier molecule protected the cofactor from inactivation by heat or oxygen. E. coli grown in molybdenum-free media, without and with tungsten, synthesized a metal-free "empty" cofactor and its tungsten analog, respectively, both of which were subsequently activated by the addition of molybdate. Empty and tungsten-containing cofactor complemented the nitrate reductase subunits in the nit-1 extract, forming inactive, but intact, 7.9S nitrate reductase. Addition of molybdate to the enzyme complemented in this manner restored nitrate reductase activity. PMID:387715

  15. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  16. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi{sub 2} heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} for structural integrity. 7 figs.

  17. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Mitchell K.; Akinc, Mufit

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi.sub.2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 for structural integrity.

  18. Cell biology of molybdenum in plants.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R

    2011-10-01

    The transition element molybdenum (Mo) is of essential importance for (nearly) all biological systems as it is required by enzymes catalyzing important reactions within the cell. The metal itself is biologically inactive unless it is complexed by a special cofactor. With the exception of bacterial nitrogenase, where Mo is a constituent of the FeMo-cofactor, Mo is bound to a pterin, thus forming the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) which is the active compound at the catalytic site of all other Mo-enzymes. In plants, the most prominent Mo-enzymes are nitrate reductase, sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, and the mitochondrial amidoxime reductase. The biosynthesis of Moco involves the complex interaction of six proteins and is a process of four steps, which also includes iron as well as copper in an indispensable way. After its synthesis, Moco is distributed to the apoproteins of Mo-enzymes by Moco-carrier/binding proteins that also participate in Moco-insertion into the cognate apoproteins. Xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase, but not the other Mo-enzymes, require a final step of posttranslational activation of their catalytic Mo-center for becoming active.

  19. Chill block melt spinning of nickel-molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemker, Kevin J.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of Ni-Mo alloys ranging in composition from pure nickel to Ni-40 at. pct molybdenum were cast by the chill block melt-spinning rapid solidification technique and examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. Casting difficulties were encountered with lean alloys, but richer alloys spread more readily on the casting wheel. Alloy microstructures for 5 to 37.5 at. pct molybdenum ribbons were primarily cellular/dendritic; microstructure feature size decreased with increasing molybdenum content. Extended solubility of molybdenum in gamma-nickel, with fcc lattice parameter increasing with composition to the 1.05 power, was observed up to 37/5 at. pct molybdenum. Substoichiometric Ni-Mo (delta) nucleated on the wheel side of the ribbons of compositions 35, 37.5, and 40 at. pct molybdenum. The amount of partitionless delta-phase thus formed increased with increasing molybdenum content and quench rate. This substoichiometric delta transformed readily to a fine structure gamma-delta mixture.

  20. Spreading of liquid Silver and Silver-Molybdenum alloys on molybdenum substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Nicole; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2002-08-01

    The spreading of liquid Ag and Ag-Mo alloys on molybdenum substrates has been studied using a drop-transfer setup. Even though initial spreading velocities as fast as {approx}1 m/s have been recorded in some experiments, a large variation in the spreading dynamics has been observed, and there is no unique relationship between the contact angle and the spreading velocity. This can be attributed to the formation of ridges at the triple junction, the movement of which controls spreading. The fastest spreading rates are consistent with results reported for low temperature liquids; these can be described using a molecular-kinetic model. Spreading kinetics and final contact angles were similar for pure silver and silver-molybdenum liquids.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of molybdenum oxide using bis(tert-butylimido)bis(dimethylamido) molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuch, Adam Sundaram, Ganesh

    2014-01-15

    Molybdenum trioxide films have been deposited using thermal atomic layer deposition techniques with bis(tert-butylimido)bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum. Films were deposited at temperatures from 100 to 300 °C using ozone as the oxidant for the process. The Mo precursor was evaluated for thermal stability and volatility using thermogravimetric analysis and static vapor pressure measurements. Film properties were evaluated with ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and secondary electron microscopy. The growth rate per cycle was determined to extend from 0.3 to 2.4 Å/cycle with <4% nonuniformity (1-sigma) with-in-wafer across a 150 mm wafer for the investigated temperature range.

  2. Facile and novel synthetic method to prepare nano molybdenum and its catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sam Jaikumar, Sugumaran; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Suriya Prabha, Rangaraj; Karunakaran, Gopalu; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on a facile and economical synthetic method to prepare nano molybdenum by solid-state reaction technique. Metallic nano molybdenum was synthesised from molybdenum trioxide, molybdenum IV oxide and molybdenum VI oxide through thermal decomposition technique. Metallic nano molybdenum prepared from molybdenum IV oxide was used to study the catalytic effect of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of Anabaena sp. The increase in concentration of nano molybdenum from 0.1 to 100% in BG11 (N⁻ Mo⁻ + nano Mo) medium increases heterocyst frequency. The chlorophyll and protein content in Anabaena sp. was found to improve when compared with bulk molybdenum particles and showed a positive influence to be used as a nano nutrient for Anabaena sp. PMID:26224349

  3. Facile and novel synthetic method to prepare nano molybdenum and its catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sam Jaikumar, Sugumaran; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Suriya Prabha, Rangaraj; Karunakaran, Gopalu; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on a facile and economical synthetic method to prepare nano molybdenum by solid-state reaction technique. Metallic nano molybdenum was synthesised from molybdenum trioxide, molybdenum IV oxide and molybdenum VI oxide through thermal decomposition technique. Metallic nano molybdenum prepared from molybdenum IV oxide was used to study the catalytic effect of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of Anabaena sp. The increase in concentration of nano molybdenum from 0.1 to 100% in BG11 (N⁻ Mo⁻ + nano Mo) medium increases heterocyst frequency. The chlorophyll and protein content in Anabaena sp. was found to improve when compared with bulk molybdenum particles and showed a positive influence to be used as a nano nutrient for Anabaena sp.

  4. The extended family of hexagonal molybdenum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, Monika; Daemen, Luke; Lunk, J H; Hartl, H; Frisk, A T; Shendervich, I; Mauder, D; Feist, M; Eckelt, R

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, a large number of isostructural compounds in the system MoO{sub 3}-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O have been published. The reported molecular formulae of 'hexagonal molybdenum oxide' (HEMO) varied from MoO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.33NH{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O (0.09 {le} n {le} 0.69) to MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} mNH{sub 3} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O (0.09 {le} m {le} 0.20; 0.18 {le} n {le} 0.60). Samples, prepared by the acidification route, were investigated using thermal analysis coupled on-line to a mass spectrometer for evolved gas analysis; X-ray powder diffraction; Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman and Magic-Angle-Spinning {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy; Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The X-ray study of a selected monocrystal confirmed the presence of the well-known framework of edge-sharing MoO{sub 6} octahedra: Space group P6{sub 3}/m, a = 10.527(1), c =3.7245(7) {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}. The structure of the synthesized samples can best be described by the structural formula (NH{sub 4})[Mo{sub x}{open_square}{sub 1/2+p/2}(O{sub 3x + 1/2-p/2})(OH){sub p}] {center_dot} yH{sub 2}O (x 5.9-7.1; p {approx} 0.1; y = 1.2-2.6), which is consistent with the existence of one vacancy for 12-15 molybdenum sites. The 'chimie douce' reaction of MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.155NH{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.440H{sub 2}O with a 1:1 mixture of NO/NO{sub 2} at 100 C resulted in the synthesis of MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.539H{sub 2}O. Tailored nano-sized molybdenum powders can be produced using HEMO as precursor.

  5. Amorphous molybdenum sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Hu, Xile

    2014-08-19

    Providing energy for a population projected to reach 9 billion people within the middle of this century is one of the most pressing societal issues. Burning fossil fuels at a rate and scale that satisfy our near-term demand will irreversibly damage the living environment. Among the various sources of alternative and CO2-emission-free energies, the sun is the only source that is capable of providing enough energy for the whole world. Sunlight energy, however, is intermittent and requires an efficient storage mechanism. Sunlight-driven water splitting to make hydrogen is widely considered as one of the most attractive methods for solar energy storage. Water splitting needs a hydrogen evolution catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrogen production and to lower the energy loss in this process. Precious metals such as Pt are superior catalysts, but they are too expensive and scarce for large-scale applications. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and application of amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The catalysts can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition under ambient conditions from readily available and inexpensive precursors. The catalytic activity is among the highest for nonprecious catalysts. For example, at a loading of 0.2 mg/cm(2), the optimal catalyst delivers a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 160 mV. The growth mechanism of the electrochemically deposited film catalysts was revealed by an electrochemical quartz microcrystal balance study. While different electrochemical deposition methods produce films with different initial compositions, the active catalysts are the same and are identified as a "MoS(2+x)" species. The activity of the film catalysts can be further promoted by divalent Fe, Co, and Ni ions, and the origins of the promotional effects have been probed. Highly active amorphous molybdenum sulfide particles can also be prepared

  6. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue by S. marcescens strain Dr. Y6.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Habib, S H M; Rahman, M F A; Jirangon, H; Abdullah, M P A; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2008-04-01

    A molybdate-reducing bacterium has been locally isolated. The bacterium reduces molybdate or Mo(6+) to molybdenum blue (molybdate oxidation states of between 5+ and 6+). Different carbon sources such as acetate, formate, glycerol, citric acid, lactose, fructose, glucose, mannitol, tartarate, maltose, sucrose, and starch were used at an initial concentration of 0.2% (w/v) in low phosphate media to study their effect on the molybdate reduction efficiency of bacterium. All of the carbon sources supported cellular growth, but only sucrose, maltose, glucose, and glycerol (in decreasing order) supported molybdate reduction after 24 h of incubation. Optimum concentration of sucrose for molybdate reduction is 1.0% (w/v) after 24 h of static incubation. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, valine, OH-proline, glutamic acid, and alanine (in the order of decreasing efficiency) supported molybdate reduction with ammonium sulfate giving the highest amount of molybdenum blue after 24 h of incubation at 0.3% (w/v). The optimum molybdate concentration that supports molybdate reduction is between 15 and 25 mM. Molybdate reduction is optimum at 35 degrees C. Phosphate at concentrations higher than 5 mM strongly inhibits molybdate reduction. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibits a unique absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. The isolate was tentatively identified as Serratia marcescens Strain Dr.Y6 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogeny.

  7. Superconducting properties of evaporated copper molybdenum sulfide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Chi, K. C.; Dillon, R. O.; Bunshah, R. F.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Films of copper molybdenum sulfide were produced by coevaporation. Those that were superconducting contained only the ternary compound and free molybdenum. The range of copper content in the ternary compound was as large as that in polycrystalline material, that is, it includes either phase alone, or a mixture of the two phases of this material. This is in contrast with sputtered materials where copper concentration has been limited to a narrower range. The upper critical field and the critical current were measured as functions of external magnetic field, and found to be similar to those of sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide, when the comparison was made for samples having the same amount of copper.

  8. Pressure-induced metallization of molybdenum disulfide.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Zhang, Haidong; Goncharov, Alexander F; Lobanov, Sergey S; Kagayama, Tomoko; Sakata, Masafumi; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2014-07-18

    X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements of molybdenum disulfide MoS(2) are performed at pressures up to 81 GPa in diamond anvil cells. Above 20 GPa, we find discontinuous changes in Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns which provide evidence for isostructural phase transition from 2H(c) to 2H(a) modification through layer sliding previously predicted theoretically. This first-order transition, which is completed around 40 GPa, is characterized by a collapse in the c-lattice parameter and volume and also by changes in interlayer bonding. After the phase transition completion, MoS(2) becomes metallic. The reversibility of the phase transition is identified from all these techniques. PMID:25083660

  9. Permanent electric dipole moment of molybdenum carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailing; Virgo, Wilton L.; Chen, Jinhai; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2007-09-01

    High resolution optical spectroscopy has been used to study a molecular beam of molybdenum monocarbide (MoC). The Stark effect of the Re(0) and Qfe(1) branch features of the [18.6]Π13-XΣ-3(0,0) band system of Mo98C were analyzed to determine the permanent electric dipole moments μe of 2.68(2) and 6.07(18)D for the [18.6]Π13(ν =0) and XΣ-3(ν =0) states, respectively. The dipole moments are compared with the experimental value for ruthenium monocarbide [T. C. Steimle et al., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2620 (2003)] and with theoretical predictions. A molecular orbital correlation diagram is used to interpret the observed and predicted trends of ground state μe values for the 4d-metal monocarbides series.

  10. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  11. Environmental behavior of two molybdenum porphyry systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Wanty, R.B.; Berger, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Our study focuses on the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of a variety of molybdenum (Mo) porphyry systems. The systems are either high fluorine, granite, Climax-type, systems (e.g. Mount Emmons/ Redwell Mo deposit, Colorado and Questa Mo deposit, New Mexico) or low fluorine granodiorite systems (e.g. Buckingham Stockwork Mo deposit, Battle Mountain, Nevada and Cannivan Gulch Mo deposit, Montana). The water quality of streams, natural springs, mine discharge, and ground water from drill holes were assessed in the region of these deposits. The ultimate goal of our study is to understand the environmental behavior of these Mo porphyry systems in the context of geologic setting, hydrologic regime, and climate.

  12. Polarographic determination of tungsten and molybdenum in sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhobova, R.U.; Lykova, F.P.; Milyavskii, Yu. S.; Rachinskaya, G.F.

    1985-12-01

    In order to determine microamounts of tungsten and molybdenum, one the most sensitive versions of polarography is used in this paper, called catalytic currents. In the development of a procedure for the determination of tungsten and molybdenum in geochemical items, the reduction of hydroxylamine (HA) is used, catalyzed by tungsten and molybdenum compounds in the presence of pyrocatechol, as on a background of dicarboxylic acids and hydroxy acids the HA reduction half-wave potentials, catalyzed by these elements, coincide. The investigations were conducted on a PPT-1 polarograph in the classical regime in a thermostatically controlled cell with a mercury dripping electrode and a saturated calomel comparison electrode. The authors develop a procedure for the simultaneous determination of n.10/sup -5/-n.10/sup -4/% of tungsten and molybdenum in sedimentary rocks.

  13. Electroanalytical determination of tungsten and molybdenum in proteins.

    PubMed

    Hagedoorn, P L; van't Slot, P; van Leeuwen, H P; Hagen, W R

    2001-10-01

    Recent crystal structure determinations accelerated the progress in the biochemistry of tungsten-containing enzymes. In order to characterize these enzymes, a sensitive determination of this metal in protein-containing samples is necessary. An electroanalytical tungsten determination has successfully been adapted to determine the tungsten and molybdenum content in enzymes. The tungsten and molybdenum content can be measured simultaneously from 1 to 10 microg of purified protein with little or no sample handling. More crude protein samples require precipitation of interfering surface active material with 10% perchloric acid. This method affords the isolation of novel molybdenum- and tungsten-containing proteins via molybdenum and tungsten monitoring of column fractions, without using radioactive isotopes. A screening of soluble proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus for tungsten, using anion-exchange column chromatography to separate the proteins, has been performed. The three known tungsten-containing enzymes from P. furiosus were recovered with this screening.

  14. High Molybdenum availability for evolution in a Mesoproterozoic lacustrine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, John; Spinks, Samuel; Andrews, Steven; Thayalan, Wanethon; Bowden, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Trace metal data for Proterozoic marine euxinic sediments imply that the expansion of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and diversification of eukaryotes were delayed while the availability of bioessential metals such as molybdenum in the ocean was limited. However, there is increasing recognition that the Mesoproterozoic evolution of nitrogen fixation and eukaryotic life may have been promoted in marginal marine and terrestrial environments, including lakes, rather than in the deep ocean. Molybdenum availability is critical to life in lakes, just as it is in the oceans. It is, therefore, important to assess molybdenum availability to the lacustrine environment in the Mesoproterozoic. Here we show that the flux of molybdenum to a Mesoproterozoic lake was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than typical fluxes in the modern and ancient marine environment. Thus, there was no barrier to availability to prevent evolution in the terrestrial environment, in contrast to the nutrient-limited Mesoproterozoic oceans.

  15. High Molybdenum availability for evolution in a Mesoproterozoic lacustrine environment.

    PubMed

    Parnell, John; Spinks, Samuel; Andrews, Steven; Thayalan, Wanethon; Bowden, Stephen

    2015-05-19

    Trace metal data for Proterozoic marine euxinic sediments imply that the expansion of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and diversification of eukaryotes were delayed while the availability of bioessential metals such as molybdenum in the ocean was limited. However, there is increasing recognition that the Mesoproterozoic evolution of nitrogen fixation and eukaryotic life may have been promoted in marginal marine and terrestrial environments, including lakes, rather than in the deep ocean. Molybdenum availability is critical to life in lakes, just as it is in the oceans. It is, therefore, important to assess molybdenum availability to the lacustrine environment in the Mesoproterozoic. Here we show that the flux of molybdenum to a Mesoproterozoic lake was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than typical fluxes in the modern and ancient marine environment. Thus, there was no barrier to availability to prevent evolution in the terrestrial environment, in contrast to the nutrient-limited Mesoproterozoic oceans.

  16. Synthesis of Dinitrogen and Dihydrogen Complexes of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Leonard J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents background information, safety notes, and laboratory procedures for synthesizing dinitrogen and dihydrogen complexes of molybdenum. The one-step method described is suitable for advanced inorganic chemistry classes. (SK)

  17. Molybdenum-A Key Component of Metal Alloys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum, whose chemical symbol is Mo, was first recognized as an element in 1778. Until that time, the mineral molybdenite-the most important source of molybdenum-was believed to be a lead mineral because of its metallic gray color, greasy feel, and softness. In the late 19th century, French metallurgists discovered that molybdenum, when alloyed (mixed) with steel in small quantities, creates a substance that is remarkably tougher than steel alone and is highly resistant to heat. The alloy was found to be ideal for making tools and armor plate. Today, the most common use of molybdenum is as an alloying agent in stainless steel, alloy steels, and superalloys to enhance hardness, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

  18. Transport properties of novel molybdenum bronze oxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, Joseph; Le, Son; Schneemeyer, Lynn; Olsen, Patti; Siegrist, Theo; Richter, Curt; Seiler, David

    2015-03-01

    Reduced ternary molybdenum oxides, or bronzes, offer an attractive materials platform to study a wide variety of remarkable physical phenomena, including charge density waves and superconductivity, in a system with highly varied structural chemistry. Interesting electronic behaviors in these materials arise from the strong hybridization of the 4d states of high-valent Mo with O p orbitals (conditions amenable to itinerancy) and reduced dimensionality arising from ordered O vacancies. This study aims to demonstrate the transport phenomena in a series of novel molybdenum bronze materials, including the new electrochemically-grown molybdenum bronzes, K3Li3Mo15O47, and the rare earth molybdenum bronze, HoMo16O44, and relate these behaviors to their experimentally-characterized structures. Dependence of the transport behavior on numerous experimental parameters, including temperature, magnetic field, drive voltage and drive current, and gate voltage, is presented to fully reveal charge carrier transport in these materials.

  19. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  20. Grain boundary hardening and triple junction hardening in polycrystalline molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki . E-mail: skoba@ashitech.ac.jp; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Tadao

    2005-02-01

    The grain boundary and triple junction hardenings in molybdenum with different carbon content were studied in connection with the character and the connectivity of grain boundaries at triple junctions by the micro-indentation test. The triple junction hardening is smaller at the junctions composed of low-angle and {sigma} boundaries than at the junctions composed of random boundaries. This difference in the hardening depending on the grain boundary connectivity becomes more significant with a decrease in carbon content in molybdenum.

  1. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, R.A.

    1994-04-05

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

  2. A study of the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement in molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taheri, M.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties of polycrystalline molybdenum samples in both the 'as annealed' and hydrogenized conditions were studied. The results indicate that hydrogen does not alter the yield stress of samples significantly although it reduces both the ultimate tensile strength and the ductility considerably. Fractographic study of samples shows a tendency to intercrystalline cracking of the hydrogenised molybdenum at low temperatures. In the light of the results, a mechanism involving grain boundary weakening is suggested.

  3. Oxidation characteristics of molybdenum-zirconium oxide cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitzinger, B.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation of molybdenum is affected by the factors of temperature, the oxygen pressure in the oxidizing atmosphere, and the time of exposure. Studies of the oxidation characteristics of Mo show that the oxidation rate increases strongly when the temperature exceeds 600 C. Investigations of the behavior of cermets with various percentages of zirconium oxide are discussed, taking into account oxidation conditions at temperatures under and above the melting point of molybdenum trioxide.

  4. Isotopically Modified Molybdenum: Production for Application in Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.; Bonarev, A. K.; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Borisevich, V. D.; Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    The possibility to use the isotopically modified molybdenum as a constructive material for the fuel rods of light water and fast reactors is discussed. The calculations demonstrate that the isotopically modified molybdenum with an average neutron absorption cross-section comparable to that of zirconium can be obtained with the reasonable for practice cost by a cascade of gas centrifuges, specially designed for separation of non-uranium isotopes.

  5. Kinetics of the magnetization reversal in permalloy-niobium microstrips under the effect of a pulsed magnetic field and an electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. V.; Uspenskaya, L. S.

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of magnetization reversal in bilayer permalloy-niobium microstrips under the effect of both a pulsed magnetic field and an electric current has been experimentally studied. These two cases turn out to be fundamentally different in the types of arising magnetic structures and in the dynamic characteristics of the processes. Such difference is especially striking at low temperatures. An anomalously high rate of the processes under study is observed. According to the suggested qualitative explanation, this effect is due to nonlinear excitations appearing in front of the moving domain wall if the applied electric current lowers the barriers for its motion. For achieving the final conclusions, more accurate quantitative analysis is needed.

  6. Evidence of native oxides on the capping and substrate of Permalloy gratings by magneto-optical spectroscopy in the zeroth- and first-diffraction orders

    SciTech Connect

    Antos, Roman; Mistrik, Jan; Yamaguchi, Tomuo; Visnovsky, Stefan; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2005-06-06

    Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy in the zeroth- and first-diffraction orders at polar magnetization is applied to Permalloy wire gratings deposited on Si substrates and protected by Cr capping. The experimental MOKE data are compared with data simulated using the local modes method. The extensive simulations of the MOKE spectroscopic parameters exhibit significant sensitivity to t(Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and t(SiO{sub 2}), the thicknesses of native oxide layers developed on the capping and the substrate, respectively. The approach may be useful for monitoring the basic micromagnetic properties of small elements with nanometer-scale resolution, as well as for monitoring the deposition processes and aging of magnetic nanostructures in magnetic recording and magnetic random access memory technologies.

  7. Enhanced exchange bias and improved ferromagnetic properties in Permalloy-BiFe0.95Co0.05O3 core-shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, K.; Li, W. J.; Ali, S. S.; Shi, D. W.; Khan, U.; Riaz, S.; Han, X. F.

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid core-shell nanostructures consisting of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) and multiferroic(BiFeO3, BFO/BiFe0.95Co0.05O3, BFC) materials were synthesized by a two-step method, based on wet chemical impregnation and subsequent electrodeposition within porous alumina membranes. Structural and magnetic characterizations have been done to investigate doping effect on magnetic properties and exchange bias. The magnetometry analysis revealed significant enhancements of the exchange bias and coercivity in NiFe-BFC core-shell nanostructures as compared with NiFe-BFO core-shell nanostructures. The enhancements can be attributed to the effective reduction of ferromagnet domain sizes between adjacent layers of core-shell structure. It indicates that it is possible to improve properties of multiferroic composites by site-engineering method. Our approach opens a pathway to obtain optimized nanostructured multiferroic composites exhibiting tunable magnetic properties.

  8. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsechanski, A.; Bielajew, A. F.; Archambault, J. P.; Mainegra-Hing, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new "one-stage" approach for production of 99Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of 99Mo via the photoneutron reaction 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r0) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r0, where r0 is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r0) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r0. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84-2.0)r0, that the 99Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r0) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate 99Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the 99Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity for the one-stage approach of three enriched 100Mo-targets of a 2 cm diameter and

  9. Molybdenum oxide and molybdenum oxide-nitride back contacts for CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Drayton, Jennifer A. Geisthardt, Russell M. Sites, James R.; Williams, Desiree D. Cramer, Corson L. Williams, John D.

    2015-07-15

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) and molybdenum oxynitride (MoON) thin film back contacts were formed by a unique ion-beam sputtering and ion-beam-assisted deposition process onto CdTe solar cells and compared to back contacts made using carbon–nickel (C/Ni) paint. Glancing-incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that partially crystalline MoO{sub x} films are created with a mixture of Mo, MoO{sub 2}, and MoO{sub 3} components. Lower crystallinity content is observed in the MoON films, with an additional component of molybdenum nitride present. Three different film thicknesses of MoO{sub x} and MoON were investigated that were capped in situ in Ni. Small area devices were delineated and characterized using current–voltage (J-V), capacitance–frequency, capacitance–voltage, electroluminescence, and light beam-induced current techniques. In addition, J-V data measured as a function of temperature (JVT) were used to estimate back barrier heights for each thickness of MoO{sub x} and MoON and for the C/Ni paint. Characterization prior to stressing indicated the devices were similar in performance. Characterization after stress testing indicated little change to cells with 120 and 180-nm thick MoO{sub x} and MoON films. However, moderate-to-large cell degradation was observed for 60-nm thick MoO{sub x} and MoON films and for C/Ni painted back contacts.

  10. Molybdenum-base cermet fuel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, James P.; Gurwell, William E.; Moss, Ronald W.; White, George D.; Seifert, David A.

    Development of a multimegawatt (MMW) space nuclear power system requires identification and resolution of several technical feasibility issues before selecting one or more promising system concepts. Demonstration of reactor fuel fabrication technology is required for cermet-fueled reactor concepts. The MMW reactor fuel development activity at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on producing a molybdenum-matrix uranium-nitride (UN) fueled cermte. This cermet is to have a high matrix density (greater than or equal to 95 percent) for high strength and high thermal conductance coupled with a high particle (UN) porosity (approximately 25 percent) for retention of released fission gas at high burnup. Fabrication process development involves the use of porous TiN microspheres as surrogate fuel material until porous Un microspheres become available. Process development was conducted in the areas of microsphere synthesis, particle sealing/coating, and high-energy-rate forming (HERF) and the vacuum hot press consolidation techniques. This paper summarizes the status of these activities.

  11. Biosynthesis and Insertion of the Molybdenum Cofactor.

    PubMed

    Magalon, Axel; Mendel, Ralf R

    2015-01-01

    The transition element molybdenum (Mo) is of primordial importance for biological systems, because it is required by enzymes catalyzing key reactions in the global carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism. To gain biological activity, Mo has to be complexed by a special cofactor. With the exception of bacterial nitrogenase, all Mo-dependent enzymes contain a unique pyranopterin-based cofactor coordinating a Mo atom at their catalytic site. Various types of reactions are catalyzed by Mo-enzymes in prokaryotes including oxygen atom transfer, sulfur or proton transfer, hydroxylation, or even nonredox reactions. Mo-enzymes are widespread in prokaryotes and many of them were likely present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor. To date, more than 50--mostly bacterial--Mo-enzymes are described in nature. In a few eubacteria and in many archaea, Mo is replaced by tungsten bound to the same unique pyranopterin. How Mo-cofactor is synthesized in bacteria is reviewed as well as the way until its insertion into apo-Mo-enzymes.

  12. Scalable Production of Molybdenum Disulfide Based Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Carl H; Kybert, Nicholas J; Schneier, Camilla; Xi, Jin; Romero, Gabriela; Saven, Jeffery G; Liu, Renyu; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-06-28

    We demonstrate arrays of opioid biosensors based on chemical vapor deposition grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs) coupled to a computationally redesigned, water-soluble variant of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). By transferring dense films of monolayer MoS2 crystals onto prefabricated electrode arrays, we obtain high-quality FETs with clean surfaces that allow for reproducible protein attachment. The fabrication yield of MoS2 FETs and biosensors exceeds 95%, with an average mobility of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (36 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) at room temperature under ambient (in vacuo). An atomic length nickel-mediated linker chemistry enables target binding events that occur very close to the MoS2 surface to maximize sensitivity. The biosensor response calibration curve for a synthetic opioid peptide known to bind to the wild-type MOR indicates binding affinity that matches values determined using traditional techniques and a limit of detection ∼3 nM (1.5 ng/mL). The combination of scalable array fabrication and rapid, precise binding readout enabled by the MoS2 transistor offers the prospect of a solid-state drug testing platform for rapid readout of the interactions between novel drugs and their intended protein targets.

  13. Raman Signatures of Polytypism in Molybdenum Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ung; Kim, Kangwon; Han, Songhee; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2016-02-23

    Since the stacking order sensitively affects various physical properties of layered materials, accurate determination of the stacking order is important for studying the basic properties of these materials as well as for device applications. Because 2H-molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is most common in nature, most studies so far have focused on 2H-MoS2. However, we found that the 2H, 3R, and mixed stacking sequences exist in few-layer MoS2 exfoliated from natural molybdenite crystals. The crystal structures are confirmed by HR-TEM measurements. The Raman signatures of different polytypes are investigated by using three different excitation energies that are nonresonant and resonant with A and C excitons, respectively. The low-frequency breathing and shear modes show distinct differences for each polytype, whereas the high-frequency intralayer modes show little difference. For resonant excitations at 1.96 and 2.81 eV, distinct features are observed that enable determination of the stacking order.

  14. Raman Signatures of Polytypism in Molybdenum Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ung; Kim, Kangwon; Han, Songhee; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2016-02-23

    Since the stacking order sensitively affects various physical properties of layered materials, accurate determination of the stacking order is important for studying the basic properties of these materials as well as for device applications. Because 2H-molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is most common in nature, most studies so far have focused on 2H-MoS2. However, we found that the 2H, 3R, and mixed stacking sequences exist in few-layer MoS2 exfoliated from natural molybdenite crystals. The crystal structures are confirmed by HR-TEM measurements. The Raman signatures of different polytypes are investigated by using three different excitation energies that are nonresonant and resonant with A and C excitons, respectively. The low-frequency breathing and shear modes show distinct differences for each polytype, whereas the high-frequency intralayer modes show little difference. For resonant excitations at 1.96 and 2.81 eV, distinct features are observed that enable determination of the stacking order. PMID:26756836

  15. Scalable Production of Molybdenum Disulfide Based Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Carl H; Kybert, Nicholas J; Schneier, Camilla; Xi, Jin; Romero, Gabriela; Saven, Jeffery G; Liu, Renyu; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-06-28

    We demonstrate arrays of opioid biosensors based on chemical vapor deposition grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs) coupled to a computationally redesigned, water-soluble variant of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). By transferring dense films of monolayer MoS2 crystals onto prefabricated electrode arrays, we obtain high-quality FETs with clean surfaces that allow for reproducible protein attachment. The fabrication yield of MoS2 FETs and biosensors exceeds 95%, with an average mobility of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (36 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) at room temperature under ambient (in vacuo). An atomic length nickel-mediated linker chemistry enables target binding events that occur very close to the MoS2 surface to maximize sensitivity. The biosensor response calibration curve for a synthetic opioid peptide known to bind to the wild-type MOR indicates binding affinity that matches values determined using traditional techniques and a limit of detection ∼3 nM (1.5 ng/mL). The combination of scalable array fabrication and rapid, precise binding readout enabled by the MoS2 transistor offers the prospect of a solid-state drug testing platform for rapid readout of the interactions between novel drugs and their intended protein targets. PMID:27227361

  16. Amorphous molybdenum silicon superconducting thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bosworth, D. Sahonta, S.-L.; Barber, Z. H.; Hadfield, R. H.

    2015-08-15

    Amorphous superconductors have become attractive candidate materials for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors due to their ease of growth, homogeneity and competitive superconducting properties. To date the majority of devices have been fabricated using W{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}, though other amorphous superconductors such as molybdenum silicide (Mo{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}) offer increased transition temperature. This study focuses on the properties of MoSi thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. We examine how the composition and growth conditions affect film properties. For 100 nm film thickness, we report that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) reaches a maximum of 7.6 K at a composition of Mo{sub 83}Si{sub 17}. The transition temperature and amorphous character can be improved by cooling of the substrate during growth which inhibits formation of a crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of long range order. We observe that for a range of 6 common substrates (silicon, thermally oxidized silicon, R- and C-plane sapphire, x-plane lithium niobate and quartz), there is no variation in superconducting transition temperature, making MoSi an excellent candidate material for SNSPDs.

  17. Intrinsic structural defects in monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wu; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a two-dimensional direct band gap semiconductor with distinctive mechanical, electronic, optical and chemical properties that can be utilized for novel nanoelectronics and optoelectronics devices. The performance of these electronic devices strongly depends on the quality and defect morphology of the MoS2 layers. Yet, little is known about the atomic structure of defects present in monolayer MoS2 and their influences on the material properties. Here we provide a systematic study of various intrinsic structural defects, including point defects, grain boundaries, and edges, in chemical vapor phase grown monolayer MoS2 via direct atomic resolution imaging, and explore their energy landscape and electronic properties using first-principles calculations. We discover that one-dimensional metallic wires can be created via two different types of 60 grain boundaries consisting of distinct 4-fold ring chains. A new type of edge reconstruction, representing a transition state during growth, was also identified, providing insights into the material growth mechanism. The atomic scale study of structural defects presented here brings new opportunities to tailor the properties of MoS2 via controlled synthesis and defect engineering.

  18. Amorphous molybdenum silicon superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, D.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Hadfield, R. H.; Barber, Z. H.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous superconductors have become attractive candidate materials for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors due to their ease of growth, homogeneity and competitive superconducting properties. To date the majority of devices have been fabricated using WxSi1-x, though other amorphous superconductors such as molybdenum silicide (MoxSi1-x) offer increased transition temperature. This study focuses on the properties of MoSi thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. We examine how the composition and growth conditions affect film properties. For 100 nm film thickness, we report that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) reaches a maximum of 7.6 K at a composition of Mo83Si17. The transition temperature and amorphous character can be improved by cooling of the substrate during growth which inhibits formation of a crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of long range order. We observe that for a range of 6 common substrates (silicon, thermally oxidized silicon, R- and C-plane sapphire, x-plane lithium niobate and quartz), there is no variation in superconducting transition temperature, making MoSi an excellent candidate material for SNSPDs.

  19. Structural phase transitions in monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha June; Chang, Kee Joo

    2015-03-01

    The recent discovery of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has provided opportunities to develop ultimate thin channel devices. In contrast to graphene, the existence of moderate band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling gives rise to exotic electronic properties which vary with layer thickness, lattice structure, and symmetry. TMDs commonly appear in two structures with distinct symmetries, trigonal prismatic 2H and octahedral 1T phases which are semiconducting and metallic, respectively. In this work, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoX2, where X = S, Se, Te) through first-principles density functional calculations. We find a tendency that the semiconducting 2H phase is more stable than the metallic 1T phase. We show that a spontaneous symmetry breaking of 1T phase leads to various distorted octahedral (1T') phases, thus inducing a metal-to-semiconductor transition. We discuss the effects of carrier doping on the structural stability and the modification of the electronic structure. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.

  20. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  1. The biological and toxicological importance of molybdenum in the environment and in the nutrition of plants, animals and man. Part 1: Molybdenum in plants.

    PubMed

    Anke, M; Seifert, M

    2007-09-01

    In 1930, Bortels showed that molybdenum is necessary for nitrogen fixation in Acetobacter, and in 1939 Arnon and Stout reported that molybdenum is essential for life in higher plants. Nitrogenase is the nitrogen-fixing enzyme complex, while nitrate reductase requires molybdenum for its activity. Molybdenum occurs in the earth crust with an abundance of 1.0-1.4 mg/kg. The molybdenum content of the vegetation is determined by the amount of this element in the soil and its pH-value. The weathering soils of granite, porphyry, gneiss and Rotliegendes produce a molybdenum-rich vegetation. Significantly poorer in Mo is the vegetation on loess, diluvial sands, alluvial riverside soils and especially on Keuper and Muschelkalk weathering soils, which produce legumes and, e.g. cauliflower with molybdenum deficiency symptoms. The molybdenum content of the flora decreases with increasing age. Legumes store the highest molybdenum levels in the bulbs of their roots; on average, they accumulate more molybdenum than herbs and grasses do. The danger of molybdenum toxicity in plants is small.

  2. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  3. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and...

  4. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and...

  5. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and...

  7. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and...

  8. Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Devries, L.; King, J.M.

    1981-04-21

    Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining water, an acidic molybdenum compound, a basic nitrogen compound complex and a sulfur source to form a sulfur- and molybdenum-containing composition.

  9. Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Devries, L.; King, J.M.

    1981-05-05

    Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining an acidic molybdenum compound, an oil-soluble basic nitrogen compound and carbon disulfide to form a sulfur-and molybdenum-containing composition.

  10. Yield strength of molybdenum at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiumin; Bi, Yan; Wu, Qiang; Jing, Fuqian; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Sheng

    2007-07-01

    In the diamond anvil cell technology, the pressure gradient approach is one of the three major methods in determining the yield strength for various materials at high pressures. In the present work, by in situ measuring the thickness of the sample foil, we have improved the traditional technique in this method. Based on this modification, the yield strength of molybdenum at pressures has been measured. Our main experimental conclusions are as follows: (1) The measured yield strength data for three samples with different initial thickness (100, 250, and 500 microm) are in good agreement above a peak pressure of 10 GPa. (2) The measured yield strength can be fitted into a linear formula Y=0.48(+/-0.19)+0.14(+/-0.01)P (Y and P denote the yield strength and local pressure, respectively, both of them are in gigapascals) in the local pressure range of 8-21 GPa. This result is in good agreement with both Y=0.46+0.13P determined in the pressure range of 5-24 GPa measured by the radial x-ray diffraction technique and the previous shock wave data below 10 GPa. (3) The zero-pressure yield strength of Mo is 0.5 GPa when we extrapolate our experimental data into the ambient pressure. It is close to the tensile strength of 0.7 GPa determined by Bridgman [Phys. Rev. 48, 825 (1934)] previously. The modified method described in this article therefore provides the confidence in determination of the yield strength at high pressures. PMID:17672772

  11. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those from non-potentially contaminated areas (0.0022 mg/L). The highest Mo wastewater concentrations in the effluent from the optoelectronics industry and following wastewater batch treatment were 0.788 and 0.0326 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that wastewater containing Mo is a possible source of both groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  12. METHOD FOR FORMING A COATING OF MOLYBDENUM CARBIDE ON A CARBON BODY

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1962-04-01

    A method is described for coating a carbon bodywith molybdenum carbide in such a manner that the carbon body is rendered less permeable to the flow of gases and has increased resistance to corrosion and erosion. The method includes coating a carbon body with molybdenum trioxide by contacting it at a temperature below the condensation temperature with molybdenum trioxide vapors and thereafter carburizing the molybdenum trioxide in situ in an inert atmosphere on the carhon body. (AEC)

  13. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS2 inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS2) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  14. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  15. Molecular Epoxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Rhenium, Molybdenum, and Iron Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kück, Jens W; Reich, Robert M; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-02-01

    Epoxidations are of high relevance in many organic syntheses, both in industry and academia. In this personal account, the development of rhenium, molybdenum, and iron complexes in molecular epoxidation catalysis is presented. Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) is the benchmark catalyst for these reactions, with a thoroughly investigated mechanism and reactivity profile. More recently, highly active molecular molybdenum and iron catalysts have emerged, challenging the extraordinary role of MTO in epoxidation catalysis with high turnover frequencies (TOFs). This development is highlighted in its use of cheaper, more readily available metals, and the challenges of using base metals in catalysis are discussed. These results show the promise that relatively cheap and abundant metals, such as molybdenum and iron, hold for the future of epoxidation catalysis. PMID:26776087

  16. Molybdenum substrate for high power density tungsten focal track x-ray targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, H.H.; Jackson, M.R.

    1981-11-03

    Improved rotary targets for x-ray tubes are provided which include a substrate body of a high strength molybdenum alloy, an intermediate ductile layer of pure molybdenum or a ductile molybdenum alloy affixed to the top surface thereof and an electron receiving layer made of a tungsten-based alloy affixed to at least a portion of the intermediate layer.

  17. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that contains: (1) More than 0.15 kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than 0.02 kilobecquerel...). (b) A licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for preparing a...

  18. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that contains: (1) More than 0.15 kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than 0.02 kilobecquerel...). (b) A licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for preparing a...

  19. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that contains: (1) More than 0.15 kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than 0.02 kilobecquerel...). (b) A licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for preparing a...

  20. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that contains: (1) More than 0.15 kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than 0.02 kilobecquerel...). (b) A licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for preparing a...

  1. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that contains: (1) More than 0.15 kilobecquerel of molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than 0.02 kilobecquerel...). (b) A licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for preparing a...

  2. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  4. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  7. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  8. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  9. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  12. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    DOEpatents

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  13. Sodium and lithium corrosion in molybdenum heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Merrigan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium and lithium corrosin in molybdenum heat pipes has been shown to be impurity dependent rather than solubility dependent. Impurities represent the major contributors to corrosion in the heat pipes tested. Our experiments have shown no evidence of direct solution of molybdenum by either sodium or lithium. Analysis has suggested that a critical concentration of impurities is required to initiate corrosion. Thus it appears that corrosion in Mo/Na and Mo/Li heat pipes can be controlled if impurity concentration can be limited by removal of impurities from the working fluid and heat pipe components prior to operation or by internal gettering during operation.

  14. A review of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys are reviewed with particular emphasis on high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. Precipitate strengthening is highly effective at 0.4 to 0.8 times the melting temperature in these metals, with HfC being most effective in tungsten and molybdenum, and Ta(B,C) most effective in chromium. Low-temperature ductility can be improved by alloying to promote rhenium ductilizing or solution softening. The low-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys appear related to electronic interactions rather than to the usual metallurgical considerations.

  15. Onset of superconductivity in sodium and potassium intercalated molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A.

    1971-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide in the form of natural crystals or powder has been intercalated at -65 to -70 C with sodium and potassium using the liquid ammonia technique. All intercalated samples were found to show a superconducting transition. A plot of the percent of diamagnetic throw versus temperature indicates the possible existence of two phases in the potassium intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The onset of superconductivity in potassium and sodium intercalated molybdenite powder was found to be approximately 6.2 and approximately 4.5 K, respectively. The observed superconductivity is believed to be due to an increase in electron density as a result of intercalation.

  16. Magnetoresistance measurements of superconducting molybdenum nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Arasu, A. V. Thanikai; Amaladass, E. P.

    2016-05-01

    Molybdenum nitride thin films have been deposited on aluminum nitride buffered glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering. GIXRD measurements indicate formation of nano-crystalline molybdenum nitride thin films. The transition temperature of MoN thin film is 7.52 K. The transition width is less than 0.1 K. The upper critical field Bc2(0), calculated using GLAG theory is 12.52 T. The transition width for 400 µA current increased initially upto 3 T and then decreased, while that for 100 µA current transition width did not decrease.

  17. Breaking America’s Dependence on Foreign…Molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Brief Unstructured Abstract Approximately 9 million nuclear cardiology studies performed each year in the United States employ technetium-99m, which is produced from the decay of molybdenum-99. The fragility of the worldwide technetium-99m supply chain has been underscored by current shortages caused by an unplanned shutdown of Europe’s largest reactor. The majority of the United States’ supply derives from a reactor in Canada nearing the end of its lifespan, whose planned replacements have been recently cancelled. In this article, the clinical importance of technetium-99m and our tenuous dependence on foreign supply of Molybdenum is addressed. PMID:19356583

  18. HEU and LEU comparison in the production of Molybdenum-99

    SciTech Connect

    Cestau, Daniel; Novello, Ariel; Cristini, Pablo; Bronca, Marcelo; Centurion, Roberto; Bavaro, Ricardo; Cestau, Julian; Carranza, Eduardo

    2008-07-15

    Fission Molybdenum-99 from LEU targets is being produced in Argentina, at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, since 2002. Before 2002, Argentina produced for more than 15 years fission molybdenum-99 from HEU targets. Both production procedures involve the irradiation of the targets composed by an Uranium-Aluminium compound 'meat' cladded with aluminum and a chemical processing of the targets. A statistic relative efficiency analysis of the production results, a brief description of the LEU method and quality control data of both procedures will be presented. (author)

  19. Tungsten-molybdenum fractionation in estuarine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajerin, T. Jade; Helz, George R.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations were measured in surface waters and sediment pore waters of Terrebonne Bay, a shallow estuary in the Mississippi River delta, to investigate the biogeochemical processes that fractionate these Group 6 elements relative to one another during transit from weathering to sedimentary environments. Although many of the chemical properties of W and Mo are similar, the two elements behave autonomously, and the fractionation mechanisms are only partly understood. In sulfidic pore waters, dissolved Mo is depleted relative to river water-seawater mixtures, whereas dissolved W is >10-fold enriched. Reductive dissolution of poorly crystalline phases like ferrihydrite, which is a preferential host of W relative to Mo in grain coatings on river-borne particles, can explain the dissolved W enrichment. Dissolved W becomes increasingly enriched as H2S(aq) rises above about 60 μM due to transformation of WO42- to thiotungstates as well as to additional reductive dissolution of phases that host W. In contrast, as rising sulfide transforms MoO42- to thiomolybdates in pore waters, dissolved Mo is suppressed, probably owing to equilibration with an Fe-Mo-S phase. This putative phase appears to control the aqueous ion product, Q = [Fe2+][MoS42-]0.6 [H2S0]0.4/[H+]0.8, at a value of 10-7.78. Concentrations of dissolved W and Mo in pore waters bear no relation to concentrations in surface waters of the same salinity. In surface waters, dissolved Mo is nearly conserved in the estuarine mixing zone. Dissolved W appears also to be conserved except for several cases where W may have been enhanced by exchange with underlying, W-rich pore waters. With increasing salinity, the molar Mo/W ratio rises from about 10 to about 1000 in surface waters whereas it is mostly <10 in underlying pore waters and in highly sulfidic pore waters is mostly near 1. Differences in two chemical properties may account for this fractionation of Mo with respect to

  20. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01

    As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to

  1. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  2. Cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen in a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Yuki, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-20

    The N≡N bond of molecular dinitrogen bridging two molybdenum atoms in the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes that bear ferrocenyldiphosphine as an auxiliary ligand is homolytically cleaved under visible light irradiation at room temperature to afford two molar molybdenum nitride complexes. Conversely, the bridging molecular dinitrogen is reformed by the oxidation of the molybdenum nitride complex at room temperature. This result provides a successful example of the cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen induced by a pair of two different external stimuli using a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine under ambient conditions. PMID:25214300

  3. Discovery of rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, and rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.M.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-07-15

    Currently, 31 rubidium, 35 strontium, 35 molybdenum, and 38 rhodium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Dissolution kinetics of a sintered molybdenum coating applied on ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz`ko, V.S.

    1994-11-01

    Using weighing and corrosion diagrams, the etching parameters are determined for a sintered M-21 molybdenum coating applied to VK 94-1 vacuum-tight ceramics. Dissolution of M-21 in an alkaline solution of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) can be treated as a corrosion process proceeding with kinetic control.

  5. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1995-01-17

    Compositions are disclosed consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  6. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.

    1995-01-01

    Compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  7. Low solvothermal synthesis and characterization of hollow nanospheres molybdenum sulfide.

    PubMed

    Akram, H; Mateos-Pedrero, C; Gallegos-Suárez, E; Allali, N; Chafik, T; Rodriguez-Ramos, I; Guerrero Ruiz, A

    2012-08-01

    Hollow nanospheres of molybdenum disulfide have been synthesized by a novel solvothermal method under low temperature (180 degrees C). These nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A mechanism for the synthesis reaction is tentatively proposed and discussed.

  8. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. PMID:27438863

  9. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. PMID:27438863

  10. Molybdenum-platinum-oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOEpatents

    Schmatz, Duane J.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a solid electrolyte carrying a thin film comprising molybdenum-platinum-oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  11. Storage and bioavailability of molybdenum in soils increased by organic matter complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichard, Thomas; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Myneni, Satish C. B.; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Kraepiel, Anne M. L.

    2009-09-01

    The micronutrient molybdenum is a necessary component of the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase. Molybdenum is very rare in soils, and is usually present in a highly soluble form, making it susceptible to leaching. However, it is generally thought that molybdenum attaches to mineral surfaces in acidic soils; this would prevent its escape into the groundwater, but would also impede uptake by microbes. Here we use X-ray spectroscopy to examine the chemical speciation of molybdenum in soil samples from forests in Arizona and New Jersey. We show that in the leaf litter layer, most of the molybdenum forms strong complexes with plant-derived tannins and tannin-like compounds; molybdenum binds to these organic ligands across a wide pH range. In deeper soils, molybdenum binds to both iron oxides and natural organic matter. We suggest that the molybdenum bound to organic matter can be captured by small complexing agents that are released by nitrogen-fixing bacteria; the molybdenum can then be incorporated into nitrogenase. We conclude that the binding of molybdenum to natural organic matter helps prevent leaching of molybdenum, and is thus a critical step in securing new nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. Storage and Bioavailability of Molybdenum in Soils Increased by Organic Matter Complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Wichard, T.; Mishra, B; Myneni, S; Bellenger, J; Kraepiel, A

    2009-01-01

    The micronutrient molybdenum is a necessary component of the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase1, 2. Molybdenum is very rare in soils, and is usually present in a highly soluble form, making it susceptible to leaching3, 4. However, it is generally thought that molybdenum attaches to mineral surfaces in acidic soils; this would prevent its escape into the groundwater, but would also impede uptake by microbes3. Here we use X-ray spectroscopy to examine the chemical speciation of molybdenum in soil samples from forests in Arizona and New Jersey. We show that in the leaf litter layer, most of the molybdenum forms strong complexes with plant-derived tannins and tannin-like compounds; molybdenum binds to these organic ligands across a wide pH range. In deeper soils, molybdenum binds to both iron oxides and natural organic matter. We suggest that the molybdenum bound to organic matter can be captured by small complexing agents that are released by nitrogen-fixing bacteria; the molybdenum can then be incorporated into nitrogenase. We conclude that the binding of molybdenum to natural organic matter helps prevent leaching of molybdenum, and is thus a critical step in securing new nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Electrodeposition of low contraction chromium/molybdenum alloys using pulse-reverse plating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.D.; Langston, S.

    1994-12-01

    The use of modulated pulse periodic reverse (pulse-reverse) current to electrodeposit a low contraction (LC) chromium/molybdenum alloy has been evaluated. When using one full pulse-reverse plating cycle, the percent molybdenum in the deposit increased almost 400 percent (from 1 to 4 percent) as the current in the reverse cycle was increased from 0 to 10 amps. However, when the pulse reverse current was carried to six full plating cycles, the percent molybdenum in the deposit was not dependent upon the current and remained constant at about 1 percent. This is about the same percent molybdenum that could be expected in direct current-plated LC chromium/molybdenum alloy and about half the percent molybdenum that could be expected in an on/off pulse-plated LC chromium/molybdenum alloy.

  14. Rhenium and Molybdenum in Rivers and Estuaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. D.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2004-12-01

    Due to their redox-sensitive nature, the geochemical cycles of Re and Mo are linked to the global organic carbon cycle. Reducing sediments constitute a globally important sink and weathering of organic-rich sediments is responsible for a large portion of the Re and - to a lesser extent - Mo flux to the oceans (Colodner et al., 1993; Jaffe et al., 2002). Riverine concentrations of Re and Mo are a function of the river basin lithology, but are also likely to be affected by anthropogenic contributions (Colodner et al., 1995). Current estimates of global natural riverine Re flux are restricted to single analyses of four major rivers, which characterize only 23%\\ of the global freshwater flux (Colodner et al., 1993). Annual variability of Re and Mo concentrations in rivers has not been studied. A single study of Re concentrations along the salinity gradient of the Amazon shelf is suggestive of conservative mixing, but scatter in the data do not allow to exclude the possibility of Re addition in the low-salinity end of the profile (Colodner et al., 1993). Careful evaluation of samples from the Hudson River estuary using a variety of extraction techniques indicates that spike-sample equilibration was not fully achieved using commonly used methods. We have therefore developed a simple, clean and efficient method of extracting Re from filtered water samples. Our method utilizes syringe filtration, prolonged heating to achieve spike-sample equilibration, batch equilibration with TEVA resin, and extraction of Re and Mo using syringe filtration. Rhenium concentrations in the Hudson, Housatonic and Connecticut rivers are 38 pM, 6.6 pM and 14 pM, respectively, much higher than the estimated global average of 2.1 pM (Colodner et al., 1993). Molybdenum concentrations are 4.6 nM, 5.5 nM, 7.8 nM, respectively. These rivers drain basins of Precambrian basement as well as predominantly Paleozoic sediments and have been substantially urbanized. Data for a salinity profile along the

  15. Uranium-Molybdenum Dissolution Flowsheet Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2007-03-01

    The Super Kukla (SK) Prompt Burst Reactor operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. The SK material is a uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight at approximately 20% 235U enrichment. H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) requested that the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) define a flowsheet for safely and efficiently dissolving the SK material. The objective is to dissolve the material in nitric acid (HNO3) in the H-Canyon dissolvers to a U concentration of 15-20 g/L (3-4 g/L 235U) without the formation of precipitates or the generation of a flammable gas mixture. Testing with SK material validated the applicability of dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature for various U and U-Mo metals. Based on the data, the SK material can be dissolved in boiling 3.0-6.0 M HNO3 to a U concentration of 15-20 g/L and a corresponding Mo concentration of 1.7-2.2 g/L. The optimum flowsheet will use 4.0-5.0 M HNO3 for the starting acid. Any nickel (Ni) cladding associated with the material will dissolve readily. After dissolution is complete, traditional solvent extraction flowsheets can be used to recover and purify the U. Dissolution rates for the SK material are consistent with those reported in the literature and are adequate for H-Canyon processing. When the SK material dissolved at 70-100 o C in 1-6 M HNO3, the reaction bubbled vigorously and released nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas. Gas generation tests in 1 M and 2 M HNO3 at 100 o C generated less than 0.1 volume percent hydrogen (H2) gas. It is known that higher HNO3 concentrations are less favorable for H2 production. All tests at 70-100 o C produced sufficient gas to mix the solutions without external agitation. At room temperature in 5 M HNO3, the U-Mo dissolved slowly and the U-laden solution sank to the bottom of the dissolution vessel because of its greater density. The effect of the density difference insures that the SK material cannot dissolve and

  16. Reflectance, Optical Properties, and Stability of Molybdenum/Strontium and Molybdenum/Yttrium Multilayer Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Kjornrattanawanich, B

    2002-09-01

    The motivation of this work is to develop high reflectance normal-incidence multilayer mirrors in the 8-12 nm wavelength region for applications in astronomy and extreme ultraviolet lithography. To achieve this goal, Mo/Sr and Mo/Y multilayers were studied. These multilayers were deposited with a UHV magnetron sputtering system and their reflectances were measured with synchrotron radiation. High normal-incidence reflectances of 23% at 8.8 nm, 40.8% at 9.4 nm, and 48.3% at 10.5 nm were achieved. However, the reflectance of Mo/Sr multilayers decreased rapidly after exposure to air. Attempts to use thin layers of carbon to passivate the surface of Mo/Sr multilayers were unsuccessful. Experimental results on the refractive index {tilde n} = 1-{delta} + i{beta} of yttrium and molybdenum in the 50-1300 eV energy region are reported in this work. This is the first time ever that values on the refractive index of yttrium are measured in this energy range. The absorption part {beta} was determined through transmittance measurements. The dispersive part {delta} was calculated by means of the Kramers-Kronig formalism. The newly determined values of the refractive index of molybdenum are in excellent agreement with the published data. Those of yttrium are more accurate and contain fine structures around the yttrium M-absorption edges where Mo/Y multilayers operate. These improved sets of optical data lead to better design and modeling of the optical properties of Mo/Y multilayers. The reflectance quality of Mo/Y multilayers is dependent on their optical and structural properties. To correlate these properties with the multilayer reflectance, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze samples. Normal-incidence reflectances of 32.6% at 9.27 nm, 38.4% at 9.48 nm, and 29.6% at 9.46 nm were obtained from three representative Mo/Y multilayers which had about 0%, 25%, and 39% atomic oxygen assimilated in their

  17. Low molybdenum state induced by tungsten as a model of molybdenum deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Nakagawa, Mikihito; Hosomi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Organ molybdenum (Mo) concentration and the activity of hepatic sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase were compared in tungsten-administered rats as well as rats fed with a low Mo diet to evaluate the use of tungsten-administered rats as a model of Mo deficiency. Twenty-four male 6-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to diet (AIN93G diet (control diet) or the control diet minus ammonium molybdate (low Mo diet)) and drinking water (deionized water or deionized water containing 200 μg/mL tungsten in the form of sodium tungstate). Mo content in the control and low Mo diets were 196 and 42 ng/g, respectively. Intake of the low Mo diet significantly reduced the Mo content of several organs and serum. Decrease in hepatic sulfite oxidase activity was also induced by the low Mo diet. The administration of tungsten induced marked decreases in organ Mo content and the activity of hepatic sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase. These decreases induced by tungsten administration were more pronounced than those induced by just a low Mo diet. Serum uric acid was also reduced by tungsten administration irrespective of Mo intake. Although a comparatively high accumulation of tungsten (3 to 9 μg/g) was observed in the kidneys and liver, adverse effects of tungsten accumulation on liver and kidney function were not observed in serum biochemical tests. These results indicate that tungsten-administered animals may be used as a model of Mo deficiency.

  18. Preparation of molybdenum carbides with multiple morphologies using surfactants as carbon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongfen; Wang, Zhiqi; Chen, Shougang

    2012-10-15

    Molybdenum carbides with surfactants as carbon sources were prepared using the carbothermal reduction of the appropriate precursors (molybdenum oxides deposited on surfactant micelles) at 1023 K under hydrogen gas. The carburized products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. From the SEM images, hollow microspherical and rod-like molybdenum carbides were observed. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the annealing time of carburization had a large effect on the conversion of molybdenum oxides to molybdenum carbides. And BET surface area measurements indicated that the difference of carbon sources brought a big difference in specific surface areas of molybdenum carbides. - Graphical abstract: Molybdenum carbides having hollow microspherical and hollow rod-like morphologies that are different from the conventional monodipersed platelet-like morphologies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum carbides were prepared using surfactants as carbon sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinds of surfactants affected the morphologies of molybdenum carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The time of heat preservation at 1023 K affected the carburization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum carbides with hollow structures had larger specific surface areas.

  19. In-situ molybdenum nano-attached particle synthesis from spent Mo scrap.

    PubMed

    Han, Chulwoong; Kim, Byungmoon; Choi, Hanshin

    2014-10-01

    Radio frequency thermal plasma is a versatile process for engineering powder preparation owing to its high energy density and reactivity. Molybdenum powders were prepared from molybdenum sheet scrap by RF thermal plasma in association with powder comminution process. Molybdenum scrap which was used in high temperature environment was friable enough to be broken into micropowders by hammer milling. Spherical molybdenum micro-powder was obtained from the hammer milled powders were treated via thermal plasma. On the other hand, vaporization and condensation pathway for nanoparticle synthesis is largely dependent on both thermo-physical properties and thermal plasma properties. In this regard, molybdenum trioxide was chosen for the feedstock of nanoparticle synthesis. Additional reactivity of argon-hydrogen thermal plasma, oxide feedstock was fully reduced to bcc molybdenum. Considering different reaction pathway of each feedstock, molybdenum nanoparticle attached molybdenum spherical micro-powder could be effectively synthesized by feeding a blended feedstock of molybdenum micro-powder and molybdenum trioxide micro-powder into argon-hydrogen thermal plasma.

  20. Genetic characterization of the Neurospora crassa molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Probst, Corinna; Ringel, Phillip; Boysen, Verena; Wirsing, Lisette; Alexander, Mariko Matsuda; Mendel, Ralf R; Kruse, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a trace element that is essential for important cellular processes. To gain biological activity, Mo must be complexed in the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), a pterin derivative of low molecular weight. Moco synthesis is a multi-step pathway that involves a variable number of genes in eukaryotes, which are assigned to four steps of eukaryotic Moco biosynthesis. Moco biosynthesis mutants lack any Moco-dependent enzymatic activities, including assimilation of nitrate (plants and fungi), detoxification of sulfite (humans and plants) and utilization of hypoxanthine as sole N-source (fungi). We report the first comprehensive genetic characterization of the Neurospora crassa (N. crassa) Moco biosynthesis pathway, annotating five genes which encode all pathway enzymes, and compare it with the characterized Aspergillus nidulans pathway. Biochemical characterization of the corresponding knock-out mutants confirms our annotation model, documenting the N. crassa/A. nidulans (fungal) Moco biosynthesis as unique, combining the organizational structure of both plant and human Moco biosynthesis genes.

  1. Evolution of interlayer coupling in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kaihui; Zhang, Liming; Cao, Ting; Jin, Chenhao; Qiu, Diana; Zhou, Qin; Zettl, Alex; Yang, Peidong; Louie, Steve G.; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Van der Waals coupling is emerging as a powerful method to engineer physical properties of atomically thin two-dimensional materials. In coupled graphene-graphene and graphene-boron nitride layers, interesting physical phenomena ranging from Fermi velocity renormalization to Hofstadter’s butterfly pattern have been demonstrated. Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides, another family of two-dimensional-layered semiconductors, can show distinct coupling phenomena. Here we demonstrate the evolution of interlayer coupling with twist angles in as-grown molybdenum disulfide bilayers. We find that the indirect bandgap size varies appreciably with the stacking configuration: it shows the largest redshift for AA- and AB-stacked bilayers, and a significantly smaller but constant redshift for all other twist angles. Our observations, together with ab initio calculations, reveal that this evolution of interlayer coupling originates from the repulsive steric effects that leads to different interlayer separations between the two molybdenum disulfide layers in different stacking configurations.

  2. Structural Framework for Metal Incorporation during Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kasaragod, Vikram Babu; Schindelin, Hermann

    2016-05-01

    The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is essential for the catalytic activity of all molybdenum-containing enzymes with the exception of nitrogenase. Moco biosynthesis follows an evolutionarily highly conserved pathway and genetic deficiencies in the corresponding human enzymes result in Moco deficiency, which manifests itself in severe neurological symptoms and death in childhood. In humans the final steps of Moco biosynthesis are catalyzed by gephyrin, specifically the penultimate adenylation of molybdopterin (MPT) by its N-terminal G domain (GephG) and the final metal incorporation by its C-terminal E domain (GephE). To better understand the poorly defined molecular framework of this final step, we determined high-resolution crystal structures of GephE in the apo state and in complex with ADP, AMP, and molybdate. Our data provide novel insights into the catalytic steps leading to final Moco maturation, namely deadenylation as well as molybdate binding and insertion. PMID:27112598

  3. Modified chemical route for deposition of molybdenum disulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Akshay N. Sartale, S. D.

    2014-04-24

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using a modified chemical route. Sodium molybdate and sodium sulphide were used as precursors for molybdenum and sulphur respectively. The route involves formation of tetrathiomolybdate ions (MoS{sub 4}{sup 2−}) and further reduction by sodium borohydride to form MoS{sub 2}. The deposition was performed at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed in argon atmosphere at 1073 K for 1 hour to improve its crystallinity. The deposited films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy for optical studies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structure determination.

  4. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: influence of soil properties.

    PubMed

    McGrath, S P; Micó, C; Curdy, R; Zhao, F J

    2010-10-01

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED50) of Mo in different soils, explaining>65% of the variance in ED50 for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations.

  5. Production of Molybdenum-99 using Neutron Capture Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, James J; Greenwood, Lawrence R; Soderquist, Chuck Z; Wittman, Richard S; Pierson, Bruce D; Burns, Kimberly A; Lavender, Curt A; Painter, Chad L; Love, Edward F; Wall, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), operated by Battelle, has identified a reference process for the production of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) for use in a chromatographic generator to separate the daughter product, technetium-99m (99mTc). The reference process uses the neutron capture reaction of natural or enriched molybdenum oxide via the reaction 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo. The irradiated molybdenum is dissolved in an alkaline solution, whereby the molybdenum, dissolved as the molybdate anion, is loaded on a proprietary ion exchange material in the chromatographic generator. The approach of this investigation is to provide a systematic collection of technologies to make the neutron capture method for Mo-99 production economically viable. This approach would result in the development of a technetium Tc99m generator and a new type of target. The target is comprised of molybdenum, either natural or enriched, and is tailored to the design of currently operating U.S. research reactors. The systematic collection of technologies requires evaluation of new metallurgical methods to produce the target, evaluation of target geometries tailored to research reactors, and chemical methods to dissolve the irradiated target materials for use in a chromatographic generator. A Technical specification for testing the target and neutron capture method in a research reactor is also required. This report includes identification of research and demonstration activities needed to enable deployment of neutron capture production method, including irradiations of prototypic targets, chemical processing of irradiated targets, and loading and extraction tests of Mo99 and Tc99m on the sorbent material in a prototypic generator design. The prototypical generator design is based on the proprietary method and systems for isotope product generation. The proprietary methods and systems described in this report are clearly delineated with footnotes. Ultimately, the Tc-99m generator solution provided by

  6. Molybdenum-99/technetium-99m management: race against time.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-11-01

    Molybdenum-99 is a parent of diagnostic nuclear medicine. It decays to technetium-99m, which used in over 30 million investigations per year around the world. Supplies of Tc-99m remained fragile in the last few years, which may occur again in the short and long term. Few suggestions have been registered in this letter to cope inadequate supply of the most wanted radionuclide for patient care.

  7. The nuclear response of molybdenum to supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Ydrefors, E.; Suhonen, J.

    2011-12-16

    Neutrino-nucleus interactions play a prominent role in many astrophysical applications. Knowledge about nuclear responses to neutrinos is therefore of paramount importance. We present cross sections for neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering off the stable (A = 92,94,95,96,97,98,100) molybdenum isotopes. The nuclear responses for these nuclei are additionally computed by folding the computed cross sections with a Fermi-Dirac distribution.

  8. Performance and Safety Characteristics of Lithium-molybdenum Disulfide Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The lithium-molybdenum disulfide system offers attractive characteristics including high rate capability, successful operation up to 75 C, a very low self-discharge rate, a good cycle life and safety characteristics which compare favorably to those of other lithium cells. Moreover, the materials and manufacturing costs for the system is effectively controlled, so the cells should ultimately be competitive with currently marketed rechargeable cells.

  9. Retention of Sputtered Molybdenum on Ion Engine Discharge Chamber Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Dever, Joyce A.; Power, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Grit-blasted anode surfaces are commonly used in ion engines to ensure adherence of sputtered coatings. Next generation ion engines will require higher power levels, longer operating times, and thus there will likely be thicker sputtered coatings on their anode surfaces than observed to date on 2.3 kW-class xenon ion engines. The thickness of coatings on the anode of a 10 kW, 40-centimeter diameter thruster, for example, may be 22 micrometers or more after extended operation. Grit-blasted wire mesh, titanium, and aluminum coupons were coated with molybdenum at accelerated rates to establish coating stability after the deposition process and after thermal cycling tests. These accelerated deposition rates are roughly three orders of magnitude more rapid than the rates at which the screen grid is sputtered in a 2.3 kW-class, 30-centimeter diameter ion engine. Using both RF and DC sputtering processes, the molybdenum coating thicknesses ranged from 8 to 130 micrometers, and deposition rates from 1.8 micrometers per hour to 5.1 micrometers per hour. In all cases, the molybdenum coatings were stable after the deposition process, and there was no evidence of spalling of the coatings after 20 cycles from about -60 to +320 C. The stable, 130 micrometer molybdenum coating on wire mesh is 26 times thicker than the thickest coating found on the anode of a 2.3 kW, xenon ion engine that was tested for 8200 hr. Additionally, this coating on wire mesh coupon is estimated to be a factor of greater than 4 thicker than one would expect to obtain on the anode of the next generation ion engine which may have xenon throughputs as high as 550 kg.

  10. Low molybdenum state induced by tungsten as a model of molybdenum deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Nakagawa, Mikihito; Hosomi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Organ molybdenum (Mo) concentration and the activity of hepatic sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase were compared in tungsten-administered rats as well as rats fed with a low Mo diet to evaluate the use of tungsten-administered rats as a model of Mo deficiency. Twenty-four male 6-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to diet (AIN93G diet (control diet) or the control diet minus ammonium molybdate (low Mo diet)) and drinking water (deionized water or deionized water containing 200 μg/mL tungsten in the form of sodium tungstate). Mo content in the control and low Mo diets were 196 and 42 ng/g, respectively. Intake of the low Mo diet significantly reduced the Mo content of several organs and serum. Decrease in hepatic sulfite oxidase activity was also induced by the low Mo diet. The administration of tungsten induced marked decreases in organ Mo content and the activity of hepatic sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase. These decreases induced by tungsten administration were more pronounced than those induced by just a low Mo diet. Serum uric acid was also reduced by tungsten administration irrespective of Mo intake. Although a comparatively high accumulation of tungsten (3 to 9 μg/g) was observed in the kidneys and liver, adverse effects of tungsten accumulation on liver and kidney function were not observed in serum biochemical tests. These results indicate that tungsten-administered animals may be used as a model of Mo deficiency. PMID:25627419

  11. Molybdenum accumulation, tolerance and molybdenum-selenium-sulfur interactions in Astragalus selenium hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulator species.

    PubMed

    DeTar, Rachael Ann; Alford, Élan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-07-01

    Some species hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) upwards of 0.1% of dry weight. This study addressed whether Se hyperaccumulators also accumulate and tolerate more molybdenum (Mo). A field survey revealed on average 2-fold higher Mo levels in three hyperaccumulator Astragali compared to three nonaccumulator Astragali, which were not significantly different. Next, a controlled study was performed where hyperaccumulators Astragalus racemosus and Astragalus bisulcatus were compared with nonaccumulators Astragalus drummondii and Astragalus convallarius for Mo accumulation and tolerance, alone or in the presence of Se. When grown on agar media with 0, 12, 24 or 48 mg L(-1) molybdate and/or 0, 1.6 or 3.2 mg L(-1) selenate, all species decreased in biomass with increasing Mo supply. Selenium did not impact biomass at the supplied levels. All Astragali accumulated Mo upwards of 0.1% of dry weight. Selenium levels were up to 0.08% in Astragalus racemosus and 0.04% Se in the other species. Overall, there was no correlation between Se hyperaccumulation and Mo accumulation capacity. However, the hyperaccumulators and nonaccumulators differed in some respects. While none of the species had a higher tissue Mo to sulfur (S) ratio than the growth medium, nonaccumulators had a higher Mo/S ratio than hyperaccumulators. Also, while molybdate and selenate reduced S accumulation in nonaccumulators, it did not in hyperaccumulators. Furthermore, A. racemosus had a higher Se/S ratio than its medium, while the other species did not. Additionally, Mo and Se treatment affected S levels in nonaccumulators, but not in hyperaccumulators. In conclusion, there is no evidence of a link between Se and Mo accumulation and tolerance in Astragalus. Sulfate transporters in hyperaccumulating Astragali appear to have higher sulfate specificity over other oxyanions, compared to nonaccumulators, and A. racemosus may have a transporter with enhanced selenate specificity relative to sulfate or molybdate.

  12. Probing the electron states and metal-insulator transition mechanisms in molybdenum disulphide vertical heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolong; Wu, Zefei; Xu, Shuigang; Wang, Lin; Huang, Rui; Han, Yu; Ye, Weiguang; Xiong, Wei; Han, Tianyi; Long, Gen; Wang, Yang; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Sheng, Ping; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The metal-insulator transition is one of the remarkable electrical properties of atomically thin molybdenum disulphide. Although the theory of electron-electron interactions has been used in modelling the metal-insulator transition in molybdenum disulphide, the underlying mechanism and detailed transition process still remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that the vertical metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures built from atomically thin molybdenum disulphide are ideal capacitor structures for probing the electron states. The vertical configuration offers the added advantage of eliminating the influence of large impedance at the band tails and allows the observation of fully excited electron states near the surface of molybdenum disulphide over a wide excitation frequency and temperature range. By combining capacitance and transport measurements, we have observed a percolation-type metal-insulator transition, driven by density inhomogeneities of electron states, in monolayer and multilayer molybdenum disulphide. In addition, the valence band of thin molybdenum disulphide layers and their intrinsic properties are accessed.

  13. Molybdenum as a contact material in zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.; Peterson, R. L.

    2014-05-12

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors are of increasing interest for a variety of thin film electronics applications. Here, the contact properties of different source/drain electrode materials to solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors are studied using the transmission line method. The width-normalized contact resistance between ZTO and sputtered molybdenum is measured to be 8.7 Ω-cm, which is 10, 20, and 600 times smaller than that of gold/titanium, indium tin oxide, and evaporated molybdenum electrodes, respectively. The superior contact formed using sputtered molybdenum is due to a favorable work function lineup, an insulator-free interface, bombardment of ZTO during molybdenum sputtering, and trap-assisted tunneling. The transfer length of the sputtered molybdenum/ZTO contact is 0.34 μm, opening the door to future radio-frequency sub-micron molybdenum/ZTO thin film transistors.

  14. The mammalian molybdenum enzymes of mARC.

    PubMed

    Ott, Gudrun; Havemeyer, Antje; Clement, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    The "mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component" (mARC) is the most recently discovered molybdenum-containing enzyme in mammals. All mammalian genomes studied to date contain two mARC genes: MARC1 and MARC2. The proteins encoded by these genes are mARC-1 and mARC-2 and represent the simplest form of eukaryotic molybdenum enzymes, only binding the molybdenum cofactor. In the presence of NADH, mARC proteins exert N-reductive activity together with the two electron transport proteins cytochrome b5 type B and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase. This enzyme system is capable of reducing a great variety of N-hydroxylated substrates. It plays a decisive role in the activation of prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure, and in detoxification pathways, e.g., of N-hydroxylated purine and pyrimidine bases. It belongs to a group of drug metabolism enzymes, in particular as a counterpart of P450 formed N-oxygenated metabolites. Its physiological relevance, on the other hand, is largely unknown. The aim of this article is to summarize our current knowledge of these proteins with a special focus on the mammalian enzymes and their N-reductive activity.

  15. Goats' milk xanthine oxidoreductase is grossly deficient in molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha; Harrison, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified from goats' milk. The u.v.-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine and human milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.20+/-0.12, indicating a high degree of purity. Like bovine and human milk XORs, enzyme purified from goats' milk showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. On Western blotting, mouse monoclonal anti-human XOR antibody cross-reacted with purified caprine and bovine XORs. The specific xanthine oxidase activity of goats' milk XOR, however, was very much lower than that of bovine XOR, although NADH oxidase activities of XOR from the two sources were similar. In these respects, the caprine milk XOR mirrors the human milk enzyme, in which case the kinetic effects have previously been attributed to relatively low molybdenum content. The molybdenum content of goats' milk XOR also was shown to be relatively low, with 0.09 atoms Mo per subunit, compared with 055 atoms Mo per subunit for the bovine enzyme. A parallel purification of human milk XOR showed 0.03 atoms Mo per subunit. The possible physiological significance of the low molybdenum content of the caprine milk enzyme and of its correspondingly low enzymic activity is discussed.

  16. Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.

  17. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S. A.; Shukor, M. Y.; Shamaan, N. A.; Mac Cormack, W. P.; Syed, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  18. On the Origin of the Lightest Molybdenum Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fisker, J L; Hoffman, R D; Pruet, J

    2007-10-24

    We discuss implications of recent precision measurements for the {sup 93}Rh proton separation energy for the production of the lightest molybdenum isotopes in proton-rich type II supernova ejecta. It has recently been shown that a novel neutrino-induced process makes these ejecta a promising site for the production of the light molybdenum isotopes and other 'p-nuclei' with atomic mass near 100. The origin of these isotopes has long been uncertain. A distinguishing feature of nucleosynthesis in neutrino-irradiated outflows is that the relative production of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo is set by a competition governed by the proton separation energy of {sup 93}Rh. We use detailed nuclear network calculations and the recent experimental results for this proton separation energy to place constraints on the outflow characteristics that produce the lightest molybdenum isotopes in their solar proportions. It is found that for the conditions calculated in recent two-dimensional supernova simulations, and also for a large range of outflow characteristics around these conditions, the solar ratio of {sup 92}Mo to {sup 94}Mo cannot be achieved. This suggests that either proton-rich winds from type II supernova do not exclusively produce both isotopes, or that these winds are qualitatively different than calculated in today's supernova models.

  19. Pulsed electrodeposition and characterization of molybdenum diselenide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Delphine, S. Mary; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C. . E-mail: sanjeeviraja@rediffmail.com

    2005-01-04

    Molybdenum dichalcogenides are semiconductors with layered type structure, which can act as efficient electrodes in the realization of photoelectrochemical solar cells. The main advantage of this molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}) semiconductor is the prevention of electrolyte corrosion because of the phototransitions involving non-bonding d-d orbital of the Mo atoms. Polycrystalline molybdenum diselenide thin films are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition on conducting glass and titanium substrates in galvanostatic mode from an ammoniacal solution of H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and SeO{sub 2}. The growth kinetics of the film was studied and the deposition parameters such as electrolyte bath concentration, bath temperature, time of deposition, deposition current, pH of the electrolyte and duty cycle of the current are optimized. X-ray diffraction analysis of the as deposited and annealed films showed the presence of highly textured MoSe{sub 2} films with polycrystalline nature. EDAX spectrum of the surface composition confirms the nearly stoichiometric MoSe{sub 2} nature of the film. Surface morphology studies by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the films are pinhole free and of device quality nature. The optical absorption spectra show an indirect band gap value of 1.16 eV. Conductivity measurements were carried out at different temperatures and electrical constants such as activation energy, trapped energy state and barrier height were calculated.

  20. Molybdate reduction to molybdenum blue by an Antarctic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S A; Shukor, M Y; Shamaan, N A; Mac Cormack, W P; Syed, M A

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo⁶⁺ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  1. Electrochromic properties of molybdenum trioxide thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya

    1995-05-01

    Electrochromic molybdenum trioxide thin films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The source material was molybdenum carbonyl. Amorphous molybdenum trioxide thin films were produced at a substrate temperature 300 C. Reduction and oxidation of the films in a 0.3M LiClO4 propylene carbon ate solution caused desirable changes in optical absorption. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 25.8 sq cm center-dot C(exp -1).

  2. Criticality experiments and analysis of molybdenum reflected cylindrical uranyl fluoride water solution reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieno, D.; Fox, T.; Mueller, R.

    1972-01-01

    Clean criticality data were obtained from molybdenum-reflected cylindrical uranyl-fluoride-water solution reactors. Using ENDF/B molybdenum cross sections, a nine energy group two-dimensional transport calculation of a reflected reactor configuration predicted criticality to within 7 cents of the experimental value. For these reactors, it was necessary to compute the reflector resonance integral by a detailed transport calculation at the core-reflector interface volume in the energy region of the two dominant resonances of natural molybdenum.

  3. Feasibility of preparing patterned molybdenum coatings on bismuth telluride thermoelectric modules.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarobol, Pylin; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Miller, Stephen Samuel; Knight, Marlene E.; LePage, William S.; Sobczak, Catherine Elizabeth.; Wesolowski, Daniel Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molybdenum electrical interconnects for thermoelectric modules were produced by air plasma spraying a 30%CE%BCm size molybdenum powder through a laser-cut Kapton tape mask. Initial feasibility demonstrations showed that the molybdenum coating exhibited excellent feature and spacing retention (~170%CE%BCm), adhered to bismuth-telluride, and exhibited electrical conductivity appropriate for use as a thermoelectric module interconnect. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize air plasma spray process conditions to produce a molybdenum coating with low electrical resistivity. Finally, a molybdenum coating was successfully produced on a fullscale thermoelectric module. After the addition of a final titanium/gold layer deposited on top of the molybdenum coating, the full scale module exhibited an electrical resistivity of 128%CE%A9, approaching the theoretical resistivity value for the 6mm module leg of 112%CE%A9. Importantly, air plasma sprayed molybdenum did not show significant chemical reaction with bismuth-telluride substrate at the coating/substrate interface. The molybdenum coating microstructure consisted of lamellar splats containing columnar grains. Air plasma sprayed molybdenum embedded deeply (several microns) into the bismuth-telluride substrate, leading to good adhesion between the coating and the substrate. Clusters of round pores (and cracks radiating from the pores) were found immediately beneath the molybdenum coating. These pores are believed to result from tellurium vaporization during the spray process where the molten molybdenum droplets (2623%C2%B0C) transferred their heat of solidification to the substrate at the moment of impact. Substrate cooling during the molybdenum deposition process was recommended to mitigate tellurium vaporization in future studies.

  4. Preliminary Investigation of the Heat Shock Resistant Properties of Molybdenum Disilicide Blades Under Centrifugal Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A; Frenche, John C

    1952-01-01

    An investigation to determine the heat-shock resistant properties of two molybdenum disilicide turbine blades under centrifugal loads imposed by turbine rotation is presented. Molybdenum disilicide turbine blades fabricated by hot-pressing techniques withstood heat-shock conditions under blade centrifugal stresses up to 5350 pounds per square inch. Additional development is required before the heat-shock resistant properties of molybdenum disilicide are satisfactory for turbine-blade application.

  5. Experimental study of the behavior of molybdenum in hot sulfide-carbonate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Agapova, G.F.; Shmariovich, E.M.; Vorob'ev, I.M.; Khitarov, D.N.

    1987-04-01

    Previous experiments have characterized the behavior of uranium in sulfide-carbonate solutions at 200/sup 0/C, analogous to the solutions that produced many endogenous pitchblende deposits, as indicated by fluid inclusions in minerals and by mineralogical and geochemical data. Molybdenum often accompanies uranium in endogenous pitchblende and related deposits and may form economic accumulations as low-temperature molybdenite. There have been repeated discussions on the forms taken by molybdenum and the reasons for deposition in such ores. The experiments described here indicate the existence of various complexes of molybdenum under different conditions and explain some of the paragenesis of molybdenum minerals with uranium minerals. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Preparation, catalysis, and characterization of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalysts supported on a NaY zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Katsuyama, Hiromoto

    1996-06-01

    The structure and dispersion of the molybdenum sulfides supported on a NaY zeolite were studied using XAFS techniques. It was found that molybdenum sulfide species prepared by sulfiding vapor deposited Mo(CO){sub 6} or by sulfiding molybdenum oxide dimer species encaged in the zeolite are highly dispersed and thermally stabilized against sintering or restructuring. These molybdenum species are formed via molybdenum sulfide dimer species as an intermediate. On the other hand, with the molybdenum sulfide catalysts prepared by an impregnation method, the sulfidation of molybdenum oxides was incomplete. The molybdenum oxide species are suggested to be mainly located in the zeolite cavities after calcination, forming isolated molybdenum oxides in tetrahedral configurations. The molybdenum sulfide species prepared from Mo(CO){sub 6} showed much higher catalytic activities for thiophene hydrodesulfurization and butadiene hydrogenation than the molybdenum sulfides prepared by the impregnation, in conformity with a higher dispersion and higher fraction of the molybdenum sulfide species. It is demonstrated that in combination with metal carbonyl techniques, zeolite supports are very suitable for the preparation of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfides at a high Mo loading.

  7. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to special monthly compensation under 38 CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Visual Fields Rating... CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Muscle Function Degree of diplopia Equivalentvisual acuity.../200 (6/60) (2) Lateral 20/70 (6/21) (3) Up 20/40 (6/12) Note: In accordance with 38 CFR 4.31,...

  8. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to special monthly compensation under 38 CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Visual Fields Rating... CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Muscle Function Degree of diplopia Equivalentvisual acuity.../200 (6/60) (2) Lateral 20/70 (6/21) (3) Up 20/40 (6/12) Note: In accordance with 38 CFR 4.31,...

  9. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to special monthly compensation under 38 CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Visual Fields Rating... CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Muscle Function Degree of diplopia Equivalentvisual acuity.../200 (6/60) (2) Lateral 20/70 (6/21) (3) Up 20/40 (6/12) Note: In accordance with 38 CFR 4.31,...

  10. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to special monthly compensation under 38 CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Visual Fields Rating... CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Muscle Function Degree of diplopia Equivalentvisual acuity.../200 (6/60) (2) Lateral 20/70 (6/21) (3) Up 20/40 (6/12) Note: In accordance with 38 CFR 4.31,...

  11. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to special monthly compensation under 38 CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Visual Fields Rating... CFR 3.350. Ratings for Impairment of Muscle Function Degree of diplopia Equivalentvisual acuity.../200 (6/60) (2) Lateral 20/70 (6/21) (3) Up 20/40 (6/12) Note: In accordance with 38 CFR 4.31,...

  12. Pyranopterin Coordination Controls Molybdenum Electrochemistry in Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Rothery, Richard A.; Weiner, Joel H.

    2015-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that pyranopterin (PPT) coordination plays a critical role in defining molybdenum active site redox chemistry and reactivity in the mononuclear molybdoenzymes. The molybdenum atom of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) is coordinated by two PPT-dithiolene chelates that are defined as proximal and distal based on their proximity to a [4Fe-4S] cluster known as FS0. We examined variants of two sets of residues involved in PPT coordination: (i) those interacting directly or indirectly with the pyran oxygen of the bicyclic distal PPT (NarG-Ser719, NarG-His1163, and NarG-His1184); and (ii) those involved in bridging the two PPTs and stabilizing the oxidation state of the proximal PPT (NarG-His1092 and NarG-His1098). A S719A variant has essentially no effect on the overall Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential, whereas the H1163A and H1184A variants elicit large effects (ΔEm values of −88 and −36 mV, respectively). Ala variants of His1092 and His1098 also elicit large ΔEm values of −143 and −101 mV, respectively. An Arg variant of His1092 elicits a small ΔEm of +18 mV on the Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential. There is a linear correlation between the molybdenum Em value and both enzyme activity and the ability to support anaerobic respiratory growth on nitrate. These data support a non-innocent role for the PPT moieties in controlling active site metal redox chemistry and catalysis. PMID:26297003

  13. Molybdenum intake of adults in Germany and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, S; Anke, M; Röhrig, B; Gonzalez, D

    1998-03-01

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. It plays a complex role in the ecosystem, because the metal is a part of a cofactor for several important enzymes in human, animal and plant metabolism. The physiological requirement for this element is relatively low. Our investigations were aimed at determining the Mo intake of adults in Germany and Mexico by means of duplicate portion technique. Molybdenum was estimated in the food duplicate samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In 1988, 1992 and 1996 the Mo consumption of humans was investigated in 14 test groups of persons with mixed diets. Each test population consisted of seven men and seven women. Furthermore, in 1996 the Mo intake of 10 female and 10 male vegetarians and of two Mexican test groups was also determined. Different factors, such as sex, time of investigation, location and eating habits have an effect on the individual Mo intake, Molybdenum intake of adults with mixed diets has increased significantly from 1988 to 1996. Furthermore, results of our study showed that Mo intake of German adults differs depending on location and the kind of diet. German women with a mixed diet consumed 89 micrograms d-1 in 1996 and men 100 micrograms d-1. In comparison, female and male vegetarians consumed 179 micrograms d-1 and 170 micrograms d-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in Mo consumption between German and Mexican test persons. Mexican women consumed on average 162 micrograms d-1 and Mexican men 208 micrograms d-1. The Mo requirement of adults amounts to about 25 micrograms d-1. Our investigations showed that the Mo requirement is met by normal intake. An intake of 150 micrograms kg-1 body weight may be toxic for humans. Therefore, people in Germany and Mexico are not endangered by Mo exposure.

  14. Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution Analytical Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Weaver, Jamie L.

    2015-11-01

    This document is a companion report to a previous report, PNNL 24519, Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution, A Brief Review of the Literature, August 2015. In this companion report, we report a fast, accurate, newly developed analytical method for measurement of trace alpha-emitting actinide elements in commercial high-activity molybdenum-99 solution. Molybdenum-99 is widely used to produce 99mTc for medical imaging. Because it is used as a radiopharmaceutical, its purity must be proven to be extremely high, particularly for the alpha emitting actinides. The sample of 99Mo solution is measured into a vessel (such as a polyethylene centrifuge tube) and acidified with dilute nitric acid. A gadolinium carrier is added (50 µg). Tracers and spikes are added as necessary. Then the solution is made strongly basic with ammonium hydroxide, which causes the gadolinium carrier to precipitate as hydrous Gd(OH)3. The precipitate of Gd(OH)3 carries all of the actinide elements. The suspension of gadolinium hydroxide is then passed through a membrane filter to make a counting mount suitable for direct alpha spectrometry. The high-activity 99Mo and 99mTc pass through the membrane filter and are separated from the alpha emitters. The gadolinium hydroxide, carrying any trace actinide elements that might be present in the sample, forms a thin, uniform cake on the surface of the membrane filter. The filter cake is first washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide to push the last traces of molybdate through, then with water. The filter is then mounted on a stainless steel counting disk. Finally, the alpha emitting actinide elements are measured by alpha spectrometry.

  15. Pyranopterin Coordination Controls Molybdenum Electrochemistry in Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Rothery, Richard A; Weiner, Joel H

    2015-10-01

    We test the hypothesis that pyranopterin (PPT) coordination plays a critical role in defining molybdenum active site redox chemistry and reactivity in the mononuclear molybdoenzymes. The molybdenum atom of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) is coordinated by two PPT-dithiolene chelates that are defined as proximal and distal based on their proximity to a [4Fe-4S] cluster known as FS0. We examined variants of two sets of residues involved in PPT coordination: (i) those interacting directly or indirectly with the pyran oxygen of the bicyclic distal PPT (NarG-Ser(719), NarG-His(1163), and NarG-His(1184)); and (ii) those involved in bridging the two PPTs and stabilizing the oxidation state of the proximal PPT (NarG-His(1092) and NarG-His(1098)). A S719A variant has essentially no effect on the overall Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential, whereas the H1163A and H1184A variants elicit large effects (ΔEm values of -88 and -36 mV, respectively). Ala variants of His(1092) and His(1098) also elicit large ΔEm values of -143 and -101 mV, respectively. An Arg variant of His(1092) elicits a small ΔEm of +18 mV on the Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential. There is a linear correlation between the molybdenum Em value and both enzyme activity and the ability to support anaerobic respiratory growth on nitrate. These data support a non-innocent role for the PPT moieties in controlling active site metal redox chemistry and catalysis.

  16. Ultrafast Optical Microscopy of Single Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Flakes

    DOE PAGES

    Seo, Minah; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Mohite, Aditya D.; Boubanga-Tombet, Stephane; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Najmaei, Sina; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lou, Jun; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2016-02-15

    We performed ultrafast optical microscopy on single flakes of atomically thin CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide, using non-degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and probe carriers above and below the indirect and direct band gaps. These measurements reveal the influence of layer thickness on carrier dynamics when probing near the band gap. Furthermore, fluence-dependent measurements indicate that carrier relaxation is primarily influenced by surface-related defect and trap states after above-bandgap photoexcitation. Furthermore, the ability to probe femtosecond carrier dynamics in individual flakes can thus give much insight into light-matter interactions in these two-dimensional nanosystems.

  17. Ultrafast Optical Microscopy of Single Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Flakes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minah; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Mohite, Aditya D.; Boubanga-Tombet, Stephane; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Najmaei, Sina; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lou, Jun; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2016-01-01

    We have performed ultrafast optical microscopy on single flakes of atomically thin CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide, using non-degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and probe carriers above and below the indirect and direct band gaps. These measurements reveal the influence of layer thickness on carrier dynamics when probing near the band gap. Furthermore, fluence-dependent measurements indicate that carrier relaxation is primarily influenced by surface-related defect and trap states after above-bandgap photoexcitation. The ability to probe femtosecond carrier dynamics in individual flakes can thus give much insight into light-matter interactions in these two-dimensional nanosystems. PMID:26876194

  18. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  19. A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.

    1986-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

  20. Geology of the Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, S.C.

    1954-01-01

    The Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Wash., is about 5 airline miles west of Tonasket in the north-central part of the State. The mineralized zone has been explored to a depth of 250 feet by means of three adit levels, one sublevel, and a raise which connects two of the adits and the sublevel. In all, there are about 2,700 feet of underground workings. The mine has neither machinery nor a developed water supply adequate for any work other than a small exploratory program.

  1. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2011-04-01

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  2. Molybdenum-independent nitrogenases of Azotobacter vinelandii: a functional species of alternative nitrogenase-3 isolated from a molybdenum-tolerant strain contains an iron-molybdenum cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Pau, R N; Eldridge, M E; Lowe, D J; Mitchenall, L A; Eady, R R

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogenase-3 of Azotobacter vinelandii is synthesized under conditions of molybdenum and vanadium deficiency. The minimal metal requirement for its synthesis, and its metal content, indicated that the only transition metal in nitrogenase-3 was iron [Chisnell, Premakumar and Bishop (1988) J. Bacteriol. 170, 27-33; Pau, Mitchenall and Robson (1989) J. Bacteriol. 171, 124-129]. A new species of nitrogenase-3 has been purified from a strain of A. vinelandii (RP306) lacking structural genes for the Mo- and V-nitrogenases and containing a mutation which enables nitrogenase-3 to be synthesized in the presence of molybdenum. SDS/PAGE showed that component 1 contained a 15 kDa polypeptide which N-terminal amino acid sequence determination showed to be encoded by anfG. This confirms that nitrogenase-3, like V-nitrogenase, comprises three subunits. Preparations of the nitrogenase-3 from strain RP306 contained 24 Fe atoms and 1 Mo atom per molecule. Characterization of the cofactor centre of the enzyme by e.p.r. spectroscopy and an enzymic cofactor assay, together with stimulation of the growth of strain RP306 by Mo, showed that nitrogenase-3 can incorporate the Mo-nitrogenase cofactor (FeMoco) to form a functional enzyme. The specific activities (nmol of product produced/min per mg of protein) determined from activity titration curves were: under N2, NH3 formation 110, with concomitant H2 evolution of 220; under argon, H2 evolution 350; under 10% acetylene (C2H2) in argon, ethylene (C2H4) 58, ethane (C2H6) 26, and concomitant H2 evolution 226. The rate of formation of C2H6 was non-linear, and the C2H6/C2H4 ratio strongly dependent on the ratio of nitrogenase components. PMID:8392330

  3. Evaluation of Molybdenum as a Surrogate for Iridium in the GPHS Weld Development

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, Andrew Martin; Pierce, Stanley W.; Moniz, Paul F.

    2015-10-17

    The welding equipment used for welding iridium containers (clads) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is twenty five years old and is undergoing an upgrade. With the upgrade, there is a requirement for requalification of the welding process, and the opportunity for process improvement. Testing of the new system and requalification will require several welds on iridium test parts and clads, and any efforts to improve the process will add to the need for iridium parts. The extreme high cost of iridium imposes a severe limitation on the extent of test welding that can be done. The 2 inch diameter, 0.027 inch thick, iridium blank disc that the clad cup is formed from, is useful for initial weld trials, but it costs $5000. The development clad sets needed for final tests and requalification cost $15,000 per set. A solution to iridium cost issue would be to do the majority of the weld development on a less expensive surrogate metal with similar weld characteristics. One such metal is molybdenum. Since its melting index (melting temperature x thermal conductivity) is closest to iridium, welds on molybdenum should be similar in size for a given weld power level. Molybdenum is inexpensive; a single 2 inch molybdenum disc costs only $9. In order to evaluate molybdenum as a surrogate for iridium, GTA welds were first developed to provide full penetration on 0.030 inch thick molybdenum discs at speeds of 20, 25, and 30 inches per minute (ipm). These weld parameters were then repeated on the standard 0.027 inch thick iridium blanks. The top surface and bottom surface (root) width and grain structure of the molybdenum and iridium welds were compared, and similarities were evident between the two metals. Due to material and thickness differences, the iridium welds were approximately 35% wider than the molybdenum welds. A reduction in iridium weld current of 35% produce welds slightly smaller than the molybdenum welds yet showed that current could be scaled according to molybdenum

  4. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum...

  6. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum...

  7. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum...

  9. Leaching of molybdenum and arsenic from uranium ore and mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    A sequential, selective extraction procedure was used to assess the effects of sulfuric acid milling on the geochemical associations of molybdenum and arsenic in a uranium ore blend, and the tailings derived therefrom. The milling process removed about 21% of the molybdenum and 53% of the arsenic initially present in the ore. While about one-half of the molybdenum in the ore was water soluble, only about 14% existed in this form in the tailings. The major portion of the extractable molybdenum in the tailings appears to be associated with hydrous oxides of iron, and with alkaline earth sulfate precipitates. In contrast with the pattern seen for molybdenum, the partitioning of arsenic into the various extractable fractions differs little between the ore and the tailings. ?? 1984.

  10. Influence of Chromium and Molybdenum on the Corrosion of Nickel Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J R; Gray, J; Szmodis, A W; Orme, C A

    2005-08-02

    The addition of chromium and molybdenum to nickel creates alloys with exceptional corrosion resistance in a diverse range of environments. This study examines the complementary roles of Cr and Mo in Ni alloy passivation. Four nickel alloys with varying amounts of chromium and molybdenum were studied in 1 molar salt solutions over a broad pH range. The passive corrosion and breakdown behavior of the alloys suggests that chromium is the primary element influencing general corrosion resistance. The breakdown potential was nearly independent of molybdenum content, while the repassivation potential is strongly dependant on the molybdenum content. This indicates that chromium plays a strong role in maintaining the passivity of the alloy, while molybdenum acts to stabilize the passive film after a localized breakdown event.

  11. Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

  12. Upgrading of a Moroccan deasphalted shale oil over mechanical mixtures of sulfided cobalt-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum alumina supported catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, C.; Geneste, P.; Benyamna, A.; Bennouna, C.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental factorial design was used to study the influence of the different parameters such as the reaction temperature, the hydrogen pressure and the reaction time on the hydroprocessing of a deasphalted shale oil over mechanical mixtures of sulfided cobalt-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum alumina supported catalysts. It was shown that hydrodesulfurization, hydrodeoxygenation hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodearomatization were more important for high temperature, high pressure and long reaction time operating conditions as generally observed for separate experiments carried under conditions of industrial catalytic tests. The most striking feature was the existence of a promotion effect due to the simultaneous presence of those catalysts mechanical mixtures, i.e. cobalt-molybdenum-rich mixtures are more efficient for hydrodenitrogenation reactions, whereas nickel-molybdenum-rich mixtures exhibit a better activity for hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization reactions, thus confirming first the previous findings in this field concerning the influence of cobalt and nickel promoters and then the general knowledge on the separate behavior of sulfided cobalt-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum alumina supported catalysts.

  13. Role of molybdenum in dinitrogen fixation by Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, J; Mortenson, L E

    1975-01-01

    The role of Mo in the activity and synthesis of the nitrogenase components of Clostridium pasteurianum has been studied by observing the competition of Mo with its structural analogue W. Clostridial cells when fixing N2 appeared strictly dependent upon the available Mo, showing maximal N2-fixing activity at molybdate concentrations in the media of 10 muM. Cells grown in media with 3 times 10(-6) muM Mo, although showing good growth, had only 15% as much N2-fixing activity. In the presence of W the synthesis of both nitrogenase components, molybdoferredoxin and azoferredoxin, was affected. Attempts to produce nitrogenase in W-grown cells by addition of high molybdenum to the media in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis showed that Mo incorporation into a possible inactive preformed apoenzyme did not occur. Unlike other molybdoenzyme-containing cells, in which W either is incorporated in place of Mo to yield inactive protein or initiates the production of apoprotein, C. pasteurianum forms neither a tungsten substituted molybdoferredoxin nor an apoprotein. It is concluded that in C. pasteurianum molybdenum is an essential requirement for both the biosynthesis and activity of its nitrogenase. PMID:1158853

  14. Grains and grain boundaries in highly crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Arend M.; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; You, Yumeng; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Heinz, Tony F.; Reichman, David R.; Muller, David A.; Hone, James C.

    2013-06-01

    Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer molybdenum disulphide, a new two-dimensional direct-bandgap semiconductor, is paving the way for applications in atomically thin electronics. Little is known, however, about the microstructure of this material. Here we have refined chemical vapour deposition synthesis to grow highly crystalline islands of monolayer molybdenum disulphide up to 120 μm in size with optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to exfoliated samples. Using transmission electron microscopy, we correlate lattice orientation, edge morphology and crystallinity with island shape to demonstrate that triangular islands are single crystals. The crystals merge to form faceted tilt and mirror twin boundaries that are stitched together by lines of 8- and 4-membered rings. Density functional theory reveals localized mid-gap states arising from these 8-4 defects. We find that mirror twin boundaries cause strong photoluminescence quenching whereas tilt boundaries cause strong enhancement. Meanwhile, mirror twin boundaries slightly increase the measured in-plane electrical conductivity, whereas tilt boundaries slightly decrease the conductivity.

  15. Sulphur shuttling across a chaperone during molybdenum cofactor maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, Pascal; Ruppelt, Christian; Oudouhou, Flore; Lavergne, Jérôme; Siponen, Marina I.; Toci, René; Mendel, Ralf R.; Bittner, Florian; Pignol, David; Magalon, Axel; Walburger, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are of interest as they are natural catalysts that sequester atmospheric CO2, generating reduced carbon compounds with possible uses as fuel. FDHs activity in Escherichia coli strictly requires the sulphurtransferase EcFdhD, which likely transfers sulphur from IscS to the molybdenum cofactor (Mo-bisPGD) of FDHs. Here we show that EcFdhD binds Mo-bisPGD in vivo and has submicromolar affinity for GDP—used as a surrogate of the molybdenum cofactor’s nucleotide moieties. The crystal structure of EcFdhD in complex with GDP shows two symmetrical binding sites located on the same face of the dimer. These binding sites are connected via a tunnel-like cavity to the opposite face of the dimer where two dynamic loops, each harbouring two functionally important cysteine residues, are present. On the basis of structure-guided mutagenesis, we propose a model for the sulphuration mechanism of Mo-bisPGD where the sulphur atom shuttles across the chaperone dimer.

  16. Optical absorption and transmission in a molybdenum disulfide monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukelj, Zoran; Štrkalj, Antonio; Despoja, Vito

    2016-09-01

    Our recently proposed theoretical formulation [presented in D. Novko et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 125413 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125413] is used to study optical absorption and transmission in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer as a function of incident photon energy and angle. The investigation is not focused on exploration of well-documented spin-orbit split excitons around optical absorption onset, but rather on the most intensive features in absorption spectrum in the visible and near-ultraviolet photon energy range (1.7 -4 eV ). It is shown that three most intensive peaks, at 2.7, 3.1, and 3.7 eV, result from transitions between Mo(d ) and S(p ) valence and conduction bands and that the character of their charge/current density fluctuations is intrinsically in plane, located in the molybdenum plane. This also implies that MoS2 monolayer is completely transparent when illuminated by grazing incidence p -polarized light. The validity of the presented results is supported by our effective two-band tight-binding model and finally by good agreement with some recent experimental results.

  17. Authigenic Molybdenum Isotopes Record Lake Baikal in the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Liu, H.; Lee, D.

    2013-12-01

    Authigenic molybdenum isotope signatures in marine sediments reflect the mechanisms of deposits under both oxic and reducing conditions. The studies are mainly focusing on marine environment, and the application on lake record is rare. A three-meters long gravity core (GC-99; 52°05'23'N, 105°50'24'E; water depth 201m) from Lake Baikal is studied for Mo isotopes and concentration. The result is using to examine the sources of material or/and the changes in conditions of Lake Baikal with climate changes. To approach on extracting Mo isotope signal directly related to lake water, a sequential leaching technique to extract the Mo isotopes coating on the Fe-Mn oxides and a robust chromatography technique to purify molybdenum isotopes is modified and used for all lake sediment samples. Then, Mo isotope composition is measured by applying double spike method with Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). According to the Mo concentration and its isotope composition δ98/95Mo relative to NIST-SRM-3134, the results imply Lake Baikal stayed oxic condition over the last 24 ka. Moreover, the sediment core GC-99 from Lake Baikal imply two stages fluctuations of the lake environment separated at core depth of 100cm (around 12ka); and the shifting of δ98/95Mo isotope composition shows that the lake during interglacial period was more oxic than the last glacial period due to absence of ice cover.

  18. Physical properties about metal matrix FGM of molybdenum and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Kouichi; Nishida, Shinichi

    1995-11-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) have been made trials to produce by a lot of fabrication processes such as the powder metallurgical method, the plasma spraying, the diffusion bonding, the physical vapor deposition method, the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) etc. In the most cases of these processes, dissimilar materials are combined or bonded directly. The various physical properties are discontinuous at the bonded interface of the dissimilar materials. In order to overcome the problem, functionally gradient materials (FGM) have been considered recently, and have attracted the authors. Its compositions are prepared so that physical properties continuously vary across the bond interface of the dissimilar metals. In this study, a FGM is produced by a new process based on HIP. Copper and molybdenum, which are distinct in the thermo-physical property to each other, are the constitutents for the FGM. This composition have been confirmed by absorbed electron and characteristics X-ray images of each mixed layer for FGM to be uniform or continuous. The following items have been investigated and compared with the linear law of mixture rule: Vickers hardness, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity at a one-dimensional non-steady state. Those physical properties have been identified to depend on the mixing ratios of copper and molybdenum. Pretty good agreements have been obtained between the experimental data and the calculated values according to the linear law of mixture rule.

  19. Full Densification of Molybdenum Powders Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouawad, B.; Soueidan, M.; Fabrègue, D.; Buttay, C.; Bley, V.; Allard, B.; Morel, H.

    2012-09-01

    Pure molybdenum powder was sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) under various temperatures and holding times, under a pressure of 77 MPa and a heating rate at 700 K/min (700 °C/min). After sintering, a carbide layer was observed at the surface. The carbide layer thickness, the relative density of the sample as well as the microhardness, and the grain size of Mo were measured. The carbide thickness depends on time and temperature, and it was found that the carbide layer grows in a parabolic manner, with the activation energy of carbon diffusion in Mo being equal to 34 Kcal/mol. The densification of Mo is controlled mainly by the sintering temperature and the holding time. The molybdenum powder was successfully consolidated by SPS in short times. A relative density of 100 pct is achieved at a sintering temperature of 2123.15 K (1850 °C) and a holding time of 30 minutes. It was shown that the hardness decreases slightly with temperature and time. It should be related to the increase in grain size with the sintering temperature and time.

  20. Full Densification of Molybdenum Powders Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouawad, B.; Soueidan, M.; Fabrègue, D.; Buttay, C.; Bley, V.; Allard, B.; Morel, H.

    2012-05-01

    Pure molybdenum powder was sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) under various temperatures and holding times, under a pressure of 77 MPa and a heating rate at 700 K/min (700 °C/min). After sintering, a carbide layer was observed at the surface. The carbide layer thickness, the relative density of the sample as well as the microhardness, and the grain size of Mo were measured. The carbide thickness depends on time and temperature, and it was found that the carbide layer grows in a parabolic manner, with the activation energy of carbon diffusion in Mo being equal to 34 Kcal/mol. The densification of Mo is controlled mainly by the sintering temperature and the holding time. The molybdenum powder was successfully consolidated by SPS in short times. A relative density of 100 pct is achieved at a sintering temperature of 2123.15 K (1850 °C) and a holding time of 30 minutes. It was shown that the hardness decreases slightly with temperature and time. It should be related to the increase in grain size with the sintering temperature and time.

  1. Extraction of molybdenum by a supported liquid membrane method.

    PubMed

    Basualto, Carlos; Marchese, José; Valenzuela, Fernando; Acosta, Adolfo

    2003-04-10

    This is a report on the extraction of molybdenum(VI) ions using a supported liquid membrane, prepared by dissolving in kerosene, the extractant Alamine 336 (a long-chain tertiary amine) employed as mobile carrier. A flat hydrophobic microporous membrane was utilised as solid support. Appropriate conditions for Mo(VI) extraction through the liquid membrane were obtained from the results of liquid-liquid extraction and stripping partition experiments. The influence of feed solution acidity, the carrier extractant concentration in the organic liquid film and the content of strip agent on the metal flux through membrane were investigated. It was established that maximal extraction of metal is achieved at a pH 2.0 if sulphuric acid is used in the feed solution and at a pH value over 11.0 if Na(2)CO(3) is used as strip agent. Moreover, the molybdenum extraction through membrane is enhanced when a 0.02 mol l(-1) content of the amine carrier in the organic phase is used. The present paper deals with an equilibrium investigation of the extraction of Mo(VI) by Alamine 336 and its permeation conditions through the liquid membrane, and examines a possible mechanism of extraction.

  2. Sulphur shuttling across a chaperone during molybdenum cofactor maturation.

    PubMed

    Arnoux, Pascal; Ruppelt, Christian; Oudouhou, Flore; Lavergne, Jérôme; Siponen, Marina I; Toci, René; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian; Pignol, David; Magalon, Axel; Walburger, Anne

    2015-02-04

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are of interest as they are natural catalysts that sequester atmospheric CO2, generating reduced carbon compounds with possible uses as fuel. FDHs activity in Escherichia coli strictly requires the sulphurtransferase EcFdhD, which likely transfers sulphur from IscS to the molybdenum cofactor (Mo-bisPGD) of FDHs. Here we show that EcFdhD binds Mo-bisPGD in vivo and has submicromolar affinity for GDP-used as a surrogate of the molybdenum cofactor's nucleotide moieties. The crystal structure of EcFdhD in complex with GDP shows two symmetrical binding sites located on the same face of the dimer. These binding sites are connected via a tunnel-like cavity to the opposite face of the dimer where two dynamic loops, each harbouring two functionally important cysteine residues, are present. On the basis of structure-guided mutagenesis, we propose a model for the sulphuration mechanism of Mo-bisPGD where the sulphur atom shuttles across the chaperone dimer.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of several molybdenum chloride cluster compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, W.W.

    1983-06-01

    Investigation into the direct synthesis of Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/(P(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/)/sub 4/ from Mo/sub 2/(OAc)/sub 4/ led to a synthetic procedure that produces yields greater than 80%. The single-crystal structure disclosed a planar rectangular cluster of molybdenum atoms. Metal-metal bond distances suggest that the long edges of the rectangular cluster should be considered to be single bonds and the short metal-metal bonds to be triple bonds. This view is reinforced by an extended Hueckel calculation. Attempts to add a metal atom to Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/ to form Mo/sub 5/Cl/sub 10/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 3/ led instead to a compound with the composition Mo/sub 8/Cl/sub 16/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/. Solution and reflectance uv-visible spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra suggest that tetranuclear molybdenum units are present. The facile reaction between Mo/sub 8/Cl/sub 16/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/ and PR/sub 3/ imply that the linkage between tetrameric units is weak.

  4. High temperature oxidation of molybdenum in water vapor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. T.; Sooby, E. S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Cheng, B.; Maloy, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    Molybdenum has recently gained attention as a candidate cladding material for use in light water reactors. Its excellent high temperature mechanical properties and stability under irradiation suggest that it could offer benefits to performance under a wide range of reactor conditions, but little is known about its oxidation behavior in water vapor containing atmospheres. The current study was undertaken to elucidate the oxidation behavior of molybdenum in water vapor environments to 1200 °C in order to provide an initial assessment of its feasibility as a light water reactor cladding. Initial observations indicate that at temperatures below 1000 °C, the kinetics of mass loss in water vapor would not be detrimental to cladding integrity during an off-normal event. Above 1000 °C, degradation is more rapid but remains slower than observed for optimized zirconium cladding alloys. The effect of hydrogen-water vapor and oxygen-water vapor mixtures on material loss was also explored at elevated temperatures. Parts-per-million levels of either hydrogen or oxygen will minimally impact performance, but hydrogen contents in excess of 1000 ppm were observed to limit volatilization at 1000 °C.

  5. Molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Mrowka, S.; Hetrick, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Multilayer structures of molybdenum and silicon have been synthesized by sputter deposition onto flat silicon single-crystal silicon substrates and spherically ground (0.5and 22.0-m radii) fused silica substrates; and the reflectivities for 170.4-A (72.8-eV), 160.1-A (77.4-eV), and 228-A (54.4-eV) light measured at near normal incidence. Observed peak values ranged from 26.2 to 78 percent, the highest reflectivities occurring closest to normal incidence. Energy resolutions were about 10 in all cases. Model calculations were performed using optical constants and experimentally determined multilayer structural parameters. In all cases the measured reflectivities were equal to or larger (by up to a factor of 2) than the calculated values, a result attributed to uncertainty in the optical constants used in the calculations. Experimental and calculated angular-peak positions and energy resolutions were in good agreement. The high reflectivities of these molybdenum-silicon structures will make possible application of traditional optics approaches in the EUV and support new developments including free-electron lasers.

  6. Magnetic ordering in lanthanide-molybdenum oxide nanostructure arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, Joseph; Le, Son; Schneemeyer, Lynn; Olsen, Patti; Besara, Tiglet; Siegrist, Theo; Seiler, David; Richter, Curt

    Reduced ternary molybdenum oxides, or bronzes, offer an attractive materials platform to study a wide variety of remarkable physical phenomena in a system with highly varied structural chemistry. Interesting electronic behaviors, such as superconductivity, charge density waves, and magnetism, in these materials arise from the strong hybridization of the 4d states of high-valent Mo with O p orbitals. We investigate a series of molybdenum bronze materials with Lanthanide-Mo16O44 composition that can be described as a three-dimensional array of metallic Mo8O32 nanostructures computationally predicted to contain a single charge with spin 1/2 separated by insulating MoO4 tetrahedra. This study reveals novel magnetic ordering in Lanthanide-Mo16O44 systems arising, not from the inclusion of magnetic elements, but rather from an exchange interaction between cubic Mo8O32 units. Here, we report the magnetometry and transport behaviors of a series of Lanthanide-Mo16O44 materials, emphasizing an observed low-temperature phase transition signifying the onset of antiferromagnetic ordering between the arrayed nanostructures, and relate these behaviors to their experimentally-characterized structures to reveal the intriguing physics of these correlated electronic systems.

  7. Corrosion in alkali metal/molybdenum heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Feber, R.C. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum/sodium (Mo/Na) and molybdenum/lithium (Mo/Li) heat pipes have been operated for long periods of time in a study of their resistance to failure by alkali metal corrosion. Some Mo/Na heat pipes have operated over 20,600 h at 1400 K without failure, while at least one similar heat pipe failed in less than 14 hours at 1435 K. Detailed post-mortem analyses which have been performed on three failed Mo/Na heat pipes all indicated impurity controlled corrosion of their evaporators. Impurities observed to be transported included carbon, oxygen, and silicon. A Mo/Li heat pipe that failed after 25,216 h of operation at 1700 K was also examined in detail. This failure was due to nickel impurities being transported to the evaporator resulting in perforation of the container tube by the formation of a low melting Mo-Ni alloy. Theoretical thermochemical calculations were conducted for these systems with the objective of corroborating the corrosion mechanisms in both types of heat pipes. The results of these calculations are in general agreement with the observed corrosion a phenomena.

  8. Pyranopterin conformation defines the function of molybdenum and tungsten enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rothery, Richard A; Stein, Benjamin; Solomonson, Matthew; Kirk, Martin L; Weiner, Joel H

    2012-09-11

    We have analyzed the conformations of 319 pyranopterins in 102 protein structures of mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten enzymes. These span a continuum between geometries anticipated for quinonoid dihydro, tetrahydro, and dihydro oxidation states. We demonstrate that pyranopterin conformation is correlated with the protein folds defining the three major mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten enzyme families, and that binding-site micro-tuning controls pyranopterin oxidation state. Enzymes belonging to the bacterial dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) family contain a metal-bis-pyranopterin cofactor, the two pyranopterins of which have distinct conformations, with one similar to the predicted tetrahydro form, and the other similar to the predicted dihydro form. Enzymes containing a single pyranopterin belong to either the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) or sulfite oxidase (SUOX) families, and these have pyranopterin conformations similar to those predicted for tetrahydro and dihydro forms, respectively. This work provides keen insight into the roles of pyranopterin conformation and oxidation state in catalysis, redox potential modulation of the metal site, and catalytic function.

  9. Selective Autooxidation of Ethanol over Titania-Supported Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts: Structure and Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Carlos; Thirunavukkarasu, K; Anilkumar, M; Shiju, N R; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2012-01-01

    We study the selective catalytic oxidation of ethanol with air as a sustainable alternative route to acetaldehyde. The reaction is catalysed by molybdenum oxide supported on titania, in a flow reactor under ambient pressure. High selectivity to acetaldehyde (70%–89%, depending on the Mo loading) is obtained at 150 °C. Subsequently, we investigate the structure/performance relationship for various molybdenum oxide species using a combination of techniques including diffuse reflectance UV-visible, infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed reduction. As their surface density increases, the monomeric molybdenum oxide species undergo two-dimensional and three-dimensional oligomerisation. This results in polymolybdates and molybdenum oxide crystallites. Importantly, the ethanol oxidation rate depends not only on the overall molybdenum loading and dispersion, but also on the type of molybdenum oxide species prevalent at each surface density and on the domain size. As the molybdenum oxide oligomerisation increases, electron delocalisation becomes easier. This lowers the absorption edge energy and increases the reaction rate. PMID:23396482

  10. Dependence of fracture toughness of molybdenum laser welds on processing parameters and in-situ oxygen gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, L.E.; Jellison, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture toughness properties have been determined for laser welds in different grades of molybdenum. The fracture toughness of welds in sintered molybdenum was consistently less than the fracture toughness of welds in vacuum arc remelted molybdenum. These differences cannot be attributed to oxygen content, since the oxygen level was nominally the same for all grades of molybdenum examined in this program. Alloy additions of titanium by means of physically deposited coatings significantly improved the fracture toughness of welds in sintered molybdenum, whereas titanium additions to welds in vacuum arc remelted molybdenum decreased the fracture toughness slightly. Pulsed laser welds exhibited fine columnar structures and, in the case of sintered molybdenum, superior fracture toughness when compared with continuous wave laser welds. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOEpatents

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  12. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOEpatents

    Hilsenbeck, Shane J.; McCarley, Robert E.; Schrader, Glenn L.; Xie, Xiaobing

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y ›MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

  13. Role of electron concentration in softening and hardening of ternary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of various combinations of hafnium, tantalum, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum in ternary molybdenum alloys on alloy softening and hardening were determined. Hardness tests were conducted at four test temperatures over the temperature range 77 to 411 K. Results showed that hardness data for ternary molybdenum alloys could be correlated with anticipated results from binary data based upon expressions involving the number of s and d electrons contributed by the solute elements. The correlation indicated that electron concentration plays a dominant role in controlling the hardness of ternary molybdenum alloys.

  14. Comparison of effects on crustaceans: carbon nanoparticles and molybdenum compounds nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumerte, A.; Sakale, G.; Zavickis, J.; Putna, I.; Balode, M.; Mrzel, A.; Knite, M.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNM) and molybdenum compound nanostructures are materials with various applications yet little is known regarding the toxicity of these nanoparticles in pristine form in aquatic environment. Daphnia magna standard acute toxicity test (EN ISO 6341:1996; freshwater) and Artemia salina standard acute toxicity test (ArtoxKit standard method; 15 ppt saltwater) were applied to assess the toxicity of non-modified CNM and molybdenum compound nanowires in water. It has been observed that CNM are more toxic in freshwater suspensions and somewhat more toxic than the tested molybdenum compound nanowires.

  15. Immobilisation of molybdenum from fuel reprocessing wastes into sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pet'kov, V. I.; Sukhanov, M. V.

    2003-01-01

    A new possibility for the incorporation of molybdenum in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) nuclear waste form was examined. The existence of molybdenum containing NZP-type structures was assessed on the basis of crystal chemical principles. New data were deduced for the system Na1-xZr2(PO4)3-x(MoO4)x (0≤x≤1). The stability region for this solid solution having a NZP structure was determined. It was found that molybdenum can be incorporation into NZP-type ceramics without significant changes of the three-dimensional framework structure.

  16. Evaluation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) molybdenum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A series of fourteen (14) novel high-strength molybdenum alloy compositions containing a dispersion of very fine (< 1 {mu}m diameter) oxide particles were consolidated using two proprietary powder metallurgy techniques. The developmental compositions were evaluated to determine the microstructural stability and mechanical properties from cryogenic (-148{degrees}F) to elevated temperatures (4000{degrees}F) for material in the as-swaged (>98% cold work) condition and for as-swaged material in the heat treated condition. Extremely fine oxide particle sizes (<1000 {Angstrom}) were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for a number of the experimental compositions in the as-swaged condition. A one hour recrystallization temperature as high as 3990{degrees}F was measured and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature as low as {approximately}58{degrees}F for material in the recrystallized condition was determined. The preliminary results support the alloy design concept feasibility.

  17. Selective and efficient electrochemical biosensing of ultrathin molybdenum disulfide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Vusa, Chiranjeevi S. R.; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2014-08-01

    Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) sheets were synthesized and isolated via solvent-assisted chemical exfoliation. The charge-dependent electrochemical activities of these MoS2 sheets were studied using positively charged hexamine ruthenium (III) chloride and negatively charged ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox probes. Ultrathin MoS2 sheet-based electrodes were employed for the electrochemical detection of an important neurotransmitter, namely dopamine (DA), in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). MoS2 electrodes were identified as being capable of distinguishing the coexistence of the DA and the AA with an excellent stability. Moreover, the enzymatic detection of the glucose was studied by immobilizing glucose oxidase on the MoS2. This study opens enzymatic and non-enzymatic electrochemical biosensing applications of atomic MoS2 sheets, which will supplement their established electronic applications.

  18. The oxidative dehydrogenation of propane on molybdenum based catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, F.C.; Yasmeen, A.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the past few years, there has been much interest in the selective oxidation of light hydrocarbons, either as an industrial or academic matter. One of these reactions, the propane dehydrogenation to propene, has been carried out the most successfully on vanadia supported on magnesia or niobia. As a high selectivity of niobia supported molybdena was also observed, molybdenum based catalysts have been studied, in an attempt to improve their activities. A number of possible supports were tested. Among these, titania and alumina gave the most selective catalysts at iso-conversion, providing there was a sufficient molybdena loading. In addition to propene and carbon oxides, several oxygenated compounds were observed. Additions of vanadium and niobium to the titania supported molybdena gave an improvement in the catalytic activity. The same conversion and selectivity were obtained at a temperature up to 100K lower.

  19. Soft Chemical Modification of Blue Potassium Molybdenum Bronze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinomura, Nobukazu; Mizumoto, Katsuya; Kumada, Nobuhiro

    1997-02-01

    Hydrogen insertion compounds of general formula HxK0.28MoO3·zH2O have been obtained from blue potassium molybdenum bronze (K0.28MoO3) by the spillover technique using hydrogen gas in the presence of a Pt catalyst. The hydrogen insertion compounds are formed topotactically and the original blue bronze is regenerated by standing in air for at least >2 weeks. Although the values ofxexceeding approximately 0.42 could not be determined by redox titration, the value ofxwas estimated to be 1.3 immediately after the hydrogen insertion for about 20 h. The hydrated hydrogen insertion compound undergoes intercalation reactions withn-alkylamines. The basal spacing of the intercalation compounds increases linearly with the number of carbon atoms. The electric resistivity of the hydrogen insertion compounds was increased by the order of 104as a result of amine intercalation.

  20. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, Richard Andrew; Kiggans Jr., James O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; Parten, Randy J.

    2015-12-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  1. Spreading of Viscous Liquids at High Temperature: Silicate Glasseson Molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Moya, Jose S.; Tomsia,Antoni P.

    2004-12-15

    The spreading of Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, spreading can take place under reactive or non-reactive conditions. As the nucleation of the reaction product under reactive conditions is slow in comparison to the spreading kinetics, in both cases the glass front moves on the metal surface with similar spreading velocities. Spreading can be described using a molecular dynamics model where the main contribution to the wetting activation energy comes from the viscous interactions in the liquid. Enhanced interfacial diffusions in low-oxygen activities (reactive cases) form triple-line ridges that can pin the wetting front and cause a stick-slip motion.

  2. Temperature effect on optical spectra of monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Soklaski, Ryan; Liang, Yufeng; Yang, Li

    2014-05-12

    Recently, measured optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra reveal substantial frequency shifts of both exciton and trion peaks as monolayer molybdenum disulfide, MoS{sub 2}, is cooled from 363 K to 4 K. First-principles simulations using the GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation approach satisfactorily reproduce these frequency shifts by incorporating the thermal expansion effect. Studying these temperature effects in monolayer MoS{sub 2} is crucial for rectifying the results of available experiments with the previous predictions of zero-temperature-limit simulations. Moreover, our estimated thermal expansion coefficient of monolayer MoS{sub 2} is less than that of bulk counterpart by tracking the frequency shifts of the exciton peaks in optical spectra. This may serve as a convenient way to estimate thermal expansion coefficients of general two-dimensional chalcogenides.

  3. Tuning thermal conductivity in molybdenum disulfide by electrochemical intercalation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaohua; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qiye; Zhang, Ruigang; Li, Dongyao; Banerjee, Debasish; Cahill, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) materials is of interest for energy storage, nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Here, we report that the thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide can be modified by electrochemical intercalation. We observe distinct behaviour for thin films with vertically aligned basal planes and natural bulk crystals with basal planes aligned parallel to the surface. The thermal conductivity is measured as a function of the degree of lithiation, using time-domain thermoreflectance. The change of thermal conductivity correlates with the lithiation-induced structural and compositional disorder. We further show that the ratio of the in-plane to through-plane thermal conductivity of bulk crystal is enhanced by the disorder. These results suggest that stacking disorder and mixture of phases is an effective mechanism to modify the anisotropic thermal conductivity of 2D materials. PMID:27767030

  4. Piezoelectric resonator assembly with thin molybdenum mounting clips

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R. Donald

    1981-01-01

    A resonator mounting assembly wherein the resonator blank is mounted agai an essentially planar surface presented by a plurality of peripherally disposed mounting clips and bonded to this surface to provide substantially all the mechanical support for the blank in a direction normal to the major faces of the resonator blank, while being flexible in the directions parallel to said major faces so as to minimize radial stresses on the resonator blank, particularly during thermal cycling of the resonator assembly. The clips are fabricated of a low thermal expansion material, such as molybdenum, which also has considerable yield strength after exposure to processing temperatures; the bonding of the clips to the edges of the resonator blank can be achieved by a polyimide containing electrically conductive particles.

  5. High Performance Molybdenum Disulfide Amorphous Silicon Heterojunction Photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili-Rad, Mohammad R.; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2013-01-01

    One important use of layered semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) could be in making novel heterojunction devices leading to functionalities unachievable using conventional semiconductors. Here we demonstrate a metal-semiconductor-metal heterojunction photodetector, made of MoS2 and amorphous silicon (a-Si), with rise and fall times of about 0.3 ms. The transient response does not show persistent (residual) photoconductivity, unlike conventional a-Si devices where it may last 3–5 ms, thus making this heterojunction roughly 10X faster. A photoresponsivity of 210 mA/W is measured at green light, the wavelength used in commercial imaging systems, which is 2−4X larger than that of a-Si and best reported MoS2 devices. The device could find applications in large area electronics, such as biomedical imaging, where a fast response is critical. PMID:23907598

  6. Wet chemical thinning of molybdenum disulfide down to its monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Amara, Kiran Kumar; Chu, Leiqiang; Kumar, Rajeev; Toh, Minglin; Eda, Goki

    2014-09-01

    We report on the preparation of mono- and bi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) from a bulk crystal by facile wet chemical etching. We show that concentrated nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) effectively etches thin MoS{sub 2} crystals from their edges via formation of MoO{sub 3}. Interestingly, etching of thin crystals on a substrate leaves behind unreacted mono- and bilayer sheets. The flakes obtained by chemical etching exhibit electronic quality comparable to that of mechanically exfoliated counterparts. Our findings indicate that the self-limiting chemical etching is a promising top-down route to preparing atomically thin crystals from bulk layer compounds.

  7. The history of development of molybdenum alloys for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Wittenauer, J.P.

    1993-02-01

    Molybdenum was first isolated as an element in 1893 and found initial commercial application as a filament support for incandescent lamps in 1910. The advent of arc melting practice in the 1940s led to an increase in availability of Mo sheet, bar, and plate products. Alloy development programs were heavily supported starting in the 1950s and several key alloys emerged over the next twenty years that remain in use to the present time such as Mo-TZM, unalloyed Mo, and Mo-Re. In recent years, improved understanding of the role of oxygen and carbide distributions at grain boundaries have led to increased reliability and use of Mo in aerospace products. Current developmental programs in areas of propulsion and energy conversion will ensure the prominent position of Mo as a high-temperature structural material. This paper highlights some of these key developments in the evolution of Mo alloys.

  8. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  9. Superconductivity in the alkali metal intercalates of molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.

    1972-01-01

    The complete series of alkali metals, lithium through cesium, have been intercalated into molybdenum disulphide, using both the liquid ammonia and vapor techniques. All the intercalates with the exception of lithium yielded full superconducting transitions with onset temperatures of 6 K for AxMoS2(Ax=K,Rb,Cs) and 4 K for BxMoS2(Bx=Li,Na). The superconducting transition for lithium was incomplete down to 1.5 K. Stoichiometries and unit cell parameters have been determined for the intercalation compounds. Both rhombohedral and hexagonal polymorphs of MoS2 have been intercalated and found to exhibit the same superconductivity behavior. The nature of the extraneous superconducting transition of some intercalated samples on exposure to air was elucidated.

  10. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  11. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    PubMed

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  12. Predicting the stability of surface phases of molybdenum selenides

    SciTech Connect

    Roma, Guido; Ghorbani, Elaheh; Mirhosseini, Hossein; Kühne, Thomas D.; Kiss, Janos; Felser, Claudia

    2014-02-10

    The selenization of molybdenum might become an important step in the production of nanostructures based on the layered compound MoSe{sub 2}. It is already technologically relevant for the production of thin film chalcopyrite solar cells. However, the control of the process is still very poor, due to the lack of basic knowledge of the surface thermodynamics of the system. Here, we present a theoretical study on the stability of surface adlayers of Se on the Mo(110) surface, predicting surface patterns and their stability range in terms of temperature and selenium partial pressure. Our results, based on density functional theory, show that the attainable Se coverages range from 1/4 to 3/4 of a monolayer for systems in equilibrium with a gas formed of Se molecules. We provide simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images to help the experimental characterization of adsorbed surface patterns.

  13. Soil organic matter regulates molybdenum storage and mobility in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marks, Jade A; Perakis, Steven; King, Elizabeth K; Pett-Ridge, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is essential to a suite of nitrogen (N) cycling processes in ecosystems, but there is limited information on its distribution within soils and relationship to plant and bedrock pools. We examined soil, bedrock, and plant Mo variation across 24 forests spanning wide soil pH gradients on both basaltic and sedimentary lithologies in the Oregon Coast Range. We found that the oxidizable organic fraction of surface mineral soil accounted for an average of 33 %of bulk soil Mo across all sites, followed by 1.4 % associated with reducible Fe, Al, and Mn-oxides, and 1.4 % in exchangeable ion form. Exchangeable Mo was greatest at low pH, and its positive correlation with soil carbon (C) suggests organic matter as the source of readily exchangeable Mo. Molybdenum accumulation integrated over soil profiles to 1 m depth (τMoNb) increased with soil C, indicating that soil organic matter regulates long-term Mo retention and loss from soil. Foliar Mo concentrations displayed no relationship with bulk soil Mo, and were not correlated with organic horizon Mo or soil extractable Mo, suggesting active plant regulation of Mo uptake and/or poor fidelity of extractable pools to bioavailability. We estimate from precipitation sampling that atmospheric deposition supplies, on average, over 10 times more Mo annually than does litterfall to soil. In contrast, bedrock lithology had negligible effects on foliar and soil Mo concentrations and on Mo distribution among soil fractions. We conclude that atmospheric inputs may be a significant source of Mo to forest ecosystems, and that strong Mo retention by soil organic matter limits ecosystem Mo loss via dissolution and leaching pathways.

  14. Use of ESCA valence bands to infer structural information about the molybdenum phase in supported molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedor, J.N.; Proctor, A.; Houalla, M.; Hercules, D.M. ); Sherwood, M.A. ); Mulcahy, F.M. )

    1992-12-24

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA) valence band spectra were used to infer information about the molybdenum phase in standard Mo compounds such as sodium molybdate and ammonium heptamolybdate and in Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts prepared by equilibrium adsorption and incipient wetness impregnation methods. ESCA valence band measurements can distinguish between tetrahedrally coordinated Mo (sodium molybdate) and octahedrally coordinated Mo (ammonium molybdate). Mo ESCA valence band results show that Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts prepared by equilibrium adsorption at pH 2.2 and Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation contain primarily octahedral Mo. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  15. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr. William R.; Geller, Clint B.

    1997-12-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume ({approximately}1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum.

  16. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr., R. William; Geller, Clint B.

    1999-01-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2-4% by volume (.about.1-4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T.sub.m of molybdenum.

  17. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Geller, C.B.

    1999-02-09

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume (ca. 1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum. 10 figs.

  18. Alkene to carbyne: tandem Lewis acid activation and dehydrogenation of a molybdenum ethylene complex.

    PubMed

    Stennett, Tom E; Haddow, Mairi F; Wass, Duncan F

    2013-10-18

    Carbyne formation: Treatment of a molybdenum ethylene complex with B(C6 F5 )3 induces ditopic activation of an ethylene ligand and acceptor-assisted ethane elimination to generate a novel type of zwitterionic carbyne complex. PMID:24038792

  19. Influence of organic amendments on the mobilization of molybdenum in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Calderone, S.J.; Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    Recent attention has been focused on toxic levels of selenium (Se), arsenic, chromium, mercury, boron and molybdenum (Mo) accumulating in saline agricultural evaporation pond waters. Although this is an effective disposal practice for agricultural drainage water, the ponds attract wildlife and waterfowl which may create adverse environmental risks. There is a major concern with the Mo content in these saline waters and its effect on the upper food chain. Molybdenum can be fixed in soil or liberated into soil solution and become available for biotic uptake. Molybdenum is a metallic element that can exist in different valences and oxidation states. Oxidation and alkaline conditions favor Mo mobility. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various organic materials on the solubilization and mobilization of molybdenum in soil.

  20. Reactions of a Dinitrogen Complex of Molybdenum: Formation of a Carbon-Nitrogen Bond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, David C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports a procedure for the formation of alkyldiazenido complexes of molybdenum in the absence of dioxygen, suitable for inclusion in an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. Includes background information and experimental procedures for two complexes. (SK)

  1. Molybdenum and tungsten nanostructures and methods for making and using same

    DOEpatents

    Kotaro, Sasaki; Chen, Wei-Fu; Muckerman, James T; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2015-01-06

    The present invention provides molybdenum and tungsten nanostructures, for example, nanosheets and nanoparticles, and methods of making and using same, including using such nanostructures as catlysts for hydrogen evolution reactions.

  2. Antioxidant combinations of molybdenum complexes and organic sulfur compounds for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, L.; King, J.M.

    1983-09-06

    An antioxidant additive combination for lubricating oils is prepared by combining (a) a sulfur containing molybdenum compound prepared by reacting an ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound, with (b) an organic sulfur compound.

  3. Mapping the formation areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul

    2012-05-18

    The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {MoV/VI154/176} archetypes, and a {MoV/VI368} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to mapping the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the formation of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {MoV/VI368} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates.

  4. Mapping the formation areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul

    2012-08-01

    The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {Mo(V/VI)(154/176)} archetypes, and a {Mo(V/VI)(368)} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to mapping the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {Mo(V/VI)(102)}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the formation of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {Mo(V/VI)(368)} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {Mo(V/VI)(102)}-type Keplerates. PMID:22717474

  5. Structural and morphological properties of mesoporous carbon coated molybdenum oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Saurabh; Kumar, C. Sasi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report the structural and morphological properties of mesoporous carbon coated molybdenum oxide films. The deposition of films was carried out in a two-step process, the first step involves deposition of molybdenum and carbon bilayer thin films using DC magnetron sputtering. In the second step the sample was ex-situ annealed in a muffle furnace at different temperatures (400°C to 600°C) and air cooled in the ambient atmosphere. The formation of the meso-porous carbon clusters on molybdenum oxide during the cooling step was investigated using FESEM and AFM techniques. The structural details were explored using XRD. The meso-porous carbon were found growing over molybdenum oxide layer as a result of segregation phenomena.

  6. The Application of Gravity and CSAMT Survey on Baishan Molybdenum Deposit, Hami, Xinjiang,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Lu, H.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Baishan molybdenum deposit is located in the eastern Tianshan Carboniferous rift at Hami, Xinjiang, China, where exposed upper Carboniferous Gandun formation. Molybdenum ore appeared at thermal contact metamorphism hornfelsed banded quartz stockwork in the concealed porphyritic granite top, Potassium and metal sulfide mineralization existed in the top of concealed rockbody.The Baishan molybdenum ore bodies were delineated 2700 meters long and 40 meters thickness, with molybdenum @ 0.59%. The main orebody shows in stratoid, small orebody appears in lenticular and vein.In order to predict potential resources, we proposes a combined method of CSAMT and GS technology,and has applied it to the survey of concealed molybdenum deposit in the Baishan.This combind method can explore to larger depths, discriminate anomalies well and has higher resolution to deep objects, thus it is an efficient tool for surveys.By drilling, we found there exsit a hidden granite body in 1400 meters deep of Hami Baishan molybdenum mine, it confirmed that Baishan molybdenum mine is a porphyry molybdenum ore. Cataclastic hornfelsed zone in the coping granite are the product of heat contact metamorphism, the ore materials are mainly derived from deep magma hydrothermal solution. The CSAMT and Gravity Survey were able to reflect the space and intrusive boundary in rough of buried granite body clearly, deep hidden granite showed high-resistivity and high-gravity anomaly and the low-resistivity anomaly distributied around them, drilling verified that 200-2500Ω low-resistivity anomaly range at top of high-resistivity corresponded to the molybdenum ore horizon. Line 15 of southern section shows two low resistance anomaly zone, and the surface of them is corresponding to the granite and intrusive contact parts,inferring it was caused by the fault structure.In granite gravity anomaly is obviously high and the width is about 560m,Δg residual value is 400 × 10-8m/s2. According to the control of

  7. Molybdenum atoms yield in pulse ultraviolet laser photolysis of Mo(CO)6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. V.; Gurentsov, E. V.; Musikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the yield of molybdenum atoms in the process of ultraviolet laser pulse photo-dissociation of Mo(CO)6 vapor. Molybdenum atoms in a ground state were formed by the quenching of the electronically excited Mo atoms generated during photolysis and were detected using the resonance absorption at a wavelength of 386.41 nm. The effective quenching rates were measured in the presence of various bath gases.

  8. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

  9. In depth study of molybdenum silicon compound formation at buried interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoethout, Erwin; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) has been employed to determine non-destructively the in-depth interface formation during thin film growth. Buried interfaces underneath the nanometer thick layers are probed by identifying the chemical shift of compound materials in photoelectron spectroscopy and using the angular response to quantify the compound amounts from the measured intensities. The thin interfaces in molybdenum-silicon multilayers grown at ambient temperature are investigated. This system is an example of an almost perfect 1D-system, where the interface region is only a small part of the individual layer thicknesses of 3 to 5 nm. Despite the low growth temperature, both the interfaces of this multilayer show layer thickness dependent interface formation. While the silicon-on-molybdenum interface shows a limited interface thickness of 0.4 nm of Mo5Si3, the molybdenum-on-silicon interface shows a more complex evolution. For this interface, the composition of the first 2.0 nm of deposited layer thickness is best described as a molybdenum-silicon compound layer with a molybdenum rich top and a MoSi2 bottom layer. After 2.5 nm of the deposited layer thickness, the molybdenum rich compound at the top has transformed into polycrystalline molybdenum on top of 1.8 nm MoSi2 at the interface. The formation of the 1.8 nm MoSi2 precedes the formation of polycrystalline molybdenum on top. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is shown to be a good tool to study the interface phenomena beneath the nanometer thick top layers. In the case of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors, this ARXPS study shows that the compound formation at the interface accounts for the majority of the extreme ultraviolet reflectance loss.

  10. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

  11. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Benavides, Pahola T.; Dai, Qiang; Sullivan, John L.; Kelly, Jarod C.; Dunn, Jennifer B.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  12. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  13. Electrochemical way of molybdenum extraction from the Bimetallic systems of Mo-W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudreeva, L. K.; Nauryzbaev, M. K.; Kurbatov, A. P.; Kamysbaev, D. H.; Adilbekova, A. O.; Mukataeva, Z. S.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical dissolution of molybdenum and tungsten was investigated in water- dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) media at different concentrations of lithium chloride and magnesium perchlorate. The terms of efficient extraction of molybdenum from bimetallic systems of Mo-W have been determined. The polarization curves of the electrooxidation of molybdenum in the solution of 0.25 M LiCl in the DMSO at the different rates of rotations and the scan rate equal to 50 mV/s were obtained. In the presence of the addition of water at the potential of 0.1-0.75 V the small area of polarizability occurs, then with increasing potentials above 1.5 V there is a sharp increase of the oxidation current. Comparison of the current values of anodic dissolution of molybdenum and tungsten showed that the rate of anodic dissolution of molybdenum significantly exceeds the rate of anodic dissolution of tungsten. In the case of molybdenum, the dissolution process is limited by diffusion, in the case of tungsten - by the passive film formation on the electrode surface.

  14. Tensile Properties of Molybdenum and Tungsten from 2500 to 3700 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert W.; Sikora, Paul F.

    1959-01-01

    Specimens of commercially pure sintered tungsten, arc-cast unalloyed molybdenum, and two arc-cast molybdenum-base alloys (one with 0.5 percent titanium, the other with 0.46 percent titanium and 0.07 percent zirconium) were fabricated from 1/2-inch-diameter rolled or swaged bars. All specimens were evaluated in short-time tensile tests in the as-received condition, and all except the molybdenum-titanium-zirconium alloy were tested after a 30-minute recrystallization anneal at 3800 F in a vacuum of approximately 0.1 micron. Results showed that the tungsten was considerably stronger than either the arc-cast unalloyed molybdenum or the molybdenum-base alloys over the 2500 to 3700 F temperature range. Recrystallization of swaged tungsten at 3800 F considerably reduced its tensile strength at 2500 F. However, above 3100 F, the as-swaged tungsten specimens recrystallized during testing, and had about the same strength as when recrystallized at 3800 F before evaluation. The ductility of molybdenum-base materials was very high at all test temperatures; the ductility of tungsten decreased sharply above about 3120 F.

  15. Mechanism of pyranopterin ring formation in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hover, Bradley M; Tonthat, Nam K; Schumacher, Maria A; Yokoyama, Kenichi

    2015-05-19

    The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is essential for all kingdoms of life, plays central roles in various biological processes, and must be biosynthesized de novo. During Moco biosynthesis, the characteristic pyranopterin ring is constructed by a complex rearrangement of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic pyranopterin (cPMP) through the action of two enzymes, MoaA and MoaC (molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein A and C, respectively). Conventionally, MoaA was considered to catalyze the majority of this transformation, with MoaC playing little or no role in the pyranopterin formation. Recently, this view was challenged by the isolation of 3',8-cyclo-7,8-dihydro-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (3',8-cH2GTP) as the product of in vitro MoaA reactions. To elucidate the mechanism of formation of Moco pyranopterin backbone, we performed biochemical characterization of 3',8-cH2GTP and functional and X-ray crystallographic characterizations of MoaC. These studies revealed that 3',8-cH2GTP is the only product of MoaA that can be converted to cPMP by MoaC. Our structural studies captured the specific binding of 3',8-cH2GTP in the active site of MoaC. These observations provided strong evidence that the physiological function of MoaA is the conversion of GTP to 3',8-cH2GTP (GTP 3',8-cyclase), and that of MoaC is to catalyze the rearrangement of 3',8-cH2GTP into cPMP (cPMP synthase). Furthermore, our structure-guided studies suggest that MoaC catalysis involves the dynamic motions of enzyme active-site loops as a way to control the timing of interaction between the reaction intermediates and catalytically essential amino acid residues. Thus, these results reveal the previously unidentified mechanism behind Moco biosynthesis and provide mechanistic and structural insights into how enzymes catalyze complex rearrangement reactions.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of sulfided hexanuclear molybdenum cluster compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Spink, D.

    1990-09-21

    Hexanuclear molybdenum clusters with mixed chloride and sulfide bridging ligands were prepared by reacting {alpha}-MoCl{sub 2} with sodium hydrosulfide in the presence of sodium butoxide. The resulting species, Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub (8-x)}S{sub x}{center dot}npy(x {congruent} 3.6, n {congruent} 4, py = pyridine), was pyrophoric and insoluble. The mixed sulfide chloride cluster species Mo{sub 6}S{sub 4}Cl{sub 4}{center dot}6OPEt{sub 3} and Mo{sub 6}S{sub {approximately}5}Cl{sub {approximately}3}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} and Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} were isolated and characterized. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV/visible spectra were obtained for each fraction. The completely sulfided cluster, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3}, was prepared similarly and used in various experiments as a possible precursor to Chevrel phase materials of the type Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}or M{sub n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}. With the goal of removing all of the triethylphosphine ligands, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} was reacted with the transition metal carbonyls molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dicobalt octacarbonyl. Reaction on the molecular sulfide cluster with copper(I) chloride in toluene gave a completely insoluble product. The reaction of Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} with propylene sulfide gave a product whose infrared spectra showed only very weak peaks associated with coordinated triethylphosphine. The elemental analysis of this product fit the formula Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}5SPEt{sub 3}. Reactivity of the outer ligands of the Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}npy and Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}(6{minus}x)PrNH{sub x} clusters were investigated. Crystalline Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6THT was recovered from the reaction of the n-propylamine derivative with THT. A crystal structure determination was done. 87 refs., 12 fig., 15 tabs.

  17. A Method for the Calculation of Lattice Energies of Complex Crystals with Application to the Oxides of Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaney, William S.

    1961-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of molybdenum dioxide and molybdenum trioxide in order to extend the knowledge of factors Involved in the oxidation of molybdenum. New methods were developed for calculating the lattice energies based on electrostatic valence theory, and the coulombic, polarization, Van der Waals, and repulsion energie's were calculated. The crystal structure was examined and structure details were correlated with lattice energy.

  18. Melting of aluminum, molybdenum, and the light actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marvin; Yang, Lin H.; Boehler, Reinhard

    2004-11-01

    A semiempirical model was developed in order to explain why the measured melting curves of molybdenum, and the other bcc transition metals, have an unusually low slope (dT/d Ptilde 0) . The total binding energy of Mo is written as the sum of the repulsive energy of the ions and sp electrons (modeled by an inverse sixth power potential) and the d -band cohesive energy is described by the well known Friedel equation. Using literature values for the Mo band width energy, the number of d electrons and their volume dependence, we find that a small broadening of the liquid d -band width (˜1%) leads to an increase in the stability of the liquid relative to the solid. This is sufficient to depress the melting temperature and lower the melting slope to a value in agreement with the recent diamond-anvil cell measurements. Omission of the d -band physics results in an Al-like melting curve with a much steeper melt slope. The model, when applied to the f electrons of the light actinides (Th-Am), gives agreement with the observed fall and rise in the melting temperature with increasing atomic number.

  19. Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins?

    PubMed

    Hale, K L; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E; Stack, S M; Terry, N; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Pilon-Smits, E A

    2001-08-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa ("fast plants") was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex.

  20. "Non-hydrolytic" sol-gel synthesis of molybdenum sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidich, Saskia; Buechele, Dominique; Lauenstein, Raphael; Kluenker, Martin; Lind, Cora

    2016-10-01

    Non-hydrolytic sol-gel reactions provide a low temperature solution based synthetic approach to solid-state materials. In this paper, reactions between molybdenum chloride and hexamethyldisilthiane in chloroform were explored, which gave access to both MoS2 and Mo2S3 after heat treatment of as-recovered amorphous samples to 600-1000 °C. Interesting morphologies were obtained for MoS2, ranging from fused spherical particles to well-defined nanoplatelets and nanoflakes. Both 2H- and 3R-MoS2 were observed, which formed thin hexagonal and triangular platelets, respectively. The platelets exhibited thicknesses of 10-30 nm, which corresponds to 15-50 MoS2 layers. No attempts to prevent agglomeration were made, however, well separated platelets were observed for many samples. Heating at 1000 °C led to formation of Mo2S3 for samples that showed well-defined MoS2 at lower temperatures, while less crystalline samples had a tendency to retain the MoS2 structure.

  1. Processing and properties of molybdenum silicide intermetallics containing boron

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    Molybdenum-silicon-boron intermetallics with the composition Mo-10.5 Si-1.1 B, wt% (Mo-26.7 Si-7.3 B, at. %) were fabricated by several processing techniques. Powder processing (PM) resulted in macrocrack-free material containing no or only few microcracks. The PM materials contained quasi-equilibrium pores and large concentrations of oxygen. Average room temperature flexure strengths of 270 MPa were obtained. At 1,200 C in air, flexure strengths as high as 600 MPa were observed. These high values are attributed to crack healing and incipient plasticity. Ingot metallurgy (IM) materials contained much less oxygen than their PM counterparts. Depending on the cooling rate during solidification, they developed either mostly macrocracks or mostly microcracks. Due to the high flaw densities, the room temperature flexure strengths were only of the order of 100 MPa. However, the flexure strengths at 1,200 C were up to 3 times higher than those at room temperature. Again, this is attributed to crack healing and incipient plasticity. The IM materials will require secondary processing to develop their full potential. A preliminary examination of secondary processing routes included isothermal forging and hot extrusion.

  2. Assessing the standard Molybdenum projector augmented wave VASP potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Ann E.

    2014-07-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Equation of State (EOS) construction is a prominent part of Sandia’s capabilities to support engineering sciences. This capability is based on augmenting experimental data with information gained from computational investigations, especially in those parts of the phase space where experimental data is hard, dangerous, or expensive to obtain. A key part of the success of the Sandia approach is the fundamental science work supporting the computational capability. Not only does this work enhance the capability to perform highly accurate calculations but it also provides crucial insight into the limitations of the computational tools, providing high confidence in the results even where results cannot be, or have not yet been, validated by experimental data. This report concerns the key ingredient of projector augmented-wave (PAW) potentials for use in pseudo-potential computational codes. Using the tools discussed in SAND2012-7389 we assess the standard Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) PAWs for Molybdenum.

  3. EUV nanosecond laser ablation of silicon carbide, tungsten and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav; Choukourov, Andrei; Kasuya, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present results of study interaction of nanosecond EUV laser pulses at wavelength of 46.9 nm with silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo). As a source of laser radiation was used discharge-plasma driver CAPEX (CAPillary EXperiment) based on high current capillary discharge in argon. The laser beam is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer-coated mirror on samples. Experimental study has been performed with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 laser pulses ablation of SiC, W and Mo at various fluence values. Firstly, sample surface modification in the nanosecond time scale have been registered by optical microscope. And the secondly, laser beam footprints on the samples have been analyzed by atomic-force microscope (AFM). This work supported by the Czech Science Foundation under Contract GA14-29772S and by the Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Contract LG13029.

  4. Estimating natural background groundwater chemistry, Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Phillip L.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Walker, Bruce M.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Quane, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    This 2 1/2 day field trip will present an overview of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project whose objective was to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry at the Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico. Because of intense debate among stakeholders regarding pre-mining groundwater chemistry standards, the New Mexico Environment Department and Chevron Mining Inc. (formerly Molycorp) agreed that the USGS should determine pre-mining groundwater quality at the site. In 2001, the USGS began a 5-year, multidisciplinary investigation to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry utilizing a detailed assessment of a proximal natural analog site and applied an interdisciplinary approach to infer pre-mining conditions. The trip will include a surface tour of the Questa mine and key locations in the erosion scar areas and along the Red River. The trip will provide participants with a detailed understanding of geochemical processes that influence pre-mining environmental baselines in mineralized areas and estimation techniques for determining pre-mining baseline conditions.

  5. Solvent-Dependent Pyranopterin Cyclization in Molybdenum Cofactor Model Complexes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin R; Gisewhite, Douglas; Kalinsky, Anna; Esmail, Alisha; Burgmayer, Sharon J Nieter

    2015-09-01

    The conserved pterin dithiolene ligand that coordinates molybdenum (Mo) in the cofactor (Moco) of mononuclear Mo enzymes can exist in both a tricyclic pyranopterin dithiolene form and as a bicyclic pterin-dithiolene form as observed in protein crystal structures of several bacterial molybdoenzymes. Interconversion between the tricyclic and bicyclic forms via pyran scission and cyclization has been hypothesized to play a role in the catalytic mechanism of Moco. Therefore, understanding the interconversion between the tricyclic and bicyclic forms, a type of ring-chain tautomerism, is an important aspect of study to understand its role in catalysis. In this study, equilibrium constants (K(eq)) as well as enthalpy, entropy, and free energy values are obtained for pyran ring tautomerism exhibited by two Moco model complexes, namely, (Et4N)[Tp*Mo(O)(S2BMOPP)] (1) and (Et4N)[Tp*Mo(O)(S2PEOPP)] (2), as a solvent-dependent equilibrium process. Keq values obtained from (1)H NMR data in seven deuterated solvents show a correlation between solvent polarity and tautomer form, where solvents with higher polarity parameters favor the pyran form.

  6. Toward barrier free contact to molybdenum disulfide using graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Yang, Sen; Zhu, Enbo; He, Qiyuan; Ding, Mengning; Li, Dehui; Guo, Jian; Weiss, Nathan O; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-05-13

    Two-dimensional layered semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have attracted tremendous interest as a new class of electronic materials. However, there are considerable challenges in making reliable contacts to these atomically thin materials. Here we present a new strategy by using graphene as the back electrodes to achieve ohmic contact to MoS2. With a finite density of states, the Fermi level of graphene can be readily tuned by a gate potential to enable a nearly perfect band alignment with MoS2. We demonstrate for the first time a transparent contact to MoS2 with zero contact barrier and linear output behavior at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.9 K) for both monolayer and multilayer MoS2. Benefiting from the barrier-free transparent contacts, we show that a metal-insulator transition can be observed in a two-terminal MoS2 device, a phenomenon that could be easily masked by Schottky barriers found in conventional metal-contacted MoS2 devices. With further passivation by boron nitride (BN) encapsulation, we demonstrate a record-high extrinsic (two-terminal) field effect mobility up to 1300 cm(2)/(V s) in MoS2 at low temperature.

  7. [Absorption characteristics of molybdenum by reed and cattail].

    PubMed

    Lian, Jian-Jun; Xu, Shi-Guo; Han, Cheng-Wei

    2011-11-01

    The adsorption characteristics of reed and cattail to molybdenum were studied. The toxicity, removal rate, adsorption process and accumulation of Mo were investigated in the short-term indoor-culture experiment. The effects of Mo adsorbed by two plants in nutrition solution with different concentrations were also studied. Due to the Mo toxicity, the color of stems and leaves of two plants had become scorch and the transpiration was declined. The cattail illustrated higher tolerance to Mo than reed when Mo concentration was in the range of 2-20 mg x L(-1). The removal rate of Mo by cattail was 87%, which was higher than reed (62%) with Mo concentration of 2 mg x L(-1). The absorption process of Mo by two plants was homeostasis, and the passivity absorption was the main absorption mechanism. Mo enrichment amount in cattail was higher than that in reed, and Mo concentration in shoot were higher than that in roots. The results displayed that cattail was Mo hyper accumulator. The absorption of Mo was not enhanced with the increase of nutrition solution concentration, due to the competition of other ions. The study suggested that the absorption capacity of Mo was significant by the two plants, and cattail was better for Mo removal than reed.

  8. Highly efficient molybdenum-based catalysts for enantioselective alkene metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Malcolmson, Steven J.; Meek, Simon J.; Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    Discovery of efficient catalysts is one of the most compelling objectives of modern chemistry. Chiral catalysts are in particularly high demand, as they facilitate synthesis of enantiomerically enriched small molecules that are critical to developments in medicine, biology and materials science1. Especially noteworthy are catalysts that promote—with otherwise inaccessible efficiency and selectivity levels—reactions demonstrated to be of great utility in chemical synthesis. Here we report a class of chiral catalysts that initiate alkene metathesis1 with very high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Such attributes arise from structural fluxionality of the chiral catalysts and the central role that enhanced electronic factors have in the catalytic cycle. The new catalysts have a stereogenic metal centre and carry only monodentate ligands; the molybdenum-based complexes are prepared stereoselectively by a ligand exchange process involving an enantiomerically pure aryloxide, a class of ligands scarcely used in enantioselective catalysis2,3. We demonstrate the application of the new catalysts in an enantioselective synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid, quebrachamine, through an alkene metathesis reaction that cannot be promoted by any of the previously reported chiral catalysts. PMID:19011612

  9. Structure and chemical properties of molybdenum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, C. V.; Atuchin, V. V.; Pokrovsky, L. D.; Becker, U.; Julien, C. M.

    2007-07-15

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) exhibits interesting structural, chemical, electrical, and optical properties, which are dependent on the growth conditions and the fabrication technique. In the present work, MoO{sub 3} films were produced by pulsed-laser deposition and dc magnetron sputtering under varying conditions of growth temperature (T{sub s}) and oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). The effect of growth conditions on the structure and chemical properties of MoO{sub 3} films was examined using x-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The analyses indicate that the microstructure of Mo oxide films is sensitive to T{sub s} and pO{sub 2}. The growth conditions were optimized to produce stoichiometric and highly textured polycrystalline MoO{sub 3} films. A comparison of the microstructure of MoO{sub 3} films grown using pulsed-laser deposition and sputtering methods is also presented.

  10. One-Dimensional Electrical Contact to Molybdenum Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ra, Changho; Ahmed, Faisal; Lee, Daeyeong; Choi, Minsup; Liu, Xiaochi; Qu, Deshun; Yoo, Won Jong; Nano Device Processing Lab Team

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the promising two-dimensional materials for future application in nano electronics, which has high carrier mobility, very good stability under atmosphere, proper band gap, etc. However, its application to electronic switching devices is hindered by Fermi level pinning at metal-MoS2 interfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate one-dimensional electrical contact to MoS2 formed via controllable plasma etching. We fabricated Al/MoS2 FET (n-type), Mo/MoS2 FET (n-type), and Pd/MoS2 FET (ambipolar). For Mo/MoS2 FET (n-type), on/off current ratio is around 108 and mobility is around 104 cm2/(Vs). By contrast, for Pd/MoS2 FET (ambipolar), on/off current ratio is around 108, hole mobility is ranged from 350 to 650 cm2/(Vs), and the mean free path of holes at 9K is around 23 nm. All the measured mobilities are evaluated by using two-terminal field-effect configuration. We can also achieve complementary logic gates with intrinsic MoS2/metal one-dimensional electrical contact.

  11. Molybdenum-induced changes in the epiphyseal growth plate.

    PubMed

    Parry, N M; Phillippo, M; Reid, M D; McGaw, B A; Flint, D J; Loveridge, N

    1993-09-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), at high concentrations, induces changes in the epiphyseal growth plate through its effects on copper (Cu) metabolism but it is unclear whether or not Mo can induce changes independent of its effects on copper status. To this end, the effect of Mo on longitudinal bone growth was examined in rats. Dietary Mo was given either as ammonium heptamolybdate or as ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, the latter producing a marked Cu deficiency. There was a significant reduction in longitudinal bone growth in both groups; however, growth plate width was increased only in the Cu-deficient animals due to an increase in the width of the zone of transitional/hypertrophic chondrocytes. Both glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and cell proliferation (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) were markedly decreased in the proliferating zone of the growth plate in both Mo-treated groups. These changes were not apparently related to changes in circulating vitamin D metabolites or insulin-like growth factor-1. The results indicate that excess Mo impairs cell proliferation within the growth plate, whereas the effects of copper deficiency are more related to chondrocyte differentiation. Thus, Mo can induce changes in longitudinal bone growth which are distinct from those resulting from Cu deficiency.

  12. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit. PMID:27351900

  13. Liquid phase deposition synthesis of hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deki, Shigehito; Beleke, Alexis Bienvenu; Kotani, Yuki; Mizuhata, Minoru

    2009-09-15

    Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films with good crystallinity and high purity have been fabricated by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique using molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) dissolved in 2.82% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as precursors. The crystal was found to belong to a hexagonal hydrate system MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (napprox0.56). The unit cell lattice parameters are a=10.651 A, c=3.725 A and V=365.997 A{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the as-deposited samples showed well-shaped hexagonal rods nuclei that grew and where the amount increased with increase in reaction time. X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed a Gaussian shape of the doublet of Mo 3d core level, indicating the presence of Mo{sup 6+} oxidation state in the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited an electrochromic behavior by lithium intercalation and deintercalation, which resulted in coloration and bleaching of the film. Upon dehydration at about 450 deg. C, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O was transformed into the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic phase. - Abstract: SEM photograph of typical h-MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O thin film nuclei obtained after 36 h at 40 deg. C by the LPD method. Display Omitted

  14. Template synthesis and characterization of molybdenum disulfide nanotubules

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dongbo; Feng, Yi; Zhu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xuebin; Li, Bin; Liu, Huiqiang

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The image is a SEM image of branched MoS{sub 2} nanotubes, which are prepared in AAO templates. It is obvious to observe the branch of MoS{sub 2} nanotubes (labeled by arrows), and it reflects the microcosmic morphologies of pores in templates. Highlights: {yields} Large quantities of hollow MoS2 tubules. {yields} Explanation for the formation of branched shape. {yields} Explanation for the morphology of bamboo-like structure. -- Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide nanotubules were prepared by thermal decomposition of ammonium thiomolybdate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4}) precursors on anodized aluminum oxide template. Large quantities of hollow MoS{sub 2} nanotubules with the bamboo-like structure were obtained. The morphology and structures of MoS{sub 2} tubules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron diffraction and optical absorption spectroscopy. MoS{sub 2} nanotubules completely reflected the three-dimensional structure of nanopores in template. The properties of Mo-S chemical bonds in lattice structure and the wetting state between porous surface and precursor have a great effect on the formation of sections in nanotubules, the ridges in the nanopores also play a very special role of this formation.

  15. Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins?

    PubMed

    Hale, K L; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E; Stack, S M; Terry, N; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Pilon-Smits, E A

    2001-08-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa ("fast plants") was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex. PMID:11500539

  16. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  17. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit.

  18. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to Mo-blue by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Rahman, M F; Suhaili, Z; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2010-03-01

    A local molybdenum-reducing bacterium was isolated and tentatively identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain Dr.Y12 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and 16S rDNA comparative analysis. Molybdate reduction was optimized under conditions of low dissolved oxygen (37 degrees C and pH 6.5). Of the electron donors tested, glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose supported molybdate reduction after 1 d of incubation, glucose and fructose supporting the highest Mo-blue production. Optimum Mo-blue production was reached at 20 mmol/L molybdate and 5 mmol/L phosphate; increasing the phosphate concentrations inhibited the production. An increase in an overall absorption profiles, especially at peak maximum at 865 nm and the shoulder at 700 nm, was observed in direct correlation with the increased in Mo-blue amounts. Metal ions, such as chromium, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead (2 mmol/L final concentration) caused approximately 88, 53, 80, 100, and 20 % inhibition, respectively. Respiratory inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide and cyanide showed in this bacterium no inhibition of the Mo-blue production, suggesting that the electron transport system is not a site of molybdate reduction.

  19. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    PubMed

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys.

  20. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    PubMed

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys. PMID:26032492

  1. A molybdenum and a tungsten isoenzyme of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase in the thermophilic archaeon Methanobacterium wolfei.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, R A; Albracht, S P; Thauer, R K

    1992-11-01

    We have recently reported that the thermophilic archaeon Methanobacterium wolfei contains two formylmethanofuran dehydrogenases, I and II. Formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase II, which is preferentially expressed in tungsten-grown cells, has been purified and shown to be a tungsten-iron-sulfur protein. We have now purified and characterized formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase I from molybdenum-grown cells and shown that it is a molybdenum-iron-sulfur protein. The purified enzyme, with a specific activity of 27 U/mg protein, was found to be composed of three subunits of apparent molecular mass 64 kDa, 51 kDa, and 31 kDa and to contain per mol 146-kDa molecule approximately 0.23 mol molybdenum, 0.46 mol molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide, and 6.6 mol non-heme iron but no tungsten (< 0.01 mol). The molybdenum enzyme differed from the tungsten enzyme (8 U/mg) in that it catalyzed the oxidation of N-furfurylformamide and formate and was inactivated by cyanide. The two enzymes also differed significantly in the pH optimum, in the apparent Km for the electron acceptor, and in the chromatographic behaviour. The molybdenum enzyme and the tungsten enzyme were similar, however, in that the N-terminal amino acid sequences determined for the alpha and beta subunits were identical up to residue 23, indicating that the two proteins are isoenzymes. The molybdenum enzyme, as isolated, was found to display an EPR signal derived from molybdenum as evidenced by isotope substitution.

  2. The molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis complex interacts with actin filaments via molybdenum insertase Cnx1 as anchor protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kaufholdt, David; Baillie, Christin-Kirsty; Bikker, Rolf; Burkart, Valentin; Dudek, Christian-Alexander; von Pein, Linn; Rothkegel, Martin; Mendel, Ralf R; Hänsch, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The pterin based molybdenum cofactor (Moco) plays an essential role in almost all organisms. Its biosynthesis is catalysed by six enzymes in a conserved four step reaction pathway. The last three steps are located in the cytoplasm, where a multimeric protein complex is formed to protect the intermediates from degradation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation was used to test for cytoskeleton association of the Moco biosynthesis enzymes with actin filaments and microtubules using known cytoskeleton associated proteins, thus permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. Coding sequences of binding proteins were cloned via the GATEWAY system. No Moco biosynthesis enzyme showed any interaction with microtubules. However, alone the two domain protein Cnx1 exhibited interaction with actin filaments mediated by both domains with the Cnx1G domain displaying a stronger interaction. Cnx6 showed actin association only if unlabelled Cnx1 was co-expressed in comparable amounts. So Cnx1 is likely to be the anchor protein for the whole biosynthesis complex on actin filaments. A stabilization of the whole Moco biosynthesis complex on the cytoskeleton might be crucial. In addition a micro-compartmentation might either allow a localisation near the mitochondrial ATM3 exporter providing the first Moco intermediate or near one of the three molybdate transporters enabling efficient molybdate incorporation.

  3. Secondary copper deficiency in cattle caused by molybdenum contamination of fodder: a case history.

    PubMed

    Sas, B

    1989-02-01

    In a herd of cattle located in central Hungary, illness and subsequent death of cows was observed. The cause of these losses was molybdenum-induced secondary copper deficiency. The origin of the environmental molybdenum was used motor oil containing molybdenum bisulfide as an additive. This split motor oil polluted the cow's pasture located on the side of a railway bed near the farm. Before the illnesses and deaths, the animals were grazing for at least 2 weeks in the contaminated area. The ill animals were recumbent and unable to rise. There was no response to treatment with 10 g calcium gluconate iv. Cows which died showed no specific lesions on necropsy. The clinical chemistry investigations showed anemia, minimal caeruloplasmin activity in the blood, and high molybdenum concentrations in the rumen contents, liver and kidney. Copper concentrations were low in liver, kidney and blood serum. The seriously ill cows died in spite of 100 mg copper glycinate injections, but the asymptomatic animals remained alive. Molybdenum pollution can cause acute clinical disease and subsequent death by interfering with copper metabolism.

  4. Microstructures and Hardness/Wear Performance of High-Carbon Stellite Alloys Containing Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Q. L.; Yao, M. X.; Collier, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Conventional high-carbon Stellite alloys contain a certain amount of tungsten which mainly serves to provide strengthening to the solid solution matrix. These alloys are designed for combating severe wear. High-carbon molybdenum-containing Stellite alloys are newly developed 700 series of Stellite family, with molybdenum replacing tungsten, which are particularly employed in severe wear condition with corrosion also involved. Three high-carbon Stellite alloys, designated as Stellite 706, Stellite 712, and Stellite 720, with different carbon and molybdenum contents, are studied experimentally in this research, focusing on microstructure and phases, hardness, and wear resistance, using SEM/EDX/XRD techniques, a Rockwell hardness tester, and a pin-on-disk tribometer. It is found that both carbon and molybdenum contents influence the microstructures of these alloys significantly. The former determines the volume fraction of carbides in the alloys, and the latter governs the amount of molybdenum-rich carbides precipitated in the alloys. The hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are increased with the carbide volume fraction. However, with the same or similar carbon content, high-carbon CoCrMo Stellite alloys exhibit worse wear resistance than high-carbon CoCrW Stellite alloys.

  5. The role of oxygen in porous molybdenum electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Khanna, S. K.; Bankston, C. P.; Thakoor, A. P.; Cole, T.

    1986-01-01

    A model for chemical reactions in porous molybdenum electrodes is presented which is based on thermochemical and kinetic data, known sodium-molybdenum-oxygen chemistry, X-ray diffraction analysis of molybdenum and molybdenum oxide electrodes, and the electrochemical behavior of the cell. Enhanced sodium transport through the electrode in its optimum performance state is found to be due to the high sodium ion conductivity of molten Na2MoO4 in the pores, and the electrical conduction to the molybdenum matrix by Na2Mo3O6. The decline of electrode performance is shown to be due to a combination of loss mechanisms for the Na-Mo-O compounds including reduction at short circuit, disproportionation of Na2Mo3O6 at open circuit, and the evaporation of Na2MoO4 at elevated temperature. It is suggested that operation of the cell at moderate voltage of about 0.5 V corresponding to maximum power may be a more stable condition for the porous electrode than open-circuit stand or short-circuit, where degradation reactions are heightened.

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of thiosemicarbazonato molybdenum(VI) complexes and their in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Visnja; Dilović, Ivica; Rubcić, Mirta; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Kralj, Marijeta; Matković-Calogović, Dubravka; Piantanida, Ivo; Novak, Predrag; Rozman, Andrea; Cindrić, Marina

    2010-01-01

    New dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were obtained by the reaction of [MoO2(acac)2] with thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from 3-thiosemicarbazide and 4-(diethylamino)salicylaldehyde (H2L1), 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (H2L2) or 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (H2L3). In all complexes thiosemicarbazonato ligands are coordinated to molybdenum as tridentate ONS-donors. Octahedral coordination of each molybdenum atom is completed by methanol molecule (in 1a-3a) or by oxygen atom of Mo=O unit from the neighbouring molecule (in 1-3). All complexes were characterized by means of chemical analyses, IR spectroscopy, TG and NMR measurements. The molecular structures of the ligand H2L2 and complex [MoO2L2(CH3OH)].CH3OH (2a) have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The characterisation of thiosemicarbazonato molybdenum(VI) complexes (1-4) as well as of the 4-phenylthisemicarbazonato molybdenum(VI) complexes (5-8) in aqueous medium revealed that upon dissolving complexes in water, most likely to some extent dissociation took place, although experimental data didn't allow exact quantification of dissociation. The antiproliferative effects of studied molybdenum(VI) complexes (1-8) on the human cell lines were identical to the activity of their corresponding ligands.

  7. Secondary copper deficiency in cattle caused by molybdenum contamination of fodder: a case history.

    PubMed

    Sas, B

    1989-02-01

    In a herd of cattle located in central Hungary, illness and subsequent death of cows was observed. The cause of these losses was molybdenum-induced secondary copper deficiency. The origin of the environmental molybdenum was used motor oil containing molybdenum bisulfide as an additive. This split motor oil polluted the cow's pasture located on the side of a railway bed near the farm. Before the illnesses and deaths, the animals were grazing for at least 2 weeks in the contaminated area. The ill animals were recumbent and unable to rise. There was no response to treatment with 10 g calcium gluconate iv. Cows which died showed no specific lesions on necropsy. The clinical chemistry investigations showed anemia, minimal caeruloplasmin activity in the blood, and high molybdenum concentrations in the rumen contents, liver and kidney. Copper concentrations were low in liver, kidney and blood serum. The seriously ill cows died in spite of 100 mg copper glycinate injections, but the asymptomatic animals remained alive. Molybdenum pollution can cause acute clinical disease and subsequent death by interfering with copper metabolism. PMID:2711604

  8. Low-temperature irradiation behavior of uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Hayes, S. L.; Clark, C. R.; Wiencek, T. C.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Strain, R. V.; Kim, K.-H.

    2002-08-01

    Irradiation tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a series of high-density uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy, aluminum matrix dispersion fuels. Fuel plates incorporating alloys with molybdenum content in the range of 4-10 wt% were tested. Two irradiation test vehicles were used to irradiate low-enrichment fuels to approximately 40 and 70 at.% 235U burnup in the advanced test reactor at fuel temperatures of approximately 65 °C. The fuel particles used to fabricate dispersion specimens for most of the test were produced by generating filings from a cast rod. In general, fuels with molybdenum contents of 6 wt% or more showed stable in-reactor fission gas behavior, exhibiting a distribution of small, stable gas bubbles. Fuel particle swelling was moderate and decreased with increasing alloy content. Fuel particles with a molybdenum content of 4 wt% performed poorly, exhibiting extensive fuel-matrix interaction and the growth of relatively large fission gas bubbles. Fuel particles with 4 or 6 wt% molybdenum reacted more rapidly with the aluminum matrix than those with higher-alloy content. Fuel particles produced by an atomization process were also included in the test to determine the effect of fuel particle morphology and microstructure on fuel performance for the U-10Mo composition. Both of the U-10Mo fuel particle types exhibited good irradiation performance, but showed visible differences in fission gas bubble nucleation and growth behavior.

  9. X-ray Diffraction Study of Molybdenum to 900 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Coppari, F.; Smith, R.; Eggert, J.; Boehly, T.; Collins, G. W.; Duffy, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a transition metal that is important as a high-pressure standard. Its equation of state, structure, and melting behavior have been explored extensively in both experimental and theoretical studies. Melting data up to the Mbar pressure region from static compression experiments in the diamond anvil cell [Errandonea et al. 2004] are inconsistent with shock wave sound velocity measurements [Hixson et al., 1989]. There are also conflicting reports as to whether body-centered cubic (BCC) Mo transforms to a face-centered cubic (FCC), hexagonal close packed (HCP) or double hexagonal close packed (DHCP) structure at either high pressure or high pressure and temperature conditions [Belonoshko et al. 2008, Mikhaylushkin et al., 2008 and Cazorla et al., 2008]. Recently, a phase transition from BCC to the DHCP phase at 660 GPa and 0 K was predicted using the particle swam optimization (PSO) method (Wang et al, 2013). Here we report an x-ray diffraction study of dynamically compressed molybdenum. Experiments were conducted using the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Mo targets were either ramp or shock compressed using a laser drive. In ramp loading, the sample is compressed sufficiently slowly that a shock wave does not form. This results in lower temperatures, keeping the sample in the solid state to higher pressures. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed using quasi-monochromatic x-rays from a highly ionized He-α Cu source and image plate detectors. Upon ramp compression, we found no evidence of phase transition in solid Mo up to 900 GPa. The observed peaks can be assigned to the (110) and (200) or (220) reflections of BCC Mo up to the highest pressure, indicating that Mo does not melt under ramp loading to maximum pressure reached. Under shock loading, we did not observe any evidence for the solid-solid phase transformation around 210 GPa as reported in previous work (Hixson et al, 1989). The BCC

  10. (Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)molybdenum(IV) chloride. Synthesis, structure, and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Abugideiri, F.; Desai, J.U.; Gordon, J.C.

    1994-08-17

    Three different syntheses of trichloro(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)molybdenum(IV) are described, I.E. (1) thermal decarbonylation of Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 3}(CO){sub 2}, (2) reduction of Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 4}, and (3) chlorination of [Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 2}]{sub 2}. A fourth route (conproportionation of [Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 2}]{sub 2} and Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 4}) has been investigated by {sup 1}H-NMR. The product has a dinuclear, dichloro-bridged structure with a four-legged piano stool geometry around each metal atom; the two piano stools have a mutual anti arrangement and the two metals are 3.888(1) {Angstrom} from each other, indicating the absence of a direct metal-metal bonding interaction. Crystal data: monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n, a = 8.424(1) {Angstrom}, b = 13.323(4) {Angstrom}, c = 11.266(2) {Angstrom}, {beta} = 93.87(1){degrees}, V = 1261.6(8) {Angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2, R = 0.038, R{sub w} = 0.057 for 127 parameters and 1350 observed reflections with F{sub o}{sup 2} > 3{sigma}(F{sub o}{sup 2}). The temperature dependent magnetic moment of the material could be fit to the sum of two Bleany-Bowers equations. [Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 3}]{sub 2} reacts readily with CO, Cl{sup {minus}}, and PMe{sub 3} to afford Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 3}(CO){sub 2}, [Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 4}]{sup {minus}}, and Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 3}(PMe{sub 3}), respectively, while the reaction with 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) affords the reduction product Cp{sup *}MoCl{sub 2}(dppe).

  11. Phase identification in reactive sintering of molybdenum disilicide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, J. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Molybdenum disilicide has been predominantly used for furnace heating elements, but recently there has been interest in its use for high temperature structural applications. The reason for this increased interest stems from its desirable characteristics which are a high melting point, relatively low density, good oxidation resistance, relatively good thermal conductivity and electronically conductive. The melting point of MoSi{sub 2} is approximately 2030{degrees}C as compared to a melting point of 1340{degrees}C for the Ni-based superalloys. This could potentially give MoSi{sub 2} a big advantage over the Ni-based superalloys in turbine applications because the operating temperature can be increased resulting in an increase in turbine efficiency and reduced emissions. The relatively low density (6.25g/cm{sup 3}) compared to the Ni-based superalloys (8.9 g/cm{sup 3}) is an important advantage in turbine applications because of the need for low weight. Good oxidation resistance stems from the ability of MoSi{sub 2} to form a protective SiO{sub 2} surface layer when exposed to oxygen. Another advantageous feature of MoSi{sub 2} is its thermal conductivity which is superior to Ni-based superalloys at low temperatures and comparable to the Ni-based superalloys at high temperatures. This allows heat to be dissipated at a rate better than ceramics and comparable to metals. MoSi{sub 2} is electrically conductive allowing it to be electro discharge machined. This is desirable since conventional ceramics are not generally conductive and cannot be electro discharge machined.

  12. Fate and Transport of Molybdenum Disulfide Nanomaterials in Sand Columns

    PubMed Central

    Lanphere, Jacob D.; Luth, Corey J.; Guiney, Linda M.; Mansukhani, Nikhita D.; Hersam, Mark C.; Walker, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Research and development of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) (e.g., molybdenum disulfide [MoS2]) in electronic, optical, and catalytic applications has been growing rapidly. However, there is little known regarding the behavior of these particles once released into aquatic environments. Therefore, an in-depth study regarding the fate and transport of two popular types of MoS2 nanomaterials, lithiated (MoS2-Li) and Pluronic PF-87 dispersed (MoS2-PL), was conducted in saturated porous media (quartz sand) to identify which form would be least mobile in aquatic environments. The electrokinetic properties and hydrodynamic diameters of MoS2 as a function of ionic strength and pH were determined using a zeta potential analyzer and dynamic light scattering techniques. Results suggest that the stability is significantly decreased beginning at 10 and 31.6 mM KCl, for MoS2-PL and MoS2-Li, respectively. Transport study results from breakthrough curves, column dissections, and release experiments suggest that MoS2-PL exhibits a greater affinity to be irreversibly bound to quartz surfaces as compared with the MoS2-Li at a similar ionic strength. Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory was used to help explain the unique interactions between the MoS2-PL and MoS2-Li surfaces between particles and with the quartz collectors. Overall, the results suggest that the fate and transport of MoS2 is dependent on the type of MoS2 that enters the environment, where MoS2-PL will be least mobile and more likely be deposited in porous media from pluronic–quartz interactions, whereas MoS2-Li will travel greater distances and have a greater tendency to be remobilized in sand columns. PMID:25741176

  13. Aqueous corrosion behavior of uranium-molybdenum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Levi D.

    Nuclear fuel characterization requires understanding of the various conditions to which materials are exposed in-reactor. One of these important conditions is corrosion, particularly that of fuel constituents. Therefore, corrosion behavior is of special interest and an essential part of nuclear materials characterization efforts. In support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization's Reactor Conversion Program, monolithic uranium-10 wt% molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) is being investigated as a low enriched uranium alternative to highly enriched uranium dispersion fuel currently used in domestic high performance research reactors. The aqueous corrosion behavior of U-Mo is being examined at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of U-Mo fuel fabrication capability activity. No prior study adequately represents this behavior given the current state of alloy composition and thermomechanical processing methods, and research reactor water chemistry. Two main measurement techniques were employed to evaluate U-Mo corrosion behavior. Low-temperature corrosion rate values were determined by means of U-Mo immersion testing and subsequent mass-loss measurements. The electrochemical behavior of each processing condition was also qualitatively examined using the techniques of corrosion potential and anodic potentiodynamic polarization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical metallography (OM) imagery and hardness measurements provided supplemental corrosion analysis in an effort to relate material corrosion behavior to processing. The processing effects investigated as part of this were those of homogenization heat treatment (employed to mitigate the effects of coring in castings) and sub-eutectoid heat treatment, meant to represent additional steps in fabrication (such as hot isostatic pressing) performed at similar temperatures. Immersion mass loss measurements and electrochemical results both showed very little appreciable difference between

  14. Differential expression of proteins in response to molybdenum deficiency in winter wheat leaves under low-temperature stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential micronutrient for plants. To obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cold resistance enhanced by molybdenum application in winter wheat, we applied a proteomic approach to investigate the differential expression of proteins in response to molybden...

  15. Hydrophilic molybdenum oxide nanomaterials with controlled morphology and strong plasmonic absorption for photothermal ablation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Guosheng; Shen, Jia; Jiang, Feiran; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Wenyao; An, Lei; Zou, Rujia; Chen, Zhigang; Qin, Zongyi; Hu, Junqing

    2014-03-26

    The molybdenum oxide nanosheets have shown strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, the long alky chains of ligands made them hydrophobic and less biocompatible. To meet the requirements of molybdenum based nanomaterials for use as a future photothermal therapy, a simple hydrothermal route has been developed for hydrophilic molybdenum oxide nanospheres and nanoribbons using a molybdenum precursor and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). First, molybdenum oxide nanomaterials prepared in the presence of PEG exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption in near-infrared (NIR) region, compared with that of no PEG. Second, elevation of synthetic temperature leads to a gradual transformation of molybdenum oxide nanospheres into nanoribbons, entailing the evolution of an intense LSPR absorption in the NIR region. Third, as-prepared molybdenum oxide nanomaterials coated with PEG possess a hydrophilic property and thus can be directly used for biological applications without additional post treatments. Moreover, molybdenum oxide nanoribbons as a model of photothermal materials can efficiently convert the 980 nm wavelength laser energy into heat energy, and this localized hyperthermia produces the effective thermal ablation of cancer cells, meaning a potential photothermal material.

  16. Impact of helium implantation and ion-induced damage on reflectivity of molybdenum mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Carrasco, A.; Petersson, P.; Hallén, A.; Grzonka, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Fortuna-Zalesna, E.; Rubel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum mirrors were irradiated with Mo and He ions to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on diagnostic first mirrors in next-generation fusion devices. Up to 30 dpa were produced under molybdenum irradiation leading to a slight decrease of reflectivity in the near infrared range. After 3 × 1017 cm-2 of helium irradiation, reflectivity decreased by up to 20%. Combined irradiation by helium and molybdenum led to similar effects on reflectivity as irradiation with helium alone. Ion beam analysis showed that only 7% of the implanted helium was retained in the first 40 nm layer of the mirror. The structure of the near-surface layer after irradiation was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy and the extent and size distribution of helium bubbles was documented. The consequences of ion-induced damage on the performance of diagnostic components are discussed.

  17. Recent developments in the homogeneous reduction of dinitrogen by molybdenum and iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, K. Cory; Holland, Patrick L.

    2013-07-01

    The reduction of gaseous nitrogen is a challenge for industrial, biological and synthetic chemists. Major goals include understanding the formation of ammonia for agriculture, and forming N-C and N-Si bonds for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The iron-molybdenum active site of the enzyme nitrogenase has inspired chemists to explore iron and molybdenum complexes in transformations related to N2 reduction. This area of research has gained significant momentum, and the past two years have witnessed a number of significant advances in synthetic Fe-N2 and Mo-N2 chemistry. Furthermore, the identities of all atoms in the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase have finally been elucidated, and the discovery of a carbide has generated new questions and targets for coordination chemists. This Perspective summarizes the recent work on iron and molydenum complexes, and highlights the opportunities for continued research.

  18. The role of FeS clusters for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and molybdoenzymes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Leimkühler, Silke

    2015-06-01

    The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) has been intensively studied, in addition to its insertion into molybdoenzymes. In particular, a link between the assembly of molybdoenzymes and the biosynthesis of FeS clusters has been identified in the recent years: 1) the synthesis of the first intermediate in Moco biosynthesis requires an FeS-cluster containing protein, 2) the sulfurtransferase for the dithiolene group in Moco is also involved in the synthesis of FeS clusters, thiamin and thiolated tRNAs, 3) the addition of a sulfido-ligand to the molybdenum atom in the active site additionally involves a sulfurtransferase, and 4) most molybdoenzymes in bacteria require FeS clusters as redox active cofactors. In this review we will focus on the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor in bacteria, its modification and insertion into molybdoenzymes, with an emphasis to its link to FeS cluster biosynthesis and sulfur transfer.

  19. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes as inherently electroactive labels for DNA hybridization detection.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2014-10-21

    The detection of specific DNA sequences plays a critical role in the areas of medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, drug discovery and food safety. This has therefore become a strong driving force behind the ever-increasing demand for simple, cost-effective, highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors. In this study, we report for the first time, a novel approach for the utilization of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes, a member of the transition metal dichalcogenides family, in the detection of DNA hybridization. Herein, molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes serve as inherently electroactive labels, with the inherent oxidation peak exploited as the analytical signal. The principle of detection is based on the differential affinity of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes towards single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. The employment of transition metal dichalcogenide nanomaterials for sensing and biosensing purposes represents an upcoming research area which holds great promise. Hence, our findings are anticipated to have significant contributions towards the fabrication of future DNA biosensors.

  20. Ion pairs of a molybdenum thiocyanate complex with dyes of the xanthene series

    SciTech Connect

    Ganago, L.I.; Ivanova, I.F.

    1988-03-10

    It has been ascertained that thiocyanate complexes of molybdenum react with dyes of the xanthene series, Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine B, to form ion pairs. The Mo:SCN:Rhod. component ratios are respectively 1:5:2 and 1:6:3. The ion pairs are stable in an acid medium: 4.5-5.5 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (MTC-Rhod. 6G) and 3 M H/sub 2/SO (MTC-Rhod. B), and their molecular extinction coefficients are 2.22 x 10/sup 5/ and 3.8 x 10/sub 5/ respectively; MTC in a molybdenum thiocyanate complex. A procedure has been worked out for determining molybdenum in films, making use of the reaction of forming an MTC-Rhod. B ion pair.

  1. THE EXTREME OVERABUNDANCE OF MOLYBDENUM IN TWO METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2011-11-20

    We report determinations of the molybdenum abundances in five mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars using five Mo II lines near 2000 A. In two of the stars, the abundance of molybdenum is found to be extremely enhanced, as high or higher than the neighboring even-Z elements ruthenium and zirconium. Of the several nucleosynthesis scenarios envisioned for the production of nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of the twin aspects of a high molybdenum overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. Whatever the details of the nucleosynthesis mechanism, however, this unusual excess suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-Fe heavy elements in these cases, an unexpected result given that both are only moderately metal-poor.

  2. Compatibility of molybdenum current collectors in lithium-alloy/iron disulfide cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ram A.

    1989-11-01

    Stability of a molybdenum electrode in a Li-alloy or Li-Si/FeS2 cell environment was investigated using a steady-state potential measurement and a cyclic voltammetry technique. It was found that Mo was chemically stable with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at potentials lower than about 1.5 V with respect to a Li-Al reference electrode at about 700 K. At 1.5 V and 700 K, the molybdenum electrode was observed to react with LiCl-KCl, due, apparently, to the presence of impurities in the electrode, such as Ti or Zr. An adition of LiS was found to suppress the reaction, but, at about 1.55 V, a molybdenum sulfide forming reaction was observed to take place. This reaction, however, was not too severe to preclude the use of Mo as a current collector in the Li-alloy/FeS2 cell.

  3. Electrochemical properties of molybdenum in individual molten alkali metal chlorides and their mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Volkovich, V. A.; Likhachev, P. Yu.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-02-01

    The behavior of molybdenum in chloride melts is studied, and the standard potentials of Mo are determined in the melts based on eutectic mixtures LiCl-KCl-CsCl (at 633-1173 K) and NaCl-CsCl (at 793-1023 K), an equimolar NaCl-KCl mixture at 973-1123 K, and individual LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl at 1123 K. The change in the conventional standard Gibbs energy of molybdenum trichloride formation in the NaCl-KCl, NaCl-CsCl, and LiCl-KCl-CsCl melts is calculated. The effect of the cation composition of the salt solvent on the conventional standard electrode potential of molybdenum in the chloride melts is considered. The diffusion coefficients of Mo(III) ions in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl melt are determined.

  4. Molybdenum and tungsten oxygen transferases--and functional diversity within a common active site motif.

    PubMed

    Pushie, M Jake; Cotelesage, Julien J; George, Graham N

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten are the only second and third-row transition elements with a known function in living organisms. The molybdenum and tungsten enzymes show common structural features, with the metal being bound by a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor called molybdopterin. They catalyze a variety of oxygen transferase reactions coupled with two-electron redox chemistry in which the metal cycles between the +6 and +4 oxidation states usually with water, either product or substrate, providing the oxygen. The functional roles filled by the molybdenum and tungsten enzymes are diverse; for example, they play essential roles in microbial respiration, in the uptake of nitrogen in green plants, and in human health. Together, the enzymes form a superfamily which is among the most prevalent known, being found in all kingdoms of life. This review discusses what is known of the active site structures and the mechanisms, together with some recent insights into the evolution of these important enzyme systems.

  5. Investigations on bactericidal properties of molybdenum-tungsten oxides combinatorial thin film material libraries.

    PubMed

    Mardare, Cezarina Cela; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2014-11-10

    A combinatorial thin film material library from the molybdenum-tungsten refractory metals oxides system was prepared by thermal coevaporation, and its structural and morphological properties were investigated after a multiple step heat treatment. A mixture of crystalline and amorphous oxides and suboxides was obtained, as well as surface structuring caused by the enrichment of molybdenum oxides in large grains. It was found that the oxide phases and the surface morphology change as a function of the compositional gradient. Tests of the library antimicrobial activity against E. coli were performed and the antimicrobial activity was proven in some defined compositional ranges. A mechanism for explaining the observed activity is proposed, involving a collective contribution from (i) increased local acidity due to the enrichment in large grains of molybdenum oxides with different stoichiometry and (ii) the release of free radicals from the W18O49 phase under visible light.

  6. Optoelectronic crystal of artificial atoms in strain-textured molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Contryman, Alex W.; Qian, Xiaofeng; Ardakani, Sina Moeini; Gong, Yongji; Wang, Xingli; Weisse, Jeffery M.; Lee, Chi Hwan; Zhao, Jiheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Li, Ju; Manoharan, Hari C.; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2015-06-01

    The isolation of the two-dimensional semiconductor molybdenum disulphide introduced a new optically active material possessing a band gap that can be facilely tuned via elastic strain. As an atomically thin membrane with exceptional strength, monolayer molybdenum disulphide subjected to biaxial strain can embed wide band gap variations overlapping the visible light spectrum, with calculations showing the modified electronic potential emanating from point-induced tensile strain perturbations mimics the Coulomb potential in a mesoscopic atom. Here we realize and confirm this `artificial atom' concept via capillary-pressure-induced nanoindentation of monolayer molybdenum disulphide from a tailored nanopattern, and demonstrate that a synthetic superlattice of these building blocks forms an optoelectronic crystal capable of broadband light absorption and efficient funnelling of photogenerated excitons to points of maximum strain at the artificial-atom nuclei. Such two-dimensional semiconductors with spatially textured band gaps represent a new class of materials, which may find applications in next-generation optoelectronics or photovoltaics.

  7. Optoelectronic crystal of artificial atoms in strain-textured molybdenum disulphide.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Contryman, Alex W; Qian, Xiaofeng; Ardakani, Sina Moeini; Gong, Yongji; Wang, Xingli; Weisse, Jeffery M; Lee, Chi Hwan; Zhao, Jiheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Li, Ju; Manoharan, Hari C; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2015-06-19

    The isolation of the two-dimensional semiconductor molybdenum disulphide introduced a new optically active material possessing a band gap that can be facilely tuned via elastic strain. As an atomically thin membrane with exceptional strength, monolayer molybdenum disulphide subjected to biaxial strain can embed wide band gap variations overlapping the visible light spectrum, with calculations showing the modified electronic potential emanating from point-induced tensile strain perturbations mimics the Coulomb potential in a mesoscopic atom. Here we realize and confirm this 'artificial atom' concept via capillary-pressure-induced nanoindentation of monolayer molybdenum disulphide from a tailored nanopattern, and demonstrate that a synthetic superlattice of these building blocks forms an optoelectronic crystal capable of broadband light absorption and efficient funnelling of photogenerated excitons to points of maximum strain at the artificial-atom nuclei. Such two-dimensional semiconductors with spatially textured band gaps represent a new class of materials, which may find applications in next-generation optoelectronics or photovoltaics.

  8. The role of FeS clusters for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and molybdoenzymes in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Leimkühler, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum is the only second row transition metal essential for biological systems, which is biologically available as molybdate ion. In eukarya, bacteria and archaea, molybdenum is bound to either to a tricyclic pyranopterin, thereby forming the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), or in some bacteria to the FeS cluster based iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco), which forms the active site of nitrogenase. To date more than 50 Moco-containing enzymes have been purified and biochemically or structurally characterized. The physiological role of molybdenum in these enzymes is fundamental to organisms, since the reactions include the catalysis of key steps in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. The catalyzed reactions are in most cases oxo-transfer reactions or the hydroxylation of carbon centers. The biosynthesis of Moco has been intensively studied, in addition to its insertion into molybdoenzymes. In particular, a link between the biosynthesis and maturation of molybdoenzymes and the biosynthesis and distribution of FeS clusters has been identified in the last years: 1) The synthesis of the first intermediate in Moco biosynthesis requires an FeS-cluster containing protein, 2) The sulfurtransferase for the dithiolene group in Moco is common also for the synthesis of FeS clusters, thiamin and thiolated tRNAs, 3) the modification of the active site with a sulfur atom additionally involves a sulfurtransferase, 4) most molybdoenzymes in bacteria require FeS clusters as additional redox active cofactors. In this review we will focus on the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor in bacteria, its modification and insertion into molybdoenzymes, with an emphasis to its link to FeS cluster biosynthesis and sulfur transfer. PMID:25268953

  9. Molybdenum nitrides as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts: Structural and electrochemical studies

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Bingfei; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Khalifah, Peter G.

    2015-02-09

    Monometallic (δ-MoN, Mo5N6, and Mo2N) and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides (Co0.6Mo1.4N2) were investigated as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is a key half-reaction in hydrogen fuel cells. Monometallic hexagonal molybdenum nitrides are found to exhibit improved activities over rock salt type molybdenum nitride (γ-Mo2N), suggesting that improvements are due to either the higher molybdenum valence or a more favorable coordination environment in the hexagonal structures. Further enhancements in activity were found for hexagonal bimetallic cobalt molybdenum nitride (Co0.6Mo1.4N2), resulting in a modest onset potential of 0.713 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Co0.6Mo1.4N2 exhibits good stability in acidicmore » environments, and in the potential range lower than 0.5 V versus RHE, the ORR appears to proceed via a four-electron mechanism based on the analysis of rotating disc electrode results. A redetermination of the structures of the binary molybdenum nitrides was carried out using neutron diffraction data, which is far more sensitive to nitrogen site positions than X-ray diffraction data. In conclusion, the revised monometallic hexagonal nitride structures all share many common features with the Co0.6Mo1.4N2 structure, which has alternating layers of cations in octahedral and trigonal prismatic coordination, and are thus not limited to only trigonal prismatic Mo environments (as was originally postulated for δ-MoN).« less

  10. Molybdenum nitrides as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts: Structural and electrochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Bingfei; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Khalifah, Peter G.

    2015-02-09

    Monometallic (δ-MoN, Mo5N6, and Mo2N) and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides (Co0.6Mo1.4N2) were investigated as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is a key half-reaction in hydrogen fuel cells. Monometallic hexagonal molybdenum nitrides are found to exhibit improved activities over rock salt type molybdenum nitride (γ-Mo2N), suggesting that improvements are due to either the higher molybdenum valence or a more favorable coordination environment in the hexagonal structures. Further enhancements in activity were found for hexagonal bimetallic cobalt molybdenum nitride (Co0.6Mo1.4N2), resulting in a modest onset potential of 0.713 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Co0.6Mo1.4N2 exhibits good stability in acidic environments, and in the potential range lower than 0.5 V versus RHE, the ORR appears to proceed via a four-electron mechanism based on the analysis of rotating disc electrode results. A redetermination of the structures of the binary molybdenum nitrides was carried out using neutron diffraction data, which is far more sensitive to nitrogen site positions than X-ray diffraction data. In conclusion, the revised monometallic hexagonal nitride structures all share many common features with the Co0.6Mo1.4N2 structure, which has alternating layers of cations in octahedral and trigonal prismatic coordination, and are thus not limited to only trigonal prismatic Mo environments (as was originally postulated for δ-MoN).

  11. Molybdenum-99 production from reactor irradiation of molybdenum targets: a viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R A; Knapp, F F Russ

    2012-08-01

    Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc alumina-based column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies are discussed which are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo. In addition to the hopeful eventual success of these proposed new 99Mo and 99mTc production technologies, an additional attractive strategy is the alternative production and use of low specific activity (LSA) 99Mo. This strategy avoids fission and is accomplished by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors, which would preclude sole continued reliance on F 99Mo. The principal focus of this paper is a detailed discussion on the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of LSA 99Mo using an international network of research reactors. Several effective strategies are discussed to obtain 99mTc from LSA 99Mo as well as more efficient use of the alumina-based generator system. The delayed time period between 99Mo production and traditional 99Mo/99mTc alumina column generator manufacture and distribution to user sites results in the loss of more than 50% of 99Mo activity. Another strategy is a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several fold. Additional important advantages for the use of LSA 99Mo include eliminating the need for fission product waste management and precluding proliferation concerns by phasing out the need for high (HEU)- and low (LEU)-enriched uranium targets required for F 99Mo production.

  12. Survey of Portions of the Chromium-Cobalt-Nickel-Molybdenum Quaternary System at 1,200 Degrees C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, Sheldon Paul; Beck, Paul A

    1953-01-01

    A survey was made of portions of the chromium-cobalt-nickel-molybdenum quaternary system at 1,200 degrees c by means of microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies. Since the face-centered cubic (alpha) solid solutions form the matrix of almost all practically useful high-temperature alloys, the solid solubility limits of the quaternary alpha phase were determined up to 20 percent molybdenum. The component cobalt-nickel-molybdenum, chromium-cobalt-molybdenum, and chromium-nickel-molybdenum ternary systems were also studied. The survey of these systems was confined to the determination of the boundaries of the face-centered cubic (alpha) solid solutions and of the phases coexisting with alpha at 1,200 degrees c.

  13. Individual and combined toxicity of manganese and molybdenum to mussel, Mytilus edulis, larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.D.; Mitchell, D.G.; Chapman, P.M.

    1986-08-01

    During toxicity testing of mine tailings from the proposed Quartz Hill molybdenum mine, which will be situated near Ketchikan, Alaska, the metals molybdenum (Mo) and manganese (Mn) showed evidence of leaching from the tailings. In order to determine whether these metals could be responsible for toxicities observed previously, Mytilus edulis mussel larvae bioassays (ASTM 1984) were conducted with these metals, both individually and in combination. The results of the bioassays showed that these metals could account for only a very small proportion of the tailings toxicity.

  14. Preconcentration with dithiocarbamate extraction for determination of molybdenum in seawater by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.M.; Wai, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum in seawater can be quantitatively extracted with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and diethyldithiocarbamate at pH 1.4 into chloroform, for neutron activation analysis. Uranium in seawater cannot be extracted at this pH, and hence eliminates the interference from the /sup 235/U(n,f)/sup 99/Mo reaction. Interferences from matrix species in seawater, such as sodium and bromine, are also removed during the extraction. The proposed method, with good accuracy and sensitivity, is suitable for the determination of molybdenum in natural waters. 10 references, 2 figures.

  15. Thermocouples of molybdenum and iridium alloys for more stable vacuum-high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Thermocouples providing stability and performance reliability in systems involving high temperatures and vacuums by employing a bimetallic thermocouple sensor are described. Each metal of the sensor is selected from a group of metals comprising molybdenum and iridium and alloys containing only those two metals. The molybdenum, iridium thermocouple sensor alloys provide bare metal thermocouple sensors having advantageous vapor pressure compatibility and performance characteristics. The compatibility and physical characteristics of the thermocouple sensor alloys result in improved emf, temperature properties and thermocouple hot junction performance.

  16. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    SciTech Connect

    Geissbühler, Jonas Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Barraud, Loris; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-08-24

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  17. Nitrogenase phylogeny and the molybdenum dependence of nitrogen fixation in Methanococcus maripaludis.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, P S; McLarnan, J; Leigh, J A

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of molybdenum, vanadium, and tungsten on the diazotrophic growth of Methanococcus maripaludis. Mo stimulated growth, with a maximal response at 4.0 microM, while V had no effect at any concentration tested. W specifically inhibited diazotrophic growth in the presence of Mo. Coupling the results of our analysis and other known metal requirements with phylogenies derived from nifD and nifK genes revealed distinct clusters for Mo-, V-, and Fe-dinitrogenases and suggested that most methanogens also have molybdenum-type nitrogenases. PMID:8990309

  18. Monocrystalline molybdenum silicide based quantum dot superlattices grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelli, Guillaume; Silveira Stein, Sergio; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Faucherand, Pascal; Montès, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the growth of doped monocrystalline molybdenum-silicide-based quantum dot superlattices (QDSL). This is the first time that such nanostructured materials integrating molybdenum silicide nanodots have been grown. QDSL are grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD). We present here their crystallographic structures and chemical properties, as well as the influence of the nanostructuration on their thermal and electrical properties. Particularly, it will be shown some specific characteristics for these QDSL, such as a localization of nanodots between the layers, unlike other silicide based QDSL, an accumulation of doping atoms near the nanodots, and a strong decrease of the thermal conductivity obtained thanks to the nanostructuration.

  19. Investigation of welding and brazing of molybdenum and TZM alloy tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, Wayne E.

    1991-01-01

    This effort involved investigating the welding and brazing techniques of molybdenum tubes to be used as cartridges in the crystal growth cartridge. Information is given in the form of charts and photomicrographs. It was found that the recrystallization temperature of molybdenum can be increased by alloying it with 0.5 percent titanium and 0.1 percent zirconium. Recrystallization temperatures for this alloy, known as TZM, become significant around 2500 F. A series of microhardness tests were run on samples of virgin and heat soaked TZM. The test results are given in tabular form. It was concluded that powder metallurgy TZM may be an acceptable cartridge material.

  20. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissbühler, Jonas; Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Barraud, Loris; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR URANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY DISSOLUTION FLOWSHEET

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-06-07

    H-Canyon Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform two solvent extraction experiments using dissolved Super Kukla (SK) material. The SK material is an uranium (U)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight with 20% 235U enrichment. The first series of solvent extraction tests involved a series of batch distribution coefficient measurements with 7.5 vol % tributylphosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin for extraction from 4-5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), using 4 M HNO{sub 3}-0.02 M ferrous sulfamate (Fe(SO3NH2)2) scrub, 0.01 M HNO3 strip steps with particular emphasis on the distribution of U and Mo in each step. The second set of solvent extraction tests determined whether the 2.5 wt % sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solvent wash change frequency would need to be modified for the processing of the SK material. The batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed using dissolved SK material diluted to 20 g/L (U + Mo) in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and 5 M HNO{sub 3}. In these experiments, U had a distribution coefficient greater than 2.5 while at least 99% of the nickel (Ni) and greater than 99.9% of the Mo remained in the aqueous phase. After extraction, scrub, and strip steps, the aqueous U product from the strip contains nominally 7.48 {micro}g Mo/g U, significantly less than the maximum allowable limit of 800 {micro}g Mo/g U. Solvent washing experiments were performed to expose a 2.5 wt % Na2CO3 solvent wash solution to the equivalent of 37 solvent wash cycles. The low Mo batch distribution coefficient in this solvent extraction system yields only 0.001-0.005 g/L Mo extracted to the organic. During the solvent washing experiments, the Mo appears to wash from the organic.

  2. Molybdenum isotopes and mass balance during early stages of pedogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E. K.; Thompson, A.; Chadwick, O.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential micronutrient and redox sensitive trace metal that has the potential to be a tracer of pedogenic processes. Globally, riverine δ98Mo values are elevated relative to bedrock, suggesting weathering processes preferentially retain light Mo isotopes, however, the mechanisms governing this process in soils are poorly understood. To elucidate these mechanisms, we studied seven soil profiles developed on a 10ka lava flow in Hawaii receiving 600 to 2000 mm mean annual precipitation. We assessed Mo abundance and isotopic composition as a function of soil organic matter (OM) content, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (oxyhydr)oxide abundance, and Mo loss/gain. We found net accumulation of Mo across all sites (+48% to +289%) that was positively correlated with increasing precipitation, OM content, and Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxide content and inversely correlated with soil depth. Thus, the highest Mo gains are in the wettest surface soil horizons, which also have high OM content. Selective extractions of surface soils indicate that 13% to 40% of mobile Mo is predominately associated with OM; whereas Mo associated with Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides is an order of magnitude lower (0.6% to 6%). The isotopic composition of soil Mo deviated from parent material values (δ98Mo ~-0.15‰). Mo isotopic values were lightest at the dry sites (δ98Mo values of -0.29‰ to -0.63‰) and become heavy with increasing precipitation (δ98Mo -0.2‰ to +0.3‰). At all sites, the surface horizons were isotopically heavy relative to the subsurface horizons, and samples with the heaviest δ98Mo values corresponded with horizons that have gained Mo and have higher OM content. Subsurface Mo isotopic values are lighter than bedrock isotopic composition and may reflect associations with Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides. In order further to constrain Mo fluxes into and out of the soil system, we measured Mo isotopes in local rainwater, groundwater, and vegetation. Based on this data, we

  3. New perspectives on molybdenum geochemistry under suldific conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappaz, A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    We used X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and isotopic techniques to study molybdenum geochemistry in euxinic settings. Over the last decade, Mo has emerged as one of the most promising paleoredox proxies in studies of oxygen levels in the ancient ocean and specifically for anoxia and euxinia through geologic time. Nevertheless, many of the details about its sequestration in sediments under sulfidic conditions remain poorly known, including the mechanistic processes involved and the specific role of organic matter (OM) in these pathways. An important role for OM is suggested by the strong empirical relationship seen between Mo and total organic carbon in many modern and ancient euxinic settings. Moreover, relatively little is known about the potential for Mo isotope fractionation in euxinic basins. All these gaps in our understanding of Mo cycling could limit its value as a proxy. We have adopted a multi-pronged approach combining experimental geochemistry and analyses from natural euxinic settings. First, we explored the relationship between Mo and Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) via an array of experiments under a nitrogen atmosphere with varying sources of DOM and geochemical conditions (pH and sulfide). We characterized the experimental products using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as XANES and EXAFS. The latter allow us to characterize the Mo oxidation state and the molecular neighborhood, respectively. Next, we analyzed the rocks and sediments from several modern and ancient euxinic settings using laser ablation ICP-MS, XANES, and EXAFS to determine the primary Mo host phase(s). We present here our first results highlighting the importance of Mo reduction in euxinic sediments. Finally, we developed a chromatographic method to isolate thiomolybdate (MoO4-xSx2-) intermediate species that reflect the transformation of MoO42- to MoS42- in presence of dissolved sulfide. Importantly, we have determined their isotopic compositions, thus adding a much-needed complement

  4. Compaction of Ceramic Microspheres, Spherical Molybdenum Powder and Other Materials to 3 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, S R; Bonner, B P; Ryerson, F J; Hart, M M

    2006-01-27

    Pressure-volume relationships were measured at room temperature for eight granular materials and one specimen of epoxy foam. The granular materials included hollow ceramic microspheres, spherical molybdenum powder, Ottawa sand, aluminum, copper, titanium and silicon carbide powders and glassy carbon spheres. Measurements were made to 0.9 GPa in a liquid medium press for all of the granular materials and to 3 GPa in a solid medium press for the ceramic microspheres and molybdenum powder. A single specimen of epoxy foam was compressed to 30 MPa in the liquid medium press. Bulk moduli were calculated as a function of pressure for the ceramic microspheres, the molybdenum powder and three other granular materials. The energy expended in compacting the granular materials was determined by numerically integrating pressure-volume curves. More energy was expended per unit volume in compacting the molybdenum powder to 1 GPa than for the other materials, but compaction of the ceramic microspheres required more energy per gram due to their very low initial density. The merge pressure, the pressure at which all porosity is removed, was estimated for each material by plotting porosity against pressure on a semi-log plot. The pressure-volume curves were then extrapolated to the predicted merge pressures and numerically integrated to estimate the energy required to reach full density for each material. The results suggest that the glassy carbon spheres and the ceramic microspheres would require more energy than the other materials to attain full density.

  5. Exfoliation Solvent Dependent Plasmon Resonances in Two-Dimensional Sub-Stoichiometric Molybdenum Oxide Nanoflakes.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Manal M Y A; Field, Matthew R; Daeneke, Torben; Chrimes, Adam F; Zhang, Wei; Carey, Benjamin J; Berean, Kyle J; Walia, Sumeet; van Embden, Joel; Zhang, Baoyue; Latham, Kay; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Ou, Jian Zhen

    2016-02-10

    Few-layer two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide nanoflakes are exfoliated using a grinding assisted liquid phase sonication exfoliation method. The sonication process is carried out in five different mixtures of water with both aprotic and protic solvents. We found that surface energy and solubility of mixtures play important roles in changing the thickness, lateral dimension, and synthetic yield of the nanoflakes. We demonstrate an increase in proton intercalation in 2D nanoflakes upon simulated solar light exposure. This results in substoichiometric flakes and a subsequent enhancement in free electron concentrations, producing plasmon resonances. Two plasmon resonance peaks associated with the thickness and the lateral dimension axes are observable in the samples, in which the plasmonic peak positions could be tuned by the choice of the solvent in exfoliating 2D molybdenum oxide. The extinction coefficients of the plasmonic absorption bands of 2D molybdenum oxide nanoflakes in all samples are found to be high (ε > 10(9) L mol(-1) cm(-1)). It is expected that the tunable plasmon resonances of 2D molybdenum oxide nanoflakes presented in this work can be used in future electronic, optical, and sensing devices. PMID:26795577

  6. Low-temperature growth of layered molybdenum disulphide with controlled clusters

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Jihun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kang, Il-Suk; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Jeong Won; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Taesung; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Layered molybdenum disulphide was grown at a low-temperature of 350 °C using chemical vapour deposition by elaborately controlling the cluster size. The molybdenum disulphide grown under various sulphur-reaction-gas to molybdenum-precursor partial-pressure ratios were examined. Using spectroscopy and microscopy, the effect of the cluster size on the layered growth was investigated in terms of the morphology, grain size, and impurity incorporation. Triangular single-crystal domains were grown at an optimized sulphur-reaction-gas to molybdenum-precursor partial-pressure ratio. Furthermore, it is proved that the nucleation sites on the silicon-dioxide substrate were related with the grain size. A polycrystalline monolayer with the 100-nm grain size was grown on a nucleation site confined substrate by high-vacuum annealing. In addition, a field-effect transistor was fabricated with a MoS2 monolayer and exhibited a mobility and on/off ratio of 0.15 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 105, respectively. PMID:26902316

  7. MoS{sub 2} nanotube exfoliation as new synthesis pathway to molybdenum blue

    SciTech Connect

    Visic, B.; Gunde, M. Klanjsek; Kovac, J.; Iskra, I.; Jelenc, J.; Remskar, M.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Highlights: ► New synthesis approach to obtaining molybdenum blue via exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanotubes. ► Material is prone to self assembly and is stable in high vacuum. ► Molecules are as small as 2 nm and their clusters are up to tens of nanometers. ► Change in absorption and oxidation states from the precursor MoS{sub 2}. -- Abstract: Molybdenum blue-type materials are usually obtained by partially reducing Mo{sup VI+} in acidic solutions, while in the presented method it is formed in ethanol solution of exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanotubes, where the MoS{sub 2} flakes are the preferential location for their growth. Material was investigated by means of scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, showing the structure and self assembly, while also confirming that it is stable in high vacuum with molecules as small as 1.6 nm and the agglomerates of few tens of nanometres. The ultraviolet–visible and photoelectron spectrometry show the change in absorption properties and oxidation states from MoS{sub 2} structure to molybdenum blue, while the presence of sulphur suggests that this is a new type of molybdenum blue material.

  8. Exfoliation Solvent Dependent Plasmon Resonances in Two-Dimensional Sub-Stoichiometric Molybdenum Oxide Nanoflakes.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Manal M Y A; Field, Matthew R; Daeneke, Torben; Chrimes, Adam F; Zhang, Wei; Carey, Benjamin J; Berean, Kyle J; Walia, Sumeet; van Embden, Joel; Zhang, Baoyue; Latham, Kay; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Ou, Jian Zhen

    2016-02-10

    Few-layer two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide nanoflakes are exfoliated using a grinding assisted liquid phase sonication exfoliation method. The sonication process is carried out in five different mixtures of water with both aprotic and protic solvents. We found that surface energy and solubility of mixtures play important roles in changing the thickness, lateral dimension, and synthetic yield of the nanoflakes. We demonstrate an increase in proton intercalation in 2D nanoflakes upon simulated solar light exposure. This results in substoichiometric flakes and a subsequent enhancement in free electron concentrations, producing plasmon resonances. Two plasmon resonance peaks associated with the thickness and the lateral dimension axes are observable in the samples, in which the plasmonic peak positions could be tuned by the choice of the solvent in exfoliating 2D molybdenum oxide. The extinction coefficients of the plasmonic absorption bands of 2D molybdenum oxide nanoflakes in all samples are found to be high (ε > 10(9) L mol(-1) cm(-1)). It is expected that the tunable plasmon resonances of 2D molybdenum oxide nanoflakes presented in this work can be used in future electronic, optical, and sensing devices.

  9. Field Validation of Molybdenum Accumulation in Sediments as an Indication of Hypoxic Water Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation of authigenic molybdenum (Mo) in marine sediments has often been used as qualitative indicator of periods of hypoxic bottom water, but rarely, if ever, used quantitatively. Laboratory experiments have shown that the accumulation rate of Mo may serve as a quantitative...

  10. Field Validation of Molybdenum Accumulation as an Indicator of Hypoxic Water Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments have shown that the accumulation rate of authigenic molybdenum (Mo) in marine sediments may serve as a quantitative surrogate for direct measurement of hypoxic conditions in overlying waters: Mo accumulation in the top 1 cm of sediment is linearly related t...

  11. Molybdenum Accumulation in Marine Sediments as an Indicator of Hypoxic Water Conditions (NACAETAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct monitoring of hypoxic water column conditions over large spatial and temporal extents is difficult due to the substantial logistical and financial investment required. Recent studies have indicated that concentrations of molybdenum (Mo) in marine sediments may serve as a u...

  12. Laboratory Determination of Molybdenum Accumulation Rates as a Measure of Hypoxic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Redox sensitive metals, such as molybdenum (Mo), are enriched in reducing sediments due to authigenic fixation in anoxic interstitial waters of sediments. This study tested whether the process of fixation and accumulation of Mo in sediments could provide a geochemical indicator o...

  13. Molybdenum carbide as an efficient catalyst for low-temperature hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanting; Ding, Jian; Sun, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Juan; Bi, Jicheng; Liu, Kefeng; Kong, Fanhua; Xiao, Haicheng; Sun, Yanping; Chen, Jiangang

    2016-04-11

    Silica-supported molybdenum carbide (Mo2C/SiO2) is found to be a highly active, selective and stable catalyst for the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate to ethanol at low temperatures (473 K). Moreover, the formation of ethanol over the Mo2C catalyst performs via the novel intermediate methyl acetate instead of ethylene glycol forming over the Cu catalyst.

  14. Pressure-induced semiconducting to metallic transition in multilayered molybdenum disulphide.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Avinash P; Bhattacharyya, Swastibrata; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Jin; Wu, Xiang; Pandey, Tribhuwan; Jin, Changqing; Singh, Abhishek K; Akinwande, Deji; Lin, Jung-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum disulphide is a layered transition metal dichalcogenide that has recently raised considerable interest due to its unique semiconducting and opto-electronic properties. Although several theoretical studies have suggested an electronic phase transition in molybdenum disulphide, there has been a lack of experimental evidence. Here we report comprehensive studies on the pressure-dependent electronic, vibrational, optical and structural properties of multilayered molybdenum disulphide up to 35 GPa. Our experimental results reveal a structural lattice distortion followed by an electronic transition from a semiconducting to metallic state at ~19 GPa, which is confirmed by ab initio calculations. The metallization arises from the overlap of the valance and conduction bands owing to sulphur-sulphur interactions as the interlayer spacing reduces. The electronic transition affords modulation of the opto-electronic gain in molybdenum disulphide. This pressure-tuned behaviour can enable the development of novel devices with multiple phenomena involving the strong coupling of the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of layered nanomaterials.

  15. Coordination polymer structure and revisited hydrogen evolution catalytic mechanism for amorphous molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phong D.; Tran, Thu V.; Orio, Maylis; Torelli, Stephane; Truong, Quang Duc; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Chiam, Sing Yang; Yi, Ren; Honma, Itaru; Barber, James; Artero, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Molybdenum sulfides are very attractive noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water. The atomic structure and identity of the catalytically active sites have been well established for crystalline molybdenum disulfide (c-MoS2) but not for amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx), which exhibits significantly higher HER activity compared to its crystalline counterpart. Here we show that HER-active a-MoSx, prepared either as nanoparticles or as films, is a molecular-based coordination polymer consisting of discrete [Mo3S13]2- building blocks. Of the three terminal disulfide (S22-) ligands within these clusters, two are shared to form the polymer chain. The third one remains free and generates molybdenum hydride moieties as the active site under H2 evolution conditions. Such a molecular structure therefore provides a basis for revisiting the mechanism of a-MoSx catalytic activity, as well as explaining some of its special properties such as reductive activation and corrosion. Our findings open up new avenues for the rational optimization of this HER electrocatalyst as an alternative to platinum.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1006 Is a Persulfide-Modified Protein That Is Critical for Molybdenum Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tombline, Gregory; Schwingel, Johanna M.; Lapek, John D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Darrah, Thomas; Maguire, Michael; Van Alst, Nadine E.; Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    A companion manuscript revealed that deletion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) PA1006 gene caused pleiotropic defects in metabolism including a loss of all nitrate reductase activities, biofilm maturation, and virulence. Herein, several complementary approaches indicate that PA1006 protein serves as a persulfide-modified protein that is critical for molybdenum homeostasis in Pae. Mutation of a highly conserved Cys22 to Ala or Ser resulted in a loss of PA1006 activity. Yeast-two-hybrid and a green-fluorescent protein fragment complementation assay (GFP-PFCA) in Pae itself revealed that PA1006 interacts with Pae PA3667/CsdA and PA3814/IscS Cys desulfurase enzymes. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) “top-down” analysis of PA1006 purified from Pae revealed that conserved Cys22 is post-translationally modified in vivo in the form a persulfide. Inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP)-MS analysis of ΔPA1006 mutant extracts revealed that the mutant cells contain significantly reduced levels of molybdenum compared to wild-type. GFP-PFCA also revealed that PA1006 interacts with several molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis proteins as well as nitrate reductase maturation factor NarJ and component NarH. These data indicate that a loss of PA1006 protein’s persulfide sulfur and a reduced availability of molybdenum contribute to the phenotype of a ΔPA1006 mutant. PMID:23409003

  17. Electrosprayed molybdenum trioxide aqueous solution and its application in organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsumi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Liao, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    A molybdenum trioxide thin film with smooth surface and uniform thickness was successfully achieved by an electrospray deposition method using an aqueous solution with a drastically low concentration of 0.05 wt%. Previous papers demonstrated that an additive solvent technique is useful for depositing the thin film by the electrospray deposition, and the high vapor pressure and a low surface tension of an additive solvent were found to be important factors. As a result, the smooth molybdenum trioxide thin film was obtained when the acetonitrile was used as the additive solvent. Furthermore, the vapor pressure of acetone is much higher than that of aqueous solution, and this indicates that the acetone is easily evaporated after spraying from the glass capillary. By optimizing a concentration of acetone in the molybdenum aqueous solution, a minimum root mean square roughness of the MoO3 thin film became 3.7 nm. In addition, an organic photovoltaic cell was also demonstrated using the molybdenum trioxide as a hole transport layer. Highest photoconversion efficiency was 1.72%, a value comparable to that using conventional thermal evaporation process even though the aqueous solution was used for the solution process. The photovonversion efficiency was not an optimized value, and the higher value can be achieved by optimizing the coating condition of the active layer.

  18. Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Najmaei, Sina; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Wu; Zou, Xiaolong; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; Yakobson, Boris I; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Single-layered molybdenum disulphide with a direct bandgap is a promising two-dimensional material that goes beyond graphene for the next generation of nanoelectronics. Here, we report the controlled vapour phase synthesis of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers and elucidate a fundamental mechanism for the nucleation, growth, and grain boundary formation in its crystalline monolayers. Furthermore, a nucleation-controlled strategy is established to systematically promote the formation of large-area, single- and few-layered films. Using high-resolution electron microscopy imaging, the atomic structure and morphology of the grains and their boundaries in the polycrystalline molybdenum disulphide atomic layers are examined, and the primary mechanisms for grain boundary formation are evaluated. Grain boundaries consisting of 5- and 7- member rings are directly observed with atomic resolution, and their energy landscape is investigated via first-principles calculations. The uniformity in thickness, large grain sizes, and excellent electrical performance signify the high quality and scalable synthesis of the molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

  19. A structure-based catalytic mechanism for the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, R; Hof, P; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J; Hille, R; Archer, M; Romão, M J

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related molybdenum-iron protein aldehyde oxido-reductase from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas (Mop) was analyzed in its desulfo-, sulfo-, oxidized, reduced, and alcohol-bound forms at 1.8-A resolution. In the sulfo-form the molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor has a dithiolene-bound fac-[Mo, = O, = S, ---(OH2)] substructure. Bound inhibitory isopropanol in the inner compartment of the substrate binding tunnel is a model for the Michaelis complex of the reaction with aldehydes (H-C = O,-R). The reaction is proposed to proceed by transfer of the molybdenum-bound water molecule as OH- after proton transfer to Glu-869 to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in concert with hydride transfer to the sulfido group to generate [MoIV, = O, -SH, ---(O-C = O, -R)). Dissociation of the carboxylic acid product may be facilitated by transient binding of Glu-869 to the molybdenum. The metal-bound water is replenished from a chain of internal water molecules. A second alcohol binding site in the spacious outer compartment may cause the strong substrate inhibition observed. This compartment is the putative binding site of large inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799115

  20. Coordination polymer structure and revisited hydrogen evolution catalytic mechanism for amorphous molybdenum sulfide.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong D; Tran, Thu V; Orio, Maylis; Torelli, Stephane; Truong, Quang Duc; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Chiam, Sing Yang; Yi, Ren; Honma, Itaru; Barber, James; Artero, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Molybdenum sulfides are very attractive noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water. The atomic structure and identity of the catalytically active sites have been well established for crystalline molybdenum disulfide (c-MoS2) but not for amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx), which exhibits significantly higher HER activity compared to its crystalline counterpart. Here we show that HER-active a-MoSx, prepared either as nanoparticles or as films, is a molecular-based coordination polymer consisting of discrete [Mo3S13](2-) building blocks. Of the three terminal disulfide (S2(2-)) ligands within these clusters, two are shared to form the polymer chain. The third one remains free and generates molybdenum hydride moieties as the active site under H2 evolution conditions. Such a molecular structure therefore provides a basis for revisiting the mechanism of a-MoSx catalytic activity, as well as explaining some of its special properties such as reductive activation and corrosion. Our findings open up new avenues for the rational optimization of this HER electrocatalyst as an alternative to platinum. PMID:26974410

  1. Oxodiperoxo molybdenum modified mesoporous MCM-41 materials for the catalytic epoxidation of cyclooctene.

    PubMed

    Jia, Mingjun; Thiel, Werner R

    2002-10-21

    A hybrid heterogeneous catalyst system, which has been synthesized by covalently anchoring oxodiperoxo molybdenum chelate complexes onto the surface of mesoporous MCM-41, is highly active and truly heterogeneous for the liquid-phase epoxidation of cyclooctene with tBuOOH as the oxygen source.

  2. Electrosprayed Molybdenum Trioxide Aqueous Solution and Its Application in Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Katsumi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Liao, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    A molybdenum trioxide thin film with smooth surface and uniform thickness was successfully achieved by an electrospray deposition method using an aqueous solution with a drastically low concentration of 0.05 wt%. Previous papers demonstrated that an additive solvent technique is useful for depositing the thin film by the electrospray deposition, and the high vapor pressure and a low surface tension of an additive solvent were found to be important factors. As a result, the smooth molybdenum trioxide thin film was obtained when the acetonitrile was used as the additive solvent. Furthermore, the vapor pressure of acetone is much higher than that of aqueous solution, and this indicates that the acetone is easily evaporated after spraying from the glass capillary. By optimizing a concentration of acetone in the molybdenum aqueous solution, a minimum root mean square roughness of the MoO3 thin film became 3.7 nm. In addition, an organic photovoltaic cell was also demonstrated using the molybdenum trioxide as a hole transport layer. Highest photoconversion efficiency was 1.72%, a value comparable to that using conventional thermal evaporation process even though the aqueous solution was used for the solution process. The photovonversion efficiency was not an optimized value, and the higher value can be achieved by optimizing the coating condition of the active layer. PMID:25148047

  3. A Model for the Active-Site Formation Process in DMSO Reductase Family Molybdenum Enzymes Involving Oxido-Alcoholato and Oxido-Thiolato Molybdenum(VI) Core Structures.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Sato, Masanori; Asano, Kaori; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Giles, Logan J; Pokhrel, Amrit; Kirk, Martin L; Itoh, Shinobu

    2016-02-15

    New bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)-oxido-alcoholato molybdenum(VI) and -oxido-thiolato molybdenum(VI) anionic complexes, denoted as [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) (E = O, S; L = dimethoxycarboxylate-1,2-ethylenedithiolate), were obtained from the reaction of the corresponding dioxido-molybdenum(VI) precursor complex with either an alcohol or a thiol in the presence of an organic acid (e.g., 10-camphorsulfonic acid) at low temperature. The [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) complexes were isolated and characterized, and the structure of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The Mo(VI) center in [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry with the two ene-1,2-dithiolate ligands being symmetry inequivalent. The computed structure of [Mo(VI)O(SR)L2](-) is essentially identical to that of [Mo(VI)O(OR)L2](-). The electronic structures of the resulting molybdenum(VI) complexes were evaluated using electronic absorption spectroscopy and bonding calculations. The nature of the distorted O(h) geometry in these [Mo(VI)O(EEt)L2](-) complexes results in a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital wave function that possesses strong π* interactions between the Mo(d(xy)) orbital and the cis S(p(z)) orbital localized on one sulfur donor from a single ene-1,2-dithiolate ligand. The presence of a covalent Mo-S(dithiolene) bonding interaction in these monooxido Mo(VI) compounds contributes to their low-energy ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. A second important d-p π bonding interaction derives from the ∼180° O(oxo)-Mo-E-C dihedral angle involving the alcoholate and thiolate donors, and this contributes to ancillary ligand contributions to the electronic structure of these species. The formation of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) and [Mo(VI)O(SEt)L2](-) from the dioxidomolybdenum(VI) precursor may be regarded as a model for the active-site formation process that occurs in the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes.

  4. Effect of molybdenum on structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of biomedical Ti-20Zr-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Pedro Akira Bazaglia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Grandini, Carlos Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Titanium has an allotropic transformation around 883°C. Below this temperature, the crystalline structure is hexagonal close-packed (α phase), changing to body-centered cubic (β phase). Zirconium has the same allotropic transformation around 862°C. Molybdenum has body-centered cubic structure, being a strong β-stabilizer for the formation of titanium alloys. In this paper, the effect of substitutional molybdenum was analyzed on the structure, microstructure and selected mechanical properties of Ti-20Zr-Mo (wt%) alloys to be used in biomedical applications. The samples were prepared by arc-melting and characterized by x-ray diffraction with subsequent refinement by the Rietveld method, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were analyzed by Vickers microhardness and dynamic elasticity modulus. X-ray measurements and Rietveld analysis revealed the presence of α' phase without molybdenum, α'+α″ phases with 2.5wt% of molybdenum, α″+β phases with 5 and 7.5wt% of molybdenum, and only β phase with 10wt% of molybdenum. These results were corroborated by microscopy results, with a microstructure composed of grains of β phase and lamellae and needles of α' and α″ phase in intra-grain the region. The hardness of the alloy was higher than the commercially pure titanium, due to the action of zirconium and molybdenum as hardening agents. The samples have a smaller elasticity modulus than the commercially pure titanium.

  5. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  6. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to mo-blue by a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14.

    PubMed

    Halmi, M I E; Zuhainis, S W; Yusof, M T; Shaharuddin, N A; Helmi, W; Shukor, Y; Syed, M A; Ahmad, S A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  7. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Properties of the Molybdenum-containing, NAD+-dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Niks, Dimitri; Duvvuru, Jayant; Escalona, Miguel; Hille, Russ

    2016-01-15

    We have examined the rapid reaction kinetics and spectroscopic properties of the molybdenum-containing, NAD(+)-dependent FdsABG formate dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha. We confirm previous steady-state studies of the enzyme and extend its characterization to a rapid kinetic study of the reductive half-reaction (the reaction of formate with oxidized enzyme). We have also characterized the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of the molybdenum center in its Mo(V) state and demonstrated the direct transfer of the substrate Cα hydrogen to the molybdenum center in the course of the reaction. Varying temperature, microwave power, and level of enzyme reduction, we are able to clearly identify the electron paramagnetic resonance signals for four of the iron/sulfur clusters of the enzyme and find suggestive evidence for two others; we observe a magnetic interaction between the molybdenum center and one of the iron/sulfur centers, permitting assignment of this signal to a specific iron/sulfur cluster in the enzyme. In light of recent advances in our understanding of the structure of the molybdenum center, we propose a reaction mechanism involving direct hydride transfer from formate to a molybdenum-sulfur group of the molybdenum center.

  8. Effect of molybdenum on structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of biomedical Ti-20Zr-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Pedro Akira Bazaglia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Grandini, Carlos Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Titanium has an allotropic transformation around 883°C. Below this temperature, the crystalline structure is hexagonal close-packed (α phase), changing to body-centered cubic (β phase). Zirconium has the same allotropic transformation around 862°C. Molybdenum has body-centered cubic structure, being a strong β-stabilizer for the formation of titanium alloys. In this paper, the effect of substitutional molybdenum was analyzed on the structure, microstructure and selected mechanical properties of Ti-20Zr-Mo (wt%) alloys to be used in biomedical applications. The samples were prepared by arc-melting and characterized by x-ray diffraction with subsequent refinement by the Rietveld method, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were analyzed by Vickers microhardness and dynamic elasticity modulus. X-ray measurements and Rietveld analysis revealed the presence of α' phase without molybdenum, α'+α″ phases with 2.5wt% of molybdenum, α″+β phases with 5 and 7.5wt% of molybdenum, and only β phase with 10wt% of molybdenum. These results were corroborated by microscopy results, with a microstructure composed of grains of β phase and lamellae and needles of α' and α″ phase in intra-grain the region. The hardness of the alloy was higher than the commercially pure titanium, due to the action of zirconium and molybdenum as hardening agents. The samples have a smaller elasticity modulus than the commercially pure titanium. PMID:27287149

  9. Removal of Vanadium(III) and Molybdenum(V) from Wastewater Using Posidonia oceanica (Tracheophyta) Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Chiara; Totti, Cecilia; Beolchini, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The use of dried and re-hydrated biomass of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica was investigated as an alternative and –low-cost biomaterial for removal of vanadium(III) and molybdenum(V) from wastewaters. Initial characterisation of this biomaterial identified carboxylic groups on the cuticle as potentially responsible for cation sorption, and confirmed the toxic-metal bioaccumulation. The combined effects on biosorption performance of equilibrium pH and metal concentrations were investigated in an ideal single-metal system and in more real-life multicomponent systems. There were either with one metal (vanadium or molybdenum) and sodium nitrate, as representative of high ionic strength systems, or with the two metals (vanadium and molybdenum). For the single-metal solutions, the optimum was at pH 3, where a significant proportion of vanadium was removed (ca. 70%) while there was ca. 40% adsorption of molybdenum. The data obtained from the more real-life multicomponent systems showed that biosorption of one metal was improved both by the presence of the other metal and by high ionic strength, suggesting a synergistic effect on biosorption rather than competition. There data ware used for the development of a simple multi-metal equilibrium model based on the non-competitive Langmuir approach, which was successfully fitted to experimental data and represents a useful support tool for the prediction of biosorption performance in such real-life systems. Overall, the results suggest that biomass of P. oceanica can be used as an efficient biosorbent for removal of vanadium(III) and molybdenum(V) from aqueous solutions. This process thus offers an eco-compatible solution for the reuse of the waste material of leaves that accumulate on the beach due to both human activities and to storms at sea. PMID:24204692

  10. Identification of a bis-molybdopterin intermediate in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reschke, Stefan; Sigfridsson, Kajsa G V; Kaufmann, Paul; Leidel, Nils; Horn, Sebastian; Gast, Klaus; Schulzke, Carola; Haumann, Michael; Leimkühler, Silke

    2013-10-11

    The molybdenum cofactor is an important cofactor, and its biosynthesis is essential for many organisms, including humans. Its basic form comprises a single molybdopterin (MPT) unit, which binds a molybdenum ion bearing three oxygen ligands via a dithiolene function, thus forming Mo-MPT. In bacteria, this form is modified to form the bis-MPT guanine dinucleotide cofactor with two MPT units coordinated at one molybdenum atom, which additionally contains GMPs bound to the terminal phosphate group of the MPTs (bis-MGD). The MobA protein catalyzes the nucleotide addition to MPT, but the mechanism of the biosynthesis of the bis-MGD cofactor has remained enigmatic. We have established an in vitro system for studying bis-MGD assembly using purified compounds. Quantification of the MPT/molybdenum and molybdenum/phosphorus ratios, time-dependent assays for MPT and MGD detection, and determination of the numbers and lengths of Mo-S and Mo-O bonds by X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled identification of a novel bis-Mo-MPT intermediate on MobA prior to nucleotide attachment. The addition of Mg-GTP to MobA loaded with bis-Mo-MPT resulted in formation and release of the final bis-MGD product. This cofactor was fully functional and reconstituted the catalytic activity of apo-TMAO reductase (TorA). We propose a reaction sequence for bis-MGD formation, which involves 1) the formation of bis-Mo-MPT, 2) the addition of two GMP units to form bis-MGD on MobA, and 3) the release and transfer of the mature cofactor to the target protein TorA, in a reaction that is supported by the specific chaperone TorD, resulting in an active molybdoenzyme.

  11. Effect of molybdenum and tungsten on synthesis and composition of formate dehydrogenase in Methanobacterium formicicum.

    PubMed Central

    May, H D; Patel, P S; Ferry, J G

    1988-01-01

    The influence of sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate on formate dehydrogenase activity was studied in H2-CO2-grown cultures of Methanobacterium formicicum. Depletion of molybdate from the growth medium resulted in a 75-fold decrease of intracellular molybdenum and a 35-fold decrease in enzyme activity; however, growth rate and cell yields were not influenced. By using an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay, the amount of formate dehydrogenase approximated 3% of the total protein in cells grown in the presence of molybdate. Molybdenum-starved cells contained approximately 15-fold less formate dehydrogenase protein; Western blot (immunoblot) analysis revealed that both subunits of the enzyme were synthesized. Molybdenum starvation resulted in an increase in the amount of mRNA that hybridized to fdh-specific DNA. The results indicated an inverse relationship between the amount of transcript and the amount of formate dehydrogenase protein detected in response to molybdenum starvation. The addition of 1 mM tungstate to molybdate-containing media resulted in nearly complete loss of enzyme activity and decreased the intracellular concentration of molybdenum 10-fold. Cells grown in the presence of tungstate synthesized high amounts of inactive formate dehydrogenase and contained mRNA that hybridized to fdh-specific DNA in amounts similar to that in cells grown with sufficient molybdate. Inactive formate dehydrogenase, purified from cells grown in the presence of tungstate, had the same subunit composition and contained amounts of molybdopterin cofactor, albeit metal-free, comparable to those in the active enzyme. Images PMID:2457011

  12. Comparison of radiation shielding ratios of nano-sized bismuth trioxide and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. H.; Kim, M. S.; Rhim, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, radiation shielding fibers using non-hazardous nano-sized bismuth trioxide and molybdenum instead of lead were developed and evaluated. Among the elements with high densities and atomic numbers, non-hazardous elements such as bismuth trioxide and molybdenum were chosen as a shielding element. Then, bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) with average particle size 1-500 µm was ball milled for 10 min to produce a powdered form of nanoparticles with average particle size of 10-100 nm. Bismuth trioxide nanoparticles were dispersed to make a colloidal suspension, followed by spreading and hardening onto one or two sides of fabric, to create the radiation shielding fabric. The thicknesses of the shielding sheets using nano-sized bismuth and molybdenum were 0.4 and 0.7 mm. According to the lead equivalent test of X-ray shielding products suggested by KS, the equivalent dose was measured, followed by calculation of the shielding rate. The shielding rate of bismuth with 0.4 mm thickness and at 50 kVp was 90.5%, which is comparable to lead of 0.082 mm thickness. The shielding rate of molybdenum was 51.89%%, which is comparable to lead of 0.034 mm. At a thickness of 0.7 mm, the shielding rate of bismuth was 98.73%, equivalent to 0.101 mm Pb, whereas the shielding rate of molybdenum was 74.68%, equivalent to 0.045 mm Pb. In conclusion, the radiation shielding fibers using nano-sized bismuth developed in this study are capable of reducing radiation exposure by X-ray and its low-dose scatter ray.

  13. Atom probe study of grain boundary segregation in technically pure molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Babinsky, K.; Weidow, J.; Knabl, W.; Lorich, A.; Leitner, H.; Primig, S.

    2014-01-15

    Molybdenum, a metal with excellent physical, chemical and high-temperature properties, is an interesting material for applications in lighting-technology, high performance electronics, high temperature furnace construction and coating technology. However, its applicability as a structural material is limited because of the poor oxidation resistance at high temperatures and a brittle-to-ductile transition around room temperature, which is influenced by the grain size and the content of interstitial impurities at the grain boundaries. Due to the progress of the powder metallurgical production during the last decades, the amount of impurities in the current quality of molybdenum has become so small that surface sensitive techniques are not applicable anymore. Therefore, the atom probe, which allows the detection of small amounts of impurities as well as their location, seems to be a more suitable technique. However, a site-specific specimen preparation procedure for grain boundaries in refractory metals with a dual focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope is still required. The present investigation describes the development and successful application of such a site-specific preparation technique for grain boundaries in molybdenum, which is significantly improved by a combination with transmission electron microscopy. This complimentary technique helps to improve the visibility of grain boundaries during the last preparation steps and to evidence the presence of grain and subgrain boundaries without segregants in atom probe specimens. Furthermore, in industrially processed and recrystallized molybdenum sheets grain boundary segregation of oxygen, nitrogen and potassium is successfully detected close to segregated regions which are believed to be former sinter pores. - Highlights: • First study of grain boundary segregation in molybdenum by atom probe • Site-specific preparation technique by FIB and TEM successfully developed • Grain boundary segregation of

  14. Molybdenum behaviour in the low salinity zone during estuarine mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Rebecca A.; Wouters, Hanne; Dickson, Alex J.; Pearce, Christopher R.; Porcelli, Don; Gíslason, Sigurður R.; Burton, Kevin W.

    2015-04-01

    Molybdenum is the most abundant trace metal in the oceans (~10 ppb) [1], with a residence time of ~800 ka, and an almost uniform isotope composition of 2.1 o [2] and it has been thought to behave conservatively upon mixing between rivers and oceans [3]. However, more recent studies have shown examples of non-conservative behaviour in estuaries [4], [5]. In order to improve the quantitative interpretation of the Mo palaeo-proxy for redox conditions this study presents preliminary data from two estuaries, with a view to understanding the potential for estuarine modification of rivers, the most dominant source of Mo to the oceans. The Kalix and Råne rivers, drain into the Bothnian Bay, Sweden. Samples are from three locations along each estuary at 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 m depths, collected under ice conditions. The salinity range was 0.1-2.3 PSU (Kalix) and 0.04-2.5 PSU (Råne). Mo concentrations increase with salinity from 0.3 to 1.0 ppb (Kalix) and 0.4 to 0.9 ppb (Råne) (±10%). In the Kalix, the measured [Mo] values fit closely with the theoretical conservative mixing line between the river and sea water endmembers (measured R2=0.93) whilst in the Råne estuary the measured [Mo] have a poor fit (measured R2=0.25). The dissolved load was analysed for Mo isotopes relative to NIST 3134 with the Kalix δ98Mo of 1.07-1.97 o (2s.e. 0.02 ) with an R2=0.51 (against 1/[Mo]) and Råne δ98Mo of 1.54-2.16 o (2s.e. 0.05) with an R2=0.01 (against 1/[Mo]). It is clear from concentration and isotope data that non conservative behaviour is observed in these estuaries with isotope exchange that has not greatly altered Mo concentration. This is especially notable in the Råne estuary. Similar non-conservative behaviour has been observed in Li isotopes in the same estuaries [6]. This work explores the interactions between the dissolved and suspended phases, and processes controlling Mo input to the oceans. [1] Collier, R. W. 1985. Limnology and Oceanography, 1351-1354 [2] Nakagawa, Y et

  15. Development of a potentiometric EDTA method for determination of molybdenum. Use of the analysis for molybdenite concentrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khristova, R.; Vanmen, M.

    1986-01-01

    Based on considerations of principles and experimental data, the interference of sulfate ions in poteniometric titration of EDTA with FeCl3 was confirmed. The method of back complexometric titration of molybdenum of Nonova and Gasheva was improved by replacing hydrazine sulfate with hydrazine hydrochloride for reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V). The method can be used for one to tenths of mg of molybdenum with 0.04 mg standard deviation. The specific method of determination of molybdenum in molybdenite concentrates is presented.

  16. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes as inherently electroactive labels for DNA hybridization detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The detection of specific DNA sequences plays a critical role in the areas of medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, drug discovery and food safety. This has therefore become a strong driving force behind the ever-increasing demand for simple, cost-effective, highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors. In this study, we report for the first time, a novel approach for the utilization of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes, a member of the transition metal dichalcogenides family, in the detection of DNA hybridization. Herein, molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes serve as inherently electroactive labels, with the inherent oxidation peak exploited as the analytical signal. The principle of detection is based on the differential affinity of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes towards single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. The employment of transition metal dichalcogenide nanomaterials for sensing and biosensing purposes represents an upcoming research area which holds great promise. Hence, our findings are anticipated to have significant contributions towards the fabrication of future DNA biosensors.The detection of specific DNA sequences plays a critical role in the areas of medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, drug discovery and food safety. This has therefore become a strong driving force behind the ever-increasing demand for simple, cost-effective, highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors. In this study, we report for the first time, a novel approach for the utilization of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes, a member of the transition metal dichalcogenides family, in the detection of DNA hybridization. Herein, molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes serve as inherently electroactive labels, with the inherent oxidation peak exploited as the analytical signal. The principle of detection is based on the differential affinity of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes towards single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. The employment of transition metal dichalcogenide

  17. A Quantitative Model for the Exchange Current of Porous Molybdenum Electrodes on Sodium Beta-Alumina in Sodium Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; LeDuc, H.; Cortez, R. H.; Saipetch, C.; Shields, V.; Manatt, K.; Homer, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the exchange current developed for porous molybdenum electrodes on sodium beta-alumina ceramics in low pressure sodium vapor, but which has general applicability to gas/porous metal electrodes on solid electrolytes.

  18. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Lux-Steiner, M.

    2016-03-01

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  19. Direct Synthesis of Silylamine from N2 and a Silane: Mediated by a Tridentate Phosphine Molybdenum Fragment.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qian; Cavaillé, Anthony; Saffon-Merceron, Nathalie; Mézailles, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    A homogeneous system which is able to yield silylamine from N2 and bis(silane) in one pot is reported. Mechanistically a {(triphosphine)molybdenum(I)} fragment, generated in situ, splits N2 into the corresponding nitrido complex at room temperature. Then, functionalization of the molybdenum nitrido is achieved by double Si-H addition under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the bis(silyl)amine product is decoordinated from the metal center. PMID:27491064

  20. Investigation of the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene on oxide catalysts containing molybdenum and using the response method

    SciTech Connect

    Gadzhiev, K.N.; Adzhamov, K.Y.; Alkhazov, T.G.; Khanmamedova, A.K.

    1985-07-01

    The response method has been used to study the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene on MoO/sub 3/ and molybdenum oxide systems containing bismuth, silicon, and phosphorous ions. The response curves obtained for ammonia, propylene, CO/sub 2/, acrolein, acrylonitrile in these systems are discussed and compared with individual molybdenum trioxide. It has been shown that the modifying action of ammonia on the catalyst surfaces determines the direction of the oxidative conversion of the propylene.

  1. Direct Synthesis of Silylamine from N2 and a Silane: Mediated by a Tridentate Phosphine Molybdenum Fragment.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qian; Cavaillé, Anthony; Saffon-Merceron, Nathalie; Mézailles, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    A homogeneous system which is able to yield silylamine from N2 and bis(silane) in one pot is reported. Mechanistically a {(triphosphine)molybdenum(I)} fragment, generated in situ, splits N2 into the corresponding nitrido complex at room temperature. Then, functionalization of the molybdenum nitrido is achieved by double Si-H addition under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the bis(silyl)amine product is decoordinated from the metal center.

  2. Influence of molybdenum on the accumulation and composition of the water-soluble polysaccharides of Plantago psyllium

    SciTech Connect

    Lichino, I.P.; Gomanova, M.I.; Milenysheva, L.I.; Yakovlev, A.I.

    1986-07-01

    The authors have studied the dynamics of the accumulation of polysaccharides in flaxseed plantain when it is given a foliar top dressing with molybdenum, and also their monosaccaride composition and physicochemical properties. The amounts of galacturonic acid were determined by potentiometric titration. The results of the investigations permit the conclusions that molybdenum somewhat decreases the amounts of total monosaccaride complex and of galacturonic acid while considerably raising the amount of -OCH/sub 3/.

  3. Sodium modified molybdenum sulfide via molten salt electrolysis as an anode material for high performance sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Tu, Jiguo; Yuan, Yan; Ma, Rui; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-01-28

    The paper reports a facile and cost effective method for fabricating sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles through using MoS2 sheets as the precursor by sodium-modification. The electrochemical performances of sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles are studied as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been performed in a voltage range of 0.01-2.6 V vs. Na(+)/Na under different current densities, using the as-prepared sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles as a working electrode. Typically, the initial discharge and charge capacities of sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles are 475 and 380 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 20 mA g(-1). The sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles exhibit high capacity with a reversible discharge capacity of about 190 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles. It should be emphasized that the discharge reaction consists of two steps which correspond to voltage plateaus of 0.93 V and 0.85 V vs. Na(+)/Na in the first discharge curve of the Na/MoS2 battery, respectively. But there is only one apparent voltage plateau in the Na/Na-Mo-S battery, and it reduces to below 0.5 V vs. Na(+)/Na, which can enhance the power density. All of the findings demonstrate that sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have steady cycling performance and environmental and cost friendliness as next generation secondary batteries. PMID:26744041

  4. Sodium modified molybdenum sulfide via molten salt electrolysis as an anode material for high performance sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Tu, Jiguo; Yuan, Yan; Ma, Rui; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-01-28

    The paper reports a facile and cost effective method for fabricating sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles through using MoS2 sheets as the precursor by sodium-modification. The electrochemical performances of sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles are studied as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been performed in a voltage range of 0.01-2.6 V vs. Na(+)/Na under different current densities, using the as-prepared sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles as a working electrode. Typically, the initial discharge and charge capacities of sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles are 475 and 380 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 20 mA g(-1). The sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles exhibit high capacity with a reversible discharge capacity of about 190 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles. It should be emphasized that the discharge reaction consists of two steps which correspond to voltage plateaus of 0.93 V and 0.85 V vs. Na(+)/Na in the first discharge curve of the Na/MoS2 battery, respectively. But there is only one apparent voltage plateau in the Na/Na-Mo-S battery, and it reduces to below 0.5 V vs. Na(+)/Na, which can enhance the power density. All of the findings demonstrate that sodium molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have steady cycling performance and environmental and cost friendliness as next generation secondary batteries.

  5. Effect of Prestraining of Recrystallization Temperature and Mechanical Properties of Commercial, Sintered, Wrought Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dike, Kenneth C; Long, Roger A

    1953-01-01

    Given three presumably identical lots of commercial, sintered, wrought molybdenum, the 1-hour recrystallization temperature of one lot remained above 2900 F by limiting the amount of effective restraining to 35 percent or less. Different recrystallization temperatures were obtained in various atmospheres, the highest in argon and the lowest in hydrogen. Metal thus fabricated and then stress-relieved possessed an ultimate tensile strength at room temperature within 10 percent of metal swaged 99 percent and also possessed equivalent ductility. At 1800 F, equivalent strength and ductility was obtained irrespective of the amount of swaging over the range of 10 to 99 percent. The amount of swaging greatly influenced the recrystallized grain size but the difference in grain size is not the major controlling factor which determines whether recrystallized molybdenum is ductile or brittle at room temperature.

  6. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  7. Reactive melt infiltration of silicon-molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at.% molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms have been carried out by modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the pore volume fraction of the carbon preform is a very important parameter in determining the final composition of the reaction-formed silicon carbide and the secondary phases. Various undesirable melt infiltration results, e.g. choking-off, specimen cracking, silicon veins, and lake formation, and their correlation with inadequate preform properties are presented. The liquid silicon-carbon reaction exotherm temperatures are influenced by the pore and carbon particle size of the preform and the compositions of infiltrants. Room temperature flexural strength and fracture toughness of materials made by the silicon-3.2 at.% molybdenum alloy infiltration of medium pore size preforms are also discussed.

  8. Grains and grian boundaries in highly-crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Arend M.; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; You, Yumeng; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Reichman, David R.; Muller, David A.; Heinz, Tony F.; Hone, James C.

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in large-area chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of monolayer molybdenum disulfide, a new two-dimensional direct-bandgap semiconductor, is paving the way for applications in atomically thin electronics. Little is known, however, about the microstructure of this material. Here we have refined CVD synthesis to grow highly crystalline islands of monolayer molybdenum disulfide up to 120 micrometers in size with optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to exfoliated samples. Using transmission electron microscopy, we correlate lattice orientation, edge morphology, and crystallinity with island shape to demonstrate that triangular islands are single crystals. The crystals merge to form faceted tilt and mirror boundaries that are stitched together by lines of 8- and 4- membered rings. Density functional theory reveals localized mid-gap states arising from these 8-4 defects. The knowledge gained about grain structure enables systematic studies of the optical, mechanical, and electronic properties of grain boundaries.

  9. Diagnostics for molybdenum and tungsten erosion and transport in NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Weller, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive set of spectroscopic diagnostics is planned in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade to connect measurements of molybdenum and tungsten divertor sources to scrape-off layer (SOL) and core impurity transport, supporting the installation of high-Z plasma facing components which is scheduled to begin with a row of molybdenum tiles. Imaging with narrow-bandpass interference filters and high-resolution spectroscopy will be coupled to estimate divertor impurity influxes. Vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectrometers will allow connecting high-Z sources to SOL transport and core impurity content. The high-Z diagnostics suite complements the existing measurements for low-Z impurities (carbon and lithium), critical for the characterization of sputtering of high-Z materials.

  10. Charge mobility increase in indium-molybdenum oxide thin films by hydrogen doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, S.; Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Salas, E.; Ramírez-Jiménez, R.; Rodriguez-Palomo, A.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2016-11-01

    The increase of charge mobility in transparent conductive indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) films is correlated with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The introduction of H2 in the chamber during sputtering deposition compensates the excess charge introduced by cationic Mo doping of indium oxide either by oxygen or hydroxyl interstitials. Films present a linear increase of carrier mobility correlated with H2 content only after vacuum annealing. This behavior is explained because vacuum annealing favors the removal of oxygen interstitials over that of hydroxyl groups. Since hydroxyl groups offer lower effective charge and smaller lattice distortions than those associated with interstitial oxygen, this compensation mechanism offers the conditions for the observed increase in mobility. Additionally, the short-range order around molybdenum is evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, showing that Mo4+ is placed at the In site of the indium oxide.

  11. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is described for accurately and precisely determining the zirconium or hafnium content of molybdenum-base alloys. The procedure is based on the reaction of the reagent Arsenazo III with zirconium or hafnium in strong hydrochloric acid solution. The colored complexes of zirconium or hafnium are formed in the presence of molybdenum. Titanium or rhenium in the alloy have no adverse effect on the zirconium or hafnium complex at the following levels in the selected aliquot: Mo, 10 mg; Re, 10 mg; Ti, 1 mg. The spectrophotometric measurement of the zirconium or hafnium complex is accomplished without prior separation with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 to 2.7 percent.

  12. Enhancement of the antimicrobial properties of orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide by thermal induced fracturing of the hydrates.

    PubMed

    Shafaei, Shahram; Van Opdenbosch, Daniel; Fey, Tobias; Koch, Marcus; Kraus, Tobias; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Zollfrank, Cordt

    2016-01-01

    The oxides of the transition metal molybdenum exhibit excellent antimicrobial properties. We present the preparation of molybdenum trioxide dihydrate (MoO3 × 2H2O) by an acidification method and demonstrate the thermal phase development and morphological evolution during and after calcination from 25 °C to 600 °C. The thermal dehydration of the material was found to proceed in two steps. Microbiological roll-on tests using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were performed and exceptional antimicrobial activities were determined for anhydrous samples with orthorhombic lattice symmetry and a large specific surface area. The increase in the specific surface area is due to crack formation and to the loss of the hydrate water after calcination at 300 °C. The results support the proposed antimicrobial mechanism for transition metal oxides, which based on a local acidity increase as a consequence of the augmented specific surface area.

  13. Sputtering nickel-molybdenum nanorods as an excellent hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Xiong, Kun; Nie, Yao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Liao, Jianhua; Wei, Zidong

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel fabrication of nickel-molybdenum alloy nanorods catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which is prepared by co-deposition of pure nickel and molybdenum in a multisource sputtering system on the surface of Ni foam substrate. The Ni-Mo alloy film exhibits favorable vertical nanorods structure and presents the most efficient activity for HER compared to the film only including one metal element. The remarkably enhanced catalytic activity is attributed to its ordered array geometry as well as the synergistic interaction between Ni and Mo. Meanwhile, the open space within nanorod arrays facilitates the electrolyte penetration and diffusion of ionic species, allowing high utilization efficiency of active species as well as rapidly release of evolved hydrogen gas from the electrode surface.

  14. Development of the copper and molybdenum industries and the Armenian economy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, A.R.; Levine, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Production of copper and molybdenum in Armenia is examined, with special emphasis on the location of major deposits, former and proposed future centers of processing, and contribution of metals exports to the country's foreign trade revenues. Particular emphasis is placed on the impacts on these industries of the disruption of economic ties resulting from the dissolution of the USSR and an economic crisis precipitated by a major earthquake, Armenia's tension with Azerbaijan over armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas in Azerbaijan, an economic blockade imposed by Turkey and Azerbaijan, and a consequent severe energy crisis. The paper highlights developments in the mid-1990s in copper and molybdenum and in the recent expansion of trade relations with Iran.

  15. Discovery of abnormal lithium-storage sites in molybdenum dioxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Jeong Kuk; Lee, Hyo Sug; Park, Gwi Ok; Yoon, Jeongbae; Park, Eunjun; Park, Gyeong Su; Kong, Soo Sung; Jin, Mingshi; Choi, Jae-Man; Chang, Hyuk; Doo, Seokgwang; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, Won-Sub; Pak, Chanho; Kim, Hansu; Stucky, Galen D.

    2016-03-01

    Developing electrode materials with high-energy densities is important for the development of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate a mesoporous molybdenum dioxide material with abnormal lithium-storage sites, which exhibits a discharge capacity of 1,814 mAh g-1 for the first cycle, more than twice its theoretical value, and maintains its initial capacity after 50 cycles. Contrary to previous reports, we find that a mechanism for the high and reversible lithium-storage capacity of the mesoporous molybdenum dioxide electrode is not based on a conversion reaction. Insight into the electrochemical results, obtained by in situ X-ray absorption, scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy and computational modelling indicates that the nanoscale pore engineering of this transition metal oxide enables an unexpected electrochemical mass storage reaction mechanism, and may provide a strategy for the design of cation storage materials for battery systems.

  16. Effects of heat treatments on the thermal diffusivity of Uranium-Molybdenum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarano, D. M.; Mansur, F. A.; Santos, A. M. M.; Ferraz, W. B.; Pedrosa, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    U-Mo alloys are the most investigated nuclear fuel material to be used in research reactors. The addition of molybdenum stabilizes the gamma phase of uranium and increases its melting point. A research program under development at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) aims the obtaining of uranium-molybdenum alloys to enable the high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) conversions. U-Mo ingots with 10% by weight were induction melted and heat treated at 300 °C for 72 h, 120 h and 240 h. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the laser flash method and thermal quadrupole method, from room temperature to 300 oC and 400oC. It was observed that the thermal diffusivity tends to increase with increasing temperature.

  17. Study of Chromium-Frit-Type Coatings for High-Temperature Protection of Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D G; Bolz, L H; Pitts, J W; Harrison, W N

    1951-01-01

    The achievement of more compact and efficient power plants for aircraft is dependent, among other factors, on the perfection of heat-resisting materials that are superior to those in current use. Molybdenum is one of the high-melting metals (melting point, 4750 F). It is fairly abundant and also can be worked into many of the shapes required in modern power plants. To permit its widespread use at elevated temperatures, however, some means must first be found to prevent its rapid oxidation. The application of a protective coating is one method that might be used to achieve this goal. In the present work, a number of chromium-frit-type coatings were studied. These were bonded to molybdenum specimens by firing in controlled atmospheres to temperatures in the range of 2400 to 2700 F.

  18. Voltammetric studies of porous molybdenum electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Bankston, C. P.; Khanna, S. K.; Cole, T.

    1986-01-01

    Voltammetry of partially oxidized porous molybdenum alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) electrodes from about 600 to 1000 K revealed a series of redox processes within the AMTEC operational voltage range which can be used to establish the electronic and ionic conductivities of these electrodes. Improved estimates of the free energies of formation of Na2Mo3O6, NaMoO2, and Na3MoO4 are obtained. Evidence is provided for the slow corrosive attack by Na2MoO4 on molybdenum. The ionic conductivity of Na2MoO4 is found to be sufficiently large at temperatures of greater than 700 K to explain the observed electrochemical phenomena in addition to the enhanced sodium transport in AMTEC electrodes below the freezing point of Na2MoO4.

  19. Development and tests of molybdenum armored copper components for MITICA ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavei, Mauro; Böswirth, Bernd; Greuner, Henri; Marcuzzi, Diego; Rizzolo, Andrea; Valente, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    In order to prevent detrimental material erosion of components impinged by back-streaming positive D or H ions in the megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement beam source, a solution based on explosion bonding technique has been identified for producing a 1 mm thick molybdenum armour layer on copper substrate, compatible with ITER requirements. Prototypes have been recently manufactured and tested in the high heat flux test facility Garching Large Divertor Sample Test Facility (GLADIS) to check the capability of the molybdenum-copper interface to withstand several thermal shock cycles at high power density. This paper presents both the numerical fluid-dynamic analyses of the prototypes simulating the test conditions in GLADIS as well as the experimental results.

  20. Synthesis of finely divided molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles in propylene carbonate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been prepared from the reflux solution reaction involving ammonium heptamolybdate and elemental sulfur in propylene carbonate. Addition to the reaction mixture of starch as a natural capping agent leads to lesser agglomeration and smaller size of the particles. Nanoparticles of MoSx (x≈4) of 10-30 nm size are highly divided and form stable colloidal suspensions in organic solvents. Mo K edge EXAFS of the amorphous materials shows rapid exchange of oxygen to sulfur in the molybdenum coordination sphere during the solution reaction. Thermal treatment of the amorphous sulfides MoSx under nitrogen or hydrogen flow at 400 °C allows obtaining mesoporous MoS2 materials with very high pore volume and specific surface area, up to 0.45 cm3/g and 190 m2/g, respectively. The new materials show good potential for the application as unsupported hydrotreating catalysts.