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Sample records for 4-8 hz alpha

  1. Increased frequency of CD4-8-T cells bearing T-cell receptor alpha beta chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Y; Kyoizumi, S; Hirai, Y; Fujita, S; Akiyama, M

    1994-07-01

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4-8- alpha beta T cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4-8-T cells in peripheral-blood alpha beta T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors (160 estimated to have been exposed to 1.5 Gy or more and 249 controls) were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4-8- alpha beta T-cell decreased significantly with the subject's age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5 Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells.

  2. Intermittent 20-HZ-photic stimulation leads to a uniform reduction of alpha-global field power in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rau, R; Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    2001-01-01

    19-channel-EEGs were recorded from scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16m, 14f, mean age: 34 ys, SD: 11.7 ys) at rest and under IPS (Intermittent Photic Stimulation) at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hertz (Hz). Digitalized data underwent spectral analysis with fast fourier transfomation (FFT) yielding the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP). For quantification GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data gained under IPS. While ratios from PDE data showed no stable parameter due to high interindividual variability, ratios of alpha-power turned out to be uniform in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP at rest by alpha-GFP under 20-Hz IPS thus resulted in a ratio < 1. We conclude that ratios from GFP data are a stable diagnostic paradigma. PMID:11811850

  3. Intermittent 20-HZ-photic stimulation leads to a uniform reduction of alpha-global field power in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rau, R; Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    2001-01-01

    19-channel-EEGs were recorded from scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16m, 14f, mean age: 34 ys, SD: 11.7 ys) at rest and under IPS (Intermittent Photic Stimulation) at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hertz (Hz). Digitalized data underwent spectral analysis with fast fourier transfomation (FFT) yielding the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP). For quantification GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data gained under IPS. While ratios from PDE data showed no stable parameter due to high interindividual variability, ratios of alpha-power turned out to be uniform in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP at rest by alpha-GFP under 20-Hz IPS thus resulted in a ratio < 1. We conclude that ratios from GFP data are a stable diagnostic paradigma.

  4. Alpha particle energy response of 1-mm-thick polycarbonate track detectors by 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching method.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M; Ramezani, V

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical etching (ECE) method enlarges charged particle tracks to enhance its applications in particular in health physics and radiation dosimetry. The ECE method is usually based on using a high frequency-high voltage (HF-HV) generator with 250-µm-thick polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs). The authors' recent studies on nitrogen and helium ions and alpha tracks in 1-mm-thick large-size PCTDs under a 50 Hz-HV ECE process provided promising results. In this study, alpha track efficiency and mean track diameter versus energy responses and registration energy range as well as alpha and background track shapes under three sets of 50 Hz-4, 5 and 6 kV applied field conditions have been studied and are reported. The efficiency versus alpha energy has a Bragg-type response from ∼15 keV to ∼4.5 MeV for the field conditions applied with an efficiency value of 40-50% at the Bragg peak. The results are presented and discussed.

  5. Functional roles of 10 Hz alpha-band power modulating engagement and disengagement of cortical networks in a complex visual motion task.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kunjan D; Vaina, Lucia M

    2014-01-01

    Alpha band power, particularly at the 10 Hz frequency, is significantly involved in sensory inhibition, attention modulation, and working memory. However, the interactions between cortical areas and their relationship to the different functional roles of the alpha band oscillations are still poorly understood. Here we examined alpha band power and the cortico-cortical interregional phase synchrony in a psychophysical task involving the detection of an object moving in depth by an observer in forward self-motion. Wavelet filtering at the 10 Hz frequency revealed differences in the profile of cortical activation in the visual processing regions (occipital and parietal lobes) and in the frontoparietal regions. The alpha rhythm driving the visual processing areas was found to be asynchronous with the frontoparietal regions. These findings suggest a decoupling of the 10 Hz frequency into separate functional roles: sensory inhibition in the visual processing regions and spatial attention in the frontoparietal regions.

  6. Mechanism and kinetics of carbide dissolution in near alpha Ti-5.6Al-4.8Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.35Si-0.7Nd titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Z.; Li, M.M.; Yang, R.

    2011-12-15

    The present work evaluates the influence of bulk carbon content and aging temperature on the stability of carbide in near alpha Ti-5.6Al-4.8Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.35Si-0.7Nd titanium alloy. The carbide particles were formed during heat treatment in the {beta} phase field and preserved by water quenching. Subsequent aging treatments at 750-850 Degree-Sign C caused partial dissolution of these precipitates, as a result of the peritectoid reaction between the {beta} phase and carbide. The models based on interface reaction controlled dissolution, via uniform atomic detachment, dislocation mechanism or vacancy flow, yielded experimental predictions comparable to the observed dissolution kinetics. Furnace cooling after heat treatment in the {beta} phase field dissolved carbide particles completely, and the microstructure changed from acicular-like or block {alpha} to equiaxed {alpha} with increase of carbon content. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbide dissolution occurs at precipitate/matrix interfaces, forming {beta}-depleted zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peritectoid reaction is responsible for drastic reduction of carbide volume fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slower dissolution rate is accounted by dislocation, vacancy flow, and curvature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lamellar changed to equiaxed {alpha} with increasing carbon from {beta} furnace cooling.

  7. Bidirectional modulation of hippocampal gamma (20-80 Hz) frequency activity in vitro via alpha(α)- and beta(β)-adrenergic receptors (AR).

    PubMed

    Haggerty, D C; Glykos, V; Adams, N E; Lebeau, F E N

    2013-12-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) in the hippocampus plays an important role in memory function and has been shown to modulate different forms of synaptic plasticity. Oscillations in the gamma frequency (20-80 Hz) band in the hippocampus have also been proposed to play an important role in memory functions and, evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies, has suggested this activity can be modulated by NA. However, the role of different NA receptor subtypes in the modulation of gamma frequency activity has not been fully elucidated. We have found that NA (30 μM) exerts a bidirectional control on the magnitude of kainate-evoked (50-200 nM) gamma frequency oscillations in the cornu Ammonis (CA3) region of the rat hippocampus in vitro via activation of different receptor subtypes. Activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors (α-AR) reduced the power of the gamma frequency oscillation. In contrast, activation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) caused an increase in the power of the gamma frequency oscillations. Using specific agonists and antagonists of AR receptor subtypes we demonstrated that these effects are mediated specifically via α1A-AR and β1-AR subtypes. NA activated both receptor subtypes, but the α1A-AR-mediated effect predominated, resulting in a reversible suppression of gamma frequency activity. These results suggest that NA is able to differentially modulate on-going gamma frequency oscillatory activity that could result in either increased or decreased information flow through the hippocampus.

  8. Umbra Ver. 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, III, Fred; Hart, Brian; Hart, Derek; Linebarger, John; Rigdon, J. Brian; Wolfenbarger, Paul; Xavier, Patrick; & Gottlieb, Eric

    2010-02-24

    Umbra is a software package that has been in development at Sandia National Laboratories since 1995, under the name Umbra since 1997. Umbra is a software framework written in C++ and Tcl/Tk that has been applied to many operations, primarily dealing with robotics and simulation. Umbra executables are C++ libraries orchestrated with Tcl/Tk scripts. Two major feature upgrades occurred from 4.7 to 4.8 1. System Umbra Module with its own Update Graph within the C++ framework. 2. New terrain graph for fast line-of-sight calculations All else were minor updates such as later versions of Visual Studio, OpenSceneGraph and Boost.

  9. Umbra Ver. 4.8

    2010-02-24

    Umbra is a software package that has been in development at Sandia National Laboratories since 1995, under the name Umbra since 1997. Umbra is a software framework written in C++ and Tcl/Tk that has been applied to many operations, primarily dealing with robotics and simulation. Umbra executables are C++ libraries orchestrated with Tcl/Tk scripts. Two major feature upgrades occurred from 4.7 to 4.8 1. System Umbra Module with its own Update Graph within the C++more » framework. 2. New terrain graph for fast line-of-sight calculations All else were minor updates such as later versions of Visual Studio, OpenSceneGraph and Boost.« less

  10. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Deepa; Oulhaj, Abderrahim

    2006-01-01

    Background 10 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms correlate with memory performance. Alpha and memory decline in older people. We wished to test if alpha-like EEG activity contributes to memory formation. Flicker can elicit alpha-like EEG activity. We tested if alpha-frequency flicker enhances memory in older people. Pariticpants aged 67–92 identified short words that followed 1 s of flicker at 9.0 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 10.5 Hz, 11.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz or 500 Hz. A few minutes later, we tested participants' recognition of the words (without flicker). Results Flicker frequencies close to 10 Hz (9.5–11.0 Hz) facilitated the identification of the test words in older participants. The same flicker frequencies increased recognition of the words more than other frequencies (9.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz and 500 Hz), irrespective of age. Conclusion The frequency-specificity of flicker's effects in our participants paralleled the power spectrum of EEG alpha in the general population. This indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problems in older people. PMID:16515710

  11. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily...

  12. Adaptive 4-8 Texture Hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, L M; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I

    2004-08-02

    We address the texture level-of-detail problem for extremely large surfaces such as terrain during real-time, view-dependent rendering. A novel texture hierarchy is introduced based on 4-8 refinement of raster tiles, in which the texture grids in effect rotate 45 degrees for each level of refinement. This hierarchy provides twice as many levels of detail as conventional quad-tree-style refinement schemes such as mipmaps, and thus provides per-pixel view-dependent filtering that is twice as close to the ideal cutoff frequency for an average pixel. Because of this more gradual change in low-pass filtering, and due to the more precise emulation of the ideal cutoff frequency, we find in practice that the transitions between texture levels of detail are not perceptible. This allows rendering systems to avoid the complexity and performance costs of per-pixel blending between texture levels of detail. The 4-8 texturing scheme is integrated into a variant of the Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) algorithm for view-dependent multiresolution mesh generation. Improvements to ROAM included here are: the diamond data structure as a streamlined replacement for the triangle bintree elements, the use of low-pass-filtered geometry patches in place of individual triangles, integration of 4-8 textures, and a simple out-of-core data access mechanism for texture and geometry tiles.

  13. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) The term search...

  14. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  15. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  16. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  17. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  18. Portraits of Outstanding Explorers. Grades 4-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Doris Hunter

    This resource book provides information and activity sheets on explorers of North America. The five sections of the book trace the explorers' contributions both geographically and chronologically. Each section includes thought questions, biographical portraits and skill activities for grades 4-8. Section 1, "They Opened the Door," profiles Leif…

  19. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8... format (scanning) 2.50 per page. Computer programming 8.00 per qtr. hour. Other Fees: Computer Tape 18.50... category, and adding 16 percent to reflect the cost of additional benefits accorded to government...

  20. Integrating Computers into the Curriculum--4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Marsha; And Others

    Descriptions of 36 software programs suitable for use with students in grades 4-8 include curriculum area, title, producer, hardware requirements, program description, teaching objective, and competencies. Prerequisites and introductory, developmental, follow-up, and evaluation activities are also provided for 38 instructional sequences designed…

  1. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  2. Let's Celebrate Autumn: Activities for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, Ca. Div. of Instructional Services.

    One of a series of activity guides, this publication offers a variety of learning activities and resource materials to help teachers and students celebrate special days and events in autumn. The activities and resources are especially designed to develop communications skills of students in grades 4-8; however, they are easily transferable to…

  3. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  4. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  5. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  6. 4.8GHz CMOS Frequency Multiplier Using Subharmonic Pulse-Injection Locking for Spurious Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Kyoya; Motoyoshi, Mizuki; Fujishima, Minoru

    To realize low-power wireless transceivers, it is necessary to improve the performance of frequency synthesizers, which are typically frequency multipliers composed of a phase-locked loop (PLL). However, PLLs generally consume a large amount of power and occupy a large area. To improve the frequency multiplier, we propose a pulse-injection-locked frequency multiplier (PILFM), where a spurious signal is suppressed using a pulse input signal. An injection-locked oscillator (ILO) in a PILFM was fabricated by a 0.18µm 1P5M CMOS process. The core size is 10.8µm × 10.5µm. The power consumption of the ILO is 9.6µW at 250MHz, 255µW at 2.4GHz and 1.47mW at 4.8GHz. The phase noise is -105dBc/Hz at a 1MHz offset.

  7. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  8. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  9. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  10. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  11. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  12. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  13. The effect of 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on corticomuscular coherence

    PubMed Central

    Wach, Claudia; Krause, Vanessa; Moliadze, Vera; Paulus, Walter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous oscillatory activity at alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequencies is assumed to play a key role for motor control. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) represents an established measure of the pyramidal system's integrity. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the possibility to modulate ongoing oscillatory activity. Behaviorally, 20 Hz tACS in healthy subjects has been shown to result in movement slowing. However, the neurophysiological changes underlying these effects are not entirely understood yet. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effects of tACS at 10 and 20 Hz in healthy subjects on CMC and local power of the primary sensorimotor cortex. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded during isometric contraction before and at two time points (2–10 min and 30–38 min) after tACS of the left primary motor cortex (M1), using a 306 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Additionally, electromyography (EMG) of the right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle was measured. TACS was applied at 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, for 10 min at 1 mA. Sham stimulation served as control condition. The data suggest that 10 Hz tACS significantly reduced low gamma band CMC during isometric contraction. This implies that tACS does not necessarily cause effects at stimulation frequency. Rather, the findings suggest cross-frequency interplay between alpha and low gamma band activity modulating functional interaction between motor cortex and muscle. PMID:24009573

  14. The 10 Hz Frequency: A Fulcrum For Transitional Brain States

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Mahaffey, S.; Urbano, F. J.; Phillips, C.

    2016-01-01

    A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are “replaced” by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition. The 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is proposed as the natural frequency of the brain during quiet waking, but is replaced by higher frequencies capable of permitting more complex functions, or by lower frequencies during sleep and inactivity. At the center of the transition shifts to and from the resting rhythm is the reticular activating system, a phylogenetically preserved area of the brain essential for preconscious awareness. PMID:27547831

  15. Development of chick embryos in 1 Hz to 100 kHz magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Juutilainen, J; Saali, K

    1986-01-01

    Chick embryos were exposed during their 48 first hours of development to sinusoidally oscillating magnetic fields. The frequencies 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 16.7 Hz, 30 Hz, 50 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz, and the field strengths 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 A/m were used. Each exposure group consisted of 20 eggs. After the exposure, the embryos were examined for abnormalities and classified by the developmental stage. The percentage of abnormal embryos (%AE) was significantly increased at frequencies from 16.7 Hz to 100 kHz. Above a threshold field strength of about 0.1 to 1 A/m, %AE was rather independent of the field strength, varying from 16% to 56% in different exposure groups. 13% of the sham-exposed control embryos (n = 150) were abnormal. Only the 0.1 A/m exposure group differed significantly from the controls at 1 Hz, and no significant effect was found at 10 Hz. The developmental stage was in general not affected by the magnetic fields, but some abnormal embryos showed retarded development.

  16. Audiogram of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 2 Hz to 9 kHz.

    PubMed

    Hill, Evan M; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S; Heffner, Henry E

    2014-10-01

    The pure-tone thresholds of four domestic female chickens were determined from 2 Hz to 9 kHz using the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m(2)), their hearing range extends from 9.1 Hz to 7.2 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 2.6 dB at 2 kHz. Chickens have better sensitivity than humans for frequencies below 64 Hz; indeed, their sensitivity to infrasound exceeds that of the homing pigeon. However, when threshold testing moved to the lower frequencies, the animals required additional training before their final thresholds were obtained, suggesting that they may perceive frequencies below 64 Hz differently than higher frequencies. PMID:25092127

  17. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  18. Acetylcholine modulates human working memory and subsequent familiarity based recognition via alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Eckart, Cindy; Woźniak-Kwaśniewska, Agata; Herweg, Nora A; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Bunzeck, Nico

    2016-08-15

    Working memory (WM) can be defined as the ability to maintain and process physically absent information for a short period of time. This vital cognitive function has been related to cholinergic neuromodulation and, in independent work, to theta (4-8Hz) and alpha (9-14Hz) band oscillations. However, the relationship between both aspects remains unclear. To fill this apparent gap, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and a within-subject design in healthy humans who either received the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8mg) or a placebo before they performed a Sternberg WM paradigm. Here, sequences of sample images were memorized for a delay of 5s in three different load conditions (two, four or six items). On the next day, long-term memory (LTM) for the images was tested according to a remember/know paradigm. As a main finding, we can show that both theta and alpha oscillations scale during WM maintenance as a function of WM load; this resembles the typical performance decrease. Importantly, cholinergic stimulation via galantamine administration slowed down retrieval speed during WM and reduced associated alpha but not theta power, suggesting a functional relationship between alpha oscillations and WM performance. At LTM, this pattern was accompanied by impaired familiarity based recognition. These findings show that stimulating the healthy cholinergic system impairs WM and subsequent recognition, which is in line with the notion of a quadratic relationship between acetylcholine levels and cognitive functions. Moreover, our data provide empirical evidence for a specific role of alpha oscillations in acetylcholine dependent WM and associated LTM formation. PMID:27222217

  19. Efficient Synthesis of 4,8-Ditoluoyl-1,5-Dihydroxynaphthalene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, Daniel S.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    4,8-Ditoluoyl-1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene was synthesized in quantitative yield from the corresponding methylenequinone via base-catalyzed hydration. Alkaline treatment gives the title compound in one step with a 99% yield, an improvement of 80% compared to the acidic, two step literature method for preparing 4,8-dibenzoyl-1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene.

  20. Enantioselective Separation of 4,8-DHT and Phytotoxicity of the Enantiomers on Various Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Ruan, Xiao; Jiang, De-An; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    As a candidate for bioherbicide, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from Caryospora callicarpa epicarp and its two enantiomers, S-(+)-isosclerone and R-(-)-regiolone, were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Chiralcel OD column with chiral stationary phase (CSP)-coated cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). Then, the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers toward the seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species, including lettuce (Latuca sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated and the results indicated a hormesis at low concentration of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers, but a retardant effect at high concentration. Between the two enantiomers of 4,8-DHT, the S-(+)-isosclerone was more toxic to seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species than the R-(-)-regiolone, and also the phytotoxicity of S-(+)-isosclerone varied with different plants. For example, S-(+)-isosclerone was the most active to seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that S-(+)-isosclerone had specific effects on different organisms. Thus, all of the chirality and concentration of 4,8-DHT, as well as the affected plant species, need to be taken into consideration in the development and utilization of 4,8-DHT. PMID:27110760

  1. Enantioselective Separation of 4,8-DHT and Phytotoxicity of the Enantiomers on Various Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Ruan, Xiao; Jiang, De-An; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Qiang

    2016-04-22

    As a candidate for bioherbicide, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from Caryospora callicarpa epicarp and its two enantiomers, S-(+)-isosclerone and R-(-)-regiolone, were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Chiralcel OD column with chiral stationary phase (CSP)-coated cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). Then, the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers toward the seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species, including lettuce (Latuca sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated and the results indicated a hormesis at low concentration of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers, but a retardant effect at high concentration. Between the two enantiomers of 4,8-DHT, the S-(+)-isosclerone was more toxic to seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species than the R-(-)-regiolone, and also the phytotoxicity of S-(+)-isosclerone varied with different plants. For example, S-(+)-isosclerone was the most active to seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that S-(+)-isosclerone had specific effects on different organisms. Thus, all of the chirality and concentration of 4,8-DHT, as well as the affected plant species, need to be taken into consideration in the development and utilization of 4,8-DHT.

  2. Thomson Scattering at 250 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, William; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    The fast Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST Reversed-Field Pinch experiment now measures electron temperature at rates of up to 250 kHz, allowing for single shot analysis of phenomena that previously required ensembles of measurements from many shots. Recent laser upgrades include the addition of a second Nd:glass amplifier (giving a total of six amplifiers including four Nd:YAG stages) and optimization of neodymium doping levels within the glass amplifier stages to reduce thermal defocusing. The master-oscillator power-amplifier laser system operates in a pulse-burst mode where the laser generates multiple pulses per flashlamp firing and these bursts of laser pulses are repeated multiple times. When optimizing for the largest number of laser pulses, the laser produces up to 30 pulses at a rate of 100 kHz per burst repeated up to 4 times every 2 ms for a total of 120 temperature measurements per MST discharge. When optimizing for fastest pulsing rate, the laser can produce 8 pulses at 250 kHz within a single burst. A laser system upgrade currently underway is replacement of the diode-pumped pulsed Nd:YVO4 master oscillator with a CW laser chopped by an acoustic-optic modulator; this upgrade may enable pulsing rates faster than 250 kHz. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  3. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  4. RHIC 10 Hz global orbit feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff, R.; Arnold, L.; Carboni, L.; Cerniglia, P; Curcio, A.; DeSanto, L.; Folz, C.; Ho, C.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.; Karl, R.; Luo, Y.; Liu, C.; MacKay, W.; Mahler, G.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Popken, P.; Przybylinski, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ritter, J.; Schoenfeld, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weston, A.; White, J.; Ziminski, P.; Zimmerman, P.

    2011-03-28

    Vibrations of the cryogenic triplet magnets at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are suspected to be causing the horizontal beam perturbations observed at frequencies around 10 Hz. Several solutions to counteract the effect have been considered in the past, including a local beam feedback system at each of the two experimental areas, reinforcing the magnet base support assembly, and a mechanical servo feedback system. However, the local feedback system was insufficient because perturbation amplitudes outside the experimental areas were still problematic, and the mechanical solutions are very expensive. A global 10 Hz orbit feedback system consisting of 36 beam position monitors (BPMs) and 12 small dedicated dipole corrector magnets in each of the two 3.8 km circumference counter-rotating rings has been developed and commissioned in February 2011. A description of the system architecture and results with beam will be discussed.

  5. Spectroscopic observations of HZ Herculis. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.; Grupsmith, G.; Mcmillan, R. S.; Vanden Bout, P. A.; Wootten, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results from an extensive series of spectroscopic observations of the HZ Her optical counterpart of the eclipsing, pulsating X-ray binary Her X-1. Spectrograms with a dispersion of 30 A/mm reveal a spectral type as late as F5 near minimum in the light curve with the G-band and metallic lines present. Narrow Fe lines show that HZ Her is not a rapid rotator. Low-dispersion (115 A/mm) spectra, obtained with 10-minute time resolution, reveal rapid (10-min) variations in the 4640 N III emission and in the 4471 He I absorbtion features. The H-beta absorption is variable in equivalent width, and shows evidence of being partially filled with emission.

  6. Humans perceive flicker artifacts at 500 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lee, Hung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Humans perceive a stable average intensity image without flicker artifacts when a television or monitor updates at a sufficiently fast rate. This rate, known as the critical flicker fusion rate, has been studied for both spatially uniform lights, and spatio-temporal displays. These studies have included both stabilized and unstablized retinal images, and report the maximum observable rate as 50-90 Hz. A separate line of research has reported that fast eye movements known as saccades allow simple modulated LEDs to be observed at very high rates. Here we show that humans perceive visual flicker artifacts at rates over 500 Hz when a display includes high frequency spatial edges. This rate is many times higher than previously reported. As a result, modern display designs which use complex spatio-temporal coding need to update much faster than conventional TVs, which traditionally presented a simple sequence of natural images.

  7. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Martinez, C

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requirements of these thymocytes were characterized and related to the T3-receptor complex and IL-2 pathways, thought to be used by mature lymphocytes. The results show that addition of recombinant IL-2 promotes, in a dose-dependent way, proliferation and acquisition of effector functions by cultured T3+4-8- thymocytes, the growth being inhibitable by monoclonal antibody 33B73 (anti-Tac). Furthermore, cytolytic activity of T3+4-8- cells induced by recombinant IL-2 is specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody OKT3, showing that it operates via the T3-receptor complex and does not require either T4 or T8 molecules. The finding of in vitro responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 in T3+4-8- thymocytes suggests a role of IL-2 in the growth and maturation of cells committed to the T-cell lineage, during intrathymic differentiation, prior to expression of T4 and T8 molecules. PMID:3929254

  8. Human CD4-8- -derived clones. Phenotypic and functional characteristics and variation between donors in patterns of T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E

    1989-06-01

    Clones were derived from highly purified human CD4-8- lymphocytes from three different donors and maintained in the presence of interleukin 2 and phytohaemagglutinin. Considerable variation was noted between donors in the phenotype and T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma gene rearrangements of CD4-8- -derived clones. In one donor, most clones remained CD4-8- and all were CD3+WT31- and therefore expressed gamma/delta heterodimers. TCR gamma gene rearrangements almost all involved C gamma 1. In contrast, most clones from a second donor were CD3+WT31+, and therefore expressed alpha/beta heterodimers, and many were positive for CD4 or CD8. Most clones from a third donor were CD3+WT31- with a high proportion of TCR gamma gene rearrangements involving C gamma 2. The V gamma 9JP rearrangement was exclusively confined to CD3+WT31- clones and was present in the majority of clones. Almost all CD3+WT31- clones showed TCR beta as well as gamma gene rearrangements. Most CD3+WT31- clones with at least one chromosome rearranged to C gamma 1 exhibited high non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity, while most of those with two C gamma 2 rearrangements, and therefore expressing a non-disulphide-linked gamma/delta heterodimer, had low activity. Preincubation of effector cells with anti-CD3 strongly inhibited the cytotoxicity of CD3+WT31- clones while that of CD3+WT31+ clones was enhanced. This implicates the CD3-gamma/delta complex in target cell recognition by cytotoxic gamma/delta-bearing T-cell clones. The results show that there is heterogeneity between donors in the relative proportions of CD4-8- -derived clones expressing alpha/beta heterodimers and the different forms of the gamma/delta heterodimer.

  9. A 4.8 hour periodicity in the spectra of Cyg X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Robinson-Saba, J. L.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The X-ray spectra from three observations of the X-ray binary Cyg X-3 by the cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO can be represented by power-law continua with strong iron line emission. Comparisons of spectra taken within the same observation at various phases of the 4.8 hour period reveal a relative excess of low energy X-ray emission near zero phase (i.e. the minimum) of the 4.8 hour modulation. In addition, the centroid of the line emission is observed to vary in phase with the 4.8 hour cycle. The possibility of persistent thermal X-ray emission from material surrounding the binary system is introduced in an effort to account for the observed effects.

  10. The 4.8 GHz LHC Schottky pick-up system

    SciTech Connect

    Caspers, Fritz; Jimenez, Jose Miguel; Jones, Rhodri Owain; Kroyer, Tom; Vuitton, Christophe; Hamerla, Timothy W.; Jansson, Andreas; Misek, Joel; Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; Seifrid, Peter; Sun, Ding; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The LHC Schottky observation system is based on traveling wave type high sensitivity pickup structures operating at 4.8 GHz. The choice of the structure and operating frequency is driven by the demanding LHC impedance requirements, where very low impedance is required below 2 GHz, and good sensitivity at the selected band at 4.8 GHz. A sophisticated filtering and triple down -mixing signal processing chain has been designed and implemented in order to achieve the specified 100 dB instantaneous dynamic range without range switching. Detailed design aspects for the complete systems and test results without beam are presented and discussed.

  11. 43 CFR 1610.4-8 - Selection of resource management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection of resource management plan..., BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-8 Selection of resource management plan. After publication of the draft resource management plan and draft environmental impact statement, the Field...

  12. Guidelines for Teaching Pre/Non-Literate Speakers of Other Languages, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ann M.; And Others

    A handbook for teachers of English as a second language (ESL) and content area teachers in grades 4-8 working with non-literate and preliterate students is designed to facilitate their entry into ESL instruction and mainstreaming into the regular school program. The handbook contains intensive, sequential guidelines for instruction in basic…

  13. 43 CFR 1610.4-8 - Selection of resource management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection of resource management plan..., BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-8 Selection of resource management plan. After publication of the draft resource management plan and draft environmental impact statement, the Field...

  14. Consider the Earth: Environmental Activities for Grades 4-8. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Julie M.

    This book is designed to educate students in grades 4-8 about eight specific aspects of the environment. Activity-oriented experiences for both urban and rural children to gain certain understandings are provided. Concepts addressed include the fact that humans are animals and are living organisms, animals differ from plants in their ability to…

  15. Logic: A Unit for 4-8 Graders, Especially Gifted and Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Susan; Tansey, Pam

    The unit on logic is intended to teach critical thinking for gifted and talented students in grades 4-8. Sections are presented separately for students in grades 4-5 and 6-8. The younger students are instructed in such areas as scientific logic, math logic, spatial reasoning, deductive logic, inductive logic, and reasoning with analogies. The…

  16. 78 FR 42102 - Termination of Radiotelephone Medium Frequency 2182 kHz Watchkeeping, 2187.5 kHz Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Termination of Radiotelephone Medium Frequency 2182 kHz Watchkeeping, 2187.5 kHz Digital Selective Calling Channel Guard, and 2670 kHz Broadcasts ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard is announcing that it will no longer maintain a watch on 2182 kHz, will no...

  17. Dielectric properties of skeletal muscle during ischemia in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 200 MHz.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M; Kirlum, H J; Schlegel, C; Gebhard, M M

    1999-04-20

    The complex dielectric properties of canine skeletal muscles were measured at 25 degrees C during ischemia in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 200 MHz. The dielectric spectrum of skeletal muscle shows an alpha-dispersion below 1 kHz and a beta-dispersion with a relaxation frequency of about 100 kHz. The alpha-dispersion disappears between 450 and 500 min of ischemia time, the same time during which mechanical contraction was observed, and was restored later. During ischemia, the beta-dispersion is shifted continuously to higher frequencies; and at frequencies above 50 MHz, a decrease of the real part of the dielectric permittivity was measured. The dielectric loss factor decreases during ischemia at frequencies below 500 kHz, only interrupted by a short increase, coinciding with the disappearance of the alpha-dispersion. The principal processes that happen during ischemia inside the skeletal muscle tissues were studied with the help of a model especially designed to simulate membrane effects on the dielectric spectrum. The disappearance of the alpha-dispersion is explained by an increase of conductivity in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Shifting beta-dispersion to higher frequencies is a result of metabolically produced ions and therefore increasing conductivity of the intracellular medium. Decreasing dielectric permittivity at frequencies above 50 MHz and decreasing dielectric loss factor at low frequencies are caused by the cell edema.

  18. Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) speech coding at 4.8 kbps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerson, Ira A.; Jasiuk, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) speech coders exhibit good performance at data rates as low as 4800 bps. The major drawback to CELP type coders is their larger computational requirements. The Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) speech coder utilizes a codebook with a structure which allows for a very efficient search procedure. Other advantages of the VSELP codebook structure is discussed and a detailed description of a 4.8 kbps VSELP coder is given. This coder is an improved version of the VSELP algorithm, which finished first in the NSA's evaluation of the 4.8 kbps speech coders. The coder uses a subsample resolution single tap long term predictor, a single VSELP excitation codebook, a novel gain quantizer which is robust to channel errors, and a new adaptive pre/postfilter arrangement.

  19. SDSS J094604.90+183541.8: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR AT z = 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara; Hall, Patrick B.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-08-15

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed quasar identified serendipitously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J094604.90+183541.8, was initially targeted for spectroscopy as a luminous red galaxy, but the SDSS spectrum has the features of both a z = 0.388 galaxy and a z = 4.8 quasar. We have obtained additional imaging that resolves the system into two quasar images separated by 3.''06 and a bright galaxy that is strongly blended with one of the quasar images. We confirm spectroscopically that the two quasar images represent a single-lensed source at z = 4.8 with a total magnification of 3.2, and we derive a model for the lensing galaxy. This is the highest redshift lensed quasar currently known. We examine the issues surrounding the selection of such an unusual object from existing data and briefly discuss implications for lensed quasar surveys.

  20. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  1. RNA polymerase I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Christoph; Plitzko, Jürgen; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the initiation factor Rrn3. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals how Rrn3 binding converts an inactive Pol I dimer into an initiation-competent monomeric complex and provides insights into the mechanisms of Pol I-specific initiation and regulation.

  2. 4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  3. Elastic antiproton-proton photoproduction between threshold and 4.8 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. P.; Dainton, J. B.; Lee, L. C. Y.; Marshall, R.; Thompson, J. C.; Williams, D. T.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Frost, G.; Newton, D.; Patrick, G. N.; Pearce, G. F.; Sloan, T.; Brookes, G. R.; Haynes, W. J.; Wilkes, P. B.

    1980-03-01

    The cross section for the process γ p → overlineppp has been measured from threshold up to 4.8 GeV using a tagged photon beam and a multiparticle spectrometer which detected all final state particles. The production cross section rises rapidly from threshold to a constant value of 35 nb. No evidence is found in the mass spectra for the production of narrow meson resonances decaying into overlinepp.

  4. RNA polymerase I–Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Christoph; Plitzko, Jürgen; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the initiation factor Rrn3. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals how Rrn3 binding converts an inactive Pol I dimer into an initiation-competent monomeric complex and provides insights into the mechanisms of Pol I-specific initiation and regulation. PMID:27418309

  5. Spectra of comet P/Halley at R = 4 - 8 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehinger, Peter A.; Kleine, Marvin; Wyckoff, Susan; Tegler, Stephen C.; Belton, Michael S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Spectra of Comet Halley (lambda lambda = 3400-6500 A) were acquired at pre- and post-perihelion distances of 4.8 AU on 1985 Feb. 17 (Coma V equals 18.9 mag) and 1987 Feb. 1 (coma V = 15.9 mag) using the 4.5-m Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the CTIO 4.0-m telescope, respectively. The CN(0,0) violet system band flux at 4.8 AU was approx. 15 times greater at the post-perhelion phase compared to pre-perihelion. Additional post-perihelion spectra, obtained on 1986 Nov. 28 to 30 with the MTT, showed CN(0,0) and very weak C3 4040 A emission. The MMT data are one-dimensional spectra (aperture: 5 arc sec diameter) obtained with an intensified Reticon while the CTIO data are two-dimensional spectra (slit length = 280 arc sec) obtained with a 2D-Frutti photon counting system. Extended CN(0,0) emission was detected in the 1987 Feb. 1 (at 4.8 AU) spectra to a distance of at least 70 arc sec in the solar and anti-solar directions. Additional CCD spectra obtained with the KPNO 2.2-meter telescope on 1988 Feb. 20 (at 7.9 AU) show scattered solar continuum approx. 32 arc sec diameter. However, no emission features were detected at 7.9 AU.

  6. Ambient noise measurements from 100 Hz to 80 kHz in an Alaskan fjord.

    PubMed

    McConnell, S O; Schilt, M P; Dworski, J G

    1992-04-01

    Measurements covering a broad frequency range from 100 Hz to 80 kHz have been made in Behm Canal, Alaska. This site represents a fairly deep embayment (400 m) with a soft bottom (porosity of about 0.8) and, hence, the noise detected at the hydrophones is affected negligibly by multipath contributions except possibly at the lowest frequencies. Data were gathered over a wide range of wind speeds (0 to 15 m/s) and during periods of rain and snow. Several unique and noteworthy results were obtained. Foremost was the observation that the wind-generated noise level measured during the winter was approximately 5 dB lower than during the summer for the same wind speeds and air-sea temperature differences (air temperature about the same as or colder than the sea surface). The summer data agree well with the most recent published measurements and are approximately 2 dB higher than the standard Knudsen/Wenz reference spectra. It appeared that below-freezing air temperatures and snow were responsible for the 5 dB offset between the summer and winter data. Most reported wind noise measurements are restricted to frequencies less than 20 kHz. Those that go beyond this frequency display a noticeable hump above the usual--17 dB/decade power-law slope, and the Behm Canal measurements show that this hump continues to 80 kHz where the spectrum rejoins the extension of the canonical power-law slope.

  7. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  8. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  9. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  10. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  11. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  12. Thomson scattering at 250 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Several upgrades have been applied to the high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST experiment, having increased the rate and number of electron temperature measurements. The detector portion of the Thomson scattering system requires 1.5-2.0 J, 10-20 ns laser pulses at 1064 nm. A high-repetition-rate laser produces suitable pulses for short 3-4 pulse bursts with only 3 μs pulse spacing. Alternatively, the laser timing can be optimized to maximize the number of pulses in a single burst, producing up to 44 pulses at a rate of 100 kHz. The laser follows a master oscillator, power amplifier architecture. Upgrades to the laser include: a new acousto-optic modulator chopped CW laser based master oscillator, a sixth power amplifier, optimized Nd doping within Nd:glass amplifiers via optical modeling of the pump chamber, and a yet to be installed new cavity reflector. Additionally, a new long wavelength filter has been added to the Thomson scattering diagnostic's polychromator based detector, allowing possible detection of net electron drift.

  13. Validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units for assessing athlete movement demands.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Kelly, Stephen J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz (Catapult) and 15 Hz (GPSports) Global Positioning System (GPS) units and investigate the differences between these units as measures of team sport athlete movement demands. A team sport simulation circuit was completed by 8 trained male participants. The movement demands examined included: total distance covered (TD), average peak speed, and the distance covered, time spent, and the number of efforts performed low-speed running (0.00-13.99 km · h(-1)), high-speed running (14.00-19.99 km · h(-1)), and very high-speed running (>20.00 km · h(-1)). The degree of difference between the 10 Hz and the 15 Hz GPS units and validity was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Pearson's correlations were also used for validity assessment. Interunit reliability was established using percentage typical error of measurement (%TEM) and intraclass correlations. The findings revealed that 10 Hz GPS units were a valid (p > 0.05) and reliable (%TEM = 1.3%) measure of TD. In contrast, the 15 Hz GPS units exhibited lower validity for TD and average peak speed. Further, as the speed of movement increased the level of error for the 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units increased (%TEM = 0.8-19.9). The findings from this study suggest that comparisons should not be undertaken between 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units. In general, the 10 Hz GPS units measured movement demands with greater validity and interunit reliability than the 15 Hz units, however, both 10 Hz and 15 Hz units provided the improved measures of movement demands in comparison to 1 Hz and 5 Hz GPS units.

  14. Synthesis of 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspiro5,5undecane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poshkus, A. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Pentaerythritol is converted to its diformal, 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspirol5.5undecane, by heating it to a temperature within the range of about 110 to 150 C, for a period of up to 10 minutes, in the presence of a slight excess of paraformaldehyde and of a catalytic quantity of an acid catalyst such as sulfuric acid. The reaction may be carried out in two steps, by forming first the monoformal, then the diformal. In any case, total reaction time is about 10 minutes, and yield of diformal are greater than 90%. Previous processes require hours or days, and often, tedious operating procedures.

  15. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  16. Desmethyl Macrolides: Synthesis and Evaluation of 4,8,10-Tridesmethyl Cethromycin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging at an alarming rate in both hospital and community settings. Motivated by this issue, we have prepared desmethyl (i.e., replacing methyl groups with hydrogens) analogues of third-generation macrolide drugs telithromycin (TEL, 2) and cethromycin (CET, 6), both of which are semisynthetic derivatives of flagship macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (1). Herein, we report the total synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of 4,8,10-tridesmethyl cethromycin (7). In MIC assays, CET analogue 7 was found to be equipotent with TEL (2) against a wild-type E. coli strain, more potent than previously disclosed desmethyl TEL congeners 3, 4, and 5, but 4-fold less potent than TEL (2) against a mutant E. coli A2058G strain. PMID:24470840

  17. Absolute line intensities in CO2 bands near 4.8 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities for 726 unblended lines in 20 bands of C-12(O-16)2, C-13(O-16)2, O-16C-12O-18, and O-16C-12O-17 in the 4.8-micron spectral region have been determined using a natural sample of ultrahigh-purity CO2. Spectral data were recorded at low pressure (less than 10 torr) and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak. Derived vibrational band intensities and coefficients of the F factor for each band were compared to values of the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation. The present work fills out the CO2 lines in the 5-micron band systems. Lines in the strongest of these measured bands are being used to infer atmospheric pressure from high-resolution stratospheric spectra recorded during the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment.

  18. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  19. Observation of gamma rays with a 4.8 hour periodicity from CYG X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Energetic (E35 MeV) Gamma rays were observed from Cyg X-3 with the SAS-2 Gamma ray telescope. They are modulated at the 4.8 sup h period observed in the X-ray and infrared regions, and within the statistical error are in phase with this emission. The flux above 100 MeV has an average value of (4.4 + or - 1.1)x 10 to the -6 power/sq cm/sec. If the distance to Cyg X-3 is 10 kpcs, this flux implies a luminosity of more than 10 to the 37th power ergs/s if the radiation is isotropic and about 10 to the 36th power ergs/s if the radiation is restricted to a cone of one steradian, as it might be in a pulsar.

  20. 44 CFR 4.8 - How does the Administrator provide an opportunity to comment on proposed Federal financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...? 4.8 Section 4.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the...

  1. 44 CFR 4.8 - How does the Administrator provide an opportunity to comment on proposed Federal financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...? 4.8 Section 4.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How does the...

  2. 44 CFR 4.8 - How does the Administrator provide an opportunity to comment on proposed Federal financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...? 4.8 Section 4.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the...

  3. 44 CFR 4.8 - How does the Administrator provide an opportunity to comment on proposed Federal financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...? 4.8 Section 4.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the...

  4. 44 CFR 4.8 - How does the Administrator provide an opportunity to comment on proposed Federal financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...? 4.8 Section 4.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the...

  5. An Evaluation of a 4-8 Mathematics Teacher Preparation Program at a Large State Institution in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong

    2011-01-01

    This study provided a springboard for future teacher preparation evaluation studies by examining the 4-8 mathematics teacher preparation component of the teacher preparation program at a large state institution in Texas. The research questions for this study were: (1) To what extent is the 4-8 mathematics teacher preparation program consistent…

  6. Extension of non-invasive EEG into the kHz range for evoked thalamocortical activity by means of very low noise amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Scheer, H J; Fedele, T; Curio, G; Burghoff, M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrafast electroencephalographic signals, having frequencies above 500 Hz, can be observed in somatosensory evoked potential measurements. Usually, these recordings have a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) because weak signals are overlaid by intrinsic noise of much higher amplitude like that generated by biological sources and the amplifier. As an example, recordings at the scalp taken during electrical stimulation of the median nerve show a 600 Hz burst with submicro-volt amplitudes which can be extracted from noise by the use of massive averaging and digital signal processing only. We have investigated this signal by means of a very low noise amplifier made in-house (minimal voltage noise 2.7 nV Hz(-1/2), FET inputs). We examined how the SNR of the data is altered by the bandwidth and the use of amplifiers with different intrinsic amplifier noise levels of 12 and 4.8 nV Hz(-1/2), respectively. By analyzing different frequency contributions of the signal, we found an extremely weak 1 kHz component superimposed onto the well-known 600 Hz burst. Previously such high-frequency electroencephalogram responses around 1 kHz have only been observed by deep brain electrodes implanted for tremor therapy of Parkinson patients. For the non-invasive measurement of such signals, we recommend that amplifier noise should not exceed 4 nV Hz(-1/2).

  7. Relative alpha desynchronization and synchronization during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Krause, C M; Pörn, B; Lang, A H; Laine, M

    1997-06-01

    Brain processes elicited by speech were studied in 10 right-handed subjects by means of examining the desynchronization and synchronization of the 8-10 Hz and 10-12 Hz EEG alpha frequency bands. The subjects listened to an auditorily presented 5 min text passage. The text was presented both forward and backward. Listening to the text forward elicited alpha desynchronization in both of the frequency bands studied, whereas listening to the same text presented backward elicited synchronization in the 10-12 Hz frequency band only. Listening to the text forward elicited greater desynchronization than listening to the text backward. In the 10-12 Hz frequency band, listening to the text forward elicited desynchronization whereas listening to the same text backward elicited synchronization. This dissociation was not observed in the 8-10 Hz frequency band. The results suggest that the lower and upper alpha bands differ such that the 10-12 Hz frequency band exhibits reactivity to the presence of linguistic content while the 8-10 Hz band shows an unspecific response.

  8. Star formation and black hole growth at z ≅ 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Shemmer, Ohad; Lira, Paulina

    2014-08-10

    We report Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations of 44 z ≅ 4.8 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This flux-limited sample contains the highest mass black holes (BHs) at this redshift. Ten of the objects were detected by Herschel and five show emission that is not clearly associated with the AGNs. The star formation (SF) luminosity (L{sub SF}) obtained by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with standard SF templates, taking into account AGN contribution, is in the range 10{sup 46.62}-10{sup 47.21} erg s{sup –1} corresponding to SF rates of 1090-4240 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Fitting with very luminous submillimeter galaxy SEDs gives SF rates that are smaller by 0.05 dex when using all bands and 0.1 dex when ignoring the 250 μm band. A 40 K graybody fits to only the 500 μm fluxes reduce L{sub SF} by about a factor of two. A stacking analysis of 29 undetected sources gives significant signals in all three bands. A SF template fit indicates L{sub SF} = 10{sup 46.19-46.23} erg s{sup –1} depending on the assumed AGN contribution. A 40 K fit to the stacked 500 μm flux gives L{sub SF} = 10{sup 45.95} erg s{sup –1}. The mean BH mass (M{sub BH}) and AGN luminosity (L{sub AGN}) of the detected sources are significantly higher than those of the undetected ones. The spectral differences are seen all the way from UV to far infrared wavelengths. The mean optical-UV spectra are similar to those predicted for thin accretion disks around BHs with similar masses and accretion rates. We suggest two alternative explanations to the correlation of L{sub SF}, L{sub AGN} and M{sub BH}, one involving no AGN feedback and the second involving moderate feedback that affects, but does not totally quench, SF in three-quarters of the sources. We compare our L{sub SF} and L{sub AGN} to lower redshift samples and show a new correlation between L{sub SF} and M{sub BH}. We also examine several rather speculative ideas about

  9. Source Parameters of the Upper-Mantle September 21, 2013 Mw4.8 Wyoming Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froment, B.; Prieto, G. A.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    On September 21, 2013, a Mw4.8 earthquake occurred at more than 70 km deep in the Wind River Range (western Wyoming). Moment tensor inversions show dominant strike-slip faulting with a small reverse component, with nodal planes striking nearly ENE and NW. While intermediate-depth earthquakes are common in a subduction context, there have been very few upper-mantle intraplate events. The 2012 Mw8.6 off-shore Sumatra event is an example of a « deep » intraplate strike-slip earthquake which occurred in the low ocean crust or mantle. The Wyoming event is thus a very unique example of deep intracontinental earthquake. The physical mechanism responsible of intermediate-depth earthquakes remains under debate. This work aims at determining robust source parameters to investigate any distinct characteristic from that for shallow earthquakes or subduction zone intermediate-depth events.We adopt the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach to empirically correct for path and site effects. The nearby Ml3.0 aftershock which occurred 2 hours after the mainshock and at similar depth, is considered as EGF earthquake. This only aftershock is located at ~5 km from the mainshock and turns out to be a good EGF since both earthquakes generate high-correlated waveforms. Using the multitaper approach we are able to deconvolve the EGF from the mainshock with robust spectral and temporal representations. We use both the spectral (spectral ratio) and the temporal (source time function) information to obtain a more robust estimate of the source duration and the corresponding corner frequency, but require an adaptive window in order to have good signal to noise ratios in as wide a frequency band as possible. We propose a semi-automatic, adaptive time window approach, that allows for a robust measurement at each single station, thereby enhancing the analysis of the azimuthal distribution of corner frequencies.We additionally investigate the radiated seismic energy of the Mw4.8 earthquake

  10. Was the Timpson, Texas, M4.8 event induced by fluid injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Z.; Eichhubl, P.; Gale, J.; Olson, J. E.; Frohlich, C.; Gono, V.

    2014-12-01

    A M4.8 earthquake with dominant strike-slip near Timpson, east Texas, the largest documented earthquake to date in that region, has received extensive attention due to the possible linkage to waste water injection. The reliably located aftershocks align along a previously mapped fault striking about N42°W. Two active injection wells are located within 3 km of the aftershocks. One injection well became operational in August 2006 with an average injection rate of 42,750 m3/mo at an average pumping pressure of 12.4 MPa at depths between 1853 and 1868 m. Six months later, the second well started injection at 15,600 m3/mo. To investigate the causative relationship between fluid injection and possibly induced seismic fault slip, we integrated geologic and geophysical data into a poroelastic finite element model to simulate the spatial and temporal evolution of pore pressure and stress fields and analyze the stability of fault by applying the Coulomb failure criterion. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the sensitivity of Coulomb failure stress to the variability of input parameters including permeability of injection layer, fault orientation and permeability, and orientation and magnitude of stress state prior to injection. Assuming a Byerlee friction coefficient of 0.6, and using best available estimates of layer permeability, fault orientation, and stress tensor orientation and magnitude, we calculated fault slip occurs 55 months after the start of injection in the model, close to the observed delay of 69 months between injection and the M4.8 event. However, even with principal stress directions and fault orientation being reasonably well constrained, Coulomb failure stress is highly sensitive to input parameters resulting in large uncertainties in correlating injection rate and volume with the onset of induced seismic events. In addition, injection layer and fault zone permeability has a profound effect on the pore pressure evolution. These results

  11. Star Formation and Black Hole Growth at z ~= 4.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Shemmer, Ohad; Lira, Paulina

    2014-08-01

    We report Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations of 44 z ~= 4.8 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This flux-limited sample contains the highest mass black holes (BHs) at this redshift. Ten of the objects were detected by Herschel and five show emission that is not clearly associated with the AGNs. The star formation (SF) luminosity (L SF) obtained by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with standard SF templates, taking into account AGN contribution, is in the range 1046.62-1047.21 erg s-1 corresponding to SF rates of 1090-4240 M ⊙ yr-1. Fitting with very luminous submillimeter galaxy SEDs gives SF rates that are smaller by 0.05 dex when using all bands and 0.1 dex when ignoring the 250 μm band. A 40 K graybody fits to only the 500 μm fluxes reduce L SF by about a factor of two. A stacking analysis of 29 undetected sources gives significant signals in all three bands. A SF template fit indicates L SF = 1046.19-46.23 erg s-1 depending on the assumed AGN contribution. A 40 K fit to the stacked 500 μm flux gives L SF = 1045.95 erg s-1. The mean BH mass (M BH) and AGN luminosity (L AGN) of the detected sources are significantly higher than those of the undetected ones. The spectral differences are seen all the way from UV to far infrared wavelengths. The mean optical-UV spectra are similar to those predicted for thin accretion disks around BHs with similar masses and accretion rates. We suggest two alternative explanations to the correlation of L SF, L AGN and M BH, one involving no AGN feedback and the second involving moderate feedback that affects, but does not totally quench, SF in three-quarters of the sources. We compare our L SF and L AGN to lower redshift samples and show a new correlation between L SF and M BH. We also examine several rather speculative ideas about the host galaxy properties including the possibility that the detected sources are above the SF mass sequence (MS) at z ~= 4.8

  12. Propagation of shear bands in Ti{sub 66.1}Cu{sub 8}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 7.2}Nb{sub 13.9} nanostructure-dendrite composite during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.B.; Das, J.; Baier, F.; Eckert, J.

    2005-04-25

    During deformation of Ti{sub 66.1}Cu{sub 8}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 7.2}Nb{sub 13.9} nanostructure-dendrite composite, primary and secondary shear bands form under perpendicular orientation. Detailed investigation of the microstructure of deformed specimens reveals deformed body-centered-cubic (bcc) {beta}-Ti dendrites forming a stepped morphology at the interfaces between the bcc {beta}-Ti dendrites and the nanostructured matrix, consisting of hexagonal close packed (hcp) {alpha}-Ti and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) Ti{sub 2}Cu phases. In the nanostructured matrix, the primary shear bands pass through coherent grain boundaries between the hcp {alpha}-Ti and the bct Ti{sub 2}Cu phases. In contrast, the secondary shear bands in the nanostructured matrix are arrested by sandwiched nanoscale grains of the hcp {alpha}-Ti and bct Ti{sub 2}Cu phases.

  13. A 4.8 kbps code-excited linear predictive coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremain, Thomas E.; Campbell, Joseph P., Jr.; Welch, Vanoy C.

    1988-01-01

    A secure voice system STU-3 capable of providing end-to-end secure voice communications (1984) was developed. The terminal for the new system will be built around the standard LPC-10 voice processor algorithm. The performance of the present STU-3 processor is considered to be good, its response to nonspeech sounds such as whistles, coughs and impulse-like noises may not be completely acceptable. Speech in noisy environments also causes problems with the LPC-10 voice algorithm. In addition, there is always a demand for something better. It is hoped that LPC-10's 2.4 kbps voice performance will be complemented with a very high quality speech coder operating at a higher data rate. This new coder is one of a number of candidate algorithms being considered for an upgraded version of the STU-3 in late 1989. The problems of designing a code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coder to provide very high quality speech at a 4.8 kbps data rate that can be implemented on today's hardware are considered.

  14. Familial Constitutional Rearrangement of Chromosomes 4 & 8: Phenotypically Normal Mother and Abnormal Progeny.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Fulesh; Bakshi, Sonal R

    2016-04-01

    Balanced chromosome translocations carriers mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression but may have more risk of recurrent spontaneous abortions &/or children with serious birth defects due to unbalanced chromosome complements. Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements have variable clinical expression and are rare. We present here a case report of three siblings affected with intellectual disability and minor dysmorphic features of face and limbs, born to a non-consanguineous couple in which mother had 5 abortions. The constitutional chromosome analysis revealed balanced translocation t (4;8) in mother and all the three siblings were karyotypically normal. Chromosomal microarray in one of the probands revealed partial monosomy 8pter-p23 and a partial trisomy 4pter-p16. Phenotypic features were recorded in 3 probands using Human Phenotype Ontology terms to query web-based tool Phenomizer. The harmonized description using globally accepted ontology is very important especially in case of rare genetic conditions and the heterogeneous phenotypes which make it even more challenging. The prevalence of sub-microscopic unbalanced translocations may be under-reported due to lesser use of molecular genetic analysis. The familial expression of abnormal phenotypes including intellectual disability make the individuals candidate for molecular genetic analysis and phenotyping to help defer the status of idiopathic mental retardation and identify sub-entity of genetic condition. PMID:27190830

  15. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable.

  16. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Yang; Wang, Yao; Jiangwei, Yin; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  17. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable. PMID:27580359

  18. Familial Constitutional Rearrangement of Chromosomes 4 & 8: Phenotypically Normal Mother and Abnormal Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Fulesh

    2016-01-01

    Balanced chromosome translocations carriers mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression but may have more risk of recurrent spontaneous abortions &/or children with serious birth defects due to unbalanced chromosome complements. Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements have variable clinical expression and are rare. We present here a case report of three siblings affected with intellectual disability and minor dysmorphic features of face and limbs, born to a non-consanguineous couple in which mother had 5 abortions. The constitutional chromosome analysis revealed balanced translocation t (4;8) in mother and all the three siblings were karyotypically normal. Chromosomal microarray in one of the probands revealed partial monosomy 8pter-p23 and a partial trisomy 4pter-p16. Phenotypic features were recorded in 3 probands using Human Phenotype Ontology terms to query web-based tool Phenomizer. The harmonized description using globally accepted ontology is very important especially in case of rare genetic conditions and the heterogeneous phenotypes which make it even more challenging. The prevalence of sub-microscopic unbalanced translocations may be under-reported due to lesser use of molecular genetic analysis. The familial expression of abnormal phenotypes including intellectual disability make the individuals candidate for molecular genetic analysis and phenotyping to help defer the status of idiopathic mental retardation and identify sub-entity of genetic condition. PMID:27190830

  19. Extension of 4-8 Texture Hierarchies to Large Video Processing and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Senecal, J G; Wegner, A E

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this Techbase was to reduce to practice the tiled 4-8 texture hierarchy for the display of video imagery (i.e. sequences of frames). The immediate intent was to demonstrate its use in the analysis and display of sensor imagery. As sensors are increasing in resolution the physical amount of imagery that needs to be displayed can quickly overwhelm most display systems. For example, a sensor with a horizontal resolution of over 8000 pixels would generate an image over 10 feet wide on a standard 72 DPI display. Breaking an image into tiles, and then decomposing each tile into a multiresolution hierarchy, allows a user (or software) to efficiently select and display only those parts of the image that are of interest to the user. The originator of the idea of 4-8 Texture Hierarchies was Dr. Mark Duchaineau, and we consulted with him in much of our work. We also consulted with Dan Knight, from SequoiaTek Corp., who is a contractor responsible for implementing the viewers for our applications. Most of the code for actual 4-8 Texture Hierarchy generation already existed; a large focus of the Techbase was to determine how to best use what was available for video imagery. The majority of progress was made in specifying and implementing the software framework, which turned out to be rather involved. This framework is to support the creation, storage, and display of images, both tiled and untiled. A first albeit incomplete version was successfully tested in the field in August 2007. The framework structures the process of collecting and processing images conceptually as a pipeline, where work is passed along and a different operation is performed at each stage. In practice, the pipeline is implemented by a group of processes (not threads), or 'workers', each responsible for a specific type of operation. Associated with these workers is a pool of memory (cache). As each process finishes its work, it places the results into the cache and sends a message to the

  20. 60 HZ beam motion reduction at NSLS UV storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    A significant reduction in 60 hz beam motion has been achieved in the UV storage ring. From the wide band harmonic beam motion signal, 60 hz signal is extracted by tuned bandpass filter. This signal is processed by the phase and amplitude adjustment circuits and then, it is fed into the harmonic orbit generation circuits. Several harmonics, near the tune, were canceled by employing one circuit for each harmonic. The design and description of this experiment is given in this paper. The results showing reduction in beam motion at 60 hz are also provided.

  1. Dynamics of alpha oscillations elucidate facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Popov, Tzvetan G; Rockstroh, Brigitte S; Popova, Petia; Carolus, Almut M; Miller, Gregory A

    2014-03-01

    Impaired facial affect recognition is characteristic of schizophrenia and has been related to impaired social function, but the relevant neural mechanisms have not been fully identified. The present study sought to identify the role of oscillatory alpha activity in that deficit during the process of facial emotion recognition. Neuromagnetic brain activity was monitored while 44 schizophrenia patients and 44 healthy controls viewed 5-s videos showing human faces gradually changing from neutral to fearful or happy expressions or from the neutral face of one poser to the neutral face of another. Recognition performance was determined separately by self-report. Relative to prestimulus baseline, controls exhibited a 10- to 15-Hz power increase prior to full recognition and a 10- to 15-Hz power decrease during the postrecognition phase. These results support recent proposals about the function of alpha-band oscillations in normal stimulus evaluation. The patients failed to show this sequence of alpha power increase and decrease and also showed low 10- to 15-Hz power and high 10- to 15-Hz connectivity during the prestimulus baseline. In light of the proposal that a combination of alpha power increase and functional disconnection facilitates information intake and processing, the finding of an abnormal association of low baseline alpha power and high connectivity in schizophrenia suggests a state of impaired readiness that fosters abnormal dynamics during facial affect recognition.

  2. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  3. Phytotoxicity of 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone isolated from Carya cathayensis Sarg. to various plant species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Xian; Yu, Min-Feng; Ruan, Xiao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous extract from Carya cathayensis Sarg. exocarp was centrifuged, filtered, and separated into 11 elution fractions by X-5 macroporous resin chromatography. A phenolic compound, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from the fractions with the strongest phytotoxicity by bioassy-guided fractionation, and investigated for phytotoxicity on lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The testing results showed that the treatment with 0.6 mM 4,8-DHT could significantly depress the germination vigor of lettuce and wheat, reduce the germination rate of lettuce and cucumber, and also inhibit radicle length, plumule length, and fresh weight of seedlings of lettuce and onion, but could significantly promote plumule length and fresh weight of seedlings of cucumber (p < 0.05). For the tested five plants, the 4,8-DHT was the most active to the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT had the selectivity of dosage, action target (plant type) and content (seed germination or seedling growth). PMID:25264832

  4. Phytotoxicity of 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone isolated from Carya cathayensis Sarg. to various plant species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Xian; Yu, Min-Feng; Ruan, Xiao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-26

    The aqueous extract from Carya cathayensis Sarg. exocarp was centrifuged, filtered, and separated into 11 elution fractions by X-5 macroporous resin chromatography. A phenolic compound, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from the fractions with the strongest phytotoxicity by bioassy-guided fractionation, and investigated for phytotoxicity on lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The testing results showed that the treatment with 0.6 mM 4,8-DHT could significantly depress the germination vigor of lettuce and wheat, reduce the germination rate of lettuce and cucumber, and also inhibit radicle length, plumule length, and fresh weight of seedlings of lettuce and onion, but could significantly promote plumule length and fresh weight of seedlings of cucumber (p < 0.05). For the tested five plants, the 4,8-DHT was the most active to the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT had the selectivity of dosage, action target (plant type) and content (seed germination or seedling growth).

  5. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    PubMed

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation.

  6. Coherent 40-Hz Oscillation Characterizes Dream State in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, Rodolfo; Ribary, Urs

    1993-03-01

    Magnetic recording from five normal human adults demonstrates large 40-Hz coherent magnetic activity in the awake and in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep states that is very reduced during delta sleep (deep sleep characterized by delta waves in the electroencephalogram). This 40-Hz magnetic oscillation has been shown to be reset by sensory stimuli in the awake state. Such resetting is not observed during REM or delta sleep. The 40 Hz in REM sleep is characterized, as is that in the awake state, by a fronto-occiptal phase shift over the head. This phase shift has a maximum duration of thickapprox12-13 msec. Because 40-Hz oscillation is seen in wakefulness and in dreaming, we propose it to be a correlate of cognition, probably resultant from coherent 40-Hz resonance between thalamocortical-specific and nonspecific loops. Moreover, we proposed that the specific loops give the content of cognition, and a nonspecific loop gives the temporal binding required for the unity of cognitive experience.

  7. NASA Rat Acoustic Tolerance Test 1994-1995: 8 kHz, 16 kHz, 32 kHz Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mele, Gary D.; Holley, Daniel C.; Naidu, Sujata

    1996-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to chronic applied sound (74 to 79 dB, SPL) with octave band center frequencies of either 8, 16 or 32 kHz for up to 60 days. Control cages had ambient sound levels of about 62 dB (SPL). Groups of rats (test vs. control; N=9 per group) were euthanized after 0. 5. 14, 30, and 60 days. On each euthanasia day, objective evaluation of their physiology and behavior was performed using a Stress Assessment Battery (SAB) of measures. In addition, rat hearing was assessed using the brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAER) method after 60 days of exposure. No statistically significant differences in mean daily food use could be attributed to the presence of the applied test sound. Test rats used 5% more water than control rats. In the 8 kHz and 32 kHz tests this amount was statistically significant(P less than .05). This is a minor difference of questionable physiological significance. However, it may be an indication of a small reaction to the constant applied sound. Across all test frequencies, day 5 test rats had 6% larger spleens than control rats. No other body or organ weight differences were found to be statistically significant with respect to the application of sound. This spleen effect may be a transient adaptive process related to adaptation to the constant applied noise. No significant test effect on differential white blood cell counts could be demonstrated. One group demonstrated a low eosinophil count (16 kHz experiment, day 14 test group). However this was highly suspect. Across all test frequencies studied, day 5 test rats had 17% fewer total leukocytes than day 5 control rats. Sound exposed test rats exhibited 44% lower plasma corticosterone concentrations than did control rats. Note that the plasma corticosterone concentration was lower in the sound exposed test animals than the control animals in every instance (frequency exposure and number of days exposed).

  8. Algebra Readiness for Students with Learning Difficulties in Grades 4-8: Support through the Study of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Chard, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing proficiency in algebra is the focus of instruction in high school mathematics courses and is a minimum expectation for high school completion for all students including those with learning difficulties. However, the foundation for success is laid in grades 4-8 (aged 9-14). In this paper, we assert that students' development of algebraic…

  9. Relationship Between Mental Maturity and the Level of Understanding of Concepts of Relativity in Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Wadi Dahir

    This study was conducted to (1) identify certain concepts of relativity, and (2) determine the relationship between understanding of these relationships achieved by pupils in grades 4-8 (as indicated by objective test scores) and such variables as grade level and mental ability. Several related sub-problems were also identified. A conceptual…

  10. Man and Environment for the Intermediate Grades; A Curriculum Guide for Environmental Studies for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Environmental Education, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide consists of environmental studies modules for grades 4-8. The curriculum, which is organized around major concepts, is intended to serve as a guide for program development and as a framework for compiling and sharing ideas on methods and application on a national basis. Each module may be utilized as an integral part of the…

  11. Search for alpha-driven BAE modes in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.

    1996-05-01

    A search for alpha-driven beta-induced Alfven eigenmodes (BAE modes) was conducted in low current (1.0--1.6 MA) TFTR supershots. Stable high-beta deuterium-tritium (DT) discharges were obtained with B{rho} = 2.4 and central alpha beta of 0.1%. Instabilities between 75--200 kHz were observed by magnetic probes in many DT discharges, but the activity was also present in deuterium-deuterium (DD) comparison discharges, indicating that these modes are not destabilized (principally) by the alpha-particle population. Losses of fusion products are also similar in the two sets of discharges.

  12. Somatosensory Anticipatory Alpha Activity Increases to Suppress Distracting Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegens, Saskia; Luther, Lisa; Jensen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Effective processing of sensory input in daily life requires attentional selection and amplification of relevant input and, just as importantly, attenuation of irrelevant information. It has been proposed that top-down modulation of oscillatory alpha band activity (8-14 Hz) serves to allocate resources to various regions, depending on task…

  13. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (~2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of “fluctuation” range (~1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (~2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. PMID:24035819

  14. [(1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradeca-1,4,8,11-tetrayl)tetraacetamide-kappa6N1,N4,N8,N11,O1,O8]copper(II) sulfate 4.5-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Enrique; Meyer, Michel; Berard, David; Guilard, Roger

    2002-02-01

    The crystal structure of the title copper(II) complex, [Cu(C(18)H(36)N(8)O(4))]SO(4).4.5H(2)O, formed with the tetraamide cyclam derivative 2-(4,8,11-triscarbamoylmethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradec-1-yl)acetamide (TETAM), is described. The macrocycle lies on an inversion centre occupied by the hexacoordinated Cu atom. The four macrocyclic tertiary amines form the equatorial plane of an axially Jahn-Teller elongated octahedron. Two O atoms belonging to two diagonally opposite amide groups occupy the apical positions, giving rise to a trans-III stereochemistry, while both the remaining pendant side arms extend outwards from the macrocyclic cavity and are engaged in hydrogen bonds with sulfate anions and co-crystallized water molecules. PMID:11828099

  15. The contribution of different frequency bands of fMRI data to the correlation with EEG alpha rhythm.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhichao; Xu, Lele; Zuo, Tian; Xie, Dongliang; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2014-01-16

    Alpha rhythm is a prominent EEG rhythm observed during resting state and is thought to be related to multiple cognitive processes. Previous simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that alpha rhythm is associated with blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in several different functional networks. How these networks influence alpha rhythm respectively is unclear. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) in spontaneous BOLD activity are thought to contribute to the local correlations in resting state. Recent studies suggested that either LFO or other components of fMRI can be further divided into sub-components on different frequency bands. We hypothesized that those BOLD sub-components characterized the contributions of different brain networks to alpha rhythm. To test this hypothesis, EEG and fMRI data were simultaneously recorded from 17 human subjects performing an eyes-close resting state experiment. EEG alpha rhythm was correlated with the filtered fMRI time courses at different frequency bands (0.01-0.08 Hz, 0.08-0.25 Hz, 0.01-0.027 Hz, 0.027-0.073 Hz, 0.073-0.198 Hz, and 0.198-0.25 Hz). The results demonstrated significant relations between alpha rhythm and the BOLD signals in the visual network and in the attention network at LFO band, especially at the very low frequency band (0.01-0.027 Hz). PMID:24275197

  16. Comparison of the Effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz rTMS on Motor Recovery in Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Lee, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Ki Hoon; Lim, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS on motor functional improvement of the affected upper extremity in subacute stroke patients. Methods Forty patients with subacute ischemic stroke participated in this study. The first group received 10 sessions of 20 Hz rTMS at ipsilesional M1 area and the other group received 10 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS at contralesional M1 area. Motor training of the hemiparetic hand was conducted after each rTMS train. All the patients received conventional occupational therapy immediately after each rTMS session. Manual function test (MFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMS), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Brunnstrom recovery stage, and grip strength were used to assess motor function before, at the end of, and one month after the last session of rTMS. Results No adverse side effects were reported during the course of the experiment using rTMS. No significant difference in motor function of the affected upper extremity was observed between the two groups before rTMS. Significant improvements in MFT, FMS, MBI, and Brunnstrom stage were observed in the both groups at the end of the last rTMS session and one month later (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference in motor function of the affected upper extremity between 1 Hz and 20 Hz rTMS during the subacute period of ischemic stroke. Thus, we cannot conclude which has a greater effect. PMID:25379487

  17. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  18. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.   The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden.

  19. A 40-Hz Auditory Potential Recorded from the Human Scalp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galambos, Robert; Makeig, Scott; Talmachoff, Peter J.

    1981-04-01

    Computer techniques readily extract from the brainwaves an orderly sequence of brain potentials locked in time to sound stimuli. The potentials that appear 8 to 80 msec after the stimulus resemble 3 or 4 cycles of a 40-Hz sine wave; we show here that these waves combine to form a single, stable, composite wave when the sounds are repeated at rates around 40 per sec. This phenomenon, the 40-Hz event-related potential (ERP), displays several properties of theoretical and practical interest. First, it reportedly disappears with surgical anesthesia, and it resembles similar phenomena in the visual and olfactory system, facts which suggest that adequate processing of sensory information may require cyclical brain events in the 30- to 50-Hz range. Second, latency and amplitude measurements on the 40-Hz ERP indicate it may contain useful information on the number and basilar membrane location of the auditory nerve fibers a given tone excites. Third, the response is present at sound intensities very close to normal adult thresholds for the audiometric frequencies, a fact that could have application in clinical hearing testing.

  20. The hot DOA1 degenerate HZ 21 - A search for circumstellar/photospheric metals and peculiar absorption at He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, M. L.; Leckenby, H.; Sion, E. M.; Vauclair, G.; Liebert, J.

    1990-01-01

    A high-resolution IUE spectrum of the hot DO1 degenerate HZ 21 was obtained by combining US1 + European 2 low-background observing shifts. The SWP image reveals a rich spectrum of interstellar absorption lines with an average velocity in the line of sight to HZ 21 of -30 km/s. However, there is no clear evidence of any highly or lowly ionized metal features which could be attributed to circumstellar, wind, or photospheric absorption. There is, however, a broad absorption trough at He II (1640) which was not unexpected, given the clear presence of He II (4686) absorption in this star's optical spectrum. The velocity width of He II (1640) appears consistent with photospheric absorption wings which appear to flank the geocoronal Ly-alpha emission feature. The He II (1640) feature reveals what appears to be a broad (310 km/s) emission reversal. Evidence is provided that the emission reversal is probably real.

  1. Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  2. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  3. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  4. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  5. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, March 4-8, 1996. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yunjin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  6. Absolutely calibrated radio polarimetry of the inner Galaxy at 2.3 and 4.8 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Gaensler, B. M.; Carretti, E.; Purcell, C. R.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Bernardi, G.; Haverkorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-sensitivity and absolutely calibrated images of diffuse radio polarization at a resolution of about 10 arcmin covering the range 10° < l < 34° and |b| < 5° at 2.3 GHz from the S-band Polarization All Sky Survey and at 4.8 GHz from the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. Strong depolarization near the Galactic plane is seen at 2.3 GHz, which correlates with strong Hα emission. We ascribe the depolarization to spatial Faraday rotation measure fluctuations of about 65 rad m-2 on scales smaller than 6-9 pc. We argue that most (about 90 per cent) of the polarized emission seen at 4.8 GHz originates from a distance of 3-4 kpc in the Scutum arm and that the random magnetic field dominates the regular field there. A branch extending from the North Polar Spur towards lower latitudes can be identified from the polarization image at 4.8 GHz but only partly from the polarization image at 2.3 GHz, implying that the branch is at a distance larger than 2-3 kpc. We show that comparison of structure functions of complex polarized intensity with those of polarized intensity can indicate whether the observed polarized structures are intrinsic or caused by Faraday screens. The probability distribution function of gradients from the polarization images at 2.3 GHz indicates that the turbulence in the warm ionized medium is transonic.

  7. An effective science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unacceptable students in grades 4 -- 8: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, J. Kathleen

    This study explored science-specific strategies and materials that might be effective components in a Response to Intervention (RTI) science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, a nationwide panel of 63 experts in the field of science education identified and came to consensus on 44 effective strategies and six instructional materials and types of equipment for supplemental instruction in science, resulting in a three tier RTI tutorial model. This model provides an initial guide for science educators in applicable practices for each tier of the RTI framework, and was developed to assist administrators, program managers, and science educators in developing effective, systemic RTI instructional programming for science education in grades 4 -- 8, and may provide an additional planning tool in determining evidence-based practices that may lead to achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Future research on specific intervention strategies within science and their effects on science achievement are needed, as well as a further examination to test the efficacy of the model on rates of science achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students.

  8. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  10. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  11. Humans perceive flicker artifacts at 500 Hz.

    PubMed

    Davis, James; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lee, Hung-Chi

    2015-02-03

    Humans perceive a stable average intensity image without flicker artifacts when a television or monitor updates at a sufficiently fast rate. This rate, known as the critical flicker fusion rate, has been studied for both spatially uniform lights, and spatio-temporal displays. These studies have included both stabilized and unstablized retinal images, and report the maximum observable rate as 50-90 Hz. A separate line of research has reported that fast eye movements known as saccades allow simple modulated LEDs to be observed at very high rates. Here we show that humans perceive visual flicker artifacts at rates over 500 Hz when a display includes high frequency spatial edges. This rate is many times higher than previously reported. As a result, modern display designs which use complex spatio-temporal coding need to update much faster than conventional TVs, which traditionally presented a simple sequence of natural images.

  12. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, William S D; Stafford, Kathleen M; Andrew, Rex K; Odom, Robert I

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them. PMID:23876176

  13. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, William S D; Stafford, Kathleen M; Andrew, Rex K; Odom, Robert I

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them.

  14. 600-Hz linewidth short-linear-cavity fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Mo, Shupei; Huang, Xiang; Xu, Shanhui; Li, Can; Yang, Changsheng; Feng, Zhouming; Zhang, Weinan; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2014-10-15

    We proposed a short-linear-cavity (SLC) fiber laser based on a virtual-folded-ring (VFR) resonator and a fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot filter. Spatial hole burning effect was reduced by retarding the polarization state of the counter-propagating light waves utilizing the VFR structure. The photon lifetime of the resonator was extended due to the multi-reflection inside the FBG FP, which increased the intra-cavity power and relatively suppressed the contribution of phase diffusion from spontaneous emission. The relaxation oscillation frequency is around 160 kHz due to the slow light effect. The linewidth of the SLC fiber laser was measured to be less than 600 Hz.

  15. Biophysical Modeling of Alpha Rhythms During Halothane-Induced Unconsciousness.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Sujith; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Kopell, Nancy J

    2013-01-01

    During the induction of general anesthesia there is a shift in power from the posterior regions of the brain to the frontal cortices; this shift in power is called anteriorization. For many anesthetics, a prominent feature of anteriorization is a shift specifically in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) from posterior to frontal cortices. Here we present a biophysical computational model that describes thalamocortical circuit-level dynamics underlying anteriorization of the alpha rhythm in the case of halothane. Halothane potentiates GABAA and increases potassium leak conductances. According to our model, an increase in potassium leak conductances hyperpolarizes and silences the high-threshold thalamocortical (HTC) cells, a specialized subset of thalamocortical cells that fire at the alpha frequency at relatively depolarized membrane potentials (>-60 mV) and are thought to be the generators of quiet awake occipital alpha. At the same time the potentiation of GABAA imposes an alpha time scale on both the cortical and the thalamic component of the frontal portion of our model. The alpha activity in the frontal component is further strengthened by reciprocal thalamocortical feedback. Thus, we argue that the dual molecular targets of halothane induce the anteriorization of the alpha rhythm by increasing potassium leak conductances, which abolishes occipital alpha, and by potentiating GABAA, which induces frontal alpha. These results provide a computational modeling formulation for studying highly detailed biophysical mechanisms of anesthetic action in silico.

  16. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  17. Improvements in GPS precision: 10 Hz to one day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyuhong

    Seeking to understand Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements and the positioning solutions in various time intervals, this dissertation improves the consistency of pseudorange measurements from different receiver types, processes 30 s interval data with optimized filtering techniques, and analyzes very-high-rate data with short arc lengths and baseline noise. The first project studies satellite-dependent biases between C/A and P1 codes. Calibrating these biases reduces the inconsistency of satellite clocks, improving the ambiguity resolution which allows for higher position precision. Receiver-dependent biases for two receivers are compared with the bias products of Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). Baseline lengths ranging up to ˜2,100km are tested with the receiver-specific biases; they resolve more phase ambiguity by 4.3% than using CODE's products. The second project analyzes 1 s and 30 s interval GPS data of the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake. For 1 Hz positioning, Iterative Tropospheric Estimation (ITE) method improves vertical precision. While equalized sidereal filtering reduces noise for multipath-dominant 30--300 s periods, it can cause long-term drifts in the timeseries. A study of postseismic deformation after the Tokachi-Oki earthquake uses 30 s interval position estimations to test multiple filtering strategies to maximize precision using lower-rate data. On top of the residual stacking, estimation of a random walk constraint of sigmaDelta = 1.80 cm/ hr shows maximum noise reduction capability while retaining the real deformation signal. These techniques enhance our grasp of fault response in the aftermath of great earthquakes. The third project probes noise floor characteristics of very-high-rate (> 1 Hz) GPS data. A hybrid method, designed and tested to resolve phase biases, minimizes computational burdens while keeping the quality of ambiguity-fixed solutions. Noise characteristics are compared after an analysis of 5 and 10 Hz

  18. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Daria; Hermes, Dora; Jensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz) is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs) reflects a window of excitability. PMID:19098986

  19. A single shot TDC with 4.8 ps resolution in 40 nm CMOS for high energy physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzie, J.; Steyaert, M.; Leroux, P.

    2015-01-01

    A robust TDC with 4.8 ps bin width has been designed for harsh environments and high energy physics applications. The circuit uses resistive interpolation DLL with a novel dual phase detector architecture. This architecture improves startup- and recovery speed from single event strikes without control voltage ripple trade-off and requires no off-line calibrations. A 0.43 LSB DNL has been measured at a power consumption of 4.2 mW with an extended frequency range from 0.8 GHz to 2.4 GHz. The TDC has been processed in 40 nm CMOS technology.

  20. Splitting attention reduces temporal resolution from 7 Hz for tracking one object to <3 Hz when tracking three.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Alex O; Chen, Wei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Overall performance when tracking moving targets is known to be poorer for larger numbers of targets, but the specific effect on tracking's temporal resolution has never been investigated. We document a broad range of display parameters for which visual tracking is limited by temporal frequency (the interval between when a target is at each location and a distracter moves in and replaces it) rather than by object speed. We tested tracking of one, two, and three moving targets while the eyes remained fixed. Variation of the number of distracters and their speed revealed both speed limits and temporal frequency limits on tracking. The temporal frequency limit fell from 7 Hz with one target to 4 Hz with two targets and 2.6 Hz with three targets. The large size of this performance decrease implies that in the two-target condition participants would have done better by tracking only one of the two targets and ignoring the other. These effects are predicted by serial models involving a single tracking focus that must switch among the targets, sampling the position of only one target at a time. If parallel processing theories are to explain why dividing the tracking resource reduces temporal resolution so markedly, supplemental assumptions will be required.

  1. Lateralized modulation of posterior alpha oscillations in children.

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Madelon A; Zumer, Johanna M; Ter Huurne, Niels; Castricum, Jesminne; Buitelaar, Jan K; Jensen, Ole

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for a functionally inhibitory role of alpha oscillations is growing stronger, mostly derived from studies in healthy adults investigating spatial attention. It remains unexplored if the modulation of alpha band oscillations plays a similar functional role in typically developing children. The aim of this study was to characterize alpha modulations in children in relation to attentional performance. To this end, the posterior alpha activity (8-12Hz) in children between 7 and 10years old was measured using EEG while they performed a visuospatial covert attention task. We found that the alpha activity decreased in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended hemifield, whereas it relatively increased in the other hemisphere. In addition, we found that the degree of lateralized alpha modulation predicted performance on the attention task by negatively predicting the response time on invalid trials. Of note, children who were behaviorally less influenced by spatial cueing also were children with a clear lateralized alpha modulation pattern, with a significantly stronger alpha lateralization in the left hemisphere than children who were influenced more by spatial cueing. In addition, a bias to the right visual field such as that commonly observed in children, was significantly smaller or absent in the children influenced least by spatial cueing. Among all children, the magnitude of this visual field bias was positively related to the ability to modulate alpha activity. In conclusion, we have shown that the pattern of alpha oscillations modulated by attention is already present in 7-10year old typically developing children. Although a similar pattern is observed in adults, the consequences for behavior are different. The fact that alpha modulation is already present at this age opens up the possibility of using hemispheric alpha lateralization as a tool to study the physiological basis of attention deficits in clinical disorders such as ADHD.

  2. Design and performance of a 250 Hz alexandrite laser

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, R.C.; Yeh, J.J.; Leslie, K.R.; Rapoport, W.R.

    1988-06-01

    The design, analysis, and performance of a 250 Hz alexandrite laser are described. Built as the wavelength selective laser for a molecular laser isotope separation program, the laser has to satisfy specifications on its tuning band, linewidth, output energy, temporal behavior, and repetition rate required by the process. The key design feature is the use of a tandem rod oscillator with concave curvature on rod ends for thermal lensing compensation. A model was developed to project the stability range and beam quality relative to repetition rate. The performance results of a delivered system are presented and future developments are discussed.

  3. The 2.2 Hz oscillations in auroral electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, D. R.; Hall, D. S.; Bryant, D. A.; Johnstone, A. D.; Christiansen, P. J.; Gough, M. P.

    1980-06-01

    A Petrel rocket was launched from Kiruna on 25 January 1979 to compare electron intensities measured at auroral altitudes with related parameters measured at geostationary altitude by the satellite GEOS 2. A sequence of quasi-periodic oscillations in electron intensities were investigated, which appear to originate in the equatorial region, probably in the neighborhood of GEOS 2 was investigated. A similar frequency oscillation in the intensity of 500-Hz VLF emissions was observed at about the same time by the S300 wave experiment located on the satellite.

  4. 1-kHz-repetition-rate femtosecond Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Losev, L. L.; Pazyuk, V. S.; Tenyakov, S. Yu

    2016-07-01

    A femtosecond Raman laser utilising compressed hydrogen is experimentally investigated under pumping by radiation from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate Ti : sapphire laser. In the regime of double-pulse pumping, the conditions are determined, which correspond to the minimal energy dispersion of Stokes pulses. The optical scheme is realised, which is capable of ensuring the long-term stability of the average power of the first Stokes component with a variation of less than 2%. The Stokes pulses are produced with a pulse duration of 60 fs and energy of 0.26 mJ at a conversion efficiency of 14%.

  5. Individual differences in alpha frequency drive crossmodal illusory perception.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

    2015-01-19

    Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ∼100 ms. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ∼100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ∼100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120-60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAF±2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF-2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions. PMID:25544613

  6. Theoretical investigation of a novel high density cage compound 4,8,11,14,15-pentanitro-2,6,9,13-tetraoxa-4,8,11,14,15-pentaazaheptacyclo[5.5.1.1(3,11).1(5,9)] pentadecane.

    PubMed

    Lin, He; Zhu, Shun-guan; Zhang, Lin; Peng, Xin-hua; Chen, Peng-yuan; Li, Hong-zhen

    2013-03-01

    A novel polynitro cage compound 4,8,11,14,15-pentanitro-2,6,9,13-tetraoxa-4,8,11,14,15-pentaazaheptacyclo [5.5.1.1(3,11).1(5,9)]pentadecane(PNTOPAHP) has been designed and investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31(d) level. Properties, such as electronic structure, IR spectrum, heat of formation, thermodynamic properties and crystal structure have been predicted. This compound is most likely to crystallize in C2/c space group, and the corresponding cell parameters are Z = 8, a = 29.78 Å, b = 6.42 Å, c = 32.69 Å, α = 90.00°, β = 151.05°, γ = 90.00° and ρ = 1.94 g/cm(3). In addition, the detonation velocity and pressure have also been calculated by the empirical Kamlet-Jacobs equation. As a result, the detonation velocity and pressure of this compound are 9.82 km/s, 44.67 GPa, respectively, a little higher than those of 4,10-dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazaisowurtzitane(TEX, 9.28 km/s, 40.72 GPa). This compound has a comparable chemical stability to TEX, based on the N-NO(2) trigger bond length analysis. The bond dissociation energy ranges from 153.09 kJ mol(-1) to 186.04 kJ mol(-1), which indicates that this compound meets the thermal stability requirement as an exploitable HEDM. PMID:23111684

  7. A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Geert J M; Denissen, Ad J M; Jäger, Mark; Vernon, David; Dekker, Marian K J; Mihajlović, Vojkan; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-03-01

    Fifty healthy participants took part in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which they were either given auditory alpha activity (8-12Hz) training (N=18), random beta training (N=12), or no training at all (N=20). A novel wireless electrode system was used for training without instructions, involving water-based electrodes mounted in an audio headset. Training was applied approximately at central electrodes. Post-training measurement using a conventional full-cap EEG system revealed a 10% increase in alpha activity at posterior sites compared to pre-training levels, when using the conventional index of alpha activity and a non-linear regression fit intended to model individual alpha frequency. This statistically significant increase was present only in the group that received the alpha training, and remained evident at a 3 month follow-up session, especially under eyes open conditions where an additional 10% increase was found. In an exit interview, approximately twice as many participants in the alpha training group (53%) mentioned that the training was relaxing, compared to those in either the beta (20%) or no training (21%) control groups. Behavioural measures of stress and relaxation were indicative of effects of alpha activity training but failed to reach statistical significance. These results are discussed in terms of a lack of statistical power. Overall, results suggest that self-guided alpha activity training using this novel system is feasible and represents a step forward in the ease of instrumental conditioning of brain rhythms.

  8. Slip-stacking Dynamics and the 20 Hz Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffery; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Slip-stacking is an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly doubles the proton intensity. The Proton Improvement Plan II intensity upgrades require a reduction in slip-stacking losses by approximately a factor of 2. We study the single-particle dynamics that determine the stability of slip-stacking particles. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We show the particle loss as a function of time. We calculate the injection efficiency as a function of longitudinal emittance and aspect-ratio. We demonstrate that the losses from RF single particle dynamics can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on beam parameters) by upgrading the Fermilab Booster from a 15-Hz cycle-rate to a 20-Hz cycle-rate. We recommend a change in injection scheme to eliminate the need for a greater momentum aperture in the Fermilab Recycler.

  9. Endocrinological effects of strong 60-Hz electric fields on rats

    SciTech Connect

    Free, M.J.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.; Cheng, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields without spark discharges, ozone, or significant levels or other secondary variables. No effects were discharges, ozone, or significant levels of other secondary variables. No effects were observed on body weights or plasma hormone levels after 30 days of exposure at an effective field strength of 68 kV/m. After 120 days of exposure (effective field strength = 64 kV/m), effects were inconsistent, with signficant reductions in body weight and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone occurring in one replicate experiment but not in the other. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced after 120 days of exposure in one experiment, with a similar but not statistically significant reduction in a replicate experiment. Weanling rats, exposed or sham-exposed in electric fields with an effective field strength of 80 kV/m from 20 to 56 days of age, exhibited identical or closely similar growth trends in body and organ weights. Hormone levels in exposed and sham-exposed groups were also similar. However, there was an apparent phase shift between the two groups in the cyclic variations of concentrations of hormones at different stages of development, particularly with respect to follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone. We concluded that 60-Hz electric fields may bring about subtle changes in the endocrine system of rats, and that these changes may be related to alterations in episodic rhythms.

  10. Solid Hydrogen Raman Shifter for the Mid-Infrared Range (4.4-8 µm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyanov, Kirill E.; Momose, Takamasa; Vilesov, Andrey F.

    2004-11-01

    We developed a pulsed, continuously tunable laboratory laser source for the mid-infrared spectral range of 4.4-8 µm, which is characterized by the spectral linewidth of 0.4 cm^-1. The device is based on the stimulated backward Raman scattering in solid para-hydrogen at T = 4 K. It is pumped by a focused beam obtained from a commercial near-infrared optical parametric oscillator with output energy of ~20 mJ (7-ns pulse). Output energies range from 1.7 mJ at 4.4 µm to 120 µJ at 8 µm, which correspond to quantum efficiencies of 0.53 and 0.08, respectively. Spectra of NO, H2O, and CH4 molecules in the mid-infrared were recorded. The operation of the Raman cell pumped with 532-nm radiation was also studied.

  11. The global distribution of natural and man-made ionospheric electric fields at 200 kHz and 540 kHz as observed by Ogo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laaspere, T.; Semprebon, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment on the polar-orbiting Ogo 6 spacecraft yielded real-time analog data in several broadband channels and essentially continuous tape-recorded data from two narrow-band (200-Hz) receivers operating at 200 and 540 kHz. The results show that the worldwide distributions of signals at 200 and 540 kHz falls into a number of different categories: (1) naturally generated broadband (auroral) hiss at polar latitudes with typical 200-kHz intensities of around 0.1 microvolt per meter per Hz to the 1/2 power, maximum intensities of up to several microvolt per meter per Hz to the 1/2 power, and generally lower intensities at 540 kHz; (2) nighttime midlatitude enhancements of a few microvolts per meter, which probably result either from a superposition of signals from a number of 200- and 540-kHz stations or from interference from intense signals of much higher frequencies; (3) well-defined signal peaks associated with individual ground stations operating at 200 kHz; (4) striking signal enhancements in the conjugate region of a low-latitude 200-kHz station (Ashkhabad), suggesting propagation in the whistler mode to the opposite hemisphere; and (5) occasional signal enhancements at the magnetic equator.

  12. 100 kHz Mueller polarimeter in reflection configuration.

    PubMed

    Le Gratiet, Aymeric; Rivet, Sylvain; Dubreuil, Matthieu; Le Grand, Yann

    2015-02-15

    A new setup is proposed to perform high-speed Mueller polarimetry by spectral coding of polarization in a reflection configuration. The system uses a swept laser source and a photodiode, which results in a simple optical setup that allows measurement of Mueller matrices at 100 kHz repetition rate. A special focus is made on the influence of the cube beam splitter polarimetric response, which is essential to measurements in a reflection configuration. The instrument is first validated on reference samples for single-point measurements, and the effect of a proper system calibration is also demonstrated on polarimetric images. The device is intended to be implemented within a laser scanning microscope to perform multimodal imaging (confocal/multiphoton and Mueller polarimetry). PMID:25680171

  13. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  14. Investigation on Two-Stage 300 HZ Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H. K.; Yang, L. W.; Hong, G. T.; Luo, E. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In the past few years, ultra-high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers are becoming a research hotspot for their portability and compactness in aerospace and aviation applications. For preliminary research, a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler working at 300 Hz driven by a thermoacoustic engine is established to investigate the problems due to ultra high frequency, and several results have been derived in our early reports. In order to study the effect of thermal penetration depth, this paper presents the cooler adopting copper mesh as the regenerator, and comparison with stainless steel mesh is given. In addition, the influence of inertance tube on the lowest possible cooler temperature is also tested. Finally, we discuss the improvement for getting a lower temperature.

  15. EV drivetrain inverter with V/HZ optimization

    DOEpatents

    Gritter, David J.; O'Neil, Walter K.

    1986-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer which calculates optimized machine control data signals from various parametric inputs and during steady state load conditions, seeks a best V/HZ ratio to minimize battery current drawn (system losses) from a D.C. power source (32). In the preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  16. Task-sensitive reconfiguration of corticocortical 6-20 Hz oscillatory coherence in naturalistic human performance.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Timo; Jalava, Antti; Kujala, Jan; Stevenson, Claire; Salmelin, Riitta

    2015-07-01

    Electrophysiological oscillatory coherence between brain regions has been proposed to facilitate functional long-range connectivity within neurocognitive networks. This notion is supported by intracortical recordings of coherence in singled-out corticocortical connections in the primate cortex. However, the manner in which this operational principle manifests in the task-sensitive connectivity that supports human naturalistic performance remains undercharacterized. Here, we demonstrate task-sensitive reconfiguration of global patterns of coherent connectivity in association with a set of easier and more demanding naturalistic tasks, ranging from picture comparison to speech comprehension and object manipulation. Based on whole-cortex neuromagnetic recording in healthy behaving individuals, the task-sensitive component of long-range corticocortical coherence was mapped at spectrally narrow-band oscillatory frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz (theta to alpha and low-beta bands). This data-driven cortical mapping unveiled markedly distinct and topologically task-relevant spatiospectral connectivity patterns for the different tasks. The results demonstrate semistable oscillatory states relevant for neurocognitive processing. The present findings decisively link human behavior to corticocortical coherence at oscillatory frequencies that are widely thought to convey long-range, feedback-type neural interaction in cortical functional networks.

  17. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens.

    PubMed

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G

    1998-03-01

    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation. PMID:9521278

  18. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens.

    PubMed

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G

    1998-03-01

    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.

  19. PET imaging of the 40 Hz auditory steady state response.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Samuel A; Salvi, Richard J; Burkard, Robert F; Coad, Mary Lou; Wack, David S; Galantowicz, Paul J; Lockwood, Alan H

    2004-08-01

    The auditory steady state response (aSSR) is an oscillatory electrical potential recorded from the scalp induced by amplitude-modulated (AM) or click/tone burst stimuli. Its clinical utility has been limited by uncertainty regarding the specific areas of the brain involved in its generation. To identify the generators of the aSSR, 15O-water PET imaging was used to locate the regions of the brain activated by a steady 1 kHz pure tone, the same tone amplitude modulated (AM) at 40 Hz and the specific regions of the brain responsive to the AM component of the stimulus relative to the continuous tone. The continuous tone produced four clusters of activation. The boundaries of these activated clusters extended to include regions in left primary auditory cortex, right non-primary auditory cortex, left thalamus, and left cingulate. The AM tone produced three clusters of activation. The boundaries of these activated clusters extended to include primary auditory cortex bilaterally, left medial geniculate and right middle frontal gyrus. Two regions were specifically responsive to the AM component of the stimulus. These activated clusters extended to include the right anterior cingulate near frontal cortex and right auditory cortex. We conclude that cortical sites, including areas outside primary auditory cortex, are involved in generating the aSSR. There was an unexpected difference between morning and afternoon session scans that may reflect a pre- versus post-prandial state. These results support the hypothesis that a distributed resonating circuit mediates the generation of the aSSR.

  20. Cortical EEG alpha rhythms reflect task-specific somatosensory and motor interactions in humans.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Soricelli, Andrea; Romani, Gian Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Capotosto, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Anticipating sensorimotor events allows adaptive reactions to environment with crucial implications for self-protection and survival. Here we review several studies of our group that aimed to test the hypothesis that the cortical processes preparing the elaboration of sensorimotor interaction is reflected by the reduction of anticipatory electroencephalographic alpha power (about 8-12Hz; event-related desynchronization, ERD), as an index that regulate task-specific sensorimotor processes, accounted by high-alpha sub-band (10-12Hz), rather than a general tonic alertness, accounted by low-alpha sub-band (8-10Hz). In this line, we propose a model for human cortical processes anticipating warned sensorimotor interactions. Overall, we reported a stronger high-alpha ERD before painful than non-painful somatosensory stimuli that is also predictive of the subjective evaluation of pain intensity. Furthermore, we showed that anticipatory high-alpha ERD increased before sensorimotor interactions between non-painful or painful stimuli and motor demands involving opposite hands. In contrast, sensorimotor interactions between painful somatosensory and sensorimotor demands involving the same hand decreased anticipatory high-alpha ERD, due to a sort of sensorimotor "gating" effect. In conclusion, we suggest that anticipatory cortical high-alpha rhythms reflect the central interference and/or integration of ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) signals relative to one or two hands before non-painful and painful sensorimotor interactions. PMID:24929901

  1. Alpha power and coherence primarily reflect neural activity related to stages of motor response during a continuous monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roger A; Gale, Anthony; Morris, Paul H; Forrester, Dave

    2008-08-01

    Previously, EEG theta (4-6 Hz) was related to goal conflict resolution [Moore, R.A., Gale, A., Morris, P.H., Forrester, D., 2006. Theta phase locking across the neocortex reflects cortico-hippocampal recursive communication during goal conflict resolution. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 60, 260-273] in the context of theory linked with animal hippocampal theta [Gray, J.A., McNaughton, N., 2000. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal system, 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford]. Here, the hypothesis that human EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) may also be a natural analogue to animal hippocampal theta is tested. Participants engaged in a monitoring task where the object was to press a response key immediately after presentation of 4 individual, non-repeating, single integer odd digits. These were presented amongst a continuous stream of single integer digits and Xs. EEG recorded in the earlier study were reanalysed; this time extracting alpha power and coherence from the same 34 participants. Alpha had a different profile to theta and was not primarily related to goal conflict. Low alpha (8-10 Hz) coherence consistently increased at electrodes close to primary sensorimotor cortex; particularly during response execution and response inhibition. The coherence analysis revealed that high alpha (10-12 Hz) related to response execution. Supplementary analyses demonstrated widespread high alpha coherence increase during response execution, inhibition and preparation. These data were discussed within the context of motor driven 'classic alpha' and Rolandic mu. A coherence profile which differentiated response execution and response inhibition was proposed to reflect a working memory network which was activated during response execution. Also, alpha power (8-12 Hz) reduced at several central electrodes during response execution. This reflected classic Rolandic mu response. Participants displaying a predicted low alpha power trend had the

  2. Determination of Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmeissani, Mokhtar Abdallah

    The determination of the strong coupling constant alpha_ s, using Energy-Energy Correlation Asymmetry and jet mass difference with Mark II data at SLC (91 GeV) is presented. In Energy-Energy Correlation Asymmetry (EECA), we used the same systematic procedure used to determine alpha_ s with MARK II data at PEP (29 GeV). The chi^2 fit suggests that alpha_ s = 0.119 +/- 0.007(stat.) +/- 0.007(syst.). In addition, we used the EECA method to determine the QCD scale parameter Lambda_{LLA}. The chi^2 fit suggests that Lambda _{LLA} = 420 +/- 90(stat.) MeV. In the jet mass difference method, the determination of alpha_ s is based on QCD calculations up to 2nd order. We showed that in this method we are able to reproduce the value of alpha _ s from a Monte Carlo sample to a very high accuracy. The result with this method is alpha _ s = 0.134 +/- 0.085(stat.) +/- 0.004(syst.). The two values of alpha_ s presented in this work are in agreement within the error bars and in a good agreement with recent results of alpha_ s published from other e^+e^- experiments.

  3. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  4. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  5. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  6. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  7. Deficient attention modulation of lateralized alpha power in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kustermann, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Kienle, Johanna; Miller, Gregory A; Popov, Tzvetan

    2016-06-01

    Modulation of 8-14 Hz (alpha) activity in posterior brain regions is associated with covert attention deployment in visuospatial tasks. Alpha power decrease contralateral to to-be-attended stimuli is believed to foster subsequent processing, such as retention of task-relevant input. Degradation of this alpha-regulation mechanism may reflect an early stage of disturbed attention regulation contributing to impaired attention and working memory commonly found in schizophrenia. The present study tested this hypothesis of early disturbed attention regulation by examining alpha power modulation in a lateralized cued delayed response task in 14 schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 25 healthy controls (HC). Participants were instructed to remember the location of a 100-ms saccade-target cue in the left or right visual hemifield in order to perform a delayed saccade to that location after a retention interval. As expected, alpha power decrease during the retention interval was larger in contralateral than ipsilateral posterior regions, and SZ showed less of this lateralization than did HC. In particular, SZ failed to show hemifield-specific alpha modulation in posterior right hemisphere. Results suggest less efficient modulation of alpha oscillations that are considered critical for attention deployment and item encoding and, hence, may affect subsequent spatial working memory performance.

  8. development of a medium repetition rate (10 Hz - 500 Hz) diode pumped laser transmitter for airborne scanning altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Lindauer, Steven J., II; Kay, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA has developed several small, all-solid state lasers of low repetition rates for use as transmitters in prototype LIDAR and raster scanned altimetry retrieval systems. Our early laser transmitters were developed for high resolution airborne altimetry which employed cavity dumping techniques to produce a pulse shape with a 1 ns rise time. The first such laser was the SUMR (Sub-millimeter resolution) transmitter which used a side pumped, D-shaped half-rod of Nd:YAG for the oscillator active media and produced approximately 3 ns pulses of 100 micro-J energy at a 40 Hz repetition rate. (Coyle and Blair, 1993; Coyle et al., 1995) After several upgrades to improve rep rate and pulse energy, the final version produced 1.2 mJ pulses at 120 Hz with a 3.7 ns pulse width. The laser has become known as SPLT (Sharp Pulsed Laser Transmitter), and has flown successfully on a variety of airborne altimetry missions. (Coyle and Blair, 1995; Blair et al., 1994) From building these systems, we have accrued valuable experience in delivering field-deployable lasers and have become aware of the advantages and disadvantages of employing new technologies. For example, even though the laser's main operating environment is in a "cold" aircraft during flight, the laser must still operate in very warm temperatures. This is important if the mission is based in the desert or a tropical climate since ground calibration data from stationary targets must be gathered before and after each data flight. Because conductive cooling is much more convenient than closed loop water flow, achieving the highest possible laser efficiency is becoming a high priority when designing a flight laser. This is especially true for lasers with higher pulse energies and repetition rates which are needed for high altitude scanning altimeters and LIDARs.

  9. Geomechanical analysis of fluid injection and seismic fault slip for the Mw4.8 Timpson, Texas, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhiqiang; Eichhubl, Peter; Gale, Julia F. W.

    2016-04-01

    An earthquake sequence that culminated in a Mw4.8 strike-slip event near Timpson, east Texas, the largest reported earthquake to date in that region, had previously been attributed to wastewater injection starting 17 months before the onset of recorded seismic activity. To test if this earthquake sequence can be attributed to wastewater injection, we conducted coupled poroelastic finite element simulations to assess the spatial and temporal evolution of pore pressure and stress field in the vicinity of the injection wells and to calculate the Coulomb failure stress on the seismogenic fault as a function of the permeability of the injection layer, fault orientation, fault permeability, and orientation and magnitude of the in situ stress. We find that injection-induced fault slip is plausible within the range of selected model input parameters, with slip favored by low reservoir permeability, low fault permeability, and a favorable orientation of the fault relative to the in situ stress state. Other combinations of equally plausible input parameters predict no slip within 96 months of simulated injection. Under most favorable boundary conditions for fault slip, fault slip occurs 7 months after the start of injection. Our results highlight the importance of detailed geomechanical site characterization for robust fault stability assessment prior to wastewater injection.

  10. [A trace gas sensor using mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser at 4.8 microm to detect carbon monoxide].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Biao; Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Jian; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Presented in the present paper is a compact instrument developed for rapid, sensitive and continuous monitoring of trace gases in air, with results shown for carbon monoxide concentration. This instrument takes advantage of recent technology in mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser (QCL) operating at 4.8 microm and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) mid-infrared (MIR) detector, combing MIR multipass herriott cell with 76 m absorption path length to obtain low detection sensitivity down to 50 nmol x mol(-1) level in 4 s acquisition time. Meanwhile, in order to eliminate the instability induced by electrically modulated light source and effectively improve detection limit of the instrument, an optical structure with dual channel path was designed which is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. The experimental results show that the instrument integrated with gas concentration inversion algorithm can be applied to in-situ measurements of trace gases without calibration. Additionally, operator could substitute a QCL operating at a different wavelength to measure other gases.

  11. 47 CFR 15.219 - Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz. 15.219... kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater... ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 3 meters. (c) All emissions below 510 kHz or above 1705 kHz...

  12. 47 CFR 15.219 - Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz. 15.219... kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater... ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 3 meters. (c) All emissions below 510 kHz or above 1705 kHz...

  13. 47 CFR 15.219 - Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz. 15.219... kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater... ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 3 meters. (c) All emissions below 510 kHz or above 1705 kHz...

  14. 47 CFR 15.219 - Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz. 15.219... kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater... ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 3 meters. (c) All emissions below 510 kHz or above 1705 kHz...

  15. 47 CFR 15.219 - Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz. 15.219... kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater... ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 3 meters. (c) All emissions below 510 kHz or above 1705 kHz...

  16. A biologically plausible mechanism for neuronal coding organized by the phase of alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Gips, Bart; van der Eerden, Jan P J M; Jensen, Ole

    2016-08-01

    The visual system receives a wealth of sensory information of which only little is relevant for behaviour. We present a mechanism in which alpha oscillations serve to prioritize different components of visual information. By way of simulated neuronal networks, we show that inhibitory modulation in the alpha range (~ 10 Hz) can serve to temporally segment the visual information to prevent information overload. Coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons generate a gamma rhythm in which information is segmented and sorted according to excitability in each alpha cycle. Further details are coded by distributed neuronal firing patterns within each gamma cycle. The network model produces coupling between alpha phase and gamma (40-100 Hz) amplitude in the simulated local field potential similar to that observed experimentally in human and animal recordings. PMID:27320148

  17. The Effect of the 226-Hz Probe Level on Contralateral Acoustic Stapedius Reflex Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jessica E.; Feeney, M. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 226-Hz probe level on the acoustic stapedius reflex threshold. Method: Contralateral reflex thresholds for a 1000-Hz pure-tone stimulus were obtained from 40 young adults with normal hearing using an experimental system at four 226-Hz probe levels (70, 75, 80, and 85 dB SPL) with…

  18. 47 CFR 15.221 - Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz. 15.221... kHz. (a) Carrier current systems and transmitters employing a leaky coaxial cable as the radiating antenna may operate in the band 525-1705 kHz provided the field strength levels of the radiated...

  19. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  20. 47 CFR 15.221 - Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz. 15.221... kHz. (a) Carrier current systems and transmitters employing a leaky coaxial cable as the radiating antenna may operate in the band 525-1705 kHz provided the field strength levels of the radiated...

  1. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  2. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  3. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  4. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  5. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  6. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  7. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  8. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  9. 47 CFR 15.221 - Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz. 15.221... kHz. (a) Carrier current systems and transmitters employing a leaky coaxial cable as the radiating antenna may operate in the band 525-1705 kHz provided the field strength levels of the radiated...

  10. 47 CFR 15.221 - Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz. 15.221... kHz. (a) Carrier current systems and transmitters employing a leaky coaxial cable as the radiating antenna may operate in the band 525-1705 kHz provided the field strength levels of the radiated...

  11. 47 CFR 15.221 - Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz. 15.221... kHz. (a) Carrier current systems and transmitters employing a leaky coaxial cable as the radiating antenna may operate in the band 525-1705 kHz provided the field strength levels of the radiated...

  12. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  13. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  14. 20 kHz Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Wolff, Fredrick J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station represents the next major U.S. commitment in space. The efficient delivery of power to multiple user loads is key to that success. In 1969, NASA Lewis Research Center began a series of studies with component and circuit developments that led to the high frequency bi-directional, four quadrant resonant driven converter. Additional studies and subsequent developments into the early 1980's have shown how the high frequency ac power system could provide overall advantages to many aerospace power systems. Because of its wide versatility, it also has outstanding advantages for the Space Station Program and its wide range of users. High frequency ac power provides higher efficiency, lower cost, and improved safety. The 20 kHz power system has exceptional flexibility, is inherently user friendly, and is compatible with all types of energy sources - photovoltaic, solar dynamic, rotating machines or nuclear Lewis distribution system testbed. The testbed demonstrates flexibility, versatility, and transparency to user technology as well as high efficiency, low mass, and reduced volume.

  15. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  16. Short-term variability of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at 4.8 AU from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Duffard, R.; Pozuelos, F.; Moreno, F.; Fernández-Valenzuela, E.

    2015-03-01

    Context. We observed comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) during six nights in February 2013 when it was at 4.8 AU from the Sun. At this distance and time the comet was not very active and it was theoretically possible to detect photometric variations likely due to the rotation of the cometary nucleus. Aims: The goal of this work is to obtain differential photometry of the comet inner coma using different aperture radii in order to derive a possible rotational period. Methods: Large field of view images were obtained with a 4 k × 4 k CCD at the f/3 0.77 m telescope of La Hita Observatory in Spain. Aperture photometry was performed in order to get relative magnitude variation versus time. Using calibrated star fields we also obtained ISON's R-magnitudes versus time. We applied a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis to get possible periodicities for the observed brightness variations, directly related with the rotation of the cometary nucleus. Results: The comet light curve obtained is very shallow, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.03 ± 0.02 mag. A tentative synodic rotational period (single-peaked) of 14.4 ± 1.2 h for ISON's nucleus is obtained from our analysis, but there are other possibilities. We studied the possible effect of the seeing variations in the obtained periodicities during the same night, and from night to night. These seeing variations had no effect on the derived periodicity. We discuss and interpret all possible solutions for the rotational period of ISON's nucleus. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A52

  17. Electrophysiological signatures of intentional social coordination in the 10-12 Hz range.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Muhammad; Prasad, Girijesh; Watson, David R; Kelso, J A Scott

    2012-01-16

    This study sought to investigate the effects of manipulating social coordination on brain synchronization/de-synchronization in the mu band. Mu activation is associated with understanding and coordinating motor acts and may play a key role in mediating social interaction. Members of a dyad were required to interact with one another in a rhythmic finger movement coordination task under various instructions: intrinsic where each member of the dyad was instructed to maintain their own and ignore their partner's movement; in-phase where they were asked to synchronize with their partner's movement; and anti-phase where they were instructed to syncopate with their partner's movement. EEG and movement data were recorded simultaneously from both subjects during all three tasks and a control condition. Log power ratios of EEG activity in the active conditions versus control were used to assess the effect of task context on synchronization/de-synchronization in the mu spectral domain. Results showed clear and systematic modulation of mu band activity in the 10-12 Hz range as a function of coordination context. In the left hemisphere general levels of alpha-mu suppression increased progressively as one moved from intrinsic through in-phase to anti-phase contexts but with no specific central-parietal focus. In contrast the right hemisphere displayed context-specific changes in the central-parietal region. The intrinsic condition showed a right synchronization which disappeared with the in-phase context even as de-synchronization remained greater in the left hemisphere. Anti-phase was associated with larger mu suppression in the right in comparison with left at central-parietal region. Such asymmetrical changes were highly correlated with changing behavioral dynamics. These specific patterns of activation and deactivation of mu activity suggest that localized neural circuitry in right central-parietal regions mediates how individuals interpret the movements of others in the

  18. Measurements of H(z) and DA(z) from the two-dimensional two-point correlation function of Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Wang, Yun

    2012-10-01

    We present a method for measuring the Hubble parameter, H(z), and angular diameter distance, DA(z), from the two-dimensional two-point correlation function and validate it using LasDamas mock galaxy catalogues. Applying our method to the sample of luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we measure H(z=0.35)≡H(0.35)=82.1-4.9+4.8 km s-1 Mpc -1 and DA(z=0.35)≡DA(0.35)=1048-58+60 Mpc without assuming a dark energy model or a flat universe. We find that the derived measurements of H(0.35) rs(zd)/c and DA(0.35)/rs(zd) [where rs(zd) is the sound horizon at the drag epoch] are nearly uncorrelated, have tighter constraints and are more robust with respect to possible systematic effects. Our galaxy clustering measurements of {H(0.35) rs(zd)/c,DA(0.35)/rs(zd)}={0.0434±0.0018,6.60±0.26} (with the correlation coefficient r = 0.0604) can be used to combine with cosmic microwave background and any other cosmological data sets to constrain dark energy. Our results represent the first measurements of H(z) and DA(z) (or H(z) rs(zd)/c and DA(0.35)/rs(zd)) from galaxy clustering data. Our work has significant implications for future surveys in establishing the feasibility of measuring both H(z) and DA(z) from galaxy clustering data.

  19. The 2 Hz and 15 Hz electroacupuncture induced reverse effect on autonomic function in healthy adult using a heart rate variability analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Bor-An; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Lin, Yi-Wen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) at different frequencies on autonomic function. Twenty healthy adult volunteers were studied, and underwent 4 sessions of EA (sham, 2 Hz, 15 Hz, and 50 Hz). Sham, 2 Hz, 15 Hz, and 50 Hz EA was applied to the bilateral Leg Three Li (足三里 zú sān lǐ, ST-36) and Upper Great Hollow (上巨虛 shàng jù xū, ST-37) acupoints. The intensity of electrical stimulation was adjusted to obtain visible twitching of the anterior tibial muscle about 2.0-2.5 mA except sham without electrical stimulation. The components of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure were measured before EA (BLP), EA (EAP), and post-EA periods (PEP). The results indicated that the natural logarithmic high frequency power (lnHF) of HRV was greater during PEP than during the BLP in the 2 Hz EA sessions. The natural logarithmic low frequency power (lnLF) of HRV was greater during the PEP than during the BLP in 15 Hz EA sessions, suggesting that 2 Hz EA apply to Leg Three Li (足三里 zú sān lǐ, ST-36) and Upper Great Hollow (上巨虛 shàng jù xū, ST-37) acupoints increased vagal activity, whereas 15 Hz EA increased sympathetic activity. PMID:24716105

  20. Alpha One Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... related programs More News Our Number One Goal: Find a cure for Alpha-1. Website Sponsors Helpful Links 3300 Ponce de Leon Blvd. Coral Gables, FL 33134 Phone: (877) 228-7321 Email: info@alphaone.org Copyright ...

  1. Dynamics of alpha control: preparatory suppression of posterior alpha oscillations by frontal modulators revealed with combined EEG and event-related optical signal.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Kyle E; Beck, Diane M; Ro, Tony; Maclin, Edward L; Low, Kathy A; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the dynamics of brain processes facilitating conscious experience of external stimuli. Previously, we proposed that alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations, which fluctuate with both sustained and directed attention, represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing sensory brain activity. Here we tested the prediction that inhibitory alpha oscillations in visual cortex are modulated by top-down signals from frontoparietal attention networks. We measured modulations in phase-coherent alpha oscillations from superficial frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices using the event-related optical signal (EROS), a measure of neuronal activity affording high spatiotemporal resolution, along with concurrently recorded EEG, while participants performed a visual target detection task. The pretarget alpha oscillations measured with EEG and EROS from posterior areas were larger for subsequently undetected targets, supporting alpha's inhibitory role. Using EROS, we localized brain correlates of these awareness-related alpha oscillations measured at the scalp to the cuneus and precuneus. Crucially, EROS alpha suppression correlated with posterior EEG alpha power across participants. Sorting the EROS data based on EEG alpha power quartiles to investigate alpha modulators revealed that suppression of posterior alpha was preceded by increased activity in regions of the dorsal attention network and decreased activity in regions of the cingulo-opercular network. Cross-correlations revealed the temporal dynamics of activity within these preparatory networks before posterior alpha modulation. The novel combination of EEG and EROS afforded localization of the sources and correlates of alpha oscillations and their temporal relationships, supporting our proposal that top-down control from attention networks modulates both posterior alpha and awareness of visual stimuli. PMID:24702458

  2. Thalamic mechanisms underlying alpha-delta sleep with implications for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Sujith; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Adler, Gail K; Kopell, Nancy J

    2015-09-01

    Alpha-delta sleep is the abnormal intrusion of alpha activity (8- to 13-Hz oscillations) into the delta activity (1- to 4-Hz oscillations) that defines slow-wave sleep. Alpha-delta sleep is especially prevalent in fibromyalgia patients, and there is evidence suggesting that the irregularities in the sleep of these patients may cause the muscle and tissue pain that characterizes the disorder. We constructed a biophysically realistic mathematical model of alpha-delta sleep. Imaging studies in fibromyalgia patients suggesting altered levels of activity in the thalamus motivated a thalamic model as the source of alpha activity. Since sodium oxybate helps to alleviate the symptoms of fibromyalgia and reduces the amount of alpha-delta sleep in fibromyalgia patients, we examined how changes in the molecular targets of sodium oxybate affected alpha-delta activity in our circuit. Our model shows how alterations in GABAB currents and two thalamic currents, Ih (a hyperpolarization-activated current) and a potassium leak current, transform a circuit that normally produces delta oscillations into one that produces alpha-delta activity. Our findings suggest that drugs that reduce Ih conductances and/or increase potassium conductances, without necessarily increasing GABAB conductances, might be sufficient to restore delta sleep. Furthermore, they suggest that delta sleep might be restored by drugs that preferentially target these currents in the thalamus; such drugs might have fewer side effects than drugs that act systemically.

  3. Thalamic mechanisms underlying alpha-delta sleep with implications for fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Adler, Gail K.; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-delta sleep is the abnormal intrusion of alpha activity (8- to 13-Hz oscillations) into the delta activity (1- to 4-Hz oscillations) that defines slow-wave sleep. Alpha-delta sleep is especially prevalent in fibromyalgia patients, and there is evidence suggesting that the irregularities in the sleep of these patients may cause the muscle and tissue pain that characterizes the disorder. We constructed a biophysically realistic mathematical model of alpha-delta sleep. Imaging studies in fibromyalgia patients suggesting altered levels of activity in the thalamus motivated a thalamic model as the source of alpha activity. Since sodium oxybate helps to alleviate the symptoms of fibromyalgia and reduces the amount of alpha-delta sleep in fibromyalgia patients, we examined how changes in the molecular targets of sodium oxybate affected alpha-delta activity in our circuit. Our model shows how alterations in GABAB currents and two thalamic currents, Ih (a hyperpolarization-activated current) and a potassium leak current, transform a circuit that normally produces delta oscillations into one that produces alpha-delta activity. Our findings suggest that drugs that reduce Ih conductances and/or increase potassium conductances, without necessarily increasing GABAB conductances, might be sufficient to restore delta sleep. Furthermore, they suggest that delta sleep might be restored by drugs that preferentially target these currents in the thalamus; such drugs might have fewer side effects than drugs that act systemically. PMID:26245315

  4. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  5. A thalamo-cortico-thalamic neural mass model to study alpha rhythms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta Sen; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam P

    2011-08-01

    We present a lumped computational model of the thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuitry. The model essentially consists of two modules: a thalamic module and a cortical module. The thalamic module circuitry is a modified version of a classic neural mass computational model of the thalamic circuitry to simulate cortical alpha rhythms and which we have used in previous research to study EEG abnormality associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Here, we introduce a modified synaptic structure representing a neuronal population in the thalamic model. Furthermore, the synaptic organisation and connectivity parameter values in the model are based on experimental data reported from the dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of different species. The cortical module circuitry is based on a recent work studying cortical brain rhythms. We vary the synaptic connectivity parameters in the thalamic module of the model to simulate the effects of AD on brain synaptic circuitry and study power within the alpha frequency bands. The power and dominant frequencies of the model output are studied in three sub-bands within the alpha band: lower alpha (7-9 Hz), middle alpha (9-11 Hz) and upper alpha (11-13 Hz). Such an analytical method conforms to recent comparative EEG studies on young adults, healthy aged adults and MCI or early stage AD patients. The results show a remarkable role of the synaptic connectivities in the inhibitory thalamic cell populations on the alpha band power and frequency. Furthermore, the total number of active synapses in the thalamic cell populations produces the slowing of alpha rhythms and a simultaneous decrease of alpha band power in the brain as a result of AD.

  6. Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm×28 mm×9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm×24 mm×8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

  7. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  8. Independent Causal Contributions of Alpha- and Beta-Band Oscillations during Movement Selection

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Arjen; Marshall, Tom R.; Esterer, Sophie; Sharp, Poppy; Dijkerman, H. Chris; de Lange, Floris P.; Toni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    To select a movement, specific neuronal populations controlling particular features of that movement need to be activated, whereas other populations are downregulated. The selective (dis)inhibition of cortical sensorimotor populations is governed by rhythmic neural activity in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta (15–25 Hz) frequency range. However, it is unclear whether and how these rhythms contribute independently to motor behavior. Building on a recent dissociation of the sensorimotor alpha- and beta-band rhythms, we test the hypothesis that the beta-band rhythm governs the disinhibition of task-relevant neuronal populations, whereas the alpha-band rhythm suppresses neurons that may interfere with task performance. Cortical alpha- and beta-band rhythms were manipulated with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) while human participants selected how to grasp an object. Stimulation was applied at either 10 or 20 Hz and was imposed on the sensorimotor cortex contralaterally or ipsilaterally to the grasping hand. In line with task-induced changes in endogenous spectral power, the effect of the tACS intervention depended on the frequency and site of stimulation. Whereas tACS stimulation generally increased movement selection times, 10 Hz stimulation led to relatively faster selection times when applied to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the grasping hand, compared with other stimulation conditions. These effects occurred selectively when multiple movements were considered. These observations functionally differentiate the causal contribution of alpha- and beta-band oscillations to movement selection. The findings suggest that sensorimotor beta-band rhythms disinhibit task-relevant populations, whereas alpha-band rhythms inhibit neuronal populations that could interfere with movement selection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study shows dissociable effects of 10 Hz and 20 Hz tACS on the duration of movement selection. These observations have two elements of

  9. Effects on atmospherics at 6 kHz and 9 kHz recorded at Tripura during the India-Pakistan Border earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, S. S.; de, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, B.; Paul, S.; Haldar, D. K.; Bhowmick, A.; Barui, S.; Ali, R.

    2010-04-01

    The outcome of the results of some analyses of electromagnetic emissions recorded by VLF receivers at 6 kHz and 9 kHz over Agartala, Tripura, the North-Eastern state of India (Lat. 23° N, Long. 91.4° E) during the large earthquake at Muzaffarabad (Lat. 34.53° N, Long. 73.58° E) at Kashmir under Pakistan have been presented here. Spiky variations in integrated field intensity of atmospherics (IFIA) at 6 and 9 kHz have been observed 10 days prior (from midnight of 28 September 2005) to the day of occurrence of the earthquake on 8 October 2005 and the effect continued, decayed gradually and eventually ceased on 16 October 2005. The spikes distinctly superimposed on the ambient level with mutual separation of 2-5 min. Occurrence number of spikes per hour and total duration of their occurrence have been found remarkably high on the day of occurrence of the earthquake. The spike heights are higher at 6 kHz than at 9 kHz. The results have been explained on the basis of generation of electromagnetic radiation associated with fracture of rocks, their subsequent penetration into the Earth's atmosphere and finally their propagation between Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The present observation shows that VLF anomaly is well-confined between 6 and 9 kHz.

  10. Analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current on experimental ischemic pain models: frequencies of 50 hz and 100 hz.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential currents (IFC) on induced ischemic pain in healthy volunteers. [Subjects] The subjects were 36 volunteers (18 male, 18 female) without known pathology that could cause pain. Their mean age was 24.5±2.2 years. [Methods] A single-blind and parallel-group method was used. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive each 50 Hz TENS, 50 Hz IFC, 100 Hz TENS, and 100 Hz IFC. This study experimentally induced ischemic pain in otherwise pain-free subjects using a modified version of the submaximal effort tourniquet technique. Subjects completed twelve cycles of the ischemic-induced pain test. The primary outcome measure was the change in self-reported of pain intensity during one of four possible treatments. [Results] There were significant effects for Time, which were attributed to a significant reduction in pain intensity for all groups. There were no significant effects for groups or group-time interaction. The 50 Hz IFC treatment was more comfortable than the other treatments in the present study, and it is likely to be better accepted and tolerated by patients. [Conclusion] We conclude that there were no differences in the analgesic effects of the four treatments under the present experimental conditions. The 50 Hz IFC treatment is more comfortable than the other treatments.

  11. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for sweeps (1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz bands) mimicking naval sonar signals.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; de Jong, Christ A F

    2011-05-01

    The distance at which active naval sonar signals can be heard by harbor porpoises depends, among other factors, on the hearing thresholds of the species for those signals. Therefore the hearing sensitivity of a harbor porpoise was determined for 1 s up-sweep and down-sweep signals, mimicking mid-frequency and low-frequency active sonar sweeps (MFAS, 6-7 kHz band; LFAS, 1-2 kHz band). The 1-2 kHz sweeps were also tested with harmonics, as sonars sometimes produce these as byproducts of the fundamental signal. The hearing thresholds for up-sweeps and down-sweeps within each sweep pair were similar. The 50% detection threshold sound pressure levels (broadband, averaged over the signal duration) of the 1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz sweeps were 75 and 67 dB re 1 μPa(2), respectively. Harmonic deformation of the 1-2 kHz sweeps reduced the threshold to 59 dB re 1 μPa(2). This study shows that the presence of harmonics in sonar signals can increase the detectability of a signal by harbor porpoises, and that tonal audiograms may not accurately predict the audibility of sweeps. LFAS systems, when designed to produce signals without harmonics, can operate at higher source levels than MFAS systems, at similar audibility distances for porpoises.

  12. 47 CFR 15.217 - Operation in the band 160-190 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation in the band 160-190 kHz. 15.217... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.217 Operation in the band 160-190 k... lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall...

  13. 47 CFR 15.217 - Operation in the band 160-190 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation in the band 160-190 kHz. 15.217... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.217 Operation in the band 160-190 k... lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall...

  14. 47 CFR 15.217 - Operation in the band 160-190 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation in the band 160-190 kHz. 15.217... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.217 Operation in the band 160-190 k... lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall...

  15. 47 CFR 15.217 - Operation in the band 160-190 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation in the band 160-190 kHz. 15.217... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.217 Operation in the band 160-190 k... lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall...

  16. 47 CFR 15.217 - Operation in the band 160-190 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the band 160-190 kHz. 15.217... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.217 Operation in the band 160-190 k... lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall...

  17. Portable alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J

    2012-09-01

    Many portable devices have been designed to detect γ-rays or alpha and beta particles. Most of the α-particle detectors give the total count as a result, without identifying the radionuclides existing in the sample. The development of a device allowing rapid and straightforward α-particle spectrometry would be very useful for detecting the radioactive contents of unknown samples. This work describes the construction of a portable device using silicon semiconductor detectors designed to rapidly detect and possibly identify alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  18. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  19. Alpha and gamma band oscillations index differential processing of acoustically reduced and full forms.

    PubMed

    Drijvers, Linda; Mulder, Kimberley; Ernestus, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    Reduced forms like yeshay for yesterday often occur in conversations. Previous behavioral research reported a processing advantage for full over reduced forms. The present study investigated whether this processing advantage is reflected in a modulation of alpha (8-12Hz) and gamma (30+Hz) band activity. In three electrophysiological experiments, participants listened to full and reduced forms in isolation (Experiment 1), sentence-final position (Experiment 2), or mid-sentence position (Experiment 3). Alpha power was larger in response to reduced forms than to full forms, but only in Experiments 1 and 2. We interpret these increases in alpha power as reflections of higher auditory cognitive load. In all experiments, gamma power only increased in response to full forms, which we interpret as showing that lexical activation spreads more quickly through the semantic network for full than for reduced forms. These results confirm a processing advantage for full forms, especially in non-medial sentence position. PMID:26878718

  20. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  1. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  2. Environmental and Pharmacological Modulation of Amphetamine-Induced 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rippberger, Henrike; van Gaalen, Marcel M.; Schwarting, Rainer K.W.; WÖhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats emit high-frequency 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in appetitive situations like social interactions. Drugs of abuse are probably the most potent non-social elicitors of 50-kHz USV, possibly reflecting their euphorigenic properties. Psychostimulants induce the strongest elevation in 50-kHz USV emission, particularly amphetamine (AMPH), either when applied systemically or locally into the nucleus accumbens (Nacc). Emission of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV depends on test context, such as the presence of conspecifics, and can be manipulated pharmacologically by targeting major neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT), but also protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Several D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, as well as typical and atypical antipsychotics block the AMPH-induced elevation in 50-kHz USV. Inhibiting D1 and D2 receptors in the Nacc abolishes AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV, indicating a key role for this brain area. NA neurotransmission also regulates AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission given that α1 receptor antagonists and α2 receptor agonists exert attenuating effects. Supporting the involvement of the 5-HT system, AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV are attenuated by 5-HT2C receptor activation, whereas 5-HT2C receptor antagonism leads to the opposite effect. Finally, treatment with lithium, tamoxifen, and myricitrin was all found to result in a complete abolishment of the AMPH-induced increase in 50-kHz USV, suggesting the involvement of PKC signaling. Neurotransmitter systems involved in AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission only partially overlap with other AMPH-induced behaviors like hyperlocomotion. The validity of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV as a preclinical model for neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed, particularly with relevance to altered drive and mood seen in bipolar disorder. PMID:26411764

  3. Intra-day up and down of flux density at 4.8 GHz of the quasar S5 1044+71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lin, M.-Q.; Liu, J.; Cui, L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Bignall, H.

    2014-04-01

    Following ATEL #5869, we observed the quasar S5 1044+71 at 4.8 GHz in two Intra-day variability (IDV) sessions with the Urumqi 25m radio telescope of Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory (XAO), we find its flux is rising by ~4% on 11-12 Feb. ...

  4. N-alkyl-4-[(8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-oct-3-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamides, micro and delta opioid agonists: a micro address.

    PubMed

    Carson, John R; Coats, Steven J; Codd, Ellen E; Dax, Scott L; Lee, Jung; Martinez, Rebecca P; McKown, Linda A; Anne Neilson, Lou; Pitis, Philip M; Wu, Wu-Nan; Zhang, Sui-Po

    2004-05-01

    The tertiary amide delta opioid agonist 2 is a potent antinociceptive agent. Compound 2 was metabolized in vitro and in vivo to secondary amide 3, a potent and selective micro opioid agonist. The SAR of a series of N-alkyl-4-[(8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-oct-3-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamides was examined.

  5. The Nation's Report Card: Civics 2010. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4, 8, and 12. NCES 2011-466

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2010 civics assessment. National results for representative samples of students at grades 4, 8, and 12 are reported as average scale scores and as a percentage of students performing at or above three achievement levels: "Basic," "Proficient," and "Advanced."…

  6. Presidents: Understanding America's Presidents through Research-Related Activities. A Good Apple Activity Book for Grades 4-8. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aten, Jerry

    This activity book is designed for grades 4-8 but could be modified for other levels. Mini-units begin with a brief biographical sketch of a U.S. president, including highlights of his life and administration. Twelve trivia questions accompany each sketch and require additional reading from other sources. Thought questions are based on an analysis…

  7. The Cultural Exchange, A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. Probe Cards [and] Probe Booklets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Mary; And Others

    These student probe cards for grades 4-8 provide a variety of values-oriented activities to help students explore, understand, and appreciate culturally diverse values. Activities are matched to one of seven objectives and are cross-referenced to the subject areas of social science, mathematics, fine arts, drama, physical education, language arts,…

  8. The Cultural Exchange, A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. Trace Your Own Roots. Teacher Manual [and] Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Mary; And Others

    A teacher's manual and student booklet for investigating family genealogy is provided for grades 4-8. The teacher's manual lists student objectives, methods for introducing the unit, a parent letter, student tracking chart, materials needed, vocabulary, group activities, a culminating activity, and a list of additional resources. Students will…

  9. The Cultural Exchange, A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. North Country Chronicles. Teacher Manual [and] Test Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humboldt County Office of Education, Eureka, CA.

    The document presents historical data and activities for students in grades 4-8 to research and explore the ethnocultural history of Humboldt County, California. Objectives are for students to identify unique geographical characteristics of their county and how these characteristics influence ways of living, examine relationships between American…

  10. U.S. Immigration: Creating a Human Tapestry from Prehistory to the Present. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Stacey M.

    The content of this book is divided into two complete units: unit 1 designed for K-3; and unit 2 for 4-8. Suggestions for adapting either of the levels to fit any individual classroom are included. The study unit provides opportunities for students to address aspects of immigration from historical perspectives, as well as examine future issues…

  11. A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. Cultural Exchange Task Cards [and] Test Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzler, Sally; And Others

    These activities for grades 4-8 are designed to promote understanding, appreciation, and respect for the diversity of cultures in the United States. Activities focus on four groups: American Indians, blacks, Asian Americans, and Mexican Americans. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the material is appropriate for fine arts, language arts, home…

  12. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  13. Sub-kHz Linewidth GaSb Semiconductor Diode Lasers Operating Near 2 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagheri, Mahmood; Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Ksendzov, Alexander; Forouhar, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    We report on the phase noise properties of DFB lasers operating near 2.0 microns. Measured noise spectra indicate intrinsic laser linewidths below 1 kHz. An effective linewidth of less than 200 kHz for 5 ms measurement times is estimated.

  14. The 1983-84 Connecticut 45-Hz-band field-strength measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, P. R.

    1986-03-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) measurements are made of the transverse horizontal magnetic field strength received in Connecticut. The AN/BSR-1 receiver consists of an AN/UYK-20 minicomputer, a signal timing and interface unit (STIU), a rubidium frequency time standard, two magnetic tape recorders, and a preamplifier. The transmission source of these farfield (1.6-Mm range) measurements is the U.S. Navy's ELF Wisconsin Test Facility (WTF), located in the Chequamegon National Forest in north central Wisconsin, about 8 km south of the village of Clam Lake. The WTF consists of two 22.5-km antennas; one of which is situated approximately in the north-south (NS) direction and the other approximately in the east-west (EW) direction. Each antenna is grounded at both ends. The electrical axis of the WTF EW antenna is 11 deg east of north at 45 Hz and 14 deg east of north at 75Hz. The electrical axis of the WTF NS antenna is 11 deg east of north at 45 Hz and 14 deg east of north at 75 Hz. The WTF array can be steered electrically. Its radiated power is approximately 0.5 W at 45 Hz and 1 W at 75 Hz. This report will compare results of 45 Hz band data taken during 1983 to 1984 with previous 45 Hz band measurements.

  15. {alpha}-Decay half-lives, {alpha}-capture, and {alpha}-nucleus potential

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu. Khudenko, A.A.

    2009-11-15

    {alpha}-Decay half-lives and {alpha}-capture cross sections are evaluated in the framework of a unified model for {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture. In this model {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture are considered as penetration of the {alpha}-particle through the potential barrier formed by the nuclear, Coulomb, and centrifugal interactions between the {alpha}-particle and nucleus. The spins and parities of the parent and daughter nuclei as well as the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the daughter nuclei are taken into account for evaluation of the {alpha}-decay half-lives. The {alpha}-decay half-lives for 344 nuclei and the {alpha}-capture cross sections of {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 59}Co, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 209}Bi agree well with the experimental data. The evaluated {alpha}-decay half-lives within the range of 10{sup -9}{<=}T{sub 1/2}{<=}10{sup 38} s for 1246 {alpha}-emitters are tabulated.

  16. Development and testing of a 20-kHz component test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A history of the General Dynamics Space Systems Division 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including its current configuration and its role in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Highlights and results are presented on a series of tests conducted on the 20 kHz Breadboard. The first test presented is the 20 kHz Breadboard Acceptance test. This test verified the operation of the delivered Breadboard and also characterized the main components of the system. Next, an indepth efficiency testing effort is presented. The tests attempted to apportion all the power losses in the 20 kHz Breadboard Main Invert Units. Distortion test data is presented showing the distortion characteristics of a Mapham inverter. Lastly, current work on the 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including Main Inverter Unit paralleling tests. Conclusions are summarized and references given.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  18. Human exposure standards in the frequency range 1 Hz To 100 kHz: the case for adoption of the IEEE standard.

    PubMed

    Patrick Reilly, J

    2014-10-01

    Differences between IEEE C95 Standards (C95.6-2002 and C95.1-2005) in the low-frequency (1 Hz-100 kHz) and the ICNIRP-2010 guidelines appear across the frequency spectrum. Factors accounting for lack of convergence include: differences between the IEEE standards and the ICNIRP guidelines with respect to biological induction models, stated objectives, data trail from experimentally derived thresholds through physical and biological principles, selection and justification of safety/reduction factors, use of probability models, compliance standards for the limbs as distinct from the whole body, defined population categories, strategies for central nervous system protection below 20 Hz, and correspondence of environmental electric field limits with contact currents. This paper discusses these factors and makes the case for adoption of the limits in the IEEE standards.

  19. A reference-beam autocollimator with nanoradian sensitivity from mHz to kHz and dynamic range of 107

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, T. B.; Hagedorn, C. A.; Schlamminger, S.; Gundlach, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    We describe an autocollimating optical angle sensor with a dynamic range of 9 mrad and nrad/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} sensitivity at frequencies from 5 mHz to 3 kHz. This work improves the standard multi-slit autocollimator design by adding two optical components, a reference mirror and a condensing lens. This autocollimator makes a differential measurement between a reference mirror and a target mirror, suppressing common-mode noise sources. The condensing lens reduces optical aberrations, increases intensity, and improves image quality. To further improve the stability of the device at low frequencies the body of the autocollimator is designed to reduce temperature variations and their effects. A new data processing technique was developed in order to suppress the effects of imperfections in the CCD.

  20. A reference-beam autocollimator with nanoradian sensitivity from mHz to kHz and dynamic range of 10(7).

    PubMed

    Arp, T B; Hagedorn, C A; Schlamminger, S; Gundlach, J H

    2013-09-01

    We describe an autocollimating optical angle sensor with a dynamic range of 9 mrad and nrad/√Hz sensitivity at frequencies from 5 mHz to 3 kHz. This work improves the standard multi-slit autocollimator design by adding two optical components, a reference mirror and a condensing lens. This autocollimator makes a differential measurement between a reference mirror and a target mirror, suppressing common-mode noise sources. The condensing lens reduces optical aberrations, increases intensity, and improves image quality. To further improve the stability of the device at low frequencies the body of the autocollimator is designed to reduce temperature variations and their effects. A new data processing technique was developed in order to suppress the effects of imperfections in the CCD.

  1. BIGEL analysis of gene expression in HL60 cells exposed to X rays or 60 Hz magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E. K.; Zhang, X. F.; Han, L. H.; Harrison, G. H.; Davis, C. C.; Zhou, X. J.; Ioffe, V.; McCready, W. A.; Abraham, J. M.; Meltzer, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    We screened a panel of 1,920 randomly selected cDNAs to discover genes that are differentially expressed in HL60 cells exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields (2 mT) or X rays (5 Gy) compared to unexposed cells. Identification of these clones was accomplished using our two-gel cDNA library screening method (BIGEL). Eighteen cDNAs differentially expressed in X-irradiated compared to control HL60 cells were recovered from a panel of 1,920 clones. Differential expression in experimental compared to control cells was confirmed independently by Northern blotting of paired total RNA samples hybridized to each of the 18 clone-specific cDNA probes. DNA sequencing revealed that 15 of the 18 cDNA clones produced matches with the database for genes related to cell growth, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, oxidative stress or apoptosis (including MYC, neuroleukin, copper zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase, TC4 RAS-like protein, peptide elongation factor 1alpha, BNIP3, GATA3, NF45, cytochrome c oxidase II and triosephosphate isomerase mRNAs). In contrast, BIGEL analysis of the same 1,920 cDNAs revealed no differences greater than 1.5-fold in expression levels in magnetic-field compared to sham-exposed cells. Magnetic-field-exposed and control samples were analyzed further for the presence of mRNA encoding X-ray-responsive genes by hybridization of the 18 specific cDNA probes to RNA from exposed and control HL60 cells. Our results suggest that differential gene expression is induced in approximately 1% of a random pool of cDNAs by ionizing radiation but not by 60 Hz magnetic fields under the present experimental conditions.

  2. Gamma activity coupled to alpha phase as a mechanism for top-down controlled gating.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Jensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between neural oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed to coordinate neural processing. In particular, gamma power coupled to alpha phase is proposed to reflect gating of information in the visual system but the existence of such a mechanism remains untested. Here, we recorded ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography in subjects who performed a modified Sternberg working memory task in which distractors were presented in the retention interval. During the anticipatory pre-distractor period, we show that the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz) gamma band activity, i.e. gamma power consistently was lower at the trough than at the peak of the alpha cycle (9-12Hz). We further show that high alpha power was associated with weaker gamma power at the trough of the alpha cycle. This result is in line with alpha activity in sensory region implementing a mechanism of pulsed inhibition silencing neuronal firing every ~100 ms. PMID:26039691

  3. Gamma Activity Coupled to Alpha Phase as a Mechanism for Top-Down Controlled Gating

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Jensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between neural oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed to coordinate neural processing. In particular, gamma power coupled to alpha phase is proposed to reflect gating of information in the visual system but the existence of such a mechanism remains untested. Here, we recorded ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography in subjects who performed a modified Sternberg working memory task in which distractors were presented in the retention interval. During the anticipatory pre-distractor period, we show that the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz) gamma band activity, i.e. gamma power consistently was lower at the trough than at the peak of the alpha cycle (9-12Hz). We further show that high alpha power was associated with weaker gamma power at the trough of the alpha cycle. This result is in line with alpha activity in sensory region implementing a mechanism of pulsed inhibition silencing neuronal firing every ~100 ms. PMID:26039691

  4. Induction of the nuclear factor HIF-1{alpha} in acetaminophen toxicity: Evidence for oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    James, Laura P. . E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu; Donahower, Brian; Burke, Angela S.; McCullough, Sandra; Hinson, Jack A.

    2006-04-28

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) controls the transcription of genes involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, glycolysis, and cell survival. HIF-1{alpha} levels are a critical determinant of HIF activity. The induction of HIF-1{alpha} was examined in the livers of mice treated with a toxic dose of APAP (300 mg/kg IP) and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h. HIF-1{alpha} was induced at 1-12 h and induction occurred prior to the onset of toxicity. Pre-treatment of mice with N-acetylcysteine (1200 mg/kg IP) prevented toxicity and HIF-1{alpha} induction. In further studies, hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with APAP (1 mM) in the presence of an oxygen atmosphere. HIF-1{alpha} was induced at 1 h, prior to the onset of toxicity. Inclusion of cyclosporine A (10 {mu}M), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, oxidative stress, and toxicity, prevented the induction of HIF-1{alpha}. Thus, HIF-1{alpha} is induced before APAP toxicity and can occur under non-hypoxic conditions. The data suggest a role for oxidative stress in the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in APAP toxicity.

  5. Synthesis of testosterone and 5alpha-androstanediols during nutritionally stimulated gonadal growth in Lytechinus variegatus lamarck (Echinodermata:Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Wasson, K M; Hines, G A; Watts, S A

    1998-08-01

    Although sex steroids and steroid converting enzymes have been found in echinoids, the relationship between steroids and reproduction has not been demonstrated. On days 0, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 of feeding, the gonads of previously starved Lytechinus variegatus were excised and incubated with [3H]androstenedione for 0.5 h to determine if changes in steroidogenic capacity are correlated with gonadal growth. Total rates of androstenedione conversion in the testes and ovaries increased significantly during feeding. In addition, the types and relative quantities of metabolites synthesized varied, suggesting that androstenedione metabolism is influenced by nutritional status. Both testes and ovaries synthesized testosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, and 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (5alpha-adiols), 5alpha-androstanedione, epiandrosterone, and androsterone on all days of feeding. In the testes, the relative quantities of testosterone and 5alpha-adiols increased greatly on day 4 of feeding. In contrast, in the ovaries testosterone synthesis was not detectable on day 4, although the relative quantities of 5alpha-adiols increased threefold. The sex-specific changes in the synthesis of these metabolites reflect a shift in the metabolic pathway indicated by changes in the relative enzyme activity indices for 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) (necessary for the synthesis of 5alpha-reduced androgens) and 3alpha/beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha/beta-HSDs, necessary for the synthesis of 3alpha- or 3beta-hydroxylated androgens). In both testes and ovaries the relative activities of 5alpha-R and 3alpha/beta-HSD increased on day 4 of feeding. The physiological significance of changes in androstenedione metabolism may be associated with the initiation of biosynthetic processes associated with gametogenesis. PMID:9679091

  6. Interferometric readout of a monolithic accelerometer, towards the fm /√{ Hz } resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heijningen, J. V.; Bertolini, A.; van den Brand, J. F. J.

    2016-07-01

    The European Gravitational wave Observatory Virgo is undergoing an upgrade to increase its strain sensitivity to about 3 ×10-24 1 /√{ Hz } in the detection band of 10 Hz-10 kHz. The upgrade for this detector necessitates seismically isolating sensing optics in a vacuum environment that were on an optical bench outside vacuum in previous Virgo configurations. For this purpose, Nikhef has designed and built the five compact isolators, called MultiSAS. To measure the residual motion of the optical components and the transfer function of the isolator in full assembly, no (commercial) sensor is available that has sufficient sensitivity. A novel vibration sensor has been built at Nikhef that features an interferometric readout for a horizontal monolithic accelerometer. It will be able to measure in the vicinity of the fm/Hz regime from 10 Hz onwards. Current results show unprecedented (self) noise levels around 35 fm/Hz from 25 Hz onwards. In spite of these excellent results, it is still higher than the modeled noises. Several possible unmodeled noise sources and possible solutions have been identified.

  7. Low potency and limited efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in the mouse 6 Hz corneal kindling model.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, K; Matagne, A; Kaminski, R M

    2014-05-01

    Corneal kindling is a useful alternative to electrically induced amygdala or hippocampal kindling, which requires advanced surgical and EEG techniques that may not be easily available in many laboratories. Therefore the first aim of this study was to evaluate whether repeated 6 Hz corneal stimulation in mice would lead to an increased and persistent seizure response as described for higher frequency (50/60 Hz) corneal kindling. Male NMRI mice stimulated twice daily (except weekends) for 3 s with 6 Hz electrical current at 44 mA displayed robust kindling development, i.e., a progressive increase in seizure severity. The majority of the animals (about 90%) developed a fully kindled state, defined as at least 10 consecutive stage 3-5 seizures within 5 weeks of corneal stimulation. Afterwards, the fully kindled state was maintained for at least 8 weeks with only two days of stimulations per week. Next, the protective efficacy of four mechanistically different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs; clonazepam, valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam) was assessed and compared between 6 Hz and 50 Hz fully kindled mice. All tested AEDs showed a relatively lower potency in the 6 Hz kindling model and a limited efficacy against partial seizures was observed with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. We can conclude that 6 Hz kindling may be more advantageous than the previously described 50/60 Hz corneal kindling models due to its robustness and persistence of the fully kindled state. Furthermore, the observed low potency and limited efficacy of AEDs in 6 Hz fully kindled mice suggest that this model could be a useful tool in the discovery of novel AEDs targeting treatment resistant epilepsy.

  8. Air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Sato, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Air puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in adult rats, termed "22-kHz calls," have been applied as a useful animal model to develop psychoneurological and psychopharmacological studies focusing on human aversive affective disorders. To date, all previous studies on air puff-induced 22-kHz calls have used outbred rats. Furthermore, newly developed gene targeting technologies, which are essential for further advancement of biomedical experiments using air puff-induced 22-kHz calls, have enabled the production of genetically modified rats using inbred rat strains. Therefore, we considered it necessary to assess air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in inbred rats. In this study, we assessed differences in air puff-induced 22-kHz calls between inbred F344 rats and outbred Wistar rats. Male F344 rats displayed similar total (summed) duration of air puff-induced 22 kHz vocalizations to that of male Wistar rats, however, Wistar rats emitted fewer calls of longer duration, while F344 rats emitted higher number of vocalizations of shorter duration. Additionally, female F344 rats emitted fewer air puff-induced 22-kHz calls than did males, thus confirming the existence of a sex difference that was previously reported for outbred Wistar rats. The results of this study could confirm the reliability of air puff stimulus for induction of a similar amount of emissions of 22-kHz calls in different rat strains, enabling the use of air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in inbred F344 rats and derived genetically modified animals in future studies concerning human aversive affective disorders.

  9. 4 Hz oscillations synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits during fear behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Karalis, Nikolaos; Dejean, Cyril; Chaudun, Fabrice; Khoder, Suzana; Rozeske, Robert R.; Wurtz, Hélène; Bagur, Sophie; Benchenane, Karim; Sirota, Anton; Courtin, Julien; Herry, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Fear expression relies on the coordinated activity of prefrontal and amygdala circuits, yet the mechanisms allowing long-range network synchronization during fear remain unknown. Using a combination of extracellular recordings, pharmacological, and optogenetic manipulations we report that freezing, a behavioural expression of fear, temporally coincides with the development of sustained, internally generated 4 Hz oscillations within prefrontal-amygdala circuits. 4 Hz oscillations predict freezing onset and offset and synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Optogenetic induction of prefrontal 4 Hz oscillations coordinates prefrontal-amygdala activity and elicits fear behaviour. These results unravel a novel sustained oscillatory mechanism mediating prefrontal-amygdala coupling during fear behaviour. PMID:26878674

  10. 4-Hz oscillations synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits during fear behavior.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Nikolaos; Dejean, Cyril; Chaudun, Fabrice; Khoder, Suzana; Rozeske, Robert R; Wurtz, Hélène; Bagur, Sophie; Benchenane, Karim; Sirota, Anton; Courtin, Julien; Herry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Fear expression relies on the coordinated activity of prefrontal and amygdala circuits, yet the mechanisms allowing long-range network synchronization during fear remain unknown. Using a combination of extracellular recordings, pharmacological and optogenetic manipulations, we found that freezing, a behavioral expression of fear, temporally coincided with the development of sustained, internally generated 4-Hz oscillations in prefrontal-amygdala circuits. 4-Hz oscillations predict freezing onset and offset and synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Optogenetic induction of prefrontal 4-Hz oscillations coordinates prefrontal-amygdala activity and elicits fear behavior. These results unravel a sustained oscillatory mechanism mediating prefrontal-amygdala coupling during fear behavior. PMID:26878674

  11. Benefits of 20 kHz PMAD in a nuclear space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    Compared to existing systems, high frequency ac power provides higher efficiency, lower cost, and improved safety benefits. The 20 kHz power system has exceptional flexibility, is inherently user friendly, and is compatible with all types of energy sources; photovoltaic, solar dynamic, rotating machines and nuclear. A 25 kW, 20 kHz ac power distribution system testbed was recently (1986) developed. The testbed possesses maximum flexibility, versatility, and transparency to user technology while maintaining high efficiency, low mass, and reduced volume. Several aspects of the 20 kHz power management and distribution (PMAD) system that have particular benefits for a nuclear power Space Station are discussed.

  12. Benefits of 20 kHz PMAD in a nuclear space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1987-01-01

    Compared to existing systems, high frequency ac power provides higher efficiency, lower cost, and improved safety benefits. The 20 kHz power system has exceptional flexibility, is inherently user friendly, and is compatible with all types of energy sources; photovoltaic, solar dynamic, rotating machines and nuclear. A 25 kW, 20 kHz ac power distribution system testbed was recently (1986) developed. The testbed possesses maximum flexibility, versatility, and transparency to user technology while maintaining high efficiency, low mass, and reduced volume. Several aspects of the 20 kHz power management and distribution (PMAD) system that have particular benefits for a nuclear power Space Station are discussed.

  13. 4-Hz oscillations synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits during fear behavior.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Nikolaos; Dejean, Cyril; Chaudun, Fabrice; Khoder, Suzana; Rozeske, Robert R; Wurtz, Hélène; Bagur, Sophie; Benchenane, Karim; Sirota, Anton; Courtin, Julien; Herry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Fear expression relies on the coordinated activity of prefrontal and amygdala circuits, yet the mechanisms allowing long-range network synchronization during fear remain unknown. Using a combination of extracellular recordings, pharmacological and optogenetic manipulations, we found that freezing, a behavioral expression of fear, temporally coincided with the development of sustained, internally generated 4-Hz oscillations in prefrontal-amygdala circuits. 4-Hz oscillations predict freezing onset and offset and synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Optogenetic induction of prefrontal 4-Hz oscillations coordinates prefrontal-amygdala activity and elicits fear behavior. These results unravel a sustained oscillatory mechanism mediating prefrontal-amygdala coupling during fear behavior.

  14. Pheromone synthesis. Part 245: Synthesis and chromatographic analysis of the four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal, the male aggregation pheromone of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1) were synthesized from the enantiomers of 2-methyl-1-butanol and citronellal. Enantioselective GC analysis enabled separation of (4R,8R)-1 and (4R,8S)-1 from a mixture of (4S,8R)-1 and (4S,8S)-1, when octakis- (2,3-di-O-methoxymethyl-6-O-t-butyldimet...

  15. T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangements in clones derived from human CD4-8- cells expressing natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E; Moore, M

    1988-12-01

    Clones derived from highly purified human peripheral blood Leu 19+ cells in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) expressed cytotoxic activity against natural killer (NK)-resistant as well as NK-sensitive targets. All 66 clones analysed had a germ line configuration of T-cell receptor (TCR) beta genes and 38/40 also had unrearranged TCR gamma genes. The two exceptions were both CD3+ clones, but these did not have a cytotoxic repertoire noticeably different from CD3- clones without TCR gamma gene rearrangements. Clones were also obtained from highly purified CD4-8- cells, most of which were also cytotoxic for NK-resistant and NK-sensitive targets. About 90% of these clones were CD3+ but only around 50% remained negative for CD4 and CD8 while a significant number (12.7%) were positive for both CD4 and CD8. All clones analysed had rearranged TCR gamma genes and most had also rearranged TCR beta genes, including 20/25 of the clones which were CD3+4-8-. Many of the clones showed two rearrangements of TCR beta genes, and 3/4 CD3- clones had rearranged TCR beta as well as TCR gamma genes. There was no correlation between cytotoxic activity and TCR gene status or phenotype of these CD4-8- derived clones, except that clones which were Leu 19+ tended to have higher cytotoxic activity against NK-sensitive and NK-resistant targets than Leu 19-clones. The results strongly indicate that TCR beta and gamma gene products are not involved in the cytotoxicity mediated by these clones. They also suggest that some CD4-8- cells may be capable of limited differentiation in vitro.

  16. Long-term underwater sound measurements in the shipping noise indicator bands 63Hz and 125Hz from the port of Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J K; Blondel, Ph; Godley, B J; Pikesley, S K; Witt, M J; Johanning, L

    2016-09-15

    Chronic low-frequency anthropogenic sound, such as shipping noise, may be negatively affecting marine life. The EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) includes a specific indicator focused on this noise. This indicator is the yearly average sound level in third-octave bands with centre frequencies at 63Hz and 125Hz. These levels are described for Falmouth Bay, UK, an active port at the entrance to the English Channel. Underwater sound was recorded for 30min h(-1) over the period June 2012 to November 2013 for a total of 435days. Mean third-octave levels were louder in the 125-Hz band (annual mean level of 96.0dB re 1μPa) than in the 63-Hz band (92.6dB re 1 μPa). These levels and variations are assessed as a function of seasons, shipping activity and wave height, providing comparison points for future monitoring activities, including the MSFD and emerging international regulation.

  17. Long-term underwater sound measurements in the shipping noise indicator bands 63Hz and 125Hz from the port of Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J K; Blondel, Ph; Godley, B J; Pikesley, S K; Witt, M J; Johanning, L

    2016-09-15

    Chronic low-frequency anthropogenic sound, such as shipping noise, may be negatively affecting marine life. The EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) includes a specific indicator focused on this noise. This indicator is the yearly average sound level in third-octave bands with centre frequencies at 63Hz and 125Hz. These levels are described for Falmouth Bay, UK, an active port at the entrance to the English Channel. Underwater sound was recorded for 30min h(-1) over the period June 2012 to November 2013 for a total of 435days. Mean third-octave levels were louder in the 125-Hz band (annual mean level of 96.0dB re 1μPa) than in the 63-Hz band (92.6dB re 1 μPa). These levels and variations are assessed as a function of seasons, shipping activity and wave height, providing comparison points for future monitoring activities, including the MSFD and emerging international regulation. PMID:27393210

  18. Source parameters of a M4.8 and its accompanying repeating earthquakes off Kamaishi, NE Japan: Implications for the hierarchical structure of asperities and earthquake cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Imanishi, K.; Okada, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-01-01

    We determine the source parameters of a M4.9 ?? 0.1 'characteristic earthquake' sequence and its accompanying microearthquakes at ???50 km depth on the subduction plate boundary offshore of Kamaishi, NE Japan. The microearthquakes tend to occur more frequently in the latter half of the recurrence intervals of the M4.9 ?? 0.1 events. Our results show that the microearthquakes are repeating events and they are located not only around but also within the slip area for the 2001 M4.8 event. From the hierarchical structure of slip areas and smaller stress drops for the microearthquakes compared to the M4.8 event, we infer the small repeating earthquakes rupture relatively weak patches in and around the slip area for the M4.8 event and their activity reflects a stress concentration process and/or change in frictional property (healing) at the area. We also infer the patches for the M4.9 ?? 0.1 and other repeating earthquakes undergo aseismic slip during their interseismic period. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Effect of level, duration, and inter-pulse interval of 1-2 kHz sonar signal exposures on harbor porpoise hearing.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; Gransier, Robin; Rambags, Martijn; Claeys, Naomi

    2014-07-01

    Safety criteria for underwater low-frequency active sonar sounds produced during naval exercises are needed to protect harbor porpoise hearing. As a first step toward defining criteria, a porpoise was exposed to sequences consisting of series of 1-s, 1-2 kHz sonar down-sweeps without harmonics (as fatiguing noise) at various combinations of average received sound pressure levels (SPLs; 144-179 dB re 1 μPa), exposure durations (1.9-240 min), and duty cycles (5%-100%). Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave centered at 1.5 kHz before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, 96, 144, and 1400 min after exposure, to quantify temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) and recovery of hearing. Results show that the inter-pulse interval of the fatiguing noise is an important parameter in determining the magnitude of noise-induced TTS. For the reported range of exposure combinations (duration and SPL), the energy of the exposure (i.e., cumulative sound exposure level; SELcum) can be used to predict the induced TTS, if the inter-pulse interval is known. Exposures with equal SELcum but with different inter-pulse intervals do not result in the same induced TTS.

  20. 5 Hz, >250 mJ Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier at 1053 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Guardalben, M.J.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2005-07-15

    A 250 mJ, 5 Hz repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier with near-Fourier-transform-limited, 430 fs pulses and a beam that can be focused to near the diffraction limit is demonstrated.

  1. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    An overall description of this research program is presented. The objectives are to investigate using nonhuman primates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high-intensity, 60 Hz, electric fields. 6 tabs.

  2. Radiofrequency signal affects alpha band in resting electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Rania; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Hugueville, Laurent; Ducorps, Antoine; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Thuróczy, György; de Seze, René; Selmaoui, Brahim

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human resting EEG with a control of some parameters that are known to affect alpha band, such as electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in 26 healthy young subjects under two conditions: sham exposure and real exposure in double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Spectral power of EEG rhythms was calculated for the alpha band (8-12 Hz). Saliva samples were collected before and after the study. Salivary cortisol and caffeine were assessed by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. The electrode impedance was recorded at the beginning of each run. Compared with the sham session, the exposure session showed a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decrease of the alpha band spectral power during closed-eyes condition. This effect persisted in the postexposure session (P < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected in electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine in the sham session compared with the exposure one. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of a mobile phone affect the alpha band within spectral power of resting human EEG.

  3. Radiofrequency signal affects alpha band in resting electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Rania; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Hugueville, Laurent; Ducorps, Antoine; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Thuróczy, György; de Seze, René; Selmaoui, Brahim

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human resting EEG with a control of some parameters that are known to affect alpha band, such as electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in 26 healthy young subjects under two conditions: sham exposure and real exposure in double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Spectral power of EEG rhythms was calculated for the alpha band (8-12 Hz). Saliva samples were collected before and after the study. Salivary cortisol and caffeine were assessed by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. The electrode impedance was recorded at the beginning of each run. Compared with the sham session, the exposure session showed a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decrease of the alpha band spectral power during closed-eyes condition. This effect persisted in the postexposure session (P < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected in electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine in the sham session compared with the exposure one. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of a mobile phone affect the alpha band within spectral power of resting human EEG. PMID:25695646

  4. Aging and the 4-kHz Air-Bone Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed age- and sex-related patterns in the prevalence and 10-year incidence of 4-kHz air-bone gaps and associated factors. Method: Data were obtained as part of the longitudinal, population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study ( Cruickshanks et al., 1998). An air-bone gap at 4 kHz was defined as an…

  5. The Modified HZ Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large-Scale Nonsmooth Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Gonglin; Sheng, Zhou; Liu, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Hager and Zhang (HZ) conjugate gradient (CG) method and the modified HZ (MHZ) CG method are presented for large-scale nonsmooth convex minimization. Under some mild conditions, convergent results of the proposed methods are established. Numerical results show that the presented methods can be better efficiency for large-scale nonsmooth problems, and several problems are tested (with the maximum dimensions to 100,000 variables). PMID:27780245

  6. Finding Thalamic BOLD Correlates to Posterior Alpha EEG

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongming; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Yao, Bing; van Gelderen, Peter; Kuo, Li-Wei; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillatory electrical brain activity in the alpha (8–13Hz) band is a prominent feature of human electroencephalography (EEG) during alert wakefulness, and is commonly thought to arise primarily from the occipital and parietal parts of the cortex. While the thalamus is considered to play a supportive role in the generation and modulation of cortical alpha rhythms, its precise function remains controversial and incompletely understood. To address this, we evaluated the correlation between the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in the thalamus and the spontaneous modulation of posterior alpha rhythms based on EEG-fMRI data acquired concurrently during an eyes-closed task-free condition. We observed both negative and positive correlations in the thalamus. The negative correlations were mostly seen within the visual thalamus, with a preference for the pulvinar over lateral geniculate nuclei. The positive correlations were found at the anterior and medial dorsal nuclei. Through functional connectivity analysis of the fMRI data, the pulvinar was found to be functionally associated with the same widespread cortical visual areas where the fMRI signals were negatively correlated with the posterior alpha modulation. In contrast, the dorsal nuclei were part of a distinct functional network that included brain stem, cingulate cortex and cerebellum. These observations are consistent with previous animal electrophysiology studies and the notion that the visual thalamus, and the pulvinar in particular, is intimately involved in the generation and spontaneous modulation of posterior alpha rhythms, facilitated by its reciprocal and widespread interaction with the cortical visual areas. We further postulate that the anterior and medial dorsal nuclei, being part of the ascending neuromodulatory system, may indirectly modulate cortical alpha rhythms by affecting vigilance and arousal level. PMID:22986355

  7. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  8. An extrasolar extreme-ultraviolet object. II - The nature of HZ 43. [hot white dwarf star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Liebert, J.; Lampton, M.; Spinrad, H.; Bowyer, S.; Gatewood, G.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of data are presented concerning the spectrum, distance, temperature, and evolutionary state of the hot white dwarf HZ 43, the first extrasolar object to be detected in the EUV band. The data include spectrophotometry of the star and its red dwarf companion (HZ 43B), a trigonometric parallax for the star, its tangential velocity, and results of soft X-ray and EUV observations. The main conclusions are that: (1) the spectrum of HZ 43A is that of a hot DAwk star, (2) HZ 43B is a dM3.5e star, (3) the distance of the system is about 65 pc, (4) the tangential velocity is not atypical of white dwarfs, and (5) the stellar energy distribution of HZ 43A is well fitted by a black body with an effective temperature of approximately 110,000 K. Evolutionary implications of the existence of an object as hot as HZ 43A are briefly considered, and it is suggested that the progenitors of hot DA stars must include objects hotter than spectral type sdB, with logical possibilities being nuclei of planetary nebulae and sdO stars.

  9. Proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, Peter K; Bønsager, Birgit C

    2004-02-12

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous alpha-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological approaches have been outlined for exploitation of the inhibitory function. PMID:14871655

  10. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  11. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  12. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  13. Lorentz violation and {alpha} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Relating the effective Lorentz violation coefficients for composite particles to the coefficients for their constituent fields is a challenging problem. We calculate the Lorentz violation coefficients relevant to the dynamics of an {alpha} particle in terms of proton and neutron coefficients. The {alpha}-particle coefficients would lead to anisotropies in the {alpha} decays of nuclei, and because the decay process involves quantum tunneling, the effects of any Lorentz violations could be exponentially enhanced.

  14. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  15. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  16. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  17. The Mw4.8 Norris Geyser Basin Earthquake of 30 March, 2014 and its Relationship to Crustal Deformation and Seismic Activity of the Yellowstone Volcanic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Shelly, D. R.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C. M.; Chang, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    The largest earthquake to be recorded in Yellowstone in over 30 years, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake, occurred on March 30, 2014 near the Norris Geyser Basin on the NW side of the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera. The earthquake was felt throughout Yellowstone and the surrounding region. We analyze this unusual event using data from the Yellowstone Seismic and Geodetic networks in the context of active volcanic-tectonic processes of the Yellowstone volcanic system and its relationship to regional swarm seismicity and crustal deformation. Moment tensor analysis of the March 30 earthquake revealed a strike-slip, double-couple source mechanism with no isotropic contribution. This earthquake was part of a larger sequence of earthquake swarm activity in the Norris Geyser Basin area that began in September 2013 and continued into June 2014. During that period, 50-60% of the total seismicity recorded in Yellowstone, including nearly all of the swarm seismicity (earthquakes clustered in time and space), occurred in the Norris Geyser Basin area. In addition, GPS derived deformation data revealed unusually high uplift rates at ~15 cm/yr in the Norris area prior to the MW4.8 event, while a dramatic reversal to subsidence at rates of ~20 cm/yr occurred after the event. Regionally, the much larger Yellowstone caldera had experienced subsidence since January 2010 at rates of ~1.5 cm/yr prior to the MW4.8 event. After March 30, 2014 the caldera reversed to regional uplift at rates of ~10 cm/yr, similar to accelerated uplift rates observed in mid-2004.

  18. Reduced alpha-gamma phase amplitude coupling over right parietal cortex is associated with implicit visuomotor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Tzvi, Elinor; Verleger, Rolf; Münte, Thomas F; Krämer, Ulrike M

    2016-11-01

    Implicit visuomotor sequence learning is important for our daily life, e.g., when writing or playing an instrument. Previous research identified a network of cortical regions that is relevant for motor sequence learning, namely primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, superior parietal cortex, and subcortical regions, including basal ganglia and cerebellum. Here, we investigated learning-related changes in oscillatory activity (theta, alpha and gamma power) and cross-frequency interactions (theta- and alpha-gamma phase-amplitude coupling) within cortical regions during sensorimotor memory formation. EEG was recorded from a large group of participants (n=73) performing the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Posterior parietal alpha power was larger early-on during sequence learning and smaller in later sessions. Alpha/low-gamma (8-13Hz and 30-48Hz) phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) was significantly smaller during sequence learning over right superior parietal cortex and frontal cortex. During the transition from sequential stimuli to random stimuli, participants made more errors, indicating that they still implicitly attempted to implement the learned motor sequence. At the same time, alpha/low-gamma phase-amplitude coupling was found to be smaller during the transition relative to later random trials. Our results show that learning and implementing a learned motor sequence reduces alpha/low-gamma PAC over parietal and frontal cortex. Fronto-parietal alpha/low-gamma PAC might be relevant for visuomotor mapping which becomes less relevant once the motor sequence has been encoded. PMID:27403869

  19. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He + {sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1995-10-01

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He +{sup nat}Ag, {sup l97}Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/p{sub o} {approximately} 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II) complex with 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Yusoff, Latifah M.; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.; Ismail, Wafiuddin; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2014-09-03

    Nickel(II) complex have been synthesized by treating a 14-membered ring tetraaza macrocyclic compound, 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium, bromide (Me{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 4})Br{sub 2} with nickel acetate in metanol. The complex was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), and single crystal diffraction (X-ray). The nickel atom coordinates through four nitrogen atoms in the ligand. Square planar geometry has been proposed for this complex.

  1. Room Temperature ppb Level Chlorine Gas Sensor Based on Copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, R. K.; Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman

    2010-12-01

    Spin coating technique has been used to fabricate room temperature chlorine gas sensor based on copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu){sub 8}) films. Gas sensor shows a response of 185% to few parts per billion level of Cl{sub 2} gas with response time of 9.5 minutes at room temperature. The interactions between sensor and analytes followed first order kinetics with rate constant 0.01{<=}k{<=}0.02. The chemiresistive sensor showed very good stability at room temperature over a long period of time.

  2. BOLD fractional contribution to resting-state functional connectivity above 0.1 Hz.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyuan E; Glover, Gary H

    2015-02-15

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) spontaneous signals from resting-state (RS) brains have typically been characterized by low-pass filtered timeseries at frequencies ≤ 0.1 Hz, and studies of these low-frequency fluctuations have contributed exceptional understanding of the baseline functions of our brain. Very recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that spontaneous activities may persist in higher frequency bands (even up to 0.8 Hz), while presenting less variable network patterns across the scan duration. However, as an indirect measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signal results from an inherently slow hemodynamic process, which in fact might be too slow to accommodate the observed high-frequency functional connectivity (FC). To examine whether the observed high-frequency spontaneous FC originates from BOLD contrast, we collected RS data as a function of echo time (TE). Here we focus on two specific resting state networks - the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), and the major findings are fourfold: (1) we observed BOLD-like linear TE-dependence in the spontaneous activity at frequency bands up to 0.5 Hz (the maximum frequency that can be resolved with TR=1s), supporting neural relevance of the RSFC at a higher frequency range; (2) conventional models of hemodynamic response functions must be modified to support resting state BOLD contrast, especially at higher frequencies; (3) there are increased fractions of non-BOLD-like contributions to the RSFC above the conventional 0.1 Hz (non-BOLD/BOLD contrast at 0.4-0.5 Hz is ~4 times that at <0.1 Hz); and (4) the spatial patterns of RSFC are frequency-dependent. Possible mechanisms underlying the present findings and technical concerns regarding RSFC above 0.1 Hz are discussed.

  3. Expression and modulation of IL-1 alpha in murine keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ansel, J.C.; Luger, T.A.; Lowry, D.; Perry, P.; Roop, D.R.; Mountz, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    Murine and human keratinocytes produce an IL-1-like factor that appears to be similar if not identical to monocyte-derived IL-1. IL-1 may be an important mediator in cutaneous inflammatory responses, however, little is currently known concerning factors that may modulate IL-1 expression in keratinocytes. To address this issue we examined the effect of LPS, UV, and the cell differentiation state on murine keratinocyte IL-1 mRNA expression. Our results indicated that as with the murine P388D1 monocyte cell line, PAM 212 keratinocytes constitutively express abundant amounts of IL-1 alpha mRNA. On exposure to LPS (100 micrograms/ml) for 8 h there was more than 10 times the increase in PAM 212 IL-1 alpha mRNA which was accompanied by a sixfold increase in supernatant IL-1 activity. Similarly UV irradiation had a significant effect on keratinocyte IL-1 alpha expression. High dose UV (300 mJ/cm2) inhibited PAM 212 IL-1 alpha expression at 4, 8, 24, 48 h post-UV whereas a lower dose of UV (100 mJ/cm2) inhibited UV at 4 and 8 h post-UV, but induced IL-1 expression at 24 and 48 h post-UV. The expression of IL-1 alpha varied with the differentiation state of the keratinocytes. Freshly removed newborn murine keratinocytes were found to constitutively express IL-1 alpha mRNA. Keratinocytes grown in low (Ca2+) tissue culture media (0.05 mM) for 6 days, functionally and phenotypically become undifferentiated and express increased quantities of IL-1 alpha mRNA, whereas cells grown in high (Ca2+) media (1.2 mM) for 6 days become terminally differentiated and IL-1 expression ceased. Keratinocytes cultured for 3 days in low (Ca2+) conditions expressed an intermediate level of IL-1 alpha. In contrast, little or no IL-1 beta mRNA was detected in either the PAM 212 cells or newborn murine keratinocytes.

  4. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Feng; Nan, Wenya; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the brain activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity can predict the learning ability in alpha neurofeedback. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback and the learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback. PMID:25071528

  5. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

  6. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  7. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are broad facilitators of antinicotinic neuromuscular blockade monitored either with 2 Hz train-of-four or 50 Hz tetanic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Monalisa W; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2012-10-01

    1. The 2 Hz train-of-four ratio (TOF(ratio)) is used to monitor the degree of patient curarization. Using a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, we showed that antinicotinic agents, such as hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and pancuronium, but not cisatracurium, decreased contractions produced by physiological nerve activity patterns (50 Hz) more efficiently than those caused by 2 Hz trains. Uncertainty about the usefulness of the TOF(ratio) to control safe recovery from curarization prompted us to investigate the muscarinic and adenosine neuromodulation of tetanic (50 Hz) fade induced by antinicotinic agents at concentrations that cause a 25% reduction in the TOF(ratio) (TOF(fade)). 2. Tetanic fade caused by d-tubocurarine (1.1 μmol/L), pancuronium (3 μmol/L) and hexamethonium (5.47 mmol/L) was attenuated by blocking presynaptic inhibitory muscarinic M(2) and adenosine A(1) receptors with methoctramine (1 μmol/L) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5 nmol/L), respectively. These compounds enhanced rather than decreased tetanic fade induced by cisatracurium (2.2 μmol/L), but they consistently attenuated cisatracurium-induced TOF(fade). The effect of the M(1) receptor antagonist pirenzepine (10 nmol/L) on fade produced by antinicotinic agents at 50 Hz was opposite to that observed with TOF stimulation. Blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors with ZM 241385 (10 nmol/L) attenuated TOF(fade) caused by all antinicotinic drugs tested, with the exception of the 'pure' presynaptic nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. ZM 241385 was the only compound tested in this series that facilitated recovery from tetanic fade produced by cisatracurium. 3. The data suggest that distinct antinicotinic relaxants interfere with fine-tuning neuromuscular adaptations to motor nerve stimulation patterns via activation of presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors. These results support the use of A(2A) receptor antagonists together with atropine to facilitate recovery from

  8. Phase transition and conduction mechanism in Pb{sub 2}Na{sub 0.8}R{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 4.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 15} material (R=rare earth)

    SciTech Connect

    Bouziane, M.; Taibi, M.; Boukhari, A.

    2013-11-15

    Electrical properties of Pb{sub 2}Na{sub 0.8}Eu{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 4.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 15} tungsten bronze compound were investigated. Ferroelectric phase transition of diffuse type is observed at 395 °C. Conductivity study as a function of temperature (RT-600 °C) and at three different frequencies (10, 100 and 1000 kHz) suggests the existence of dominant ionic conduction. The rise of ac conductivity on increasing temperature supports the NTCR (negative temperature coefficient of resistance) behaviour of the material. The activation energies have been evaluated from ac conductivity using Arrhenius equation and discussed. Different conduction mechanisms were identified. For comparison, the conducting properties of Pb{sub 2}Na{sub 0.8}R{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 4.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 15} (R=Dy, Nd, La) were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Thermal evolution of lnσ{sub ac} of Pb{sub 2}Na{sub 0.8}Eu{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 4.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 15} at selected frequencies. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We found that TB compounds exhibit a diffuse type of first- order transition. • A negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behaviour is observed. • Three conduction mechanisms were identified: n-and/or p-type at low temperatures. • The conduction mechanism in the studied compounds is very complex.

  9. 47 CFR 73.30 - Petition for authorization of an allotment in the 1605-1705 kHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the 1605-1705 kHz band. 73.30 Section 73.30 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... authorization of an allotment in the 1605-1705 kHz band. (a) Any party interested in operating an AM broadcast station on one of the ten channels in the 1605-1705 kHz band must file a petition for the establishment...

  10. 47 CFR 73.30 - Petition for authorization of an allotment in the 1605-1705 kHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the 1605-1705 kHz band. 73.30 Section 73.30 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... authorization of an allotment in the 1605-1705 kHz band. (a) Any party interested in operating an AM broadcast station on one of the ten channels in the 1605-1705 kHz band must file a petition for the establishment...

  11. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  12. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  13. Harmonics of 60 Hz in power systems caused by geomagnetic disturbances. [Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K.; Oguti, T.; Watanabe, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Kokubun, S.; Horita, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous VLF/ULF observations carried out near Winnipeg, Manitoba show that geomagnetic disturbances control the behavior of harmonics of 60 Hz man-made electric power. The harmonics of 60 Hz detected by the VLF receiver are at multiples of 180 Hz, indicating that they originated from a 3 phase ac power system. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions, only odd harmonics of 70 Hz were detected. In disturbed conditions, both odd and even harmonics were excited. The strength of each harmonic changed concurrently with geomagnetic pulsation (ULF) activity. These findings seem to indicate that a portion of telluric currents shunted into the power line system through the neutrals of the Y-connected transformers give rise to a dc bias to the transformer core materials and that it distorts their hysteresis loops, activating harmonics of 60 Hz power. A mathematical proof is given that a hysteresis loop having a point of symmetry generates odd harmonics only, whereas loops lacking in point-symmetry generally give rise to both odd and even harmonics. A general formula was obtained to calculate the strength of each harmonic based on the shape of the hysteresis loop.

  14. The 40-Hz auditory steady-state response: a selective biomarker for cortical NMDA function.

    PubMed

    Sivarao, Digavalli V

    2015-05-01

    When subjected to a phasic input, sensory cortical neurons display a remarkable ability to entrain faithfully to the driving stimuli. The entrainment to rhythmic sound stimuli is often referred to as the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and can be captured using noninvasive techniques, such as scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An ASSR to a driving frequency of approximately 40 Hz is particularly interesting in that it shows, in relative terms, maximal power, synchrony, and synaptic activity. Moreover, the 40-Hz ASSR has been consistently found to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients across multiple studies. The nature of the reported abnormality has been less consistent; while most studies report a deficit in entrainment, several studies have reported increased signal power, particularly when there are concurrent positive symptoms, such as auditory hallucinations. However, the neuropharmacological basis for the 40-Hz ASSR, as well as its dysfunction in schizophrenia, has been unclear until recently. On the basis of several recent reports, it is argued that the 40-Hz ASSR represents a specific marker for cortical NMDA transmission. If confirmed, the 40-Hz ASSR may be a simple and easy-to-access pharmacodynamic biomarker for testing the integrity of cortical NMDA neurotransmission that is robustly translational across species. PMID:25809615

  15. Feasibility of a bilateral 4000–6000 Hz notch as a phenotype for genetic association analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan L.; Richter, Scott J.; Teglas, Sandra L.; Bhatt, Ishan S.; Morehouse, Robin C.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Henrich, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a worldwide health problem and a growing concern among young people. Although some people appear to be more susceptible to NIHL, genetic association studies lack a specific phenotype. We tested the feasibility of a bilateral 4000–6000 Hz audiometric notch as a phenotype for identifying genetic contributions to hearing loss in young adults. Design A case-control-control study was conducted to examine selected SNPs in 52 genes previously associated with hearing loss and/or expressed in the cochlea. A notch was defined as a minimum of a 15-dB drop at 4000–6000 Hz from the previous best threshold with a 5-dB ‘recovery’ at 8000 Hz. Study sample Participants were 252 individuals of European descent taken from a population of 640 young adults who are students of classical music. Participants were grouped as No-notch (NN), Unilateral Notch (UN), or Bilateral Notch (BN). Results The strongest evidence of a genetic association with the 4000–6000 Hz notch was a nonsynonymous SNP variant in the ESRR? gene (rs61742642:C>T, P386S). Carriers of the minor allele accounted for 26% of all bilateral losses. Conclusion This study indicates that the 4000–6000 Hz bilateral notch is a feasible phenotype for identifying genetic susceptibility to hearing loss. PMID:25938503

  16. Deficits in the 30-Hz auditory steady-state response in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Gong, Qin; Wu, Fei

    2016-10-19

    The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an auditory evoked potential that occurs in response to periodically presented auditory stimuli. The ASSR has drawn attention as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders owing to its connection with neural oscillations as well as its easy and noninvasive recording. Abnormalities in the γ band ASSR have been found consistently in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, although major depressive disorder (MDD) is also part of the common psychiatric diseases, the relationship between the ASSR and MDD has not been characterized sufficiently. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the ASSRs from patients with MDD and compare them with those from healthy control (HC) participants. The experiment was designed to obtain the ASSRs elicited by 20-, 30-, and 40-Hz click trains. Patients and HCs were evaluated separately. The response power and phase synchronization were measured at each stimulation frequency. Patients with MDD showed significantly reduced ASSR power for 30-Hz stimuli compared with HC participants, whereas no significant differences in the power were observed at 20 and 40 Hz for patients with MDD. In addition, no significant difference in the phase synchronization was observed for 20-, 30-, and 40-Hz stimuli. Conclusively, patients with MDD were characterized by deficits in 30-Hz ASSR power, which may be associated with spontaneous γ activity dysfunction. The present findings suggest that ASSR could potentially be used as a biomarker for MDD. PMID:27563737

  17. Free-field calibration of measurement microphones at frequencies up to 80 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Herring, Gregory C.

    2002-11-01

    Civil-aviation noise-reduction programs, that make use of scaled-down aircraft models in wind tunnel tests, require knowledge of microphone pressure (i.e., not free-field) sensitivities beyond 20 kHz--since noise wavelengths also scale down with decreasing model size. Furthermore, not all microphone types (e.g., electrets) are easily calibrated with the electrostatic technique, while enclosed cavity calibrations typically have an upper limit for the useful frequency range. Thus, work was initiated to perform a high-frequency pressure calibration of Panasonic electret microphones using a substitution free-field method in a small anechoic chamber. First, a standard variable-frequency pistonphone was used to obtain the pressure calibration up to 16 kHz. Above 16 kHz, to avoid spatially irregular sound fields due to dephasing of loudspeaker diaphragms, a series of resonant ceramic piezoelectric crystals was used at five specific ultrasonic frequencies as the free-field calibration sound source. Then, the free-field sensitivity was converted to a pressure sensitivity with an electrostatic calibration of the reference microphone (an air condenser type), for which the free-field correction is known. Combining the low- and high-frequency data sets, a full frequency calibration of pressure sensitivity for an electret microphone was generated from 63 Hz to 80 kHz.

  18. Modulation of the ∽20-Hz motor-cortex rhythm to passive movement and tactile stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Parkkonen, Eeva; Laaksonen, Kristina; Piitulainen, Harri; Parkkonen, Lauri; Forss, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of afferent somatosensory input with motor-cortex output is essential for accurate movements. Prior studies have shown that tactile input modulates motor-cortex excitability, which is reflected in the reactivity of the ∽20-Hz motor-cortex rhythm. ∽20-Hz rebound is connected to inhibition or deactivation of motor cortex whereas suppression has been associated with increased motor cortex activity. Although tactile sense carries important information for controlling voluntary actions, proprioception likely provides the most essential feedback for motor control. Methods To clarify how passive movement modulates motor-cortex excitability, we studied with magnetoencephalography (MEG) the amplitudes and peak latencies of suppression and rebound of the ∽20-Hz rhythm elicited by tactile stimulation and passive movement of right and left index fingers in 22 healthy volunteers. Results Passive movement elicited a stronger and more robust ∽20-Hz rebound than tactile stimulation. In contrast, the suppression amplitudes did not differ between the two stimulus types. Conclusion Our findings suggest that suppression and rebound represent activity of two functionally distinct neuronal populations. The ∽20-Hz rebound to passive movement could be a suitable tool to study the functional state of the motor cortex both in healthy subjects and in patients with motor disorders. PMID:25874163

  19. Crystal structure of trans-di-chlorido-(1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-undecane-κ(4) N)chromium(III) perchlorate determined from synchrotron data.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2016-03-01

    The structure of the title complex, [CrCl2(2,3,2-tet)]ClO4 (2,3,2-tet is 1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-undecane, C7H20N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The Cr(III) ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of the 1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-undecane ligand in the equatorial plane and two chloride ions in an axial arrangement, displaying a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination environment. The two H atoms of the secondary amines are grouped on the same side of the equatorial N4 plane (meso-RS conformation). The Cr-N bond lengths range from 2.069 (2) to 2.084 (2) Å, while the mean Cr-Cl bond length is 2.325 (2) Å. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the primary and secondary amine groups of the 2,3,2-tet ligands, the Cl ligands and the O atoms of the perchlorate counter-anion, forming corrugated layers parallel to (010). PMID:27006822

  20. A two-dimensional Zn(II) coordination polymer constructed by benzotriazole-5-carboxylate and 1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui-Yun; Luan, Guo-You; Han, Zheng-Bo

    2010-10-01

    Poly[[(μ(3)-benzotriazole-5-carboxylato-κ(4)N(1):N(3):O,O')(1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene-κ(2)N(8),N(9))zinc(II)] 0.25-hydrate], {[Zn(C(7)H(3)N(3)O(2))(C(14)H(8)N(4))]·0.25H(2)O}(n), exhibits a two-dimensional layer structure in which the asymmetric unit contains one Zn(II) centre, one 1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene (TATP) ligand, one benzotriazole-5-carboxylate (btca) ligand and 0.25 solvent water molecules. Each Zn(II) ion is six-coordinated and surrounded by four N atoms from two different btca ligands and one chelating TATP ligand, and by two O atoms from a third btca ligand, to furnish a distorted octahedral geometry. The infinite connection of the metal ions and ligands forms a two-dimensional wave-like (6,3) layer structure. Adjacent layers are connected by C-H...N hydrogen bonds. The solvent water molecules are located in partially occupied sites between parallel pairs of inversion-related TATP ligands that belong to two separate layers. PMID:20921604

  1. Visuo-attentional and sensorimotor alpha rhythms are related to visuo-motor performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Del Percio, Claudio; Babiloni, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Stocchi, Massimiliano; Robazza, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Comani, Silvia; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-11-01

    This study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared with non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the preparation of precise visuo-motor performance; (ii) in elite athletes, an optimal visuo-motor performance is related to a low cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic (EEG; 56 channels; Be Plus EB-Neuro) data were recorded in 18 right-handed elite air pistol shooters and 10 right-handed non-athletes. All subjects performed 120 shots. The EEG data were spatially enhanced by surface Laplacian estimation. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of alpha rhythms during the preshot period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- (about 8-10 Hz) and high-frequency (about 10-12 Hz) alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite athletes than in the non-athletes over the whole scalp. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), the elite athletes showed high-frequency alpha ERS (about 10-12 Hz) larger in amplitude for high score shots (50%) than for low score shots; this was true in right parietal and left central areas. A control analysis confirmed these results with another indicator of cortical activation (beta ERD, about 20 Hz). The control analysis also showed that the amplitude reduction of alpha ERD for the high compared with low score shots was not observed in the non-athletes. The present findings globally suggest that in elite athletes (experts), visuo-motor performance is related to a global decrease of cortical activity, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical processes ("neural efficiency"). PMID:19350556

  2. Flicker Regularity Is Crucial for Entrainment of Alpha Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Notbohm, Annika; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) in human electroencephalogram (EEG) modulate perception via phase-dependent inhibition. If entrained to an external driving force, inhibition maxima and minima of the oscillation appear more distinct in time and make potential phase-dependent perception predictable. There is an ongoing debate about whether visual stimulation is suitable to entrain alpha oscillations. On the one hand, it has been argued that a series of light flashes results in transient event-related responses (ERPs) superimposed on the ongoing EEG. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that alpha oscillations become entrained to a series of light flashes if they are presented at a certain temporal regularity. This raises the question under which circumstances a sequence of light flashes causes entrainment, i.e., whether an arrhythmic stream of light flashes would also result in entrainment. Here, we measured detection rates in response to visual targets at two opposing stimulation phases during rhythmic and arrhythmic light stimulation. We introduce a new measure called “behavioral modulation depth” to determine differences in perception. This measure is capable of correcting for inevitable artifacts that occur in visual detection tasks during visual stimulation. The physical concept of entrainment predicts that increased stimulation intensity should produce stronger entrainment. Thus, two experiments with medium (Experiment 1) and high (Experiment 2) stimulation intensity were performed. Data from the first experiment show that the behavioral modulation depth (alpha phase-dependent differences in detection threshold) increases with increasing entrainment of alpha oscillations. Furthermore, individual alpha phase delays of entrained alpha oscillations determine the behavioral modulation depth: the largest behavioral modulation depth can be found if targets presented during the minimum of the entrained oscillation are

  3. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  4. Plasma antennas driven by 5–20 kHz AC power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiansen Chen, Yuli; Sun, Yang; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Yuan, Qiumeng

    2015-12-15

    The experiments described in this work were performed with the aim of introducing a new plasma antenna that was excited by a 5–20 kHz alternating current (AC) power supply, where the antenna was transformed into a U-shape. The results show that the impedance, voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR), radiation pattern and gain characteristics of the antenna can be controlled rapidly by varying not only the discharge power, but also by varying the discharge frequency in the range from 5 to 20 kHz. When the discharge frequency is adjusted from 10 to 12 kHz, the gain is higher within a relatively broad frequency band and the switch-on time is less than 1 ms when the discharge power is less than 5 W, meaning that the plasma antenna can be turned on and off rapidly.

  5. Calibration of laser vibrometers at frequencies up to 100 kHz and higher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Pineda, Guillermo; von Martens, Hans-Jürgen; Rojas, Sergio; Ruiz, Arturo; Muñiz, Lorenzo

    2008-06-01

    Manufacturers and users of laser vibrometers exploit the wide frequency and intensity ranges of laser techniques, ranging over many decades (e.g., from 0.1 Hz to 100 MHz). Traceability to primary measurement standards is demanded over the specified measurement ranges of any measurement instrumentation. As the primary documentary standard ISO 16063-11 for the calibration of vibration transducers is restricted to 10 kHz, a new international standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers, ISO 16063-41, is under development. The current stage of the 2nd Committee Draft (CD) of the ISO standard specifies calibration methods for frequencies from 0.4 Hz to 50 kHz which does not meet the demand for providing traceability at higher frequencies. New investigations will be presented which demonstrate the applicability of the laser interferometer methods specified in ISO 16063-11 and in the 2nd CD also at higher frequencies of 100 kHz and beyond. The three standard methods were simultaneously used for vibration displacement and acceleration measurements up to 100 kHz, and a fourth high-accuracy method has been developed and used. Their results in displacement and acceleration measurements deviated by less than 1 % from each other at vibration displacement amplitudes in the order of 100 nm. In addition to the three interferometer methods specified in ISO 16063-11 and 16063-15, and in the 2nd Committee Draft of 16063-41 as well, measurement results will be presented. Examples of laser vibrometer calibrations will bedemonstrated. Further investigations are aimed

  6. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate

    PubMed Central

    Schlachter, Simon C.; Kang, DongKyun; Gora, Michalina J.; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Wu, Tao; Carruth, Robert W.; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Woods, Kevin; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a reflectance confocal microscopy technology that uses a diffraction grating to illuminate different locations on the sample with distinct wavelengths. SECM can obtain line images without any beam scanning devices, which opens up the possibility of high-speed imaging with relatively simple probe optics. This feature makes SECM a promising technology for rapid endoscopic imaging of internal organs, such as the esophagus, at microscopic resolution. SECM imaging of the esophagus has been previously demonstrated at relatively low line rates (5 kHz). In this paper, we demonstrate SECM imaging of large regions of esophageal tissues at a high line imaging rate of 100 kHz. The SECM system comprises a wavelength-swept source with a fast sweep rate (100 kHz), high output power (80 mW), and a detector unit with a large bandwidth (100 MHz). The sensitivity of the 100-kHz SECM system was measured to be 60 dB and the transverse resolution was 1.6 µm. Excised swine and human esophageal tissues were imaged with the 100-kHz SECM system at a rate of 6.6 mm2/sec. Architectural and cellular features of esophageal tissues could be clearly visualized in the SECM images, including papillae, glands, and nuclei. These results demonstrate that large-area SECM imaging of esophageal tissues can be successfully conducted at a high line imaging rate of 100 kHz, which will enable whole-organ SECM imaging in vivo. PMID:24049684

  7. Comparison of cardiac and 60 Hz magnetically induced electric fields measured in anesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Creim, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields interact with an animal by inducing internal electric fields, which are in addition to the normal endogenous fields present in living animals. Male rats weighing about 560 g each were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Small incisions were made in the ventral body wall at the chest and upper abdomen to position a miniature probe for measuring internal electric fields. The calibration constant for the probe size was 5.7 mm, with a flat response from at least 12 Hz to 20 kHz. A cardiac signal, similar to the normal electrocardiogram with a heart rate of about 250 bpm, was readily obtained at the chest. Upon analysis of its spectrum, the cardiac field detected by the probe had a broad maximum at 32--95 Hz. When the rates were exposed to a 1 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field, a spike appeared in the spectrum at 60 Hz. The peak-to-peak magnitudes of electric fields associated with normal heart function were comparable to fields induced by a 1 mT magnetic field at 60 Hz for those positions measured on the body surface. Within the body, or in different directions relative to the applied field, the induced fields were reduced. The cardiac field increased near the heart, becoming much larger than the induced field. Thus, the cardiac electric field, together with the other endogenous fields, combine with induced electric fields and help to provide reference levels for the induced-field dosimetry of ELF magnetic field exposures of living animals.

  8. SOFT LAGS IN NEUTRON STAR kHz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS: EVIDENCE FOR REVERBERATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, Didier

    2013-06-10

    High frequency soft reverberation lags have now been detected from stellar mass and supermassive black holes. Their interpretation involves reflection of a hard source of photons onto an accretion disk, producing a delayed reflected emission, with a time lag consistent with the light travel time between the irradiating source and the disk. Independently of the location of the clock, the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) emission is thought to arise from the neutron star boundary layer. Here, we search for the signature of reverberation of the kHz QPO emission, by measuring the soft lags and the lag energy spectrum of the lower kHz QPOs from 4U1608-522. Soft lags, ranging from {approx}15 to {approx}40 {mu}s, between the 3-8 keV and 8-30 keV modulated emissions are detected between 565 and 890 Hz. The soft lags are not constant with frequency and show a smooth decrease between 680 Hz and 890 Hz. The broad band X-ray spectrum is modeled as the sum of a disk and a thermal Comptonized component, plus a broad iron line, expected from reflection. The spectral parameters follow a smooth relationship with the QPO frequency, in particular the fitted inner disk radius decreases steadily with frequency. Both the bump around the iron line in the lag energy spectrum and the consistency between the lag changes and the inferred changes of the inner disk radius, from either spectral fitting or the QPO frequency, suggest that the soft lags may indeed involve reverberation of the hard pulsating QPO source on the disk.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions alpha-mannosidosis alpha-mannosidosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes ...

  10. Dynamical mass determinations for the white dwarf components of HZ 9 and Case 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Radial-velocity curves for both components of the short-period, white dwarf M dwarf binary systems Case 1 and HZ 9 have been determined from 1-A-resolution spectra obtained at the MMT. The radial-velocity curves for the M dwarf components agree well with previous determinations. The new data have been used to estimate masses for the white dwarfs, yielding 0.38 solar mass for the Case 1 DA and 0.51 solar mass for the HZ 9 DA, with 1sigma uncertainties of about 0.1 solar mass.

  11. 1 Hz FLARING IN SAX J1808.4-3658: FLOW INSTABILITIES NEAR THE PROPELLER STAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Patruno, Alessandro; Watts, Anna; Klein Wolt, Marc; Wijnands, Rudy; Van der Klis, Michiel

    2009-12-20

    We present a simultaneous periodic and aperiodic timing study of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. We analyze five outbursts of the source and for the first time provide a full and systematic investigation of the enigmatic phenomenon of the 1 Hz flares observed during the final stages of some of the outbursts. We show that links between pulsations and 1 Hz flares might exist, and suggest that they are related with hydrodynamic disk instabilities that are triggered close to the disk-magnetosphere boundary layer when the system is entering the propeller regime.

  12. Near real-time response matrix calibration for 10 Hz GOFB

    SciTech Connect

    Liu C.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2012-05-20

    The 10 Hz global orbit feedback (GOFB), for damping the trajectory perturbation ({approx}10 Hz) due to the vibrations of the triplet quadrupoles, is operational. The correction algorithm uses transfer functions between the beam position monitors and correctors obtained from the online optics model and a correction algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD). Recently the calibration of the transfer functions was measured using beam position measurements acquired while modulating dedicated correctors. In this report, the feedback results with model matrix and measured matrix are compared.

  13. A kHz heat-load shutter for white-beam experiments at synchrotron sources.

    PubMed

    Gembicky, Milan; Adachi, Shin Ichi; Coppens, Philip

    2007-05-01

    A heat-load shutter capable of frequencies from one to several tens of kHz and window times from 10 micros up to 1 ms is described. In the current configuration the water-cooled shutter absorbs approximately 99% of the heat generated by the white beam. It has been successfully used for extended periods synchronized with a Jülich pulse-selector operating at 946 Hz. The temperature of the pulse-selector remained constant during a three-day continuous operation. Flexibility is provided by the interchangeability of the chopper disc.

  14. Intensity-difference limens for very brief Gaussian-shaped tones at 500 Hz and 6.5 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizami, Lance; Jesteadt, Walt

    2002-05-01

    The curve of intensity-difference limen (DL) versus level shows a midlevel hump for 6.5-kHz tones having 5-ms cosine-squared ramps and a 26-ms plateau [Carlyon and Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1369-1376 (1984)]. DLs were presently obtained for that tone, as well as for 6.5-kHz tones having Gaussian envelopes, for five subjects. Pedestal levels covered 30- to 90-dB SPL and equivalent rectangular durations D were 0.314, 0.627, 1.25, 2.51, 10.03, and 20.1 ms, where D is the Gaussian-envelope duration divided by 3.19. The DLs for the tone of Carlyon and Moore (D~30) show a midlevel hump smaller than found earlier. The hump grows noticeably with smaller D (i.e., the Gaussian-shaped tones), reaching 7 dB for D=0.627. The peak drops, however, for D=0.314, causing the curve of DL versus duration to peak for D=0.627 for tone levels of 40-60 dB SPL. DLs were also obtained from seven subjects for 500-Hz tones of 30-90 dB SPL for D's of 1.25, 2.51, 5.02, and 10.03 ms. A midlevel hump at D's of 1.25 and 2.51 gives way to a near-miss at D's of 5.02 and 10.03. A mid-duration peak is seen at D=5.02 for levels of 30-60 dB SPL.

  15. 1-J operation of monolithic composite ceramics with Yb:YAG thin layers: multi-TRAM at 10-Hz repetition rate and prospects for 100-Hz operation.

    PubMed

    Divoky, Martin; Tokita, Shigeki; Hwang, Sungin; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kan, Hirofumi; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas; Kawanaka, Junji

    2015-03-15

    Experimental amplification of 10-ns pulses to energy of 1 J at repetition rate of 10-100 Hz in cryogenic multipass total-reflection active-mirror (TRAM) amplifier is reported for the first time. By using a monolithic multi-TRAM, which is a YAG ceramic composite with three thin Yb:YAG active layers, efficient energy extraction was achieved without parasitic lasing. A detailed measurement of output characteristics of the laser amplifier is presented; results are discussed and compared with numerical calculations.

  16. Identification of the different diffuse dielectric barrier discharges obtained between 50 kHz to 9 MHz in Ar/NH3 at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazinette, R.; Subileau, R.; Paillol, J.; Massines, F.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the different diffuse dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) obtained in the same electrode configuration and in the same gas for an excitation frequency ranging from 50 kHz to 9 MHz. The gas mixture was argon with 133 ppm of NH3. This Penning mixture is useful to obtain both low-frequency glow DBDs (GDBDs) and diffuse radio-frequency (RF) discharges. Electrical measurements and short exposure time photographs showed that whatever the frequency, a discharge free of micro-discharge was obtained. In the same configuration, the discharge was a GDBD up to 200 kHz. For frequencies higher than 250 kHz, the discharge behavior was that of a Townsend-like discharge associated with a maximum energy transfer close to the anode and a higher power (about twice that of the GDBD). The cathode fall formation was no longer observed during the discharge current increase because of ion trapping in the gas gap by the rapid electric field oscillations. In the same configuration, the alpha RF mode was observed from 1.3 MHz. Gamma secondary electron emission gave way to electron acceleration by the cathode sheath formation. Bulk ionization was important due to the high electron collision rate at atmospheric pressure. One consequence of the transition from low-frequency to high-frequency discharge was a significant increase in the power (factor ≈30), which reached 35 W cm-3, while the breakdown voltage decreased from 900 V to less than 200 V.

  17. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  18. Complexation of 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide with copper salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddin, Ameera Aqeela Salleh; Yamin, Bohari M.; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2014-09-01

    Copper complexes have been synthesized with 14-membered macrocyclic 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide (Me6N4H4)Br2 as ligand having six methyl groups and two double bonds located in diagonal position. These complexes were characterized by microelemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopies. The chemical analysis and spectroscopic data is supported by chemical crystallographic study showed that one of the synthesized copper complex with CuCl2 consists of [Cu(Me6N4H2)] dication, two bromide counter anions and 2 water molecules of crystallisation. Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) showed that the complex is stable up to about 200°C before gradually decomposed up to 400°C.

  19. 4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication.

    PubMed

    Oubei, Hassan M; Duran, Jose R; Janjua, Bilal; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chi, Yu-Cheih; Ng, Tien Khee; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Lin, Gong-Ru; Ooi, Boon S

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) employing 450-nm TO-9 packaged and fiber-pigtailed laser diode (LD) directly encoded with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM-OFDM) data. A record data rate of up to 4.8 Gbit/s over 5.4-m transmission distance is achieved. By encoding the full 1.2-GHz bandwidth of the 450-nm LD with a 16-QAM-OFDM data, an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 16.5%, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15.63 dB and a bit error rate (BER) of 2.6 × 10(-3), well pass the forward error correction (FEC) criterion, were obtained.

  20. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively.

  1. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively. PMID:25594848

  2. Discovery and synthesis of new UV-induced intrastrand C(4-8)G and G(8-4)C photolesions.

    PubMed

    Münzel, Martin; Szeibert, Claudia; Glas, Andreas F; Globisch, Daniel; Carell, Thomas

    2011-04-13

    UV irradiation of cellular DNA leads to the formation of a number of defined mutagenic DNA lesions. Here we report the discovery of new intrastrand C(4-8)G and G(8-4)C cross-link lesions in which the C(4) amino group of the cytosine base is covalently linked to the C(8) position of an adjacent dG base. The structure of the novel lesions was clarified by HPLC-MS/MS data for UV-irradiated DNA in combination with chemical synthesis and direct comparison of the synthetic material with irradiated DNA. We also report the ability to generate the lesions directly in DNA with the help of a photoactive precursor that was site-specifically incorporated into DNA. This should enable detailed chemical and biochemical investigations of these lesions. PMID:21425860

  3. The Evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function at z = 4-8: A Steepening Low-mass-end Slope with Increasing Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Grazian, A.; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey; Salmon, Brett; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dickinson, Mark; Duncan, K.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fontana, Adriano; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Lee, Seong-Kook; Merlin, Emiliano; Willner, S. P.

    2016-07-01

    We present galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) at z = 4-8 from a rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) selected sample of ˜4500 galaxies, found via photometric redshifts over an area of ˜280 arcmin2 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)/Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The deepest Spitzer/IRAC data to date and the relatively large volume allow us to place a better constraint at both the low- and high-mass ends of the GSMFs compared to previous space-based studies from pre-CANDELS observations. Supplemented by a stacking analysis, we find a linear correlation between the rest-frame UV absolute magnitude at 1500 Å ({M}{{UV}}) and logarithmic stellar mass ({log}{M}* ) that holds for galaxies with {log}({M}* /{M}⊙ )≲ 10. We use simulations to validate our method of measuring the slope of the {log}{M}* -M UV relation, finding that the bias is minimized with a hybrid technique combining photometry of individual bright galaxies with stacked photometry for faint galaxies. The resultant measured slopes do not significantly evolve over z = 4-8, while the normalization of the trend exhibits a weak evolution toward lower masses at higher redshift. We combine the {log}{M}* -M UV distribution with observed rest-frame UV luminosity functions at each redshift to derive the GSMFs, finding that the low-mass-end slope becomes steeper with increasing redshift from α =-{1.55}-0.07+0.08 at z = 4 to α =-{2.25}-0.35+0.72 at z = 8. The inferred stellar mass density, when integrated over {M}* ={10}8-1013 M ⊙, increases by a factor of {10}-2+30 between z = 7 and z = 4 and is in good agreement with the time integral of the cosmic star formation rate density.

  4. Report on key comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K5: pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones in the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolska, D.; Kosterov, A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final report for regional key comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K5 on the pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones in the frequency range from 2 Hz to 10 kHz. Two laboratories—Central Office of Measures (GUM)—the national metrology institute for Poland and the State Enterprise Scientific-Research Institute for Metrology of Measurement and Control Systems (DP NDI Systema)— the designated institute for acoustics in Ukraine took part in this comparison with the GUM as a pilot. One travelling type LS1P microphone was circulated to the participants and results in the form of regular calibration certificates were collected. The results of the DP NDI Systema obtained in this comparison were linked to the CCAUV.A-K5 key comparison through the joint participation of the GUM. The degrees of equivalence were computed for DP NDI Systema with respect to the CCAUV.A-K5 key comparison reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Coherent neocortical 40-Hz oscillations are not present during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Castro, Santiago; Falconi, Atilio; Chase, Michael H; Torterolo, Pablo

    2013-04-01

    During cognitive processes there are extensive interactions between various regions of the cerebral cortex. Oscillations in the gamma frequency band (≈40 Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are involved in the binding of spatially separated but temporally correlated neural events, which results in a unified perceptual experience. The extent of these interactions can be examined by means of a mathematical algorithm called 'coherence', which reflects the 'strength' of functional interactions between cortical areas. The present study was conducted to analyse EEG coherence in the gamma frequency band of the cat during alert wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cats were implanted with electrodes in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices to monitor EEG activity. Coherence values within the gamma frequency (30-100 Hz) from pairs of EEG recordings were analysed. A large increase in coherence occurred between all cortical regions in the 30-45 Hz frequency band during AW compared with the other behavioral states. As the animal transitioned from AW to QW and from QW to NREM sleep, coherence decreased to a moderate level. Remarkably, there was practically no EEG coherence in the entire gamma band spectrum (30-100 Hz) during REM sleep. We conclude that functional interactions between cortical areas are radically different during sleep compared with wakefulness. The virtual absence of gamma frequency coherence during REM sleep may underlie the unique cognitive processing that occurs during dreams, which is principally a REM sleep-related phenomenon. PMID:23406153

  6. High-sensitivity cooled coil system for nuclear magnetic resonance in kHz range

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho; Lin, Jun

    2014-11-15

    In several low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) and surface nuclear magnetic resonance applications, i.e., in the frequency range of kHz, high sensitivity magnetic field detectors are needed. Usually, low-T{sub c} superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with a high field sensitivity of about 1 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} are employed as detectors. Considering the flux trapping and operational difficulties associated with low-T{sub c} SQUIDs, we designed and fabricated liquid-nitrogen-cooled Cu coils for NMR detection in the kHz range. A cooled coil system consisting of a 9-cm diameter Cu coil and a low noise preamplifier was systematically investigated and reached a sensitivity of 2 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 77 K, which is 3 times better compared to the sensitivity at 300 K. A Q-switch circuit as an essential element for damping the ringing effects of the pickup coil was developed to acquire free induction decay signals of a water sample with minimum loss of signal. Our studies demonstrate that cooled Cu coils, if designed properly, can provide a comparable sensitivity to low-T{sub c} SQUIDs.

  7. Monitoring audiometry for occupational hearing loss: A case for eliminating 500 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Mark

    2003-04-01

    Audiometric monitoring is an important element in hearing conservation programs. Nearly every existing hearing conservation standard dictate that hearing thresholds should be measured at specific frequencies, and that 500 Hz be among those frequencies tested. Actual and estimated noise-induced permanent threshold shifts were evaluated as a function of exposure duration and exposure level. The results demonstrate 500 Hz to be of little value in assessing noise-induced hearing loss for typical industrial noise exposures of up to 40 years, at least for time-weighted average exposures of up to 100 dBA. Furthermore, few hearing conservation programs currently require audiometric monitoring to be performed in an environment that meets ANSI standards for maximum permissible background noise levels. This is particularly likely to compromise hearing testing at 500 Hz. As a result, this paper argues against the need for testing at 500 Hz, and recommends it be eliminated as a required test frequency in audiometric monitoring for noise-induced occupational hearing loss.

  8. Improvement of both dystonia and tics with 60 Hz pallidal deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hwynn, Nelson; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron L; Limotai, Natlada; Zeilman, Pamela; Malaty, Irene A; Foote, Kelly D; Morishita, Takashi; Okun, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been utilized in both dystonia and in medication refractory Tourette syndrome. We present an interesting case of a patient with a mixture of disabling dystonia and Tourette syndrome whose coexistent dystonia and tics were successfully treated with 60 Hz-stimulation of the globus pallidus region.

  9. Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

    2004-12-01

    A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization at 40 kHz magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Sachin R; Berruyer, Pierrick; Gajan, David; Reiter, Christian; Engelke, Frank; Silverio, Daniel L; Copéret, Christophe; Lelli, Moreno; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2016-04-21

    DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy under magic angle spinning (MAS) is rapidly developing into a powerful analytical tool to investigate the structure of a wide range of solid materials, because it provides unsurpassed sensitivity gains. Most developments and applications of DNP MAS NMR were so far reported at moderate spinning frequencies (up to 14 kHz using 3.2 mm rotors). Here, using a 1.3 mm MAS DNP probe operating at 18.8 T and ∼100 K, we show that signal amplification factors can be increased by up to a factor two when using smaller volume rotors as compared to 3.2 mm rotors, and report enhancements of around 60 over a range of sample spinning rates from 10 to 40 kHz. Spinning at 40 kHz is also shown to increase (29)Si coherence lifetimes by a factor three as compared to 10 kHz, substantially increasing sensitivity in CPMG type experiments. The contribution of quenching effects to the overall sensitivity gain at very fast MAS is evaluated, and applications are reported on a functionalised mesostructured organic-inorganic material.

  11. An 18 bit 50 kHz ADC for low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, Donald C.

    1992-01-01

    A fourth order incremental analog to digital converter (ADC) is proposed which performs 18 bit conversions at a 50 kHz rate on sampled and held data. A new self calibration scheme is presented which eases the matching requirements of capacitors, and the performance of the operational amplifiers in the ADC by changing coefficients in the digital postprocessing.

  12. H/Z-90 Personal Computer Workstation for the Prime 550.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturday, Lisa L.; Green, David G.

    1985-01-01

    A Heath/Zenith H/Z-90 personal workstation for a PRIME 550 host computer has been developed. The personal computer-based workstation has local editing capability with automatic upload and download of PRIME files, supports a local printer, and provides backup of files on local floppy disk. (Author)

  13. alpha-Adrenoceptors in the ventricular myocardium: clonidine, naphazoline and methoxamine as partial alpha-agonists exerting a competitive dualism in action to phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Schümann, H J; Endoh, M

    1976-04-01

    Tha alpha-sympathomimetic agonists, clonidine, naphazoline, methoxamine, oxymetazoline and phenylephrine were used to further characterize the alpha-adrenoceptors mediating the positive inotropic effect in the isolated papillary muscle of the rabbit heart. The maximal inotropic effects of these amines were compared with the effect of isoprenaline and it was examined whether or not these amines compete for alpha-adrenoceptors. On the papillary muscle stimulated at 0.5 Hz, phenylephrine showed a high affinity (pD2 value=6.13) and produced the most pronounced intrinsic activity of the alpha-sympathomimetic amines. Therefore, the intrinsic activity of phenylephrine, in the presence of prindolol (3 X 10(-8) M), was used for comparison with those of the other alpha-agonists. Clonidine caused a positive inotropic effect: the intrinsic activity amounted to 0.32 of that of phenylephrine; the affinity was the highest among the amines tested (pD2 value=6.46); its effect was inhibited by 10(-6) M phentolamine. The affinity and the intrinsic activity of naphazoline were slightly lower than those of clonidine. Methoxamine showed a relatively high intrinsic activity (0.56) but the lowest affinity (4.68). Oxymetazoline did not cause any positive inotropic effect. Clonidine, naphazoline and oxymetazoline antagonized the positive inotropic effect of phenylephrine, mediated via the alpha-adrenocaptors in the presence of 3 X 10(-8) M prindolol, in a competitive manner. This observation suggests that these alpha-sympathomimetic amines compete with phenylephrine for the same receptor site. Thus the present results provide additional evidence for alpha-adrenoceptors mediating the positive inotropic actions of sympathomimetic amines in the rabbit papillary muscle.

  14. Pre-cue fronto-occipital alpha phase and distributed cortical oscillations predict failures of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jordan P; Dyckman, Kara A; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-05-16

    Cognitive control is required for correct performance on antisaccade tasks, including the ability to inhibit an externally driven ocular motor response (a saccade to a peripheral stimulus) in favor of an internally driven ocular motor goal (a saccade directed away from a peripheral stimulus). Healthy humans occasionally produce errors during antisaccade tasks, but the mechanisms associated with such failures of cognitive control are uncertain. Most research on cognitive control failures focuses on poststimulus processing, although a growing body of literature highlights a role of intrinsic brain activity in perceptual and cognitive performance. The current investigation used dense array electroencephalography and distributed source analyses to examine brain oscillations across a wide frequency bandwidth in the period before antisaccade cue onset. Results highlight four important aspects of ongoing and preparatory brain activations that differentiate error from correct antisaccade trials: (1) ongoing oscillatory beta (20-30 Hz) power in anterior cingulate before trial initiation (lower for error trials); (2) instantaneous phase of ongoing alpha/theta (7 Hz) in frontal and occipital cortices immediately before trial initiation (opposite between trial types); (3) gamma power (35-60 Hz) in posterior parietal cortex 100 ms before cue onset (greater for error trials); and (4) phase locking of alpha (5-12 Hz) in parietal and occipital cortices immediately before cue onset (lower for error trials). These findings extend recently reported effects of pre-trial alpha phase on perception to cognitive control processes and help identify the cortical generators of such phase effects.

  15. Alpha--College for Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, William; Koenig, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Describes Alpha, the experimental college of individualized instruction at the College of DuPage (Illinois). At this college, students design their own curricula and work in an open classroom situation, and teachers start with students instead of subjects. (DC)

  16. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each cell. Each copy is called an allele. For each gene, one allele is inherited from a person's father, and the ... person's mother. As a result, there are four alleles that produce alpha-globin. The different types of ...

  17. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  18. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  19. HZ Her: Stellar radius from X-ray eclipse observations, evolutionary state, and a new distance

    SciTech Connect

    Leahy, D. A.; Abdallah, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    Observations of HZ Her/Her X-1 by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) covering high state eclipses of the neutron star are analyzed here. Models of the eclipse are used to measure the radius and atmospheric scale height of HZ Her, the stellar companion to the neutron star. The radius is 2.58-3.01 × 10{sup 11} cm, depending on system inclination and mass ratio (q), with an accuracy of ∼1 part in 1000 for given inclination and q. We fit Kurucz model stellar atmosphere models to archival optical observations. The resulting effective temperature (T {sub eff}) of the unheated face of HZ Her is determined to be in the 2σ range of 7720 K-7865 K, and metallicity (log (Z/Z {sub ☉})) in the range of –0.27 to +.03. The model atmosphere surface flux and new radius yield a new distance to HZ Her/Her X-1, depending on system inclination and q: a best-fit value of 6.1 kpc with upper and lower limits of 5.7 kpc and 7.0 kpc. We calculate stellar evolution models for the range of allowed masses (from orbital parameters) and allowed metallicities (from optical spectrum fits). The stellar models agree with T {sub eff} and the radius of HZ Her for two narrow ranges of mass: 2.15-2.20 M {sub ☉} and 2.35-2.45 M {sub ☉}. This lower mass range implies a low neutron star mass (1.3 M {sub ☉}), whereas the higher mass range implies a high neutron star mass (1.5-1.7 M {sub ☉}).

  20. Coherent WDM, toward > 1 bit/s/Hz information spectral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andrew D.; Gunning, Fatima C.

    2005-06-01

    Many approaches to achieving high information spectral density (ISD), have been reported recently. The standard non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format, which offers a base line performance around 0.4 bit/s/Hz, may be enhanced using a variety of techniques, including: pre-filtering within the transmitter, multi-level modulation formats and polarisation interleaving or multiplexing. These techniques either increase the information per channel (multi-level formats and polarization multiplexing) or minimise interferometric cross talk (pre-filtering and polarisation interleaving) and result in ISDs around 0.8 bit/s/Hz. Combinations of these techniques have been used to provide ISDs of up to 1.6 bit/s/Hz. In this paper we propose a new technique, which we call Coherent WDM (CoWDM), to increase the ISD of NRZ binary coded signals in a single polarisation from 0.4 to 1 bit/s/Hz whilst simultaneously eliminating the need for pre-filters within the transmitter. Phase control within the transmitter is used to achieve precise control of interferometric cross talk. This allows the use of stronger demultiplexing filters at the receiver, and provides optimum performance when the bit rate equals the channel spacing, giving an ISD of 1 bit/s/Hz. This interference control may be achieved by controlling the phase of each laser individually with optical phase locked loops, or by replacing the typical bank of lasers with one or more coherent comb sources, and encoding data using an array of modulators that preserves this relative optical phase. Since optical filtering is not required in the transmitter, stronger optical filters may be used to demultiplex the individual WDM channels at the receiver, further reducing cross talk.

  1. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of novel alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl pyridazinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zou, Xiao-Mao; Zhu, You-Quan; Liu, Bin; Tao, Han-Lin; Hu, Xu-Hong; Song, Hai-Bin; Hu, Fang-Zhong; Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Zheng

    2006-06-01

    A series of novel alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl pyridazinone derivatives was synthesised. Herbicidal activities of the two intermediate compounds and 15 pyridazinone derivatives were evaluated through barnyardgrass and rape cup tests and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden tests. Selected compounds were also evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Bleaching activities were observed at 10 microg ml(-1) and some compounds exhibited herbicidal activities at a rate of 300 g ha(-1). The relationship between crystal structures and herbicidal activities is discussed through a comparison of two compounds (5a and 5f). PMID:16602079

  2. Normal sleep homeostasis and lack of epilepsy phenotype in GABA A receptor alpha3 subunit-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Winsky-Sommerer, R; Knapman, A; Fedele, D E; Schofield, C M; Vyazovskiy, V V; Rudolph, U; Huguenard, J R; Fritschy, J-M; Tobler, I

    2008-06-23

    Thalamo-cortical networks generate specific patterns of oscillations during distinct vigilance states and epilepsy, well characterized by electroencephalography (EEG). Oscillations depend on recurrent synaptic loops, which are controlled by GABAergic transmission. In particular, GABA A receptors containing the alpha3 subunit are expressed predominantly in cortical layer VI and thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) and regulate the activity and firing pattern of neurons in relay nuclei. Therefore, ablation of these receptors by gene targeting might profoundly affect thalamo-cortical oscillations. Here, we investigated the role of alpha3-GABA A receptors in regulating vigilance states and seizure activity by analyzing chronic EEG recordings in alpha3 subunit-knockout (alpha3-KO) mice. The presence of postsynaptic alpha3-GABA A receptors/gephyrin clusters in the nRT and GABA A-mediated synaptic currents in acute thalamic slices was also examined. EEG spectral analysis showed no difference between genotypes during non rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep or at waking-NREM sleep transitions. EEG power in the spindle frequency range (10-15 Hz) was significantly lower at NREM-REM sleep transitions in mutant compared with wild-type mice. Enhancement of sleep pressure by 6 h sleep deprivation did not reveal any differences in the regulation of EEG activities between genotypes. Finally, the waking EEG showed a slightly larger power in the 11-13-Hz band in alpha3-KO mice. However, neither behavior nor the waking EEG showed alterations suggestive of absence seizures. Furthermore, alpha3-KO mice did not differ in seizure susceptibility in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Strikingly, despite the disruption of postsynaptic gephyrin clusters, whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed intact inhibitory synaptic transmission in the nRT of alpha3-KO mice. These findings show that the lack of alpha3-GABA(A) receptors is extensively compensated for to preserve the integrity of thalamo

  3. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  4. Temporary threshold shifts and recovery in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after octave-band noise at 4 kHz.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean; Olthuis, Juul

    2012-11-01

    Safety criteria for underwater sound produced during offshore pile driving are needed to protect marine mammals. A harbor porpoise was exposed to fatiguing noise at 18 sound pressure level (SPL) and duration combinations. Its temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS) and hearing recovery were quantified with a psychoacoustic technique. Octave-band white noise centered at 4 kHz was the fatiguing stimulus at three mean received SPLs (124, 136, and 148 dB re 1 μPa) and at six durations (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min). Approximate received sound exposure levels (SELs) varied between 151 and 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave (3.9-4.1 kHz; 1 s) before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, and 96 min after exposure. The lowest SEL (151 dB re 1 μPa(2) s) which caused a significant TTS(1-4) was due to exposure to an SPL of 124 dB re 1 μPa for 7.5 min. The maximum TTS(1-4), induced after a 240 min exposure to 148 dB re 1 μPa, was around 15 dB at a SEL of 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Recovery time following TTS varied between 4 min and under 96 min, depending on the exposure level, duration, and the TTS induced. PMID:23145632

  5. A function for filamentous alpha-smooth muscle actin: retardation of motility in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rønnov-Jessen, L; Petersen, O W

    1996-07-01

    Actins are known to comprise six mammalian isoforms of which beta- and gamma-nonmuscle actins are present in all cells, whereas alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-sm) actin is normally restricted to cells of the smooth muscle lineages. alpha-Sm actin has been found also to be expressed transiently in certain nonmuscle cells, in particular fibroblasts, which are referred to as myofibroblasts. The functional significance of alpha-sm actin in fibroblasts is unknown. However, myofibroblasts appear to play a prominent role in stromal reaction in breast cancer, at the site of wound repair, and in fibrotic reactions. Here, we show that the presence of alpha-sm actin is a signal for retardation of migratory behavior in fibroblasts. Comparison in a migration assay of fibroblast cell strains with and without alpha-sm actin revealed migratory restraint in alpha-sm actin-positive fibroblasts. Electroporation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1A4, which recognizes specifically the NH2-terminal Ac-EEED sequence of alpha-sm actin, significantly increased the frequency of migrating cells over that obtained with an unrelated antibody or a mAb against beta-actin. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed migratory rates of 4.8 and 3.0 microns/h, respectively. To knock out the alpha-sm actin protein, several antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ODNs) were tested. One of these, 3'UTI, which is complementary to a highly evolutionary conserved 3' untranslated (3'UT) sequence of alpha-sm actin mRNA, was found to block alpha-sm actin synthesis completely without affecting the synthesis of any other proteins as analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Targeting by antisense 3'UTI significantly increased motility compared with the corresponding sense ODN. alpha-Sm actin inhibition also led to the formation of less prominent focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescence staining against vinculin, talin, and beta1-integrin. We propose that an important function of filamentous alpha

  6. Characterization of human NSCLC cell line with innate etoposide-resistance mediated by cytoplasmic localization of topoisomerase II alpha.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Bautista; Manuel, Victor; Barrera-Rodríguez, Raul

    2005-11-01

    Topoisomerase (topo) II alpha is a target for many chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use. In tumor cells resistant to topo II poisons, there have been descriptions of quantitative and qualitative alterations involved in this enzyme. More recently, the cytoplasmic localization of topo II alpha has been described as a mechanism to confer drug resistance. Here, we report the characterization of a human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, INER-37, which shows an innate resistance to etoposide. In this cell line, etoposide resistance was directly associated with the expression of topo II alpha resident mainly in the cytoplasmic region. At the molecular level, INER-37 cells carry on a heterozygous gene deletion, transcribing two different topo II alpha mRNAs: 4.8 kb and 2.0 kb. The bigger 4.8 kb mRNA (missing 1.3 kb of 3' mRNA and including the untranslated region) is translated into a truncated cytoplasmic protein of approximately 160 kDa. The protein truncation affects at least 96 amino acids in the COOH-terminal region where the more proximal bipartite nuclear localization signal is located. The INER-37 cell line is the first cancer cell line reported with an innate mutation affecting the 3'-end region of the topo II alpha gene that confers a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme and therefore an increased resistance to etoposide.

  7. Neural correlates underlying insight problem solving: Evidence from EEG alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhipeng; Li, Yadan; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on insight problem solving using Chinese logogriphs as insight problems only investigated the time- and phase-locked changes of electrocortical responses triggered by Chinese logogriphs, but did not focus on what kind of brain state facilitates individuals to solve insight problems. To investigate this, we focused on participants' alpha activities (8-12 Hz) that closely correlates with insight problem solving and defocused attention while they were solving Chinese logogriphs. Results indicated that in the time window of 800-1400 ms after the presentation of target logogriphs, alpha power over parieto-central electrodes decreased relative to the reference interval in both the successful and unsuccessful logogriphs solving conditions. However, alpha power increased at parieto-occipital electrode sites in successful conditions compared with that in unsuccessful condition. The decrease in alpha activity in both conditions may reflect the cognitive demands in solving the target logogriphs. Furthermore, difference in alpha power between the successful and unsuccessful conditions at parieto-occipital electrode sites is associated with the process of heuristic information. Alpha synchronization observed in the successful condition compared to the unsuccessful condition might reflect a state of defocused attention that facilitates insight problem solving.

  8. Decoding and Reconstructing the Focus of Spatial Attention from the Topography of Alpha-band Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Jason; Sprague, Thomas C; Postle, Bradley R

    2016-08-01

    Many aspects of perception and cognition are supported by activity in neural populations that are tuned to different stimulus features (e.g., orientation, spatial location, color). Goal-directed behavior, such as sustained attention, requires a mechanism for the selective prioritization of contextually appropriate representations. A candidate mechanism of sustained spatial attention is neural activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), whose power in the human EEG covaries with the focus of covert attention. Here, we applied an inverted encoding model to assess whether spatially selective neural responses could be recovered from the topography of alpha-band oscillations during spatial attention. Participants were cued to covertly attend to one of six spatial locations arranged concentrically around fixation while EEG was recorded. A linear classifier applied to EEG data during sustained attention demonstrated successful classification of the attended location from the topography of alpha power, although not from other frequency bands. We next sought to reconstruct the focus of spatial attention over time by applying inverted encoding models to the topography of alpha power and phase. Alpha power, but not phase, allowed for robust reconstructions of the specific attended location beginning around 450 msec postcue, an onset earlier than previous reports. These results demonstrate that posterior alpha-band oscillations can be used to track activity in feature-selective neural populations with high temporal precision during the deployment of covert spatial attention.

  9. The role of alpha-rhythm states in perceptual learning: insights from experiments and computational models

    PubMed Central

    Sigala, Rodrigo; Haufe, Sebastian; Roy, Dipanjan; Dinse, Hubert R.; Ritter, Petra

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades growing evidence indicates that brain oscillations in the alpha band (~10 Hz) not only reflect an “idle” state of cortical activity, but also take a more active role in the generation of complex cognitive functions. A recent study shows that more than 60% of the observed inter-subject variability in perceptual learning can be ascribed to ongoing alpha activity. This evidence indicates a significant role of alpha oscillations for perceptual learning and hence motivates to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. Hence, it is the purpose of this review to highlight existent evidence that ascribes intrinsic alpha oscillations a role in shaping our ability to learn. In the review, we disentangle the alpha rhythm into different neural signatures that control information processing within individual functional building blocks of perceptual learning. We further highlight computational studies that shed light on potential mechanisms regarding how alpha oscillations may modulate information transfer and connectivity changes relevant for learning. To enable testing of those model based hypotheses, we emphasize the need for multidisciplinary approaches combining assessment of behavior and multi-scale neuronal activity, active modulation of ongoing brain states and computational modeling to reveal the mathematical principles of the complex neuronal interactions. In particular we highlight the relevance of multi-scale modeling frameworks such as the one currently being developed by “The Virtual Brain” project. PMID:24772077

  10. Decoding and Reconstructing the Focus of Spatial Attention from the Topography of Alpha-band Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Samaha, Jason; Sprague, Thomas C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perception and cognition are supported by activity in neural populations that are tuned to different stimulus features (e.g., orientation, spatial location, color). Goal-directed behavior, such as sustained attention, requires a mechanism for the selective prioritization of contextually appropriate representations. A candidate mechanism of sustained spatial attention is neural activity in the alpha band (8–13 Hz), whose power in the human EEG covaries with the focus of covert attention. Here, we applied an inverted encoding model to assess whether spatially selective neural responses could be recovered from the topography of alpha-band oscillations during spatial attention. Participants were cued to covertly attend to one of six spatial locations arranged concentrically around fixation while EEG was recorded. A linear classifier applied to EEG data during sustained attention demonstrated successful classification of the attended location from the topography of alpha power, although not from other frequency bands. We next sought to reconstruct the focus of spatial attention over time by applying inverted encoding models to the topography of alpha power and phase. Alpha power, but not phase, allowed for robust reconstructions of the specific attended location beginning around 450 msec postcue, an onset earlier than previous reports. These results demonstrate that posterior alpha-band oscillations can be used to track activity in feature-selective neural populations with high temporal precision during the deployment of covert spatial attention. PMID:27003790

  11. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  12. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  13. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  14. A Preliminary MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey Catalog: 8000 MG/PMN Sources at 4.8/8.4 GHz and 0.''3 Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, A. B.; Burke, B. F.; Conner, S. R.; Herold, L. K.; Lehar, J.; Winn, J. N.; Hewitt, J. N.; Langston, G. I.; Lawrence, C. R.; Bennett, C. L.

    1999-09-01

    A preliminary catalog of the 1981-1994 MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey for radio-loud gravitational lenses will be made available via anonymous ftp from MIT in June 1999 (ftp zenobia.mit.edu; cd pub/fletcher; get mitvla.readme). This plain text catalog contains detailed information on the VLA positions, flux densities and morphologies of ~ 6200 northern MIT-Greenbank (MG) and ~ 1800 Parkes-MIT-NRAO (PMN) radio sources at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, and at angular resolutions ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 arcseconds. These sources represent ~ 80% of the entire 15 year MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey effort from 1981 to 1995, and are complementary to MIT's VLA-Magellan Gravitational Lens Survey of ~ 1900 flat-spectrum sources begun last year (see J. Winn et al., 1998, BAAS 30(4), p.1425, with a paper recently submitted to the ApJS). The 4.8 GHz single-dish flux densities of the ~ 8000 MIT-VLA sources range from ~ 70 mJy to ~ 5000 mJy. Though the sample is incomplete, it is consistently representative of the wide variety of source morphologies and spectral indices appearing in the MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey. This preliminary MIT-VLA catalog will be improved and checked before publication. It is meanwhile intended as a general purpose resource for the astronomical community; possible uses include (1) organizing an optical follow-up of known gravitational lens candidates within the sample (see A. Fletcher, 1998, MIT Ph.D. thesis), (2) assembling samples of new compact MG and PMN radio sources requiring further imaging using VLBI, such as compact doubles and position calibrators, (3) estimating the mean growth rate of the kiloparsec-scale extended structures in radio-loud AGN (see A. Fletcher & B. Burke, 1998, BAAS 30(4), p.1249), and (4) providing sub-arcsecond information missing from overlapping radio sky surveys made at lower angular resolution, such as the FIRST, WENSS, NVSS and Molonglo Wide Field Surveys.

  15. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Richardson, M. C.; Faubel, M.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Siders, C. W.; Elsaesser, T.

    2002-04-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and Kα emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, Kα and Kβ lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ~500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  16. Evolution of CPMAS under fast magic-angle-spinning at 100 kHz and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Ayesha; Wang, Songlin; Matsuda, Isamu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Nemoto, Takahiro; Endo, Yuki; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2015-11-01

    This article describes recent trends of high-field solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments for small organic molecules and biomolecules using (13)C and (15)N CPMAS under ultra-fast MAS at a spinning speed (νR) of 80-100kHz. First, we illustrate major differences between a modern low-power RF scheme using UFMAS in an ultra-high field and a traditional CPMAS scheme using a moderate sample spinning in a lower field. Features and sensitivity advantage of a low-power RF scheme using UFMAS and a small sample coil are summarized for CPMAS-based experiments. Our 1D (13)C CPMAS experiments for uniformly (13)C- and (15)N-labeled alanine demonstrated that the sensitivity per given sample amount obtained at νR of 100kHz and a (1)H NMR frequency (νH) of 750.1MHz is ~10 fold higher than that of a traditional CPMAS experiment obtained at νR of 20kHz and νH of 400.2MHz. A comparison of different (1)H-decoupling schemes in CPMAS at νR of 100kHz for the same sample demonstrated that low-power WALTZ-16 decoupling unexpectedly displayed superior performance over traditional low-power schemes designed for SSNMR such as TPPM and XiX in a range of decoupling field strengths of 5-20kHz. Excellent (1)H decoupling performance of WALTZ-16 was confirmed on a protein microcrystal sample of GB1 at νR of 80kHz. We also discuss the feasibility of a SSNMR microanalysis of a GB1 protein sample in a scale of 1nmol to 80nmol by (1)H-detected 2D (15)N/(1)H SSNMR by a synergetic use of a high field, a low-power RF scheme, a paramagnetic-assisted condensed data collection (PACC), and UFMAS.

  17. Atmospheric Electric Field Measurements at 100 Hz and High Frequency Electric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Ricardo; Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Matthews, James; Bennett, Alec; Chubb, John

    2016-04-01

    Spectral response of Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient (PG), symmetric to the Atmospheric Electric Field, gives important information about phenomena affecting these measurements with characteristic time-scales that appear in the spectra as specific periodicities. This is the case of urban pollution that has a clear weekly dependence and reveals itself on PG measurements by a ~7 day periodicity (Silva et al., 2014). While long-term time-scales (low frequencies) have been exhaustively explored in literature, short-term time-scales (high frequencies), above 1 Hz, have comparatively received much less attention (Anisimov et al., 1999). This is mainly because of the technical difficulties related with the storage of such a huge amount of data (for 100 Hz sampling two days of data uses a ~1 Gb file) and the response degradation of the field-meters at such frequencies. Nevertheless, important Electric Phenomena occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz that are worth pursuing, e.g. the Schumann Resonances have a signature of worldwide thunderstorm activity at frequencies that go from ~8 up to ~40 Hz. To that end the present work shows preliminary results on PG measurements at 100 Hz that took place on two clear-sky days (17th and 18th June 2015) on the South of Portugal, Évora (38.50° N, 7.91° W). The field-mill used is a JCI 131F installed in the University of Évora campus (at 2 m height) with a few trees and two buildings in its surroundings (~50 m away). This device was developed by John Chubb (Chubb, 2014) and manufactured by Chilworth (UK). It was calibrated in December 2013 and recent work by the author (who is honored in this study for his overwhelming contribution to atmospheric electricity) reveals basically a flat spectral response of the device up to frequencies of 100 Hz (Chubb, 2015). This makes this device suitable for the study of High Frequency Electric Phenomena. Anisimov, S.V., et al. (1999). On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures

  18. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of 20  kHz and 60  kHz magnetic fields in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Atsushi; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Mitani, Takashi; Negishi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite increasing use of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields (MFs) in occupational and domestic settings, scientific evidence necessary for health risk assessments of IF MF is insufficient. Male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats (12 per sex per group) were exposed to 20 kHz, 0.20 mT(root mean square, rms) or 60 kHz, 0.10 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 22 h day−1 for 14 days (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Experiments were duplicated for each frequency to ensure outcome reproducibility, and examinations were blinded for quality assurance. All rats survived without significant clinical signs until the end of experiments. Some changes in body weight between the MF‐exposed and control groups were observed over the course of exposure, although the directions of the changes were inconsistent and not statistically significant after subchronic exposure. There were significant differences between MF‐exposed and control groups in some organ weights and parameters in hematology and clinical chemistry, but these were minor in magnitude and not repeated in duplicate experiments. Histopathological findings reflecting toxicity were sporadic. Frequencies of other findings were similar to historic data in this rat strain, and findings had no specific relationship to changes in organ weight or parameters of hematology and clinical chemistry in each animal. The changes observed throughout this study were considered biologically isolated and were attributable to chance associations rather than to MF exposure. The results, in particular the histopathological evidence, indicate an absence of toxicity in IF MF‐exposed rats and do not support the hypothesis that IF MF exposure produces significant toxicity. Copyright © 2015. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25982482

  20. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Pilar; Vicente, Raul; Wibral, Michael; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Ángel; López, Maria Eugenia; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Marcos, Alberto; de Andrés, Maria Emiliana; Yus, Miguel; Sancho, Miguel; Maestú, Fernando; Fernández, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG). A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs) were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68 ± 0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05 ± 0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57 ± 0.59)·10(-2) for controls and (2.70 ± 0.49)·10(-2) for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI. PMID:24409145

  1. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Pilar; Vicente, Raul; Wibral, Michael; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Ángel; López, Maria Eugenia; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Marcos, Alberto; de Andrés, Maria Emiliana; Yus, Miguel; Sancho, Miguel; Maestú, Fernando; Fernández, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG). A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs) were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68 ± 0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05 ± 0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57 ± 0.59)·10−2 for controls and (2.70 ± 0.49)·10−2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI. PMID:24409145

  2. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Pilar; Vicente, Raul; Wibral, Michael; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Ángel; López, Maria Eugenia; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Marcos, Alberto; de Andrés, Maria Emiliana; Yus, Miguel; Sancho, Miguel; Maestú, Fernando; Fernández, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG). A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs) were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68 ± 0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05 ± 0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57 ± 0.59)·10(-2) for controls and (2.70 ± 0.49)·10(-2) for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  3. The Hox-4.8 gene is localized at the 5' extremity of the Hox-4 complex and is expressed in the most posterior parts of the body during development.

    PubMed

    Dollé, P; Izpisúa-Belmonte, J C; Boncinelli, E; Duboule, D

    1991-12-01

    We report the isolation and expression pattern of a novel mouse homeobox gene, Hox-4.8. Hox-4.8 is the most 5'-located homeobox gene in the HOX-4 complex. Sequence analysis confirmed that Hox-4.8 is a member of the subfamily of AbdominalB-related Hox-4 genes and revealed strong interspecies conservation. As for the human locus, Hox-4.8 is probably the last Hox gene in this part of the HOX-4 complex. During development, Hox-4.8 transcripts are restricted to the extremities of the embryonic anteroposterior axis and limbs as well as in the developing tail bud and to the most posterior segment of the gut (the rectum). Within the limb mesenchyme, Hox-4.8 is expressed in more posterodistal regions than those of its neighbour Hox-4.7. Hence, Hox-4.8 expression appears to be related to the last significant phenotypic changes towards the extremities of the embryonic body and limb axes. PMID:1685889

  4. [Alpha-Synuclein in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with alpha-synucleinopathy].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-03-01

    Alpha-Synuclein protein(alphaS) aggregates from a monomer to assemblies such as oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils. The early intermediate aggregate, that is, the oligomer, has been reported to be the most toxic species. We recently reported that melatonin inhibits alphaS aggregation, including protofibril and oligomer formations. While the alphaS concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was reported to significantly decrease in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, there have been reports that the alphaS oligomer concentration was elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of PD patients. Moreover, it was reported that the alphaS oligomer concentration was also elevated in the blood of PD patients. Further studies may establish alphaS in cerebrospinal fluid and blood as a biomarker of alpha-synucleinopathies, including PD.

  5. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  6. Design, fabrication, and performance of brazed, graphite electrode, multistage depressed collectors with 500-W, continuous wave, 4.8- to 9.6-GHz traveling-wave tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramins, Peter; Ebihara, Ben

    1989-01-01

    A small, isotropic graphite electrode, multistage depressed collector (MDC) was designed, fabricated, and evaluated in conjunction with a 500-W, continuous wave (CW), 4.8- to 9.6-GHz traveling-wave tube (TWT). The carbon electrode surfaces were used to improve the TWT overall efficiency by minimizing the secondary electron emission losses in the MDC. The design and fabrication of the brazed graphite MDC assembly are described. The brazing technique, which used copper braze filler metal, is compatible with both vacuum and the more commonly available hydrogen atmosphere brazing furnaces. The TWT and graphite electrode MCC bakeout, processing, and outgassing characteristics were evaluated and found to be comparable to TWT's equipped with copper electrode MDC's. The TWT and MDC performance was optimized for broadband CW operation at saturation. The average radiofrequency (RF), overall, and MDC efficiencies were 14.9, 46.4, and 83.6 percent, respectively, across the octave operating band. A 1500-hr CW test, conducted without the use of an appendage ion pump, showed no gas buildup and excellent stability of the electrode surfaces.

  7. Hydrogen-bonded ring closing and opening of protonated methanol clusters H(+)(CH3OH)(n) (n = 4-8) with the inert gas tagging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Cheng; Hamashima, Toru; Yamazaki, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Yuta; Mizuse, Kenta; Fujii, Asuka; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2015-09-14

    The preferential hydrogen bond (H-bond) structures of protonated methanol clusters, H(+)(MeOH)n, in the size range of n = 4-8, were studied by size-selective infrared (IR) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. The IR spectra of bare clusters were compared with those with the inert gas tagging by Ar, Ne, and N2, and remarkable changes in the isomer distribution with the tagging were found for clusters with n≥ 5. The temperature dependence of the isomer distribution of the clusters was calculated by the quantum harmonic superposition approach. The observed spectral changes with the tagging were well interpreted by the fall of the cluster temperature with the tagging, which causes the transfer of the isomer distribution from the open and flexible H-bond network types to the closed and rigid ones. Anomalous isomer distribution with the tagging, which has been recently found for protonated water clusters, was also found for H(+)(MeOH)5. The origin of the anomaly was examined by the experiments on its carrier gas dependence.

  8. 4-(8-Quinolyl)amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as a new colorimetric probe for rapid and visual detection of Hg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Yang, Lixue; Zhao, Chuan; Ma, Huimin

    2013-03-01

    4-Amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (ANBD) usually serves as a scaffold for developing fluorescent probes. In this paper, however, ANBD has been used as a chromogenic unit to design a new colorimetric probe, 4-(8-quinolyl)amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (1), for rapid and visual detection of Hg2+. The reaction of 1 with Hg2+ in NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 70% (v/v) acetonitrile forms a 1:1 complex, accompanying a red shift of the absorption maximum from 482 nm to 557 nm and a distinct color change from orange to violet. Moreover the color reaction exhibits a high selectivity and sensitivity to Hg2+ only, instead of other common metal ions. This behavior may be ascribed to the formation of a specific 1-Hg2+ complex, which is supported by 1H NMR titration experiments. The present study is not only a supplement to the detection method of Hg2+, but also a merit to the chemistry of 4-amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole.

  9. 2,4,8-trihydroxybicyclo [3.2.1]octan-3-one scavenges free radicals and protects against xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anup; Jagan Mohan Rao, L; Shivanandappa, T

    2012-03-01

    Currently, there is a great deal of interest in the study of natural compounds with free-radical-scavenging activity because of their potential role in maintaining human health and preventing diseases. In this paper, we report the antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of 2,4,8-trihydroxybicyclo [3.2.1]octan-3-one (TBO) isolated from the aqueous extract of Decalepis hamiltonii roots. Our results show that TBO is a potent scavenger of superoxide (O(2)·-), hydroxyl (·OH), nitric oxide (·NO) and lipid peroxide (LOO·) - physiologically relevant free radicals with IC(50) values in nmolar (42-281) range. TBO also exhibited concentration-dependent secondary antioxidant activities such as reducing power, metal-chelating activity and inhibition of protein carbonylation. Further, TBO at nmolar concentration prevented CuSO(4)-induced human LDL oxidation. Apart from the in vitro free-radical-scavenging activity, TBO demonstrated cytoprotective activity in primary hepatocytes and Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells against oxidative-stress-inducing xenobiotics. The mechanism of cytoprotective action involved maintaining the intracellular glutathione (GSH), scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO). Based on the results, it is suggested that TBO is a novel bioactive molecule with implications in both prevention and amelioration of diseases involving oxidative stress as well as in the general well-being. PMID:22239689

  10. Higher Weight Status of Only and Last-Born Children: Maternal Feeding and Child Eating Behaviors as Underlying Processes among 4-8 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Rana H.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behaviors, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  11. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  12. Oxidation of iodide and iodine on birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the pH range 4-8.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; von Gunten, Urs; Sahli, Elisabeth; Nicolau, Rudy; Gallard, Hervé

    2009-08-01

    The oxidation of iodide by synthetic birnessite (delta-MnO(2)) was studied in perchlorate media in the pH range 4-8. Iodine (I(2)) was detected as an oxidation product that was subsequently further oxidized to iodate (IO(3)(-)). The third order rate constants, second order on iodide and first order on manganese oxide, determined by extraction of iodine in benzene decreased with increasing pH (6.3-7.5) from 1790 to 3.1M(-2) s(-1). Both iodine and iodate were found to adsorb significantly on birnessite with an adsorption capacity of 12.7 microM/g for iodate at pH 5.7. The rate of iodine oxidation by birnessite decreased with increasing ionic strength, which resulted in a lower rate of iodate formation. The production of iodine in iodide-containing waters in contact with manganese oxides may result in the formation of undesired iodinated organic compounds (taste and odor, toxicity) in natural and technical systems. The probability of the formation of such compounds is highest in the pH range 5-7.5. For pH <5 iodine is quickly oxidized to iodate, a non-toxic and stable sink for iodine. At pH >7.5, iodide is not oxidized to a significant extent.

  13. [Synthesis and Properties of 1,11,15,25-Tetrahydroxy-4,8,18,22-Di (Bridged Dipropionate Carboxyl) Phthalocyanine Copper].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-cheng; Li, Wan-cheng; Li, Jie-jun; Wang, Gai-ping; Duan, Hong-wei; Ren, Xu-wen; Feng, Kai; Li, Pei-tao; Wang, Hui-fang; Pu, Gai-qin

    2015-08-01

    In this dissertation, we study the synthesis and character of new substituted Phthalocyanine. Due to the widely application of Pcs in the fields, such as the communication, medical treatment, chemical industry and so on, therefore, they have been a hot topic over several decades by scientists. Nowadays, scientists have prepared thousands of Pcs and their derivatives. However, along with the human society development and the progress in science and technology, the new phthalocyanine with novle characteristics are still the goal of the scientists. In this dissertion, the synthetic methods of the phthlocyanine is improved. The synthesis and characterization of 1,11,15,25-tetrahydroxy-4,8,18,22-di(bridged dipropionate carboxyl) phthalocyanines are reported in this paper. The mixtures of malonic acid and 3,6-dihydroxy-phthalonitrile was added to water under stiriing. Then, a catalyst amount of sulfuric acid was added. The first synthetic precursor, i. e., malonic acid 3,3'-bis(6-hydroxy phthalonitrile) butter, its molecular formula is C19H8N4O6. phthalocyanines was prepared by malonic acid 3,3'-bis(6-hydroxy phthalonitrile) butter and dihydrate zinc acetate, copper acetate monohydrate in n-amyl alcohol, using DBU as a catalyst under the 135 °C, molecular formula of phthalocyanine complexes is C38H16N8O12M. The product was characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) Spectrum absorption and fluorescence, The results are agreement with the proposed structures. And electrochemical properties were studied.

  14. Theoretical study of CO and O2 adsorption and CO oxidation on linear-shape gold molecules (LGMn) (n=2, 4, 8, 16, and 24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Tetsuya; Kuramoto, Kei

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory is used to study the effect of increase of the number of Au atom in the adsorption of CO and O2 as well as CO oxidation on anionic, neutral, and cationic Linear-shape Gold Molecules (LGMn) (n=2, 4, 8, 16, and 24). The more the number of Au atom increases, the more the adsorption energies of CO lower and larger in the cationic and anionic LGMnCO complexes, respectively. In contrast, the adsorption energies of both CO and O2 on neutral LGMn exhibit approximately constant values. There are little differences of both adsorption energies and net charge of CO and O2 on the number of Au atom in LGM regardless of each charge state. This indicates that the charge state of LGM plays a less important role for the adsorption of CO and O2 with increase of the number of Au atom in LGM. The trend of the overall activation energies of reaction pathway is switched between LGM-14 and LGM-18 with increase of the number of Au atom in LGM, and OC-OO intermediate of the initial state in n-1LGM (n=8, 16, and 24) are unstable compared to the separated reactants (LGMn, CO, O2). These are caused by the values of charge of O2 of OC-OO intermediate.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 3.1-4.8 GHz transmitter with a high frequency divider in 0.18 μm CMOS for OFDM-UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renliang, Zheng; Junyan, Ren; Wei, Li; Ning, Li

    2009-12-01

    A fully integrated low power RF transmitter for a WiMedia 3.1-4.8 GHz multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband system is presented. With a separate transconductance stage, the quadrature up-conversion modulator achieves high linearity with low supply voltage. The co-design of different resonant frequencies of the modulator and the differential to single (D2S) converter ensures in-band gain flatness. By means of a series inductor peaking technique, the D2S converter obtains 9 dB more gain without extra power consumption. A divided-by-2 divider is used for carrier signal generation. The measurement results show an output power between -10.7 and -3.1 dBm with 7.6 dB control range, an OIP3 up to 12 dBm, a sideband rejection of 35 dBc and a carrier rejection of 30 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process with an area of 1.74 mm2 and only consumes 32 mA current (at 1.8 V) including the test associated parts.

  16. Cr(III)-HMC (HMC = 5,5,7,12,12,14-Hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) Alkynyl Complexes: Preparation and Emission Properties.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Sarah F; Judkins, Eileen C; Song, You; Cao, Fan; McMillin, David R; Fanwick, Phillip E; Ren, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Presented here is the chemistry of Cr(III) alkynyl complexes based on the rac-HMC and meso-HMC ligands (HMC = 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane). Thus far, two pairs of cis/trans-[Cr(rac/meso-HMC)(C2R)2]Cl (R = Ph, C2H/C2SiMe3) complexes have been synthesized from reactions between cis/trans-[Cr(rac/meso-HMC)Cl2]Cl and LiC2R. These complexes were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and fluorimetry. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these complexes adopt a pseudo-octahedral geometry. The electronic spectra of both the cis- and trans-[Cr(rac/meso-HMC)(C4R')2]Cl (R' = H or SiMe3) complexes exhibit d-d bands with pronounced vibronic progression associated with the asymmetric stretch of the Cr-bound C≡C bonds. All of these complexes are phosphorescent and show structured emissions originating from the ligand field excited states. PMID:27529498

  17. The synthesis of 3-hydroxy-2,4,8-trimethyldec-8-enolides and an approach to 3,4-dihydroxy-2,4,6,8-tetramethyldec-8-enolide.

    PubMed

    Botubol-Ares, J M; Durán-Peña, M J; Macías-Sánchez, A J; Hanson, J R; Collado, I G; Hernández-Galán, R

    2015-01-14

    The synthesis of several derivatives of 3-hydroxy-2,4,8-trimethyldec-8-enolide and attempts at the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroxy-2,4,6,8-tetramethyldec-8-enolide (1), a structure which has been assigned to a metabolite of the phytopathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, gave products whose spectroscopic data had significant differences from those reported for the natural product 1. The rare 11-membered lactone rings were constructed by ring-closing metathesis reactions. The increase in conformational restrictions imposed by the substituents has a high influence on the stereochemistry of the ring-closing metathesis reaction and gives rise to a decrease in the yield for the synthesis of 11-membered lactones. The predominant alkene which was obtained was the (Z)-isomer. The observed spectroscopic differences between the synthesized lactones and the natural product and the spectroscopic data of its acetylated derivative 26a allowed us to revise the structure 1 to that of the γ-butyrolactone 26.

  18. Causal implication by rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation of alpha frequency in feature-based local vs. global attention.

    PubMed

    Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Mok, Robert M; Schyns, Philippe G; Driver, Jon

    2012-03-01

    Although oscillatory activity in the alpha band was traditionally associated with lack of alertness, more recent work has linked it to specific cognitive functions, including visual attention. The emerging method of rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows causal interventional tests for the online impact on performance of TMS administered in short bursts at a particular frequency. TMS bursts at 10 Hz have recently been shown to have an impact on spatial visual attention, but any role in featural attention remains unclear. Here we used rhythmic TMS at 10 Hz to assess the impact on attending to global or local components of a hierarchical Navon-like stimulus (D. Navon (1977) Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognit. Psychol., 9, 353), in a paradigm recently used with TMS at other frequencies (V. Romei, J. Driver, P.G. Schyns & G. Thut. (2011) Rhythmic TMS over parietal cortex links distinct brain frequencies to global versus local visual processing. Curr. Biol., 2, 334-337). In separate groups, left or right posterior parietal sites were stimulated at 10 Hz just before presentation of the hierarchical stimulus. Participants had to identify either the local or global component in separate blocks. Right parietal 10 Hz stimulation (vs. sham) significantly impaired global processing without affecting local processing, while left parietal 10 Hz stimulation vs. sham impaired local processing with a minor trend to enhance global processing. These 10 Hz outcomes differed significantly from stimulation at other frequencies (i.e. 5 or 20 Hz) over the same site in other recent work with the same paradigm. These dissociations confirm differential roles of the two hemispheres in local vs. global processing, and reveal a frequency-specific role for stimulation in the alpha band for regulating feature-based visual attention.

  19. Magnetic field tomography of coherent thalamocortical 40-Hz oscillations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ribary, U.; Lado, F.; Mogilner, A.; Llinas, R. ); Ioannides, A.A.; Singh, K.D.; Hasson, R.; Bolton, J.P.R. )

    1991-12-15

    This paper introduces the use of magnetic field tomography (MFT), a noninvasive technique based on distributed source analysis of magnetoencephalography data, which makes possible three-dimensional reconstruction of dynamic brain activity in humans. MFT has a temporal resolution better than 1 msec and a spatial accuracy of 2-5 mm at the cortical level, which deteriorates to 1-3 cm at depths of 6 cm or more. MFT is used here to visualize the origin of a spatiotemporally organized pattern of coherent 40-Hz electrical activity. This coherence, initially observed during auditory input, was proposed to be generated by recurrent corticothalamic oscillation. In support of this hypothesis, the authors illustrate well-defined 40-Hz coherence between cortical-subcortical sites with a time shift that is consistent with thalamocortical conduction times. Studies on Alzheimer patients indicate that, while a similar activity pattern is present, the cortical component is reduced in these subjects.

  20. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Dual-rod, 100 Hz, 388 mJ nanosecond Nd:YAG oscillator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Jianhui; Gong, Mali

    2011-03-10

    We report a large mode volume unstable resonator working at 100 Hz. The resonator is combined with a variable reflectivity convex mirror and a high-reflective convex mirror. The cavity mirrors are used to compensate for the thermal lensing effect of the two Nd:YAG laser rods, which are pumped by high-energy high-repetition-rate diode lasers. A 90° quartz rotator is placed between the two laser rods to compensate for the thermal depolarization. In the experiment, output of as high as 388 mJ is obtained at 100 Hz with slope efficiency of 36%. The pulse width is 15 ns, and the beam quality factor is M(x)(2)=3.2, M(y)(2)=2.8. PMID:21394190

  2. 100 kHz thousand-frame burst-mode planar imaging in turbulent flames.

    PubMed

    Michael, James B; Venkateswaran, Prabhakar; Miller, Joseph D; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh; Meyer, Terrence R

    2014-02-15

    High-repetition-rate, burst-mode lasers can achieve higher energies per pulse compared with continuously pulsed systems, but the relatively few number of laser pulses in each burst has limited the temporal dynamic range of measurements in unsteady flames. A fivefold increase in the range of timescales that can be resolved by burst-mode laser-based imaging systems is reported in this work by extending a hybrid diode- and flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG-based amplifier system to nearly 1000 pulses at 100 kHz during a 10 ms burst. This enables an unprecedented burst-mode temporal dynamic range to capture turbulent fluctuations from 0.1 to 50 kHz in flames of practical interest. High pulse intensity enables efficient conversion to the ultraviolet for planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nascent formaldehyde and other potential flame radicals.

  3. Performance of a 30-kV, 1-kHz, nanosecond source

    SciTech Connect

    Cravey, W.R.; Freytag, K.; Goerz, D.

    1992-06-01

    An existing pulser at LLNL was modified to increase its repetition rate to 1000 Hz. Spark gap recovery measurements were made for both the Marx and the Blumlein output switches. Recovery times of less than 1 ms were recorded without gas flow in the switch chambers. Low pressure synthetic air was used as the switch dielectric. Longer recovery times were necessary to over-voltage the switch. The output of the pulser was used to drive a log-periodic-dipole-array. Measurements were made on the transmitted pulses in an anechoic chamber and yielded a center frequency of 80 MHz. This paper describes the modifications made on the pulse generator, discusses the spark gap recovery data, and summarizes the performance of the pulser at 1 kHz. In addition, a brief description of the antenna is given along with the field measurements that were made in the EMPEROR facility.

  4. Multi-mJ, kHz, ps deep-ultraviolet source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Lin; Krogen, Peter; Liang, Houkun; Stein, Gregory J; Moses, Jeffrey; Lai, Chien-Jen; Siqueira, Jonathas P; Zapata, Luis E; Kärtner, Franz X; Hong, Kyung-Han

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrate a 0.56-GW, 1-kHz, 4.2-ps, 2.74-mJ deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser at ∼257.7  nm with a beam propagation factor (M2) of ∼2.54 from a frequency-quadrupled cryogenic multi-stage Yb-doped chirped-pulse amplifier. The frequency quadrupling is achieved using LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 crystals for near-infrared (NIR)-to-green and green-to-DUV conversion, respectively. An overall NIR-to-DUV efficiency of ∼10% has been achieved, which is currently limited by the thermal-induced phase mismatching and the DUV-induced degradation of transmittance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest peak-power picosecond DUV source from a diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at kHz repetition rates.

  5. Magnetic Field Tomography of Coherent Thalamocortical 40-Hz Oscillations in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribary, U.; Ioannides, A. A.; Singh, K. D.; Hasson, R.; Bolton, J. P. R.; Lado, F.; Mogilner, A.; Llinas, R.

    1991-12-01

    This paper introduces the use of magnetic field tomography (MFT), a noninvasive technique based on distributed source analysis of magnetoencephalography data, which makes possible the three-dimensional reconstruction of dynamic brain activity in humans. MFT has a temporal resolution better than 1 msec and a spatial accuracy of 2-5 mm at the cortical level, which deteriorates to 1-3 cm at depths of 6 cm or more. MFT is used here to visualize the origin of a spatiotemporally organized pattern of coherent 40-Hz electrical activity. This coherence, initially observed during auditory input, was proposed to be generated by recurrent corticothalamic oscillation. In support of this hypothesis, we illustrate well-defined 40-Hz coherence between cortical-subcortical sites with a time shift that is consistent with thalamocortical conduction times. Studies on Alzheimer patients indicate that, while a similar activity pattern is present, the cortical component is reduced in these subjects.

  6. Implications of a 20-Hz Booster cycle-rate for Slip-stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-06-10

    We examine the potential impacts to slip-stacking from a change of the Booster cycle-rate from 15- to 20-Hz. We find that changing the Booster cycle-rate to 20-Hz would greatly increase the slip-stacking bucket area, while potentially requiring greater usage of the Recycler momentum aperture and additional power dissipation in the RF cavities. In particular, the losses from RF interference can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on Booster beam longitudinal parameters). We discuss the aspect ratio and beam emittance requirements for efficient slip-stacking in both cycle-rate cases. Using a different injection scheme can eliminate the need for greater momentum aperture in the Recycler.

  7. Somatotopic source arrangement of 600 Hz oscillatory magnetic fields at the human primary somatosensory hand cortex.

    PubMed

    Curio, G; Mackert, B M; Burghoff, M; Neumann, J; Nolte, G; Scherg, M; Marx, P

    1997-10-01

    Based on low-noise superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) magnetoencephalography allows the non-invasive detection of low-amplitude high-frequency brain responses evoked about 20 ms after electric hand nerve stimulation. The main spectral energy of these brief oscillatory bursts (near 600 Hz) is in the range typical for rapidly repeated action potentials. Here, the magnetic fields of median and ulnar nerve evoked 600 Hz bursts are shown to exhibit a somatotopic arrangement at the primary somatosensory hand cortex closely resembling that of the concomitant postsynaptic primary cortical response (¿N20m'). Two possible burst generators are discussed: (1) repetitive spike volleys conducted along the terminal segments of somatotopically arranged thalamocortical axons, and (2) early intracortical spike activity in nerve-specific subterritories of the 3b hand area.

  8. Orbit response matrix measurements for 10Hz global orbit feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Minty, M.

    2010-10-01

    The 10 Hz global orbit feedback system (gofb) was designed to correct the 10 Hz horizontal beam perturbations in both rings that are suspected to be caused by vibrations of the final focusing quadrupoles (triplets). The full system envisioned for Run-11 consists of 36 BPMs, corresponding to 2 per triplet in each of the 12 triplet locations and two in each of the 6 arcs, and 1 dipole corrector at each triplet location for a total of 12 correctors. Prototype testing was successfully carried out during RHIC Run-10 in store condition with 4 new dipole correctors (with independent power supplies) and 8 stripline beam position monitors (BPMs) per accelerator. An SVD-based algorithm was used to compute the applied corrections. For Run-10, the response matrix was provided by W. W. MacKay. The response matrix R relates corrector angles to beam displacements at BPMs.

  9. Oscillatory brain activity in the alpha range is modulated by the content of word-prompted mental imagery

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Felix; Hamuni, Gilava; Miskovic, Vladimir; Lang, Peter J.; Keil, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery is a fundamental cognitive process of interest to basic scientists and clinical researchers. This study examined large-scale oscillatory brain activity in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) during language-driven mental imagery using dense-array EEG. Three experiments demonstrated relative increases in alpha amplitude (1) during imagery prompted by words compared to fixation without imagery instruction, (2) during imagery of word content compared to imagery of geometric shapes, and (3) during imagery of emotionally evocative words compared to imagery of less emotionally arousing content. Alpha increases for semantically loaded imagery were observed in parieto-occipital regions, sustained throughout the imagery period. Findings imply that alpha oscillations index active memory and internal cognitive processing, reflecting neural communication in cortical networks representing motor, semantic, and perceptual aspects of the imagined scene. PMID:25616004

  10. Discovery of a Neutron Star with Spin Frequency 530 Hz in A1744-361

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2005-01-01

    We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of 530 Hz burst oscillations in a thermonuclear (Type I) burst from the transient X-ray source A1744-361. This is only the second burst ever observed from this source, and the first to be seen in any detail. Our results confirm that A1744-361 is a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system harboring a rapidly rotating neutron star. The oscillations are first detected along the rising edge of the burst, and show evidence for frequency evolution of a magnitude similar to that seen in other burst sources. The modulation amplitude and its increase with photon energy are also typical of burst oscillations. The lack of any strong indication of photospheric radius expansion during the burst suggests a 9 kpc upper limit of the source distance. We also find energy dependent dips, establishing A1744-361 as a high inclination, dipping LMXB. The timescale between the two episodes of observed dips suggests an orbital period of approx. 97 min. We have also detected a 2 - 4 Hz quasi-periodic-oscillation (QPO) for the first time from this source. This QPO appears consistent with approx. 1 Hz QPOs seen from other high inclination systems. We searched for kilohertz QPOs, and found a suggestive 2.3 sigma feature at 800 Hz in one observation. The frequency, strength and quality factor are consistent with that of a lower frequency kilohertz QPO, but the relatively low significance argues for caution, so we consider this a tentative detection requiring confirmation.

  11. Time dependence of 50 Hz magnetic fields in apartment buildings with indoor transformer stations.

    PubMed

    Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Hareuveny, Ronen; Kandel, Shaiela; Ruppin, Raphael

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-four hour measurements of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) in apartment buildings containing transformer stations have been performed. The apartments were classified into four types, according to their location relative to the transformer room. Temporal correlation coefficients between the MF in various apartments, as well as between MF and transformer load curves, were calculated. It was found that, in addition to their high average MF, the apartments located right above the transformer room also exhibit unique temporal correlation properties.

  12. A 100 microsec, reliable, 10 Hz pulsed supersonic molecular beam source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.; Duncan, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    A 10-Hz repetition rate, 100-microsec duration, reliable pulsed supersonic molecular beam source is described. Mechanical and electrical design of the pulsed valve are given in detail. Characteristics of the supersonic expansion obtained using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in acetylene are presented. They include pulse shape, gas rotational and translational cooling as a function of distance from the nozzle, clustering effects, and shock heating at the leading edge of the pulse.

  13. Gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat.

    PubMed

    Bragin, A; Jandó, G; Nádasdy, Z; Hetke, J; Wise, K; Buzsáki, G

    1995-01-01

    The cellular generation and spatial distribution of gamma frequency (40-100 Hz) activity was examined in the hippocampus of the awake rat. Field potentials and unit activity were recorded by multiple site silicon probes (5- and 16-site shanks) and wire electrode arrays. Gamma waves were highly coherent along the long axis of the dentate hilus, but average coherence decreased rapidly in the CA3 and CA1 directions. Analysis of short epochs revealed large fluctuations in coherence values between the dentate and CA1 gamma waves. Current source density analysis revealed large sinks and sources in the dentate gyrus with spatial distribution similar to the dipoles evoked by stimulation of the perforant path. The frequency changes of gamma and theta waves positively correlated (40-100 Hz and 5-10 Hz, respectively). Putative interneurons in the dentate gyrus discharged at gamma frequency and were phase-locked to the ascending part of the gamma waves recorded from the hilus. Following bilateral lesion of the entorhinal cortex the power and frequency of hilar gamma activity significantly decreased or disappeared. Instead, a large amplitude but slower gamma pattern (25-50 Hz) emerged in the CA3-CA1 network. We suggest that gamma oscillation emerges from an interaction between intrinsic oscillatory properties of interneurons and the network properties of the dentate gyrus. We also hypothesize that under physiological conditions the hilar gamma oscillation may be entrained by the entorhinal rhythm and that gamma oscillation in the CA3-CA1 circuitry is suppressed by either the hilar region or the entorhinal cortex.

  14. Superradiance on the mHz linewidth clock transition in 87Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcia, Matthew; Winchester, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Thompson, James

    2016-05-01

    In this talk, I will discuss our recent experimental explorations of superradiant emission from the mHz linewidth clock transition in an ensemble of cold 87 Sr atoms confined within a high-finesse optical cavity. Recent proposals suggest that superradiant lasers based on such dipole-forbidden transitions in alkaline earth atoms could achieve linewidths below the current state of the art, with reduced sensitivity to environmental perturbations.

  15. Weighted SVD algorithm for close-orbit correction and 10 Hz feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu C.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    Measurements of the beam position along an accelerator are typically treated equally using standard SVD-based orbit correction algorithms so distributing the residual errors, modulo the local beta function, equally at the measurement locations. However, sometimes a more stable orbit at select locations is desirable. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for weighting the beam position measurements to achieve a more stable local orbit. The results of its application to close-orbit correction and 10 Hz orbit feedback are presented.

  16. 14 J/2 Hz Yb3+:YAG diode pumped solid state laser chain.

    PubMed

    Gonçalvès-Novo, Thierry; Albach, Daniel; Vincent, Bernard; Arzakantsyan, Mikayel; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-14

    The Lucia laser chain is a Diode Pumped Solid State Laser system based on Yb3+ doped YAG disks used in an active mirror scheme. Front-end and amplifier stages are presented with recent energetic performances (14 J/2 Hz) achieved with improved pumping and extraction architectures. Emphasis is given on the crucial role of ASE and thermal mitigation considerations in engineering the amplifier head. PMID:23388979

  17. Stereoscopic Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging at 500 kHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medford, Taylor L.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Jiang, N.; Webster, M.; Lempert, Walter; Miller, J.; Meyer, T.

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique for obtaining time- and spatially-resolved image sequences in hypersonic flows is developed. Nitric-oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) has previously been used to investigate transition from laminar to turbulent flow in hypersonic boundary layers using both planar and volumetric imaging capabilities. Low flow rates of NO were typically seeded into the flow, minimally perturbing the flow. The volumetric imaging was performed at a measurement rate of 10 Hz using a thick planar laser sheet that excited NO fluorescence. The fluorescence was captured by a pair of cameras having slightly different views of the flow. Subsequent stereoscopic reconstruction of these images allowed the three-dimensional flow structures to be viewed. In the current paper, this approach has been extended to 50,000 times higher repetition rates. A laser operating at 500 kHz excites the seeded NO molecules, and a camera, synchronized with the laser and fitted with a beam-splitting assembly, acquires two separate images of the flow. The resulting stereoscopic images provide three-dimensional flow visualizations at 500 kHz for the first time. The 200 ns exposure time in each frame is fast enough to freeze the flow while the 500 kHz repetition rate is fast enough to time-resolve changes in the flow being studied. This method is applied to visualize the evolving hypersonic flow structures that propagate downstream of a discrete protuberance attached to a flat plate. The technique was demonstrated in the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Different tunnel Reynolds number conditions, NO flow rates and two different cylindrical protuberance heights were investigated. The location of the onset of flow unsteadiness, an indicator of transition, was observed to move downstream during the tunnel runs, coinciding with an increase in the model temperature.

  18. Ion Molecule Reactions of Gas-Phase Chromium Oxyanions:CrxOyHz- + O2

    SciTech Connect

    Anita K. Gianotto; Brittany D. M. Hodges; Peter de B. Harrington; Anthony Appelhans; John E. Olson; Gary S. Groenewold

    2003-10-01

    Chromium oxyanions, CrxOyHz-, were generated in the gas-phase using a quadrupole ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS), where they were reacted with O2. Only CrO2- of the Cr1OyHz- envelope was observed to react with oxygen, producing primarily CrO3-. The rate constant for the reaction of CrO2- with O2 was 38% of the Langevin collision constant at 310 K. CrO3-, CrO4-, and CrO4H- were unreactive with O2 in the ion trap. In contrast, Cr2O4- was observed to react with O2 producing CrO3- + CrO3 via oxidative degradation at a rate that was 15% efficient. The presence of background water facilitated the reaction of Cr2O4- + H2O to form Cr2O5H2-; the hydrated product ion Cr2O5H2- reacted with O2 to form Cr2O6- (with concurrent elimination of H2O) at a rate that was 6% efficient. Cr2O5- also reacted with O2 to form Cr2O7- (4% efficient) and Cr2O6- + O (2% efficient); these reactions proceeded in parallel. By comparison, Cr2O6- was unreactive with O2, and in fact, no further O2 addition could be observed for any of the Cr2O6Hz- anions. Generalizing, CrxOyHz- species that have low coordinate, low oxidation state metal centers are susceptible to O2 oxidation. However, when the metal coordination is >3, or when the formal oxidation state is =5, reactivity stops.

  19. Characterization of the transcriptome of Achromobacter sp. HZ01 with the outstanding hydrocarbon-degrading ability.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yue-Hui; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Chou-Fei; Xiao, Xi; Zhu, Qing; Sun, Xian-Xian; Zhou, Qian-Zhi; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2016-06-15

    Microbial remediation has become one of the most important strategies for eliminating petroleum pollutants. Revealing the transcript maps of microorganisms with the hydrocarbon-degrading ability contributes to enhance the degradation of hydrocarbons and further improve the effectiveness of bioremediation. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of hydrocarbon-degrading Achromobacter sp. HZ01 after petroleum treatment for 16h. A total of 38,706,280 and 38,954,413 clean reads were obtained by RNA-seq for the petroleum-treated group and control, respectively. By an effective de novo assembly, 3597 unigenes were obtained, including 3485 annotated transcripts. Petroleum treatment had significantly influenced the transcriptional profile of strain HZ01, involving 742 differentially expressed genes. A part of genes were activated to exert specific physiological functions, whereas more genes were down-regulated including specific genes related to cell motility, genes associated with glycometabolism, and genes coding for ribosomal proteins. Identification of genes related to petroleum degradation revealed that the fatty acid metabolic pathway and a part of monooxygenases and dehydrogenases were activated, whereas the TCA cycle was inactive. Additionally, terminal oxidation might be a major aerobic pathway for the degradation of n-alkanes in strain HZ01. The newly obtained data contribute to better understand the gene expression profiles of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms after petroleum treatment, to further investigate the genetic characteristics of strain HZ01 and other related species and to develop cost-effective and eco-friendly strategies for remediation of crude oil-polluted environments.

  20. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  1. Alpha2A adrenergic receptor activation inhibits epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampal CA3 region.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Chris W D; Hammad, Hana M; Lichter, Jessica A; Boese, Sarah J; Nelson, Brian W; Goldenstein, Brianna L; Davis, Kylie L; Xu, Ke; Hillman, Kristin L; Porter, James E; Doze, Van A

    2007-06-01

    Norepinephrine has potent antiepileptic properties, the pharmacology of which is unclear. Under conditions in which GABAergic inhibition is blocked, norepinephrine reduces hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) epileptiform activity through alpha(2) adrenergic receptor (AR) activation on pyramidal cells. In this study, we investigated which alpha(2)AR subtype(s) mediates this effect. First, alpha(2)AR genomic expression patterns of 25 rat CA3 pyramidal cells were determined using real-time single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating that 12 cells expressed alpha(2A)AR transcript; 3 of the 12 cells additionally expressed mRNA for alpha(2C)AR subtype and no cells possessing alpha(2B)AR mRNA. Hippocampal CA3 epileptiform activity was then examined using field potential recordings in brain slices. The selective alphaAR agonist 6-fluoronorepinephrine caused a reduction of CA3 epileptiform activity, as measured by decreased frequency of spontaneous epileptiform bursts. In the presence of betaAR blockade, concentration-response curves for AR agonists suggest that an alpha(2)AR mediates this response, as the rank order of potency was 5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine (UK-14304) >or= epinephrine >6-fluoronorepinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine. Finally, equilibrium dissociation constants (K(b)) of selective alphaAR antagonists were functionally determined to confirm the specific alpha(2)AR subtype inhibiting CA3 epileptiform activity. Apparent K(b) values calculated for atipamezole (1.7 nM), MK-912 (4.8 nM), BRL-44408 (15 nM), yohimbine (63 nM), ARC-239 (540 nM), prazosin (4900 nM), and terazosin (5000 nM) correlated best with affinities previously determined for the alpha(2A)AR subtype (r = 0.99, slope = 1.0). These results suggest that, under conditions of impaired GABAergic inhibition, activation of alpha(2A)ARs is primarily responsible for the antiepileptic actions of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampal CA3

  2. All-fiber-integrated linearly polarized fiber laser delivering 476  μJ, 50  kHz, nanosecond pulses for ultrasonic generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiaodong; Yu, Hailong; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Lijia

    2016-05-10

    We demonstrate a high-energy linearly polarized pulsed fiber laser for ultrasonic generation based on a master oscillator power amplification (MOPA) scheme, which delivers nanosecond pulses with duration of 4.8 ns and pulse energy of 476 μJ at the repetition rate of 50 kHz. The MOPA is seeded by a gain switch semiconductor laser diode at 1064 nm. In the pre-amplification stages, a double-pass amplification structure is designed and successfully applied to amplify the low-power seed laser for the consideration of suppressing amplified spontaneous emission, decreasing the number of amplification stages, and reducing the nonlinear effects. A highly ytterbium-doped fiber is utilized in the main amplifier to shorten the fiber length and reduce the fiber nonlinearity. The average power is finally boosted to 23.8 W with corresponding optical-to-optical efficiency of 66.9% and a polarization extinction rate of ∼10.5  dB. The corresponding peak power is calculated to be 87.1 kW. Finally, the established laser system is successfully used for ultrasonic generation based on a line excitation configuration and grating excitation configuration, and clear surface acoustic wave signals are detected. Many potential applications in laser ultrasonics can be foreseen. PMID:27168281

  3. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  4. Exposure to 50Hz-sinusoidal electromagnetic field induces DNA damage-independent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunyun; Xia, Ruohong; Jiang, Hengjun; Chen, Yanfeng; Hong, Ling; Yu, Yunxian; Xu, Zhengping; Zeng, Qunli

    2016-08-01

    As electromagnetic field (EMF) is commonly encountered within our daily lives, the biological effects of EMF are of great concern. Autophagy is a key process for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and it can also reveal cellular responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological effects of a 50Hz-sinusoidal electromagnetic field on autophagy and we identified its mechanism of action in Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cells. CHL cells were exposed to a 50Hz sinusoidal EMF at 0.4mT for 30min or 24h. In this study, we found that a 0.4mT EMF resulted in: (i) an increase in LC3-II expression and increased autophagosome formation; (ii) no significant difference in the incidence of γH2AX foci between the sham and exposure groups; (iii) reorganized actin filaments and increased pseudopodial extensions without promoting cell migration; and (iv) enhanced cell apoptosis when autophagy was blocked by Bafilomycin A1. These results implied that DNA damage was not directly involved in the autophagy induced by a 0.4mT 50Hz EMF. In addition, an EMF induced autophagy balanced the cellular homeostasis to protect the cells from severe adverse biological consequences.

  5. Retinoic acid inhibits the cytoproliferative response to weak 50-Hz magnetic fields in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    TRILLO, MARÍA ÁNGELES; MARTÍNEZ, MARÍA ANTONIA; CID, MARÍA ANTONIA; ÚBEDA, ALEJANDRO

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that intermittent exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) at 100 μT stimulates cell proliferation in the human neuroblastoma cell line NB69. The present study aimed to investigate whether the magnetic field-induced growth promotion also occurs at a lower magnetic flux density of 10 μT. To this purpose, NB69 cells were subjected for 42 h to intermittent exposure, 3 h on/3 h off, to a 50-Hz MF at a 10 or 100 μT magnetic flux density. The field exposure took place either in the presence or in the absence of the antiproliferative agent retinoic acid. At the end of the treatment and/or incubation period, the cell growth was estimated by hemocytometric counting and spectrophotometric analysis of total protein and DNA contents. Potential changes in DNA synthesis were also assessed through proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolabeling. The results confirmed previously reported data that a 42-h exposure to a 50-Hz sine wave MF at 100 μT promotes cell growth in the NB69 cell line, and showed that 10 μT induces a similar proliferative response. This effect, which was significantly associated and linearly correlated with PCNA expression, was abolished by the presence of retinoic acid in the culture medium. PMID:23292364

  6. 3.5kHz Profiling with Vertically Separated Source and Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmer, S. T.; Hoskins, H.; Stephen, R. A.; Leg 200 Shipboard Scientific Party, .

    2003-12-01

    The spatial resolution of hull mounted 3.5kHz echo sounding systems is often limited in deep water by the large footptint (Fresnel zone) of the insonifying energy on the seafloor. On ODP Leg 200 at Site 1224, we tested a system that could be used from the drillship while on station to improve resolution. In 4970 m water depth, a 3.5 kHz pinger was mounted on the video camera frame and lowered down the drill string to a few meters above the seafloor. The ship's 3.5 kHz receiver recorded the returns. Having the source and receiver at differing distances above the seafloor provides two advantages: 1) the area returning reflections is greatly reduced, 2) the amplitudes of the sub-seafloor reflections are less affected by the spreading effect. Reflections were observed to 38 ms beneath the seafloor on lowerings at three closely spaced holes. The heave of the ship and camera frame shifted the travel times of the reflection sequences. A level-discriminator and correlation MatLab routine was used to align the traces and to stack them to enhance signal. The reflections showed good correlation with the limited geotechnical data obtained from the sediment cores. Although tested from the drill ship this system could be used to provide a low cost, shallow penetration profiling system from ROV's and AUV's. This work was supported by a grant from JOI-USSAC.

  7. Discriminating ripple-fire explosions with high frequency (>20 Hz) data

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.; Garbin, H.D.

    1996-04-01

    With a Comprehensive Test Ban (CTB), discriminating ripple-fired explosions from mining operations becomes important. Different methods have been proposed to discriminate these explosions, most of which use the modulations seen in the spectra of ripple-fired blasts. The Deployable Seismic Verification System (DSVS) in Wyoming records data at frequencies up to 50 Hz, and provides an opportunity to determine if there are any operational benefits to discriminate ripple-fired explosions from using high frequency (> 20 Hz) data. We collected a database of 646 events consisting of 118 known earthquakes, 1 known rockburst, 176 known ripple-fired quarry blasts and 351 unknown signals. Binary spectrograms for each event were calculated using a 2.5 second window, 5/8 overlap and 10% cosine window. We used a frequency band of 0 to 50 Hz. A blind test was done to choose events that appeared to have spectral banding indicative of ripple-fire explosions. One hundred fifty one events were picked as ripple-fire explosions by both authors; 59 of these events are known quarry blasts. To remove the ambiguities introduced using human analysts, we calculated an average binary spectrum for each event following a method similar to Wuster (1993). A criterion was developed so that events with six or more peaks over 0.8 and/or nulls under 0.2 was declared a ripple-fire explosion. With this method, 251 events were chosen as ripple-fire explosions, 91 of them known quarry blasts.

  8. Measuring ground deformations with 1-Hz GPS data: the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (preliminary report)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Meilano; Kimata, Fumiaki; Hirahara, Kazuro; Sagiya, Takeshi; Yamagiwa, Atsushi

    2004-03-01

    We analyzed 1-Hz GPS data observed at 14 stations of the GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) of the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan, associated with the 2003 M JMA 8.1 Tokachi-oki earthquake, which occurred at the Kurile Trench. The GPS stations are located 70-240 km away from the epicenter. GPS data clearly captured rapid co-seismic ground displacements. At a GPS station 70 km away from the epicenter, coseismic displacements started 15 seconds after the origin time, and after 40 seconds at the stations 240 km away. Observed displacement amplitude exceeded 20 cm at GPS sites 240 km away from the epicenter. Displacement amplitudes attenuate with time and distance from the epicenter, oscillating with periods of 40-60 seconds. We compared the 1-Hz GPS data and displacement seismogram integrated from strong ground motion data, which showed fairly good agreements. In spite of careful screening of 1-Hz GPS data during 30 minutes preceding the main shock, no significant preseismic deformation over 1 cm in the horizontal components was recorded. 30 second sampling GPS data at 14 sites during 20 hours preceding the main shock did not show any significant pre-seismic deformation, either. These results indicate that pre-seismic strain change, if any, was smaller than 0.5-1.0×10-7 before the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake.

  9. Reliability of electric response audiometry using 80 Hz auditory steady-state responses.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Sabo, Diane L; Durrant, John D; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2006-08-01

    The reliability of the Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) has not been thoroughly evaluated despite its recent application as a clinical tool for threshold estimation. The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest (TR) reliability of ASSR threshold estimates in an empirical research design. The ASSR, tested using modulation frequencies approximately 80 Hz and above, was evaluated against pure tone audiometry (PTA), and the slow vertex potential (SVP, N1-P2). Sixteen normal-hearing young female adults were tested twice, one week apart. Varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss of a notched configuration were simulated with filtered masking noise. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Pearson-product moment correlation analysis, supplemented by other post-hoc analyses. Results demonstrated moderately strong TR reliability for ASSR at 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (r = 0.83-0.93); however, the reliability of ASSR at 500 Hz was weaker (r = 0.75). Results suggest that ASSR-ERA is a reliable test at mid-high frequencies, at least with the configuration and degrees of simulated sensorineural hearing loss examined in this study. PMID:17005490

  10. A novel particle separation technique using 20-kHz-order ultrasound irradiation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Hiroya; Yanai, Sayuri; Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound techniques such as washing, fine-particle manipulation and mixing have been investigated. MHz-band ultrasound was usually used in the previous work, and studies of kHz-order ultrasound are very rare. In the usual manipulation technique, μm- order particles are targeted due to wavelength limitations. We discovered an interesting phenomenon that holds promise for a novel particle separation technique using kHz-order ultrasound. Here, particles with sub-mm- or mm-order diameters were flocculated into a swarm in water irradiated by 20-kHz ultrasound. To develop a practical separation process, we investigated the stationary position and dia. of the particle swarms and the sound- pressure profiles in a vessel, as well as the flocculation mechanism, by varying the irradiation frequency, water level, particle diameter and particle amount. The primary stationary position corresponded to the wavelength calculated from the resonant frequency regardless of the particle diameter. Subtle changes in the frequency and water level resulted in a significant change in the stationary position. Based on these results, we propose a new separation process based on the particle diameter for sub-mm- or mm-order particles.

  11. Neocortical very fast oscillations (ripples, 80-200 Hz) during seizures: intracellular correlates.

    PubMed

    Grenier, François; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea

    2003-02-01

    Multi-site field potential and intracellular recordings from various neocortical areas were used to study very fast oscillations or ripples (80-200 Hz) during electrographic seizures in cats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. The animals displayed spontaneously occurring and electrically induced seizures comprising spike-wave complexes (2-3 Hz) and fast runs (10-20 Hz). Neocortical ripples had much higher amplitudes during seizures than during the slow oscillation preceding the onset of seizures. A series of experimental data from the present study supports the hypothesis that ripples are implicated in seizure initiation. Ripples were particularly strong at the onset of seizures and halothane, which antagonizes the occurrence of ripples, also blocked seizures. The firing of electrophysiologically defined cellular types was phase-locked with ripples in simultaneously recorded field potentials. This indicates that ripples during paroxysmal events are associated with a coordination of firing in a majority of neocortical neurons. This was confirmed with dual intracellular recordings. Based on the amplitude that neocortical ripples reach during paroxysmal events, we propose a mechanism by which neocortical ripples during normal network activity could actively participate in the initiation of seizures on reaching a certain threshold amplitude. This mechanism involves a vicious feedback loop in which very fast oscillations in field potentials are a reflection of synchronous action potentials, and in turn these oscillations help generate and synchronize action potentials in adjacent neurons through electrical interactions.

  12. Continuous hydroxyl radical planar laser imaging at 50 kHz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Stephen; Carter, Campbell; Wuensche, Clemens; Lee, Tonghun

    2014-08-10

    This study demonstrates high-repetition-rate planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of hydroxyl radicals (OH) in flames at a continuous framing rate of 50 kHz. A frequency-doubled dye laser is pumped by the second harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser to generate laser radiation near 283 nm with a pulse width of 8 ns and rate of 50 kHz. Fluorescence is recorded by a two-stage image intensifier and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The average power of the 283 nm beam reaches 7 W, yielding a pulse energy of 140 μJ. Both a Hencken burner and a DC transient-arc plasmatron are used to produce premixed CH4/air flames to evaluate the OH PLIF system. The average signal-to-noise ratio for the Hencken burner flame is greater than 20 near the flame front and greater than 10 further downstream in a region of the flame near equilibrium. Image sequences of the DC plasmatron discharge clearly illustrate development and evolution of flow features with signal levels comparable to those in the Hencken burner. The results are a demonstration of the ability to make high-fidelity OH PLIF measurements at 50 kHz using a Nd:YAG-pumped, frequency-doubled dye laser. PMID:25320935

  13. Exposure to 50Hz-sinusoidal electromagnetic field induces DNA damage-independent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunyun; Xia, Ruohong; Jiang, Hengjun; Chen, Yanfeng; Hong, Ling; Yu, Yunxian; Xu, Zhengping; Zeng, Qunli

    2016-08-01

    As electromagnetic field (EMF) is commonly encountered within our daily lives, the biological effects of EMF are of great concern. Autophagy is a key process for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and it can also reveal cellular responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological effects of a 50Hz-sinusoidal electromagnetic field on autophagy and we identified its mechanism of action in Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cells. CHL cells were exposed to a 50Hz sinusoidal EMF at 0.4mT for 30min or 24h. In this study, we found that a 0.4mT EMF resulted in: (i) an increase in LC3-II expression and increased autophagosome formation; (ii) no significant difference in the incidence of γH2AX foci between the sham and exposure groups; (iii) reorganized actin filaments and increased pseudopodial extensions without promoting cell migration; and (iv) enhanced cell apoptosis when autophagy was blocked by Bafilomycin A1. These results implied that DNA damage was not directly involved in the autophagy induced by a 0.4mT 50Hz EMF. In addition, an EMF induced autophagy balanced the cellular homeostasis to protect the cells from severe adverse biological consequences. PMID:27177844

  14. Dependence of kHz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies on accretion-related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Catmabacak, Onur; Duran, Sivan; Çatmabacak, Önder

    2016-07-01

    To study the possible dependence of kHz QPO frequencies on the parameters such as the mass accretion rate, the surface magnetic field strength, mass, and radius of the neutron star, we consider the up-to-date distribution of neutron star LMXBs in the kHz QPO frequency versus X-ray luminosity plane. We confirm the absence of any correlation between QPO frequencies and luminosity in the ensemble of LMXBs. Searching for the dependence of QPO data on accretion-related parameters, we find a correlation between the lower kHz QPO frequency and the parameter combining mass accretion rate with magnetic field strength. The correlation cannot be adequately described by a simple power law due to observed scattering of individual source data in the ensemble of Z and atoll sources. Based on disk-magnetosphere boundary region, the model function for QPO frequency can delineate the correlation taking into account the scattering of individual sources. In addition to mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength, the model function also depends on the radial width of the boundary region near the magnetopause. Modelling the variation of the width with mass accretion rate, we also provide an explanation for the parallel tracks phenomenon observed in the case of individual sources.

  15. Immunological and biochemical effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Fotopoulos, S.S.; Graham, C.

    1990-01-01

    Demand for electric energy increased at an annual average rate of 7.5% between 1912 and 1971. In order to meet this demand, utility companies have increased the number and size of their generating units and the operating voltages employed in overhead transmission lines. Recently public concern has been expressed about possible risks to human health, function, and well-being arising from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with overhead transmission line voltage. The Department of Energy funded the present project to investigate the effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on critically important immunological, biochemical, and hematological variables. Inclusion of such variables will be of great value in assessing the effects of 60-Hz fields on human health and welfare, and will provide results comparable to ongoing animal studies. The scope of this project includes six major goals: development of systems for incorporating biochemistry, hematology, and immunology data collection into the procedures already developed for the performance and physiology study funded by the New York State Overhead Power Lines Project; development of sample tracking and quality assurance procedures for project data; methods development and setting up of all procedures for performing assays; collecting data; carrying out assays according to the procedures defined; and statistically evaluating and interpreting the effects of 60-Hz exposure on hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. 3 tabs.

  16. 120-Hz Diode-Pumped Kilowatt Class Laser for Compton Scattering Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayramian, Andy; Beer, Glenn; Campbell, Rob; Freitas, Barry; Molander, William; Sutton, Steve; Telford, Steve; Barty, Chris

    2009-11-01

    A Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-ray) Compton scattering light source is currently based on a 120-Hz electron accelerator. A 120-Hz laser source can increase the current gamma ray production by more than an order of magnitude and further enhancements are possible. Diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs) offer the potential to operate at these higher repetition rates where flash lamp pumped laser systems are currently limited by thermal and lamp lifetime issues. Utilizing LLNL expertise in high energy DPSSLs, a 10-J, 120-Hz diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser architecture has been developed. The laser design makes use of advances in diode packaging, power conditioning, and beam conditioning to provide over 100-kW peak power array. Sapphire heatsinks and longitudinal cooling of the amplifier yields low parasitic loss and low wavefront distortion. An image relayed architecture and adaptive optics will yield a diffraction limited beam ideal for Compton scattering. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Reliability of electric response audiometry using 80 Hz auditory steady-state responses.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Sabo, Diane L; Durrant, John D; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2006-08-01

    The reliability of the Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) has not been thoroughly evaluated despite its recent application as a clinical tool for threshold estimation. The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest (TR) reliability of ASSR threshold estimates in an empirical research design. The ASSR, tested using modulation frequencies approximately 80 Hz and above, was evaluated against pure tone audiometry (PTA), and the slow vertex potential (SVP, N1-P2). Sixteen normal-hearing young female adults were tested twice, one week apart. Varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss of a notched configuration were simulated with filtered masking noise. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Pearson-product moment correlation analysis, supplemented by other post-hoc analyses. Results demonstrated moderately strong TR reliability for ASSR at 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (r = 0.83-0.93); however, the reliability of ASSR at 500 Hz was weaker (r = 0.75). Results suggest that ASSR-ERA is a reliable test at mid-high frequencies, at least with the configuration and degrees of simulated sensorineural hearing loss examined in this study.

  18. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of 60 Hz magnetic fields and harmonic frequencies in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ryan, B M; Polen, M; Gauger, J R; Mallett, E; Kearns, M B; Bryan, T L; McCormick, D L

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data suggest that exposure to the 50 and 60 Hz sinusoidal components of power-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) does not have an adverse impact on fetal development. However, the possible developmental toxicity of MF harmonics has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine whether exposure to 180 Hz MFs (third harmonic), alone or in combination with 60 Hz MFs, induces birth defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of sperm-positive dams (> or =20/group) were exposed for 18.5 h per day from gestation days 6 through 19 to (1) ambient MFs only (<0.0001 mT; sham controls); (2) 60 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; (3) 180 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; or (4) 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs (10% third harmonic; total field strength = 0.2 mT). Litter size, litter weight, percentage live births, sex ratio, and number of resorption sites were determined for each dam, and gross external, visceral, cephalic and skeletal examinations were performed on all fetuses. MF exposure had no significant effects on litter size, litter weight, or fetal development. With the exception of common rib variants, the incidence of fetal anomalies was comparable in all groups. A small increase in the incidence of rib variants was seen in the group exposed to 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs; however, the incidence of rib variants in this group was similar to that in historical controls from our laboratory. These data extend the existing database on developmental toxicity of MFs by demonstrating that exposure to 180 Hz MFs, either alone or superimposed on an underlying 60 Hz signal, does not induce biologically significant developmental toxicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to power-frequency MFs is an important risk factor for fetal development. PMID:10790286

  19. Increased Alpha (8-12 Hz) Activity during Slow Wave Sleep as a Marker for the Transition from Implicit Knowledge to Explicit Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan; Verleger, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during…

  20. The possible meaning of the upper and lower alpha frequency ranges for cognitive and creative tasks.

    PubMed

    Petsche, H; Kaplan, S; von Stein, A; Filz, O

    1997-06-01

    This study is aimed at verifying the functional independence of two frequency bands within the alpha range. It is based on experiments that examined the role of these two hands with regard to the amount of local electrogenesis (amplitude) and the cooperation of brain areas (coherence) in mental tasks concerning: (1) visual perception and imagery; (2) listening to and composing music; (3) verbal and visual creativity; and (4) aspects of mood. In all experiments EEG were recorded for at least 1 min during each task, separated one from another by at rest periods of at least equal lengths. EEG electrodes were pasted according to the 10/20 system (averaged ear lobes as reference). After FFT power was calculated for all 19 electrodes, coherence was estimated for all possible electrode pairs (i.e. 171). This was done for six frequency ranges between 1.5 and 31.5 Hz, the alpha range having been divided into two (7.5-9 Hz and 9.5-12.5 Hz). The spectral parameters obtained during each task were compared with those of the merged EEG at rest, significant changes (P < or = 0.01-P < or = 0.05) were entered into schematic maps of the brain. Generally, fewer differences were found for amplitude than for coherence. In all four tasks concerning visual perception the clearest differences were found in single person studies. But also in group studies more or less distinct differences were found between alpha 1 and 2. Also in the series with music the two alpha bands did not behave uniformly, nor were uniform features found in the two series of musically trained and untrained subjects. Distinct discrepancies were also found in a verbal and visual imagery task. With respect to mood, only elevated mood was correlated with a decrease of coherence in alpha 2 and an increase of amplitude in alpha 1. This study though hinting at a different functional significance of these two alpha bands, however, does not allow to draw any conclusions as to their distinct functional meanings. Generally

  1. The strain in the array is mainly in the plane (waves below ~1 Hz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Pavlis, G.; Bodin, P.

    1999-01-01

    We compare geodetic and single-station methods of measuring dynamic deformations and characterize their causes in the frequency bands 0.5-1.0 Hz and 4.0-8.0 Hz. The geodetic approach utilizes data from small-aperture seismic arrays, applying techniques from geodesy. It requires relatively few assumptions and a priori information. The single-station method uses ground velocities recorded at isolated or single stations and assumes all the deformation is due to plane-wave propagation. It also requires knowledge of the azimuth and horizontal velocity of waves arriving at the recording station. Data employed come from a small-aperture, dense seismic array deployed in Geyokcha, Turkmenistan, and include seismograms recorded by broadband STS2 and short-period L28 sensors. Poor agreement between geodetic and single-station estimates in the 4.0-8.0 Hz passband indicates that the displacement field may vary nonlinearly with distance over distances of ~50 m. STS2 geodetic estimates provide a robust standard in the 0.5-1.0 Hz passband because they appear to be computationally stable and require fewer assumptions than single-station estimates. The agreement between STS2 geodetic estimates and single-station L28 estimates is surprisingly good for the S-wave and early surface waves, suggesting that the single-station analysis should be useful with commonly available data. These results indicate that, in the 0.5 to 1.0 Hz passband, the primary source of dynamic deformation is plane-wave propagation along great-circle source-receiver paths. For later arriving energy, the effects of scattering become important. The local structure beneath the array exerts a strong control on the geometry of the dynamic deformation, implying that it may be difficult to infer source characteristics of modern or paleoearthquakes from indicators of dynamic deformations. However, strong site control also suggests that the dynamic deformations may be predictable, which would be useful for engineering

  2. Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT SOURCES IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Mallery, Ryan P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Capak, Peter; Kakazu, Yuko; Masters, Dan; Scoville, Nick; Scarlata, Claudia; Salvato, Mara; McCracken, Henry

    2012-12-01

    We investigate spectroscopically measured Ly{alpha} equivalent widths (EWs) and escape fractions of 244 sources of which 95 are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 106 Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) at z {approx} 4.2, z {approx} 4.8, and z {approx} 5.6 selected from intermediate and narrowband observations. The sources were selected from the Cosmic Evolution Survey and observed with the DEIMOS spectrograph. We find that the distribution of EWs shows no evolution with redshift for both the LBG selected sources and the intermediate/narrowband LAEs. We also find that the Ly{alpha} escape fraction of intermediate/narrowband LAEs is on average higher and has a larger variation than the escape fraction of LBG selected sources. The escape fraction does not show a dependence with redshift. Similar to what has been found for LAEs at low redshifts, the sources with the highest extinctions show the lowest escape fractions. The range of escape fractions increases with decreasing extinction. This is evidence that the dust extinction is the most important factor affecting the escape of Ly{alpha} photons, but at low extinctions other factors, such as the H I covering fraction and gas kinematics, can be just as effective at inhibiting the escape of Ly{alpha} photons.

  3. alpha-Thalassemia caused by an unstable alpha-globin mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1983-01-01

    In a previous study, molecular cloning of the alpha-globin genes from a patient with nondeletion Hb-H disease (genotype--/alpha alpha) showed that a single nucleotide mutation (CTG to CCG) in one of the genes resulted in a leucine to proline substitution. This paper describes the approach we used to detect the abnormal alpha-globin chain. The chain was identified using a cell-free translation system. It turned over rapidly both in vitro and in vivo in the patient's reticulocytes. The unusual feature of this unstable alpha-globin is that the alpha-globin deficiency causes alpha-thalassemia. Simple heterozygotes for this lesion (alpha Pro alpha/alpha alpha) resemble alpha-thalassemia carriers and do not exhibit the hemolytic anemia usually associated with unstable hemoglobins. Images PMID:6826718

  4. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  5. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  6. Bremsstrahlung in alpha decay reexamined.

    PubMed

    Boie, H; Scheit, H; Jentschura, U D; Köck, F; Lauer, M; Milstein, A I; Terekhov, I S; Schwalm, D

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the alpha decay of (210)Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of approximately 500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the alpha particle and the emitted photon.

  7. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  8. Charge transfer and optical properties of wurtzite-type ZnS/(CdS/ZnS){sub n} (n = 2, 4, 8) superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xianghua Zhang, Wei; Cui, Jieya; Zhou, Min; Chen, Haitao

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Normalized temperature-dependent PL spectra of ZnS/(CdS/ZnS){sub 4} superlattices from 5 to 300 K and (b) schematic of charge transfer at CdS/ZnS interface. - Highlights: • Wurtzite ZnS/(CdS/ZnS){sub n} superlattices were prepared at 100 °C by pulsed laser deposition. • Surface phonon of ZnS and multiple phonons modes of ZnS and CdS were observed. • The charge transfer of electrons from CdS electron to ZnS holes by excitation energy was found. - Abstract: ZnS/(CdS/ZnS){sub n} (n = 2, 4, 8) superlattices were deposited on sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with alternate cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) crystals at 100 °C. The prepared samples with an average thickness of ∼30 nm for ZnS layer and ∼60 nm for CdS layer have a wurtzite-type structure. Surface phonon of ZnS and multiple phonons modes for ZnS and CdS were observed from Raman spectra. PL spectra show a strong green emission at ∼496 nm, two weak emission bands at ∼400 and ∼577 nm, where the emission band at 400 nm was attributed to the recombination of surface defects states to valence, the emission band at 577 nm as the recombination of Cd{sub i}–V{sub Cd} centers, and the strong emission at ∼496 nm is from the charge transfer of electrons from CdS electron to ZnS holes by excitation energy.

  9. Quantitative-Trait Loci on Chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 Control Variation in Levels of T and B Lymphocyte Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Hall, M. A.; Norman, P. J.; Thiel, B.; Tiwari, H.; Peiffer, A.; Vaughan, R. W.; Prescott, S.; Leppert, M.; Schork, N. J.; Lanchbury, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulation levels are used for prognosis and monitoring of a variety of human diseases, especially those with an infectious etiology. As a primary step to defining the major gene variation underlying these phenotypes, we conducted the first whole-genome screen for quantitative variation in lymphocyte count, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell numbers, as well as CD4:CD8 ratio. The screen was performed in 15 of the CEPH families that form the main human genome genetic project mapping resource. Quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) that account for significant proportions of the phenotypic variance of lymphocyte subpopulations were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18. The most significant QTL found was for CD4 levels on chromosome 8 (empirical P=.00005). Two regions of chromosome 4 showed significant linkage to CD4:CD8 ratio (empirical P=.00007 and P=.003). A QTL for the highly correlated measures of CD4 and CD19 levels colocalized at 18q21 (both P=.003). Similarly, a shared region of chromosome 1 was linked to CD8 and CD19 levels (P=.0001 and P=.002, respectively). Several of the identified chromosome regions are likely to harbor polymorphic candidate genes responsible for these important human phenotypes. Their discovery has important implications for understanding the generation of the immune repertoire and understanding immune-system homeostasis. More generally, these data show the power of an integrated human gene–mapping approach for heritable molecular phenotypes, using large pedigrees that have been extensively genotyped. PMID:11951176

  10. [Synthesis and Properties of 1,11,15,25-Tetrahydroxy-4,8,18,22-Di (Bridged Dipropionate Carboxyl) Phthalocyanine Copper].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-cheng; Li, Wan-cheng; Li, Jie-jun; Wang, Gai-ping; Duan, Hong-wei; Ren, Xu-wen; Feng, Kai; Li, Pei-tao; Wang, Hui-fang; Pu, Gai-qin

    2015-08-01

    In this dissertation, we study the synthesis and character of new substituted Phthalocyanine. Due to the widely application of Pcs in the fields, such as the communication, medical treatment, chemical industry and so on, therefore, they have been a hot topic over several decades by scientists. Nowadays, scientists have prepared thousands of Pcs and their derivatives. However, along with the human society development and the progress in science and technology, the new phthalocyanine with novle characteristics are still the goal of the scientists. In this dissertion, the synthetic methods of the phthlocyanine is improved. The synthesis and characterization of 1,11,15,25-tetrahydroxy-4,8,18,22-di(bridged dipropionate carboxyl) phthalocyanines are reported in this paper. The mixtures of malonic acid and 3,6-dihydroxy-phthalonitrile was added to water under stiriing. Then, a catalyst amount of sulfuric acid was added. The first synthetic precursor, i. e., malonic acid 3,3'-bis(6-hydroxy phthalonitrile) butter, its molecular formula is C19H8N4O6. phthalocyanines was prepared by malonic acid 3,3'-bis(6-hydroxy phthalonitrile) butter and dihydrate zinc acetate, copper acetate monohydrate in n-amyl alcohol, using DBU as a catalyst under the 135 °C, molecular formula of phthalocyanine complexes is C38H16N8O12M. The product was characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) Spectrum absorption and fluorescence, The results are agreement with the proposed structures. And electrochemical properties were studied. PMID:26672311

  11. Extinction law in the range 0.4 - 4.8 μm and the 8620 Å DIB towards the stellar cluster Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineli, A.; Almeida, L. A.; Blum, R. D.; Damineli, D. S. C.; Navarete, F.; Rubinho, M. S.; Teodoro, M.

    2016-08-01

    The young stellar cluster Westerlund 1 (Wd 1: l = 339.6°, b = -0.4°) is one of the most massive in the local Universe, but accurate parameters are pending on better determination of its extinction and distance. Based on our photometry and data collected from other sources, we have derived a reddening law for the cluster line-of-sight representative of the Galactic Plane (-5° < b <+5°) in the window 0.4-4.8 μm: The power law exponent α = 2.13±0.08 is much steeper than those published a decade ago (1.6-1.8) and our index RV = 2.50 ± 0.04 also differs from them, but in very good agreement with recent works based on deep surveys in the inner Galaxy. As a consequence, the total extinction AKs = 0.74±0.08 (AV = 11.40± 2.40) is substantially smaller than previous results(0.91-1.13), part of which (AKs = 0.63 or AV = 9.66) is from the ISM. The extinction in front of the cluster spans a range of ΔAV ˜8.7 with a gradient increasing from SW to NE across the cluster face, following the same general trend of warm dust distribution. The map of the J - Ks colour index also shows a trend of reddening in this direction. We measured the equivalent width of the diffuse interstellar band at 8620 Å (the "GAIA DIB") for Wd 1 cluster members and derived the relation AKs = 0.612 EW - 0.191 EW2. This extends the Munari et al. (2008) relation, valid for EB - V < 1, to the non-linear regime (AV > 4).

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renliang, Zheng; Xudong, Jiang; Wang, Yao; Guang, Yang; Jiangwei, Yin; Jianqin, Zheng; Junyan, Ren; Wei, Li; Ning, Li

    2010-06-01

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-μm RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm2 and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P1dB better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns.

  13. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  14. Thermally stable compositions including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Huynh, My Hang

    2010-01-26

    An explosive formulation including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt and a high temperature binder is disclosed together with a process of preparing 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt.

  15. PULSE AMPLITUDE DEPENDS ON kHz QPO FREQUENCY IN THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR SAX J1808.4-3658

    SciTech Connect

    Bult, Peter; Van der Klis, Michiel

    2015-01-10

    We study the relation between the 300-700 Hz upper kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and the 401 Hz coherent pulsations across all outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the pulse amplitude systematically changes by a factor of ∼2 when the upper kHz QPO frequency passes through 401 Hz: it halves when the QPO moves to above the spin frequency and doubles again on the way back. This establishes for the first time the existence of a direct effect of kHz QPOs on the millisecond pulsations and provides a new clue to the origin of the upper kHz QPO. We discuss several scenarios and conclude that while more complex explanations can not formally be excluded, our result strongly suggests that the QPO is produced by azimuthal motion at the inner edge of the accretion disk, most likely orbital motion. Depending on whether this azimuthal motion is faster or slower than the spin, the plasma then interacts differently with the neutron-star magnetic field. The most straightforward interpretation involves magnetospheric centrifugal inhibition of the accretion flow that sets in when the upper kHz QPO becomes slower than the spin.

  16. On-Going Frontal Alpha Rhythms Are Dominant in Passive State and Desynchronize in Active State in Adult Gray Mouse Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Lamberty, Yves; Bordet, Regis; Richardson, Jill C.; Forloni, Gianluigi; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Aujard, Fabienne; Babiloni, Claudio; Pifferi, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is considered a useful primate model for translational research. In the framework of IMI PharmaCog project (Grant Agreement n°115009, www.pharmacog.org), we tested the hypothesis that spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of motor and locomotor activity in gray mouse lemurs reflect typical movement-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms (about 8–12 Hz) in humans. To this aim, EEG (bipolar electrodes in frontal cortex) and electromyographic (EMG; bipolar electrodes sutured in neck muscles) data were recorded in 13 male adult (about 3 years) lemurs. Artifact-free EEG segments during active state (gross movements, exploratory movements or locomotor activity) and awake passive state (no sleep) were selected on the basis of instrumental measures of animal behavior, and were used as an input for EEG power density analysis. Results showed a clear peak of EEG power density at alpha range (7–9 Hz) during passive state. During active state, there was a reduction in alpha power density (8–12 Hz) and an increase of power density at slow frequencies (1–4 Hz). Relative EMG activity was related to EEG power density at 2–4 Hz (positive correlation) and at 8–12 Hz (negative correlation). These results suggest for the first time that the primate gray mouse lemurs and humans may share basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of synchronization of frontal alpha rhythms in awake passive state and their desynchronization during motor and locomotor activity. These EEG markers may be an ideal experimental model for translational basic (motor science) and applied (pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions) research in Neurophysiology. PMID:26618512

  17. On-Going Frontal Alpha Rhythms Are Dominant in Passive State and Desynchronize in Active State in Adult Gray Mouse Lemurs.

    PubMed

    Infarinato, Francesco; Rahman, Anisur; Del Percio, Claudio; Lamberty, Yves; Bordet, Regis; Richardson, Jill C; Forloni, Gianluigi; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Aujard, Fabienne; Babiloni, Claudio; Pifferi, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is considered a useful primate model for translational research. In the framework of IMI PharmaCog project (Grant Agreement n°115009, www.pharmacog.org), we tested the hypothesis that spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of motor and locomotor activity in gray mouse lemurs reflect typical movement-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz) in humans. To this aim, EEG (bipolar electrodes in frontal cortex) and electromyographic (EMG; bipolar electrodes sutured in neck muscles) data were recorded in 13 male adult (about 3 years) lemurs. Artifact-free EEG segments during active state (gross movements, exploratory movements or locomotor activity) and awake passive state (no sleep) were selected on the basis of instrumental measures of animal behavior, and were used as an input for EEG power density analysis. Results showed a clear peak of EEG power density at alpha range (7-9 Hz) during passive state. During active state, there was a reduction in alpha power density (8-12 Hz) and an increase of power density at slow frequencies (1-4 Hz). Relative EMG activity was related to EEG power density at 2-4 Hz (positive correlation) and at 8-12 Hz (negative correlation). These results suggest for the first time that the primate gray mouse lemurs and humans may share basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of synchronization of frontal alpha rhythms in awake passive state and their desynchronization during motor and locomotor activity. These EEG markers may be an ideal experimental model for translational basic (motor science) and applied (pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions) research in Neurophysiology. PMID:26618512

  18. Partial characterization of the cytoplasmic 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.149) of the human placenta at term.

    PubMed

    Rabe, T; Kiesel, L; Runnebaum, B

    1982-06-01

    The 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-HSDH) is a key enzyme in human fetal and maternal progesterone metabolism. In this paper, the cytoplasmic 20 alpha-HSDH of human term placenta is partially characterized in vitro. A 14-fold concentration of the 20 alpha-HSDH was prepared by ultracentrifugation and ammonium sulfate precipitation. The apparent Km values for the substrates progesterone (Km: 4.8 x 10(-5) M) and 20 alpha-DHP (Km: 6.2 x 10(-5) M) and for the cofactors NADPH (Km: 1.9 x 10(-4)) and NADH (Km: 2.6 x 10(-4)) were determined. The temperature optimum for the oxidation of 20 alpha-DHP is 40--50 degrees C. The pH optimum for the reduction of progesterone was found to be pH 6.2 and for the oxidation of 20 alpha-DHP pH 6.5. The addition of glycerol (3 M) to the incubation medium inhibited the conversion rate of 20 alpha-HSDH by 70%. No influence of EDTA could be found. Various bivalent metal ions (1--100 mM) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of 20 alpha-HSDH; a complete inhibition was achieved at 100 mM: Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+ and Ni2+.

  19. GTP synthases. Proton pumping and phosphorylation in ligand-receptor-G alpha-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Nederkoorn, P H; Timmerman, H; Donné-Op Den Kelder, G M; Timms, D; Wilkinson, A J; Kelly, D R; Broadley, K J; Davies, R H

    1996-01-01

    A structural model for a ligand-receptor-Gs alpha-protein complex to function as a GTP synthase is presented. The mechanism which is dependent on the movement and rotation of the G alpha-protein alpha 2-helix is seen to involve the delivery of, at least, one proton to the phosphorylation site in the rotation of this helix. The cycle is driven by a ligand-mediated proton pump through the alpha-helices of the receptor, attachment of the conserved Tyr-Arg-Tyr receptor proton shuttle being made to an aspartate group on the Gs alpha-protein terminal sidechain, which is itself linked to the Asn-Gln interaction known to control movement and rotation of the alpha 2-helix between .GDP and .GTP structures. The energetics of proton transfer through the shuttle mechanism and delivery of a proton to the aspartate group are shown to be sufficient to rupture this controlling interaction and its associated backbone bond. The complex leads to full spatial and energetic definition of the receptor proton shuttle mechanism, while there is a striking association of further Tyrosine and Arginine residues in the vicinity of the Gs alpha-protein Asn-Gln interaction. Calculations at the HF 6-31G** level confirm that a critical balance between ion pair and neutral forms of Tyr-Arg interactions under multiply hydrogen bonded conditions in a hydrophobic environment controls proton transfer and recovery mechanisms. The intrinsic preference of the neutral Tyr-Arg form over the ion-pair is 14.0 kcal/mol. Activation of the Tyrosine oxygen atom in the neutral form by single-NH or -OH groups reduces this difference by some 6.4-8.6 kcal/mol but the dominance of the neutral form is maintained. The expected slight overestimates are consistent with the maximum activation enthalpy of 11.0-12.0 kcal/ mol required to initiate proton transfer through the shuttle. The extended form of the shuttle with the Arginine acting competitively between the two Tyrosine residues allows interpretation of observed

  20. Rodent ultrasonic communication: Male prosocial 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations elicit social approach behavior in female rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Maria; Seffer, Dominik; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals with important communicative functions. Low-frequency 22-kHz USV typically occur in aversive situations, such as social defeat, whereas high-frequency 50-kHz USV can be observed in appetitive situations, like rough-and-tumble-play in juveniles or mating in adults. The 2 main USV types serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While 22-kHz USV probably serve as alarm calls, 50-kHz USV appear to serve a prosocial communicative function in the sexual and the nonsexual context. In the sexual context, however, this view has recently been challenged by playback studies where only very limited behavioral changes were observed in response to prosocial 50-kHz USV. The aim of the present study was therefore to test whether female rats display social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV by means of our established playback paradigm. To this aim, we exposed female rats to playback of the following 2 acoustic stimuli: (a) natural male 50-kHz USV and (b) time- and amplitude-matched white noise, with the latter serving as acoustic control for novelty-induced changes in behavior not linked to the communicative function of male prosocial 50-kHz USV. Our present findings show that female rats display high levels of social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV, but not time- and amplitude-matched white noise, supporting the conclusion that male prosocial 50-kHz USV are likely to play an important role in establishing social proximity and possibly regulate mating behavior.

  1. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  2. Targeted therapy using alpha emitters.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, G; Zalutsky, M R

    1996-10-01

    Radionuclides such as 211At and 212Bi which decay by the emission of alpha-particles are attractive for certain applications of targeted radiotherapy. The tissue penetration of 212Bi and 211At alpha-particles is equivalent to only a few cell diameters, offering the possibility of combining cell-specific targeting with radiation of similar range. Unlike the beta-particles emitted by radionuclides such as 131I and 90Y, alpha-particles are radiation of high linear energy transfer and thus greater biological effectiveness. Several approaches have been explored for targeted radiotherapy with 212Bi- and 211At-labelled substances including colloids, monoclonal antibodies, metabolic precursors, receptor-avid ligands and other lower molecular weight molecules. An additional agent which exemplifies the promise of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals is meta-[211At]astatobenzylguanidine. The toxicity of this compound under single-cell conditions, determined both by [3H]thymidine incorporation and by limiting dilution clonogenic assays, for human neuroblastoma cells is of the order of 1000 times higher than that of meta-[131I] iodobenzylguanidine. For meta-[211At] astatobenzylguanidine, the Do value was equivalent to only 6-7 211At atoms bound per cell. These results suggest that meta-[211At] astatobenzylguanidine might be valuable for the targeted radiotherapy of micrometastatic neuroblastomas.

  3. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  4. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  5. Alpha-adrenergic regulation of angiotensin II receptors in neuronal cultures from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Watkins, L.L.; Raizada, M.K.

    1986-03-05

    Our previous studies have suggested that endogenous catecholamine (CA) levels are important regulators of angiotensin II receptors (AngII-R) in neuronal cultures. The present study was undertaken to determine the possible mechanisms by which CA exert their effects on AngII-R. Incubation of neuronal cultures with norepinephrine (NE) resulted in time and dose dependent decreases in (/sup 125/I)-AngII specific binding. A maximal effect of 60-70% was observed between 4-8 hours at 1..mu..M NE, which was the result of a decrease in Bmax (104 +/- 16.3 fmol/mg protein in controls vs 41.4 +/- 9.3 fmol/mg protein in NE treated) and little change in Kd. Similar effects were observed when neuronal cultures were incubated with dopamine (DA) or phenylephrine, but serotonin, epinephrine and isoproterenol had no effect. The NE and DA stimulated decrease in AngII-R appears to be an ..cap alpha../sub 1/=adrenergic receptor mediated phenomenon because it is abolished by coincubation with prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-antagonist) and not by ..cap alpha../sub 2/- or ..beta..-antagonists. Similar incubations of neuronal cultures with NE also caused a time and dose dependent downregulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors. Taken together these observations indicate that the NE induced downregulation of AngII-R is mediated by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-receptors, and suggest that one possible mechanism may be the cointernalization of both ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and AngII-R stimulated by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic agonists.

  6. Postnatal changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7 and beta 2 subunits genes expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Liu, C; Miao, H; Gong, Z H; Nordberg, A

    1998-10-01

    Postnatal changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7 and beta 2 subunits mRNAs were investigated in rat brain using ribonuclease protection assay. Multiple developmental patterns were observed: (1) transient expression during the first few postnatal weeks; alpha 2 in the hippocampus and brain stem, alpha 3 in the striatum, cerebellum and cortex, alpha 4 in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum, alpha 7 in the cerebellum and beta 2 in the striatum. (2) Constant expression across development; alpha 2 and alpha 3 in the thalamus, alpha 4 in the cortex, thalamus and brain stem, alpha 7 in the thalamus and brain stem and beta 2 in all brain regions except striatum. (3) Non-detection across development; alpha 2 in the cortex, striatum and cerebellum. (4) Increase with age; alpha 7 in the cortex and hippocampus. (5) Bell-shaped development; alpha 7 in the striatum. Postnatal changes of nAChR isoforms in different brain regions of rat were investigated by receptor binding assays. The developmental patterns of [3H]epibatidine and (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites were similar to each other in each brain region, but different from that of [3H] alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites. No obvious correlation was observed between the developmental patterns of [3H] alpha-bungarotoxin, [3H]epibatidine and (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites and corresponding subunits mRNAs. These results indicate that multiple mechanisms are involved in changes of gene expression of nAChRs subunits in the brain of developing rats.

  7. Neocortical 40 Hz oscillations during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep and cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Cavelli, Matías; Chase, Michael H; Falconi, Atilio

    2016-02-01

    Higher cognitive functions require the integration and coordination of large populations of neurons in cortical and subcortical regions. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-45 Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been involved in these cognitive functions. In previous studies, we analysed the extent of functional connectivity between cortical areas employing the 'mean squared coherence' analysis of the EEG gamma band. We demonstrated that gamma coherence is maximal during alert wakefulness and is almost absent during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) is critical for REM sleep generation. The NPO is considered to exert executive control over the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep. In the cat, depending on the previous state of the animal, a single microinjection of carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) into the NPO can produce either REM sleep [REM sleep induced by carbachol (REMc)] or a waking state with muscle atonia, i.e. cataplexy [cataplexy induced by carbachol (CA)]. In the present study, in cats that were implanted with electrodes in different cortical areas to record polysomnographic activity, we compared the degree of gamma (30-45 Hz) coherence during REMc, CA and naturally-occurring behavioural states. Gamma coherence was maximal during CA and alert wakefulness. In contrast, gamma coherence was almost absent during REMc as in naturally-occurring REM sleep. We conclude that, in spite of the presence of somatic muscle paralysis, there are remarkable differences in cortical activity between REMc and CA, which confirm that EEG gamma (≈40 Hz) coherence is a trait that differentiates wakefulness from REM sleep. PMID:26670051

  8. Testing the interaction between dark energy and dark matter with H(z) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pan; Li, Li; Shuo, Cao; Na-na, Pan; Yi, Zhang; Zi-xuan, Hu

    2016-04-01

    With the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we constrain an interactive dark energy model by combing the up-to-date observational data of Hubble parameter H(z) with the 7-year baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data observed by the Planck satellite. Under the joint constraint of the three kinds of data, the best-fit values of the model parameters and their 1-σ errors are obtained as follows: the energy density Ωm =0.266-0.028+0.028 (1 σ) , the interaction factor γ =0.090-0.098+0.100 (1 σ) , the parameter of state equation of dark matter wX = -1.307-0.269+0.263 (1 σ) , and the Hubble Constant H0 =7420-4.56+4.66 (1 σ) , where the coupling parameter γ > 0 means that the energy is transferred from dark matter to dark energy, and the coincidence problem in the Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model is slightly alleviated in the 1σ range. For comparisons, we constrain the same model with the BAO+CMB observations and H(z) data separately. The results are as follows: (1) The H(z) data could put stricter constraint on the parameter γ than the BAO+CMB observations. (2) The ΛCDM model is best fitted, and the coupling parameter γ is correlated with parameters Ωm and H0. (3) The inconsistency of the constraint results of H0 between the local distance ladder measurements and the Planck observations can be alleviated after taking account of the interaction between dark energy and dark matter.

  9. Neocortical 40 Hz oscillations during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep and cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Cavelli, Matías; Chase, Michael H; Falconi, Atilio

    2016-02-01

    Higher cognitive functions require the integration and coordination of large populations of neurons in cortical and subcortical regions. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-45 Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been involved in these cognitive functions. In previous studies, we analysed the extent of functional connectivity between cortical areas employing the 'mean squared coherence' analysis of the EEG gamma band. We demonstrated that gamma coherence is maximal during alert wakefulness and is almost absent during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) is critical for REM sleep generation. The NPO is considered to exert executive control over the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep. In the cat, depending on the previous state of the animal, a single microinjection of carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) into the NPO can produce either REM sleep [REM sleep induced by carbachol (REMc)] or a waking state with muscle atonia, i.e. cataplexy [cataplexy induced by carbachol (CA)]. In the present study, in cats that were implanted with electrodes in different cortical areas to record polysomnographic activity, we compared the degree of gamma (30-45 Hz) coherence during REMc, CA and naturally-occurring behavioural states. Gamma coherence was maximal during CA and alert wakefulness. In contrast, gamma coherence was almost absent during REMc as in naturally-occurring REM sleep. We conclude that, in spite of the presence of somatic muscle paralysis, there are remarkable differences in cortical activity between REMc and CA, which confirm that EEG gamma (≈40 Hz) coherence is a trait that differentiates wakefulness from REM sleep.

  10. 40-Hz oscillations underlying perceptual binding in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ross, Bernhard; Fujioka, Takako

    2016-07-01

    Auditory object perception requires binding of elementary features of complex stimuli. Synchronization of high-frequency oscillation in neural networks has been proposed as an effective alternative to binding via hard-wired connections because binding in an oscillatory network can be dynamically adjusted to the ever-changing sensory environment. Previously, we demonstrated in young adults that gamma oscillations are critical for sensory integration and found that they were affected by concurrent noise. Here, we aimed to support the hypothesis that stimulus evoked auditory 40-Hz responses are a component of thalamocortical gamma oscillations and examined whether this oscillatory system may become less effective in aging. In young and older adults, we recorded neuromagnetic 40-Hz oscillations, elicited by monaural amplitude-modulated sound. Comparing responses in quiet and under contralateral masking with multitalker babble noise revealed two functionally distinct components of auditory 40-Hz responses. The first component followed changes in the auditory input with high fidelity and was of similar amplitude in young and older adults. The second, significantly smaller in older adults, showed a 200-ms interval of amplitude and phase rebound and was strongly attenuated by contralateral noise. The amplitude of the second component was correlated with behavioral speech-in-noise performance. Concurrent noise also reduced the P2 wave of auditory evoked responses at 200-ms latency, but not the earlier N1 wave. P2 modulation was reduced in older adults. The results support the model of sensory binding through thalamocortical gamma oscillations. Limitation of neural resources for this process in older adults may contribute to their speech-in-noise understanding deficits. PMID:27080577

  11. Large-aperture, tapered fiber-coupled, 10-kHz particle-image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Paul S; Roy, Sukesh; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, James R

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate the design and implementation of a fiber-optic beam-delivery system using a large-aperture, tapered step-index fiber for high-speed particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent combustion flows. The tapered fiber in conjunction with a diffractive-optical-element (DOE) fiber-optic coupler significantly increases the damage threshold of the fiber, enabling fiber-optic beam delivery of sufficient nanosecond, 532-nm, laser pulse energy for high-speed PIV measurements. The fiber successfully transmits 1-kHz and 10-kHz laser pulses with energies of 5.3 mJ and 2 mJ, respectively, for more than 25 min without any indication of damage. It is experimentally demonstrated that the tapered fiber possesses the high coupling efficiency (~80%) and moderate beam quality for PIV. Additionally, the nearly uniform output-beam profile exiting the fiber is ideal for PIV applications. Comparative PIV measurements are made using a conventionally (bulk-optic) delivered light sheet, and a similar order of measurement accuracy is obtained with and without fiber coupling. Effective use of fiber-coupled, 10-kHz PIV is demonstrated for instantaneous 2D velocity-field measurements in turbulent reacting flows. Proof-of-concept measurements show significant promise for the performance of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV using a tapered optical fiber in harsh laser-diagnostic environments such as those encountered in gas-turbine test beds and the cylinder of a combustion engine. PMID:23481818

  12. On the Solar Origin of the 220.7 μHz Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, A.; García, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been long searched for during the past decades. Using their asymptotic properties García et al. (2007) found the signature of the dipole g modes analyzing an spectral window between 25 and 140 μHz of velocity power spectrum obtained from the Global Oscillations at Low Frequencies (GOLF)/SoHO instrument. Using this result it has been possible to check some properties of the structure of the solar interior (García, Mathur & Ballot 2008) as well as some indications of the dynamics of the core. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive and they are needed to really improve our knowledge of the deepest layers in the Sun (Mathur et al. 2008). In this work we study the signal at 220.7 μHz which is present in most of the helioseismic instruments during the last 10 years. This signal has been previously identified as part of a g-mode candidate in the GOLF data (Turck-Chièze et al. 2004; Mathur et al. 2007) and in SPM/Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) (García et al. 2008) with more than 90% confidence level. It could be labeled as the l=2 n=-3 g mode as it is in the region were this mode is expected. We have checked the possibility that the 220.7 μHz signal could have an instrumental origin without success by analyzing all available housekeeping data as well as information on the roll, pitch and yaw of the SoHO spacecraft. In consequence, we are confident that this signal has a solar origin.

  13. Large-aperture, tapered fiber-coupled, 10-kHz particle-image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Paul S; Roy, Sukesh; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, James R

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate the design and implementation of a fiber-optic beam-delivery system using a large-aperture, tapered step-index fiber for high-speed particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent combustion flows. The tapered fiber in conjunction with a diffractive-optical-element (DOE) fiber-optic coupler significantly increases the damage threshold of the fiber, enabling fiber-optic beam delivery of sufficient nanosecond, 532-nm, laser pulse energy for high-speed PIV measurements. The fiber successfully transmits 1-kHz and 10-kHz laser pulses with energies of 5.3 mJ and 2 mJ, respectively, for more than 25 min without any indication of damage. It is experimentally demonstrated that the tapered fiber possesses the high coupling efficiency (~80%) and moderate beam quality for PIV. Additionally, the nearly uniform output-beam profile exiting the fiber is ideal for PIV applications. Comparative PIV measurements are made using a conventionally (bulk-optic) delivered light sheet, and a similar order of measurement accuracy is obtained with and without fiber coupling. Effective use of fiber-coupled, 10-kHz PIV is demonstrated for instantaneous 2D velocity-field measurements in turbulent reacting flows. Proof-of-concept measurements show significant promise for the performance of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV using a tapered optical fiber in harsh laser-diagnostic environments such as those encountered in gas-turbine test beds and the cylinder of a combustion engine.

  14. A four kHz repetition rate compact TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yijun; Tan, Rongqing

    2013-09-01

    A compact transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser with high repetition-rate was reported. The size of the laser is 380 mm×300 mm×200 mm, and the discharge volume is 12×103 mm3. The laser cavity has a length of 320mm and consists of a totally reflective concave mirror with a radius of curvature of 4 m (Cu metal substrate coated with Au) and a partially reflecting mirror. The ultraviolet preionization makes the discharge even and stable,the output energy can be as high as 28 mJ under the circumstance of free oscillation, and the width of the light pulse is 60ns.To acquire the high wind velocity, a turbocharger is used in the system of the fast-gas flow cycle. When the wind speed is 100m/s, the repetition rate of the transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser is up to 2 kHz. On this basis, a dual modular structure with two sets of the gas discharge unit is adopted to obtain a higher pulse repetition frequency output. The dual discharge unit composed two sets of electrodes and two sets of turbo fan. Alternate trigger technology is used to make the two sets of discharge module work in turn with repetition frequency of 2 kHz, the discharge interval of two sets of the gas discharge unit can be adjusted continuously from 20 microseconds to 250 microseconds. Under the conditions of maintaining the other parameters constant, the repetition frequency of the laser pulse is up to 4 kHz. The total size of laser with dual modular structure is 380mm×520mm×200mm, and the discharge volume is 24×103 mm3 with the cavity length of 520mm.

  15. The Effect of 10 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Posterior Parietal Cortex on Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowe, Isabel; Juravle, Georgiana; Alavash, Mohsen; Gießing, Carsten; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) at frequencies lower than 5 Hz transiently inhibits the stimulated area. In healthy participants, such a protocol can induce a transient attentional bias to the visual hemifield ipsilateral to the stimulated hemisphere. This bias might be due to a relatively less active stimulated hemisphere and a relatively more active unstimulated hemisphere. In a previous study, Jin and Hilgetag (2008) tried to switch the attention bias from the hemifield ipsilateral to the hemifield contralateral to the stimulated hemisphere by applying high frequency rTMS. High frequency rTMS has been shown to excite, rather than inhibit, the stimulated brain area. However, the bias to the ipsilateral hemifield was still present. The participants’ performance decreased when stimuli were presented in the hemifield contralateral to the stimulation site. In the present study we tested if this unexpected result was related to the fact that participants were passively resting during stimulation rather than performing a task. Using a fully crossed factorial design, we compared the effects of high frequency rTMS applied during a visual detection task and high frequency rTMS during passive rest on the subsequent offline performance in the same detection task. Our results were mixed. After sham stimulation, performance was better after rest than after task. After active 10 Hz rTMS, participants’ performance was overall better after task than after rest. However, this effect did not reach statistical significance. The comparison of performance after rTMS with task and performance after sham stimulation with task showed that 10 Hz stimulation significantly improved performance in the whole visual field. Thus, although we found a trend to better performance after rTMS with task than after rTMS during rest, we could not reject the hypothesis that high frequency rTMS with task and high frequency rTMS during rest

  16. Ground-truthing 6. 5-kHz side scan sonographs: What are we really imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Field, M.E.; Lee, H.; Edwards, B.E. ); Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, N. ); Kidd, R.B. )

    1991-04-10

    A 1,000-km{sup 2} area on the distal lobe of Monterey Fan shows a digitate pattern of juxtaposed high and low backscatter on GLORIA side scan sonographs. This area was investigated using stereo photography, high-resolution seismic profiles, and measurements of physical properties of cores to quantitatively evaluate the causes of backscatter from the 6.5-kHz side scan sonar. Stereo photography and bottom video were used to determine that the sediment-water interface typically has a bed roughness less than 10 cm over the entire ground truth area; consequently, bed roughness is not a significant contributor to the sonar backscatter. Vertical-incidence 3.5-kHz profiles reveal that high-backscatter areas allow less penetration and have slightly more relief than low-backscatter areas. Closely spaced measurements of {rho} wave velocity, density, and grain size made on transponder-navigated cores are used to investigate the geoacoustic properties of the sediment with the aid of a numerical model. The model results demonstrate that the sediment-water interface is, in most cases, acoustically transparent to the sonar energy and that most or all of the energy is refracted into the sediment to depths of at least a few meters rather than scattered from the surface. In this area, thick (up to 50 cm) sand deposits with thin interbeds of silty clay correlate with lower backscatter than do silty clay deposits with thin interbeds of sand. This suggests that volume inhomogeneities and complex constructive and destructive interferences caused by the subsurface volume inhomogeneities within the top few meters of the sediment ultimately modulate the intensity of backscatter. Although 6.5-kHz sonographs appear easy to interpret in a conventional and simplistic manner, caution should be used when interpreting lithofacies from backscatter intensities.

  17. Beyond Quasi-Geostrophic Turbulence: Generalized Scale Invariance and (2+Hz)-Dimensional Vorticity Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.; Tuck, A.

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the claim of Lindborg et al (2009) that the spectrum power law E(k)≈k-3 on scales ≥600 km obtained with the help of commercial jetliner trajectory deviations (GASP and Mozaic databases) could not be brought into question by Lovejoy et al (2009), because this spectrum corresponds to a “well known theory of quasi-geostrophic turbulence developed by Charney (1971)”. Lindborg, et al (2009) also argued that “earlier limitations [of this theory] would have been relaxed in many of the modern models of atmospheric turbulence”. We show that both these statements are irrelevant and that generalized scale invariance (GSI, Schertzer and Lovejoy 1985) is rather indispensable to go beyond the quasi-geostrophic limitations, to go in fact from scale analysis to scaling analysis. This enables us to derive dynamical equations for the vorticity in an embedding space of (fractional) dimension D=2+Hz (0≤ Hz ≤1, 1- Hz measures the scaling stratification of atmospheric turbulence). These equations correspond to an interesting dynamical alternative to quasi-geostrophic approximation and turbulence. References: Charney, J. G. (1971). "Geostrophic Turbulence." J. Atmos. Sci 28: 1087. Lindborg, E., K. K. Tung, G. D. Nastrom, J. Y. N. Cho and K. S. Gage (2009). "Comment on "Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence" by lovejoy et al. (2009)." Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9: 22331-22336. Lovejoy, S., A. F. Tuck, D. Schertzer and S. J. Hovde (2009). "Rinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9: 5007-5025. Schertzer, D. and S. Lovejoy (1985). "Generalised scale invariance in turbulent phenomena." Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics Journal 6: 623-635.

  18. Evaluation of potential health effects of 10 kHz magnetic fields: a rodent reproductive study.

    PubMed

    Dawson, B V; Robertson, I G; Wilson, W R; Zwi, L J; Boys, J T; Green, A W

    1998-01-01

    New technology involving the use of high-frequency inductive power distribution (HID) has recently been developed for use in materials handling and personnel transfer. Sinusoidal magnetic fields at a frequency of 10 kHz with field intensities of approximately 0.2 mT are generated directly between the current-carrying coils of this equipment. Effects of 10 kHz magnetic fields on cell division, migration, and differentiation have never been previously investigated. To evaluate potential effects on these parameters, a rodent reproductive study was undertaken using Wistar rats. Exposures were at 0.095, 0.24, and 0.95 mT with a background exposure of 5-10 microT. Three sets of parental rats were exposed continuously for 20-23.5 h/day to the fields: maternal rats during gestation, paternal rats for at least 45 days prior to mating and maternal rats 1 month prior to mating. Exposure phases thus covered spermatogenesis, maturation of the ovum and ovulation, fertilization, implantation, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and maturation of the fetus immediately prior to parturition. In all experiments pregnancy outcome was assessed. These studies failed to demonstrate any reproductive toxicity resulting from maternal or fetal exposure during gestation or following paternal or maternal exposure for several weeks prior to mating. No quantitative or qualitative effects on spermatogenesis occurred after exposure, and no effects on the estrous cycle or ovulation could be demonstrably linked to the 10 kHz magnetic field exposure at 0.095, 0.25, or 0.95 mT. Where possible, parental clinical chemistry and hematology were also examined. As in mouse toxicology studies previously reported, minor differences were observed between control and treated groups. These were regarded as statistically, but not biologically, significant and could not categorically be attributed to magnetic field exposure.

  19. Analysis of nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated with Cu and Zn and after 4-, 8-, and 12-day depuration (post-treatment recovery).

    PubMed

    Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Valskienė, Roberta; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Baršienė, Janina; Vosylienė, Milda Zita; Svecevičius, Gintaras

    2016-02-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB), bi-nucleated erythrocytes with nucleoplasmic bridge (BNb), vacuolated (VacNuc), blebbed (BL), 8-shaped nuclei, bi-nucleated (BN) and fragmented-apoptotic (FA) erythrocytes was analysed in the peripheral blood, cephalic kidney and liver of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after 4-day treatment with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) mixture solutions and in 4-, 8- and 12-day depuration process. Fish (three treatment and one control group, N=40) were exposed to 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25 fractions of 96-h LC50, respectively under semi-static conditions. Exposure of O. mykiss to Cu and Zn induced significant increase of MN (in blood in all test groups; in liver 0.125, 0.25 and in kidney 0.25 groups, respectively), NB and BL (in blood and kidney 0.25 group), 8-shaped (in blood 0.25; in liver 0.125, 0.25 and in kidney all test groups, respectively) and VacNuc (in liver and kidney 0.0625 and 0.125 groups). After 4-day recovery, significantly elevated levels of MN (in blood 0.0625, 0.125; in liver and kidney 0.125 group, respectively) and 8-shaped (in kidney-0.0625 group) were observed in fish. Significant recovery was observed in 0.0625 group after 12-day depuration, estimating the formation of MN in erythrocytes of blood, of 8-shaped nuclei erythrocytes in liver and kidney (after 8-, 12-day and 8-day recovery, respectively). Significant decrease of MN in blood (after 8- and 12-day recovery), in liver (after 8-day recovery), of NB in blood and kidney (after 8-day recovery) and of 8-shaped nuclei erythrocytes in blood (after 8 and 12-day recovery), kidney and liver (after 8-day recovery) was determined in 0.25 group. Changes in gross morphometric indices and biological parameters were observed. The binary metal mixture did not induce FA erythrocytes in any tissue at any test concentration.

  20. The cyclic and fractal seismic series preceding an mb 4.8 earthquake on 1980 February 14 near the Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, D.J.; Bufe, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic activity in the 10 months preceding the 1980 February 14, mb 4.8 earthquake in the Virgin Islands, reported on by Frankel in 1982, consisted of four principal cycles. Each cycle began with a relatively large event or series of closely spaced events, and the duration of the cycles progressively shortened by a factor of about 3/4. Had this regular shortening of the cycles been recognized prior to the earthquake, the time of the next episode of setsmicity (the main shock) might have been closely estimated 41 days in advance. That this event could be much larger than the previous events is indicated from time-to-failure analysis of the accelerating rise in released seismic energy, using a non-linear time- and slip-predictable foreshock model. Examination of the timing of all events in the sequence shows an even higher degree of order. Rates of seismicity, measured by consecutive interevent times, when plotted on an iteration diagram of a rate versus the succeeding rate, form a triangular circulating trajectory. The trajectory becomes an ascending helix if extended in a third dimension, time. This construction reveals additional and precise relations among the time intervals between times of relatively high or relatively low rates of seismic activity, including period halving and doubling. The set of 666 time intervals between all possible pairs of the 37 recorded events appears to be a fractal; the set of time points that define the intervals has a finite, non-integer correlation dimension of 0.70. In contrast, the average correlation dimension of 50 random sequences of 37 events is significantly higher, dose to 1.0. In a similar analysis, the set of distances between pairs of epicentres has a fractal correlation dimension of 1.52. Well-defined cycles, numerous precise ratios among time intervals, and a non-random temporal fractal dimension suggest that the seismic series is not a random process, but rather the product of a deterministic dynamic system.

  1. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system.

  2. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system. PMID:26467522

  3. Determination of human EEG alpha entrainment ERD/ERS using the continuous complex wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorlian, David B.; Porjesz, Bernice; Begleiter, Henri

    2003-04-01

    Alpha entrainment caused by exposure to a background stimulus continuously flickering at a rate of 8 1/3 Hz was affected by the appearance of a foreground target stimulus to which the subjects were requested to press a button. With the use of bipolar derivations (to reduce volume conduction effects), scalp recorded EEG potentials were subjected to a continuous wavelet transform using complex Morlet wavelets at a range of scales. Complex Morlet wavelets were used to calculate efficiently instantaneous amplitudes and phases on a per-trial basis, rather than using the Hilbert transform on band-pass filtered data. Multiple scales were employed to contrast the pattern of alpha activity with those in other bands, and to determine whether the harmonics observed in the spectral analysis of the data were simply a result of the non-sinusoidal response to the entraining signal or a distinct neural phenomenon. We were thus able to calculate desynchronization/resynchronization for both the entrained and non-entrained alpha activity. The occurance of the target stimulus caused a sharp increase in amplitude in both the entrained and non-entrained alpha activity, followed by a sharp decrease, and then a return to baseline, over a period of 2.5 seconds. However, the entrained alpha activity showed a much more rapid recovery than non-entrained activity.

  4. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  5. Upgrading a high-throughput spectrometer for high-frequency (<400 kHz) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Craig, D.

    2016-11-01

    The upgraded spectrometer used for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the Madison Symmetric Torus resolves emission fluctuations up to 400 kHz. The transimpedance amplifier's cutoff frequency was increased based upon simulations comparing the change in the measured photon counts for time-dynamic signals. We modeled each signal-processing stage of the diagnostic and scanned the filtering frequency to quantify the uncertainty in the photon counting rate. This modeling showed that uncertainties can be calculated based on assuming each amplification stage is a Poisson process and by calibrating the photon counting rate with a DC light source to address additional variation.

  6. Buffer-gas-induced linewidth reduction of coherent dark resonances to below 50 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, S.; Nagel, A.; Wynands, R.; Meschede, D.

    1997-08-01

    When neon is introduced as a buffer gas the interaction time of cesium atoms in a vapor cell with resonant laser beams is drastically increased. Using a pair of phase-locked lasers we have observed linewidths as narrow as 42 Hz for coherent dark resonances in a cesium vapor cell. We study the influence of power and pressure broadening and systematic shifts of the resonance frequency. Our experiments demonstrate that coherent dark resonances could rival direct radio-frequency precision measurements, which have a wide range of applications in physics.

  7. A Technique for Estimating the Occlusion Effect for Frequencies Below 125 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael A.; Paul, Anna M.; Axon, Patrick; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The level of bone-conducted sound in the auditory meatus is increased at low frequencies by occlusion of the meatus, for example by the earmold of a hearing aid. Physical measures of this “occlusion effect” (OE) require vibration of the skull. In previous research, either self-voicing or audiometric bone-conduction vibrators have been used to produce this vibration, with the result that the OE could not be measured for frequencies below 125 Hz. However, frequencies below this can be important for music perception by hearing aid users. The objective was to develop and evaluate a method that gives a lower-bound estimate of the OE for frequencies below 125 Hz. Design A low-noise amplifier with extended low-frequency response was used to record the output of a miniature microphone inserted into the meatus of participants. The signal came from sounds of the heartbeat and blood flow of the participant, transmitted via bone-conduction through the walls of the meatus. A simultaneous recording was made of the carotid pulse to permit time-locked averaging (and hence noise reduction) of the microphone signal. Recordings were made from seven otologically and audiometrically normal participants, using clinical probe tips to produce the occlusion. Recordings were also made from an overlapping group of nine participants, using fast-setting impression material to provide a more consistent degree of occlusion. The difference in level of the recorded signal for unoccluded and occluded conditions provided a lower bound for the magnitude of the OE. Results The mean OE increased with decreasing frequency, reaching a plateau of about 40 dB for frequencies below 40 Hz. For some individual recordings, the OE reached 50 dB for frequencies below 20 Hz. With occlusion, the heartbeat became audible for most participants. Conclusions The OE can be very large at low frequencies. The use of hearing aids with closed fittings, which may be employed either to prevent acoustic

  8. High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, F.; Stremme, W.; Schaetzel, M. G.; Grasbon, F.; Paulus, G. G.; Walther, H.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.

    2003-07-01

    We report high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases using a femtosecond laser system with a very high repetition rate (100 kHz) and low pulse energy (7 {mu}J). To our knowledge, this is the highest repetition rate reported to date for HHG. The tight focusing geometry required to reach sufficiently high intensities implies low efficiency of the process. Harmonics up to the 45th order are nevertheless generated and detected. We show evidence of clear separation and selection of quantum trajectories by moving the gas jet with respect to the focus, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the semiclassical model of HHG.

  9. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.; Anderson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

  10. New physics and signal-background interference in associated pp → HZ production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; Rosenfeld, Rogerio; Spannowsky, Michael; Tonero, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We re-investigate electroweak signal-background interference in associated Higgs production via gluon fusion in the presence of new physics in the top Higgs sector. Considering the full final state pp \\to b \\bar b \\ell^+\\ell^-~(\\ell=e,μ) , we discuss how new physics in the top Higgs sector that enhances the ZZ component can leave footprints in the HZ limit setting. In passing we investigate the phenomenology of a class of new physics interactions that can be genuinely studied in this process.

  11. The phonological function of vowels is maintained at fundamental frequencies up to 880 Hz.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Daniel; Maurer, Dieter; Dellwo, Volker

    2015-07-01

    In a between-subject perception task, listeners either identified full words or vowels isolated from these words at F0s between 220 and 880 Hz. They received two written words as response options (minimal pair with the stimulus vowel in contrastive position). Listeners' sensitivity (A') was extremely high in both conditions at all F0s, showing that the phonological function of vowels can also be maintained at high F0s. This indicates that vowel sounds may carry strong acoustic cues departing from common formant frequencies at high F0s and that listeners do not rely on consonantal context phenomena for their identification performance. PMID:26233058

  12. Wavelength tunable, 264 J laser diode array for 10 Hz/1ms Yb:YAG pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Albach, D.; Assémat, F.; Bahbah, S.; Bourdet, G.; Piatti, P.; Pluvinage, M.; Vincent, B.; LeTouzé, G.; Mattern, T.; Biesenbach, J.; Müntz, H.; Noeske, A.; Venohr, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Lucia [1,2] Laser program, under development at the LULI laboratory, aims at delivering a 1030 nm, 100J, 10 Hz, 10 ns pulse train. The two laser heads used in the amplification stage relies on water-cooled mm-thick Yb:YAG disks, each of them pumped by a 34×13 cm2 Laser Diode Array (LDA). For each LDA, the 88 QCW diodes stacks manufactured by DILAS GmbH will be tiled in an 8×11 arrangement. Fine wavelength tuning is performed through bias current adjustment, water temperature control and conductivity adjustment. Wavelength homogeneity experimental verification has been validated.

  13. High-repetition CO{sub 2} laser for collective Thomson scattering diagnostic of {alpha} particles in burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, T.; Hayashi, T.; Kawano, Y.; Kusama, Y.; Sugie, T.; Miura, Y.; Koseki, R.; Kawahara, Y.

    2006-10-15

    A high-repetition and high-energy transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) laser for a collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic has been developed to establish a diagnostic method of confined {alpha} particles in burning plasmas. To excite a single-transverse and single-longitudinal mode, a continuous wave seed laser was injected to an unstable resonator with a cavity length of {approx}4.4 m. Pulse energy of 10 J with a repetition rate of 10 Hz has been achieved in the single-mode operation. Pulse energies of 18 J with a repetition rate of 10 Hz and 36 J with single shot operation have also been achieved in the multimode operation. These results give a prospect for the CTS diagnostic on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which requires single-mode energy of 20 J with repetition rate of 40 Hz.

  14. Threshold received sound pressure levels of single 1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz up-sweeps and down-sweeps causing startle responses in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Steen, Nele; Gransier, Robin; Wensveen, Paul J; de Jong, Christ A F

    2012-03-01

    Mid-frequency and low-frequency sonar systems produce frequency-modulated sweeps which may affect harbor porpoises. To study the effect of sweeps on behavioral responses (specifically "startle" responses, which we define as sudden changes in swimming speed and/or direction), a harbor porpoise in a large pool was exposed to three pairs of sweeps: a 1-2 kHz up-sweep was compared with a 2-1 kHz down-sweep, both with and without harmonics, and a 6-7 kHz up-sweep was compared with a 7-6 kHz down-sweep without harmonics. Sweeps were presented at five spatially averaged received levels (mRLs; 6 dB steps; identical for the up-sweep and down-sweep of each pair). During sweep presentation, startle responses were recorded. There was no difference in the mRLs causing startle responses for up-sweeps and down-sweeps within frequency pairs. For 1-2 kHz sweeps without harmonics, a 50% startle response rate occurred at mRLs of 133 dB re 1 μPa; for 1-2 kHz sweeps with strong harmonics at 99 dB re 1 μPa; for 6-7 kHz sweeps without harmonics at 101 dB re 1 μPa. Low-frequency (1-2 kHz) active naval sonar systems without harmonics can therefore operate at higher source levels than mid-frequency (6-7 kHz) active sonar systems without harmonics, with similar startle effects on porpoises.

  15. Coexistence of {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.

    2008-06-15

    The coexistence of the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {alpha} clusters. However, the {alpha}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {alpha}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({alpha}+t+t three-center) and {alpha}-type ({alpha}+{alpha}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.

  16. Binaural beats increase interhemispheric alpha-band coherence between auditory cortices.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Marco; Mottaz, Anaïs; Guggisberg, Adrian G

    2016-02-01

    Binaural beats (BBs) are an auditory illusion occurring when two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to each ear. BBs have been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes through synchronization of the brain hemispheres. To test this, we recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) at rest and while participants listened to BBs or a monaural control condition during which both tones were presented to both ears. We calculated for each condition the interhemispheric coherence, which expressed the synchrony between neural oscillations of both hemispheres. Compared to monaural beats and resting state, BBs enhanced interhemispheric coherence between the auditory cortices. Beat frequencies in the alpha (10 Hz) and theta (4 Hz) frequency range both increased interhemispheric coherence selectively at alpha frequencies. In a second experiment, we evaluated whether this coherence increase has a behavioral aftereffect on binaural listening. No effects were observed in a dichotic digit task performed immediately after BBs presentation. Our results suggest that BBs enhance alpha-band oscillation synchrony between the auditory cortices during auditory stimulation. This effect seems to reflect binaural integration rather than entrainment. PMID:26541421

  17. Attention Drives Synchronization of Alpha and Beta Rhythms between Right Inferior Frontal and Primary Sensory Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Sacchet, Matthew D.; LaPlante, Roan A.; Wan, Qian; Pritchett, Dominique L.; Lee, Adrian K.C.; Hämäläinen, Matti; Moore, Christopher I.; Kerr, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is specifically associated with attentional control via the inhibition of behaviorally irrelevant stimuli and motor responses. Similarly, recent evidence has shown that alpha (7–14 Hz) and beta (15–29 Hz) oscillations in primary sensory neocortical areas are enhanced in the representation of non-attended stimuli, leading to the hypothesis that allocation of these rhythms plays an active role in optimal inattention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that selective synchronization between rIFC and primary sensory neocortex occurs in these frequency bands during inattention. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate phase synchrony between primary somatosensory (SI) and rIFC regions during a cued-attention tactile detection task that required suppression of response to uncertain distractor stimuli. Attentional modulation of synchrony between SI and rIFC was found in both the alpha and beta frequency bands. This synchrony manifested as an increase in the alpha-band early after cue between non-attended SI representations and rIFC, and as a subsequent increase in beta-band synchrony closer to stimulus processing. Differences in phase synchrony were not found in several proximal control regions. These results are the first to reveal distinct interactions between primary sensory cortex and rIFC in humans and suggest that synchrony between rIFC and primary sensory representations plays a role in the inhibition of irrelevant sensory stimuli and motor responses. PMID:25653364

  18. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called steroid 5-alpha reductase 2. This enzyme is involved ... external genitalia. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene prevent steroid 5-alpha reductase 2 from effectively converting testosterone ...

  20. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  1. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its ... of these treatments are the same as the ones used for a lung disease called COPD (chronic ...

  2. Q (Alpha) Function and Squeezing Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen

    1996-01-01

    The relation of squeezing and Q(alpha) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(alpha) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.

  3. Posterior EEG alpha at rest and during task performance: Comparison of current source density and field potential measures

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Abraham, Karen; Alvarenga, Jorge E.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2015-01-01

    Resting and task-related EEG alpha are used in studies of cognition and psychopathogy. Although Laplacian methods have been applied, apprehensions about loss of global activity dissuade researchers from greater use except as a supplement to reference-dependent measures. The unfortunate result has been continued reliance on reference strategies that differ across labs, and a systemic preference for a montage-dependent average reference over true reference-free measures. We addressed these concerns by comparing resting- and task-related EEG alpha using three EEG transformations: nose- (NR) and average-referenced (AR) EEG, and the corresponding CSD. Amplitude spectra of resting and prestimulus task-related EEG (novelty oddball) and event-related spectral perturbations were scaled to equate each transformation. Alpha measures quantified for 8-12 Hz bands were: 1) net amplitude (eyes-closed minus eyes-open) and 2) overall amplitude (eyes-closed plus eyes-open); 3) task amplitude (prestimulus baseline) and 4) task event-related desynchronization (ERD). Mean topographies unambiguously represented posterior alpha for overall, net and task, as well as poststimulus alpha ERD. Topographies were similar for the three transformations, but differed in dispersion, CSD being sharpest and NR most broadly distributed. Transformations also differed in scale, AR showing less attenuation or spurious secondary maxima at anterior sites, consistent with simulations of distributed posterior generators. Posterior task alpha and alpha ERD were positively correlated with overall alpha, but not with net alpha. CSD topographies consistently and appropriately represented posterior EEG alpha for all measures. PMID:26026372

  4. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  5. Effect of infrasound on cochlear damage from exposure to a 4-kHz octave band of noise

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Gary W.; Bohne, Barbara A.; Lee, Steve C.; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Infrasound (i.e., < 20 Hz for humans; < 100 Hz for chinchillas) is not audible, but exposure to high levels of infrasound will produce large movements of cochlear fluids. We speculated that high-level infrasound might bias the basilar membrane and perhaps be able to minimize noise-induced hearing loss. Chinchillas were simultaneously exposed to a 30 Hz tone at 100 dB SPL and a 4-kHz OBN at either 108 dB SPL for 1.75 h or 86 dB SPL for 24 h. For each animal, the tympanic membrane (TM) in one ear was perforated (~1 mm2) prior to exposure to attenuate infrasound transmission to that cochlea by about 50 dB SPL. Controls included animals that were exposed to the infrasound only or the 4-kHz OBN only. ABR threshold shifts (TSs) and DPOAE level shifts (LSs) were determined pre- and post-TM-perforation and immediately post-exposure, just before cochlear fixation. The cochleae were dehydrated, embedded in plastic, and dissected into flat preparations of the organ of Corti (OC). Each dissected segment was evaluated for losses of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). For each chinchilla, the magnitude and pattern of functional and hair cell losses were compared between their right and left cochleae. The TM perforation produced no ABR TS across frequency but did produce a 10–21 dB DPOAE LS from 0.6–2 kHz. The infrasound exposure alone resulted in a 10–20 dB ABR TS at and below 2 kHz, no DPOAE LS and no IHC or OHC losses. Exposure to the 4-kHz OBN alone at 108 dB produced a 10–50 dB ABR TS for 0.5–12 kHz, a 10–60 dB DPOAE LS for 0.6–16 kHz and severe OHC loss in the middle of the first turn. When infrasound was present during exposure to the 4-kHz OBN at 108 dB, the functional losses and OHC losses extended much further toward the apical and basal tips of the OC than in cochleae exposed to the 4-kHz OBN alone. Exposure to only the 4-kHz OBN at 86 dB produces a 10–40 dB ABR TS for 3–12 kHz and 10–30 dB DPOAE LS for 3–8 kHz but little or no

  6. Influence of stimulation of myocardial alpha- as well as beta-adrenoceptors on the effect of digoxin in isolated electrically driven rabbit papillary muscles.

    PubMed

    Knorr, A; Wagner, J

    1979-12-01

    On isolated electrically driven rabbit papillary muscle the cardiac glycoside digoxin was infused at driving rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Hz. Two effective concentrations of digoxin were determined: 1. that inducing the maximal inotropic effect (maximal inotropic concentration) and 2, that causing cardiac arrest (toxic concentration). The influence of the alpha-sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine and for comparison that of the beta-sympathomimetic drug isoprenaline on either concentration of digoxin was investigated. 1. Stimulation of alpha-adrenoceptors by phenylephrine at a rate of 0.5 Hz significantly decreased the maximal inotropic as well as the toxic concentration of digoxin by about 36%; this decrease was maximal under the influence of the EC25 of phenylephrine and could be blocked by phentolamine. Phenylephrine did not alter the maximal inotropic effect of digoxin. At a stimulus rate of 1.0 Hz the EC75 of phenylephrine still diminished significantly the effective concentrations of digoxin whereas under these conditions the EC25 was ineffective. At 2.0 Hz stimulation of myocardial alpha-adrenoceptors had no effect anymore on either the maximal inotropic or the toxic concentration of digoxin. 2. In contrast, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors by isoprenaline at a driving rate of 2.0 Hz resulted in a pronounced decrease of maximal inotropic and toxic concentration of digoxin while the maximal positive inotropic effect exerted by digoxin was found to be not altered by isoprenaline. The decrease of the effective concentration of digoxin caused by isoprenaline was abolished by pindolol. At a driving rate of 1.0 Hz this effect was slightly attenuated but was completely absent at 0.5 Hz. 3. From these results it can be concluded that stimulation of either adrenoceptor, alpha- and beta-, increases the effectiveness of the cardiac glycoside digoxin, i.e. diminishes the maximal inotropic as well as its toxic concentration. While stimulation of alpha-adrenoceptors is

  7. Alpha5GABAA receptor activity sets the threshold for long-term potentiation and constrains hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren J; Zurek, Agnieszka A; MacDonald, John F; Roder, John C; Jackson, Michael F; Orser, Beverley A

    2010-04-14

    Synaptic plasticity, which is the neuronal substrate for many forms of hippocampus-dependent learning, is attenuated by GABA type A receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition. The prevailing notion is that a synaptic or phasic form of GABAergic inhibition regulates synaptic plasticity; however, little is known about the role of GABA(A)R subtypes that generate a tonic or persistent inhibitory conductance. We studied the regulation of synaptic plasticity by alpha5 subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs (alpha5GABA(A)Rs), which generate a tonic inhibitory conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons using electrophysiological recordings of field and whole-cell potentials in hippocampal slices from both wild-type and null mutant mice for the alpha5 subunit of the GABA(A)R (Gabra5(-/-) mice). In addition, the strength of fear-associated memory was studied. The results showed that alpha5GABA(A)R activity raises the threshold for induction of long-term potentiation in a highly specific band of stimulation frequencies (10-20 Hz) through mechanisms that are predominantly independent of inhibitory synaptic transmission. The deletion or pharmacological inhibition of alpha5GABA(A)Rs caused no change in baseline membrane potential or input resistance but increased depolarization during 10 Hz stimulation. The encoding of hippocampus-dependent memory was regulated by alpha5GABA(A)Rs but only under specific conditions that generate moderate but not robust forms of fear-associated learning. Thus, under specific conditions, alpha5GABA(A)R activity predominates over synaptic inhibition in modifying the strength of both synaptic plasticity in vitro and certain forms of memory in vivo. PMID:20392949

  8. The ultraviolet spectra of Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.

    1977-01-01

    Scans of Alpha Aql (A7 IV, V) and Alpha CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the Alpha CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.

  9. Paradox lost? Exploring the role of alpha oscillations during externally vs. internally directed attention and the implications for idling and inhibition hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicholas R; Croft, Rodney J; Dominey, Samuel J J; Burgess, Adrian P; Gruzelier, John H

    2003-01-01

    Although slow waves of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been associated with attentional processes, the functional significance of the alpha component in the EEG (8.1-12 Hz) remains uncertain. Conventionally, synchronisation in the alpha frequency range is taken to be a marker of cognitive inactivity, i.e. 'cortical idling'. However, it has been suggested that alpha may index the active inhibition of sensory information during internally directed attentional tasks such as mental imagery. More recently, this idea has been amended to encompass the notion of alpha synchronisation as a means of inhibition of non-task relevant cortical areas irrespective of the direction of attention. Here we test the adequacy of the one idling and two inhibition hypotheses about alpha. In two experiments we investigated the relation between alpha and internally vs. externally directed attention using mental imagery vs. sensory-intake paradigms. Results from both experiments showed a clear relationship between alpha and both attentional factors and increased task demands. At various scalp sites alpha amplitudes were greater during internally directed attention and during increased load, results incompatible with alpha reflecting cortical idling and more in keeping with suggestions of active inhibition necessary for internally driven mental operations.

  10. 3D measurements of ignition processes at 20 kHz in a supersonic combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Lei, Qingchun; Wu, Yue; Ombrello, Timothy M.; Carter, Campbell D.

    2015-05-01

    The ignition dynamics in a Mach 2 combustor were investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic with 20 kHz temporal resolution. The diagnostic was based on a combination of tomographic chemiluminescence and fiber-based endoscopes (FBEs). Customized FBEs were employed to capture line-of-sight integrated chemiluminescence images (termed projections) of the combustor from eight different orientations simultaneously at 20 kHz. The measured projections were then used in a tomographic algorithm to obtain 3D reconstruction of the sparks, ignition kernel, and stable flame. Processing the reconstructions frame by frame resulted in 4D measurements. Key properties were then extracted to quantify the ignition processes, including 3D volume, surface area, sphericity, and velocity of the ignition kernel. The data collected in this work revealed detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of the ignition kernel, which are not obtainable with planar diagnostics, such as its growth, movement, and development into "stable" combustion. This work also illustrates the potential for obtaining quantitative 3D measurements using tomographic techniques and the practical utility of FBEs.

  11. Harvesting Low-Frequency (<5 Hz) Irregular Mechanical Energy: A Possible Killer Application of Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yunlong; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-26

    Electromagnetic generators (EMGs) and triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are the two most powerful approaches for harvesting ambient mechanical energy, but the effectiveness of each depends on the triggering frequency. Here, after systematically comparing the performances of EMGs and TENGs under low-frequency motion (<5 Hz), we demonstrated that the output performance of EMGs is proportional to the square of the frequency, while that of TENGs is approximately in proportion to the frequency. Therefore, the TENG has a much better performance than that of the EMG at low frequency (typically 0.1-3 Hz). Importantly, the extremely small output voltage of the EMG at low frequency makes it almost inapplicable to drive any electronic unit that requires a certain threshold voltage (∼0.2-4 V), so that most of the harvested energy is wasted. In contrast, a TENG has an output voltage that is usually high enough (>10-100 V) and independent of frequency so that most of the generated power can be effectively used to power the devices. Furthermore, a TENG also has advantages of light weight, low cost, and easy scale up through advanced structure designs. All these merits verify the possible killer application of a TENG for harvesting energy at low frequency from motions such as human motions for powering small electronics and possibly ocean waves for large-scale blue energy. PMID:27077467

  12. Spectroscopic study of 50 Hz pulsed Ar-O2 mixture plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, M.; Rehman, N. U.; Khan, A. W.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2016-06-01

    Plasma sterilization is widely used to disinfect the heat sensitive materials. In this study, we have investigated 50 Hz pulsed capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) system operated in Ar-O2 mixture. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is used to identify the optimum conditions suitable for plasma based sterilization. Explicitly, excitation temperature of Ar-I lines, atomic oxygen density, dissociation fraction and UV radiation intensity are measured as a function of discharge parameters. The excitation temperature is calculated using Boltzmann plot method whereas OES has also been employed to evaluate the ground state atomic oxygen density and dissociation fraction. Similarly the normalized UV radiation intensity is determined from UV spectrum in 200-400 nm range. The results show that the total UV emission has optimum value at 20% oxygen, 2 mbar pressure and 2.68 mA/cm2 current density in the mixture. While excitation temperature, atomic oxygen density and dissociation fraction increase with the current density. A comparison with the literature suggests 50 Hz CCP system operated in Ar-O2 mixture has the potential of a cheap and reliable system for plasma sterilization.

  13. Cochlear nonlinearity between 500 and 8000 Hz in listeners with moderate cochlear hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Plack, Christopher J.; Meddis, Ray; Blanco, Jose L.

    2001-05-01

    For two listeners with flat hearing loss, temporal masking curves (TMCs) were measured for probe frequencies (Fp) of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 kHz and masker frequencies of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, and 1.2 Fp. From these, basilar membrane (BM) input/output (IO) functions and psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were derived and compared with corresponding data for normal-hearing listeners. Linear IO functions were observed for one ear only and for probe frequencies of 4 kHz and above. This result is consistent with the consequences of severe outer hair cell (OHC) damage on the BM response. Elsewhere, however, IO functions showed residual compression, with slopes in the compression region close to normal. This suggests that either the impairment relates mostly to inner hair cell (IHC) dysfunction, or that OHC dysfunction reduces the gain of the BM at low levels while maintaining the degree of maximum compression. The data suggest that the active and the passive BM mechanisms have different relative positions (in frequency) in the apical and the basal regions of the cochlea. Across probe frequencies, the slopes of the TMCs for off-frequency maskers are shallower for the impaired ears. It is considered that this possibly reflects IHC-related compression.

  14. High repetition rate (100 Hz), high peak power, high contrast femtosecond laser chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clady, R.; Tcheremiskine, V.; Azamoum, Y.; Ferré, A.; Charmasson, L.; Utéza, O.; Sentis, M.

    2016-03-01

    High intensity femtosecond laser are now routinely used to produce energetic particles and photons via interaction with solid targets. However, the relatively low conversion efficiency of such processes requires the use of high repetition rate laser to increase the average power of the laser-induced secondary source. Furthermore, for high intensity laser-matter interaction, a high temporal contrast is of primary importance as the presence of a ns ASE pedestal (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) and/or various prepulses may significantly affect the governing interaction processes by creating a pre-plasma on the target surface. We present the characterization of a laser chain based on Ti:Sa technology and CPA technique, which presents unique laser characteristics : a high repetition rate (100 Hz), a high peak power (>5 TW) and a high contrast ratio (ASE<10-10) obtained thanks to a specific design with 3 saturable absorbers inserted in the amplification chain. A deformable mirror placed before the focusing parabolic mirror should allow us to focus the beam almost at the limit of diffraction. In these conditions, peak intensity above 1019W.cm-2 on target could be achieved at 100 Hz, allowing the study of relativistic optics at a high repetition rate.

  15. 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields do not affect human lymphocyte activation and proliferation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capri, Miriam; Mesirca, Pietro; Remondini, Daniel; Carosella, Simona; Pasi, Sara; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio; Bersani, Ferdinando

    2004-12-01

    In the last 30 years, an increasing public concern about the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines and domestic appliances has pushed the scientific community to search for a correct and comprehensive answer to this problem. In this work the effects of exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields, with a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and 2.5 mT (peak values), were studied on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy young and elderly donors. Cell activation and proliferation were investigated by using flow cytometry techniques and 3H-TdR incorporation assays, respectively. The results obtained indicated that exposure to the fields altered neither DNA synthesis nor the capacity of lymphocytes to enter the activation phase and progress into the cell cycle. Thus, the conclusions are that two important functional phases of human lymphocytes, such as activation and proliferation, are not affected by exposures to 50 Hz magnetic fields similar to those found under power lines.

  16. Investigation of geomagnetic disturbances (F=1-5 Hz) before strong EQs in Kamchatka region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytenko, Y.; Ismaguilov, V.; Schekotov, A.; Molchanov, O.; Hayakawa, M.

    2007-05-01

    Regular observations of ULF electromagnetic disturbances at st. Karymshino in seismic active zone of Kamchatka peninsula were carried out by induction three-component high-sensitive magnetometer during 2001- 2003 years. Five seismic active periods with strong earthquakes (M>5) were displayed during this period. These EQs occurred at the Pacific at 20-60 km depth at 100-140 km distances to the East from the st. Karymshino. Analysis of normalized dynamic power spectra of data of high-sensitive (0.2 pT/sqrt(Hz)) three- component induction magnetometer achieved a significant disorder of daily variation and increasing of the magnetic disturbance intensities (from 0.2 to ~ 1 pT) in the whole investigated frequency range (1 - 5 Hz). The anomaly intensity increasing was observed during the 12-18 hours before main seismic shocks. Maximum of the increasing occurred during 4-6 hours before the EQs. A sharp decreasing of the magnetic disturbance intensities was observed 2-4 hours before the EQs. We suppose that physical processes in a hearth of forthcoming EQ lead to an irreversible avalanche-like formation of cracks and stimulation of the ULF electromagnetic disturbances.

  17. Reduction of dopamine synaptic activity: degradation of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization in rats.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Michelle R; Ahrens, Allison M; Ma, Sean T; Kane, Jacqueline R; Windham, E Blake; Woodlee, Martin T; Schallert, Timothy

    2009-04-01

    Vocal deficits are prevalent and debilitating in Parkinson's disease. These deficits may be related to the initial pathology of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and resulting dopamine depletion, which contributes to dysfunction of fine motor control in multiple functions. Although vocalization in animals and humans may differ in many respects, we evaluated complex (50-kHz) ultrasonic mate calls in 2 rat models of Parkinson's disease, including unilateral infusions of 6-hydroxydopamine to the medial forebrain bundle and peripheral administration of a nonakinesia dose of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol. We examined the effects of these treatments on multiple aspects of the acoustic signal. The number of trill-like (frequency modulated) 50-kHz calls was significantly reduced, and appeared to be replaced by simpler (flat) calls. The bandwidth and maximum intensity of simple and frequency-modulated calls were significantly decreased, but call duration was not. Our findings suggest that the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway is involved to some extent in fine sensorimotor function that includes USV production and complexity.

  18. 1 Hz linewidth Ti:sapphire laser as local oscillator for (40)Ca(+) optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wu; Huang, Yao; Guan, Hua; Liu, Peiliang; Ma, Longsheng; Gao, Kelin

    2016-06-01

    A Ti:sapphire laser at 729 nm is frequency stabilized to an ultra-stable ultra-low thermal expansion coefficient (ULE) cavity by means of Pound-Drever-Hall method. An acousto-optic modulator is used as the fast frequency feedback component. 1 Hz linewidth and 2 × 10(-15) frequency stability at 1-100 s are characterized by optical beating with a separated Fabry-Perot cavity stabilized diode laser. Compared to the universal method that the error signal feedback to inject current of a diode laser, this scheme is demonstrated to be simple and also effective for linewidth narrowing. The temperature of zero coefficient of the thermal expansion of the ULE cavity is measured with the help of a femto-second frequency comb. And the performance of the laser is well defined by locking it to the unperturbed clock transition line-center of 4 S1/2-3 D5/2 clock transition of a single laser cooled (40)Ca(+) ion. A Fourier-transform limited resonance of 6 Hz (Δv/v = 1.5 × 10(-14)) is observed. This laser is also used as the local oscillator for the comparison experiment of two (40)Ca(+) ion optical clocks and improves the stability of comparison for an order of magnitude better than the previous results.

  19. Diurnal patterns in brain biogenic amines of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, B.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Lowery, C.I.; Adey, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemically analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.

  20. The effect of wind-generated bubbles on sea-surface backscattering at 940 Hz.

    PubMed

    van Vossen, Robbert; Ainslie, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Reliable predictions of sea-surface backscattering strength are required for sonar performance modeling. These are, however, difficult to obtain as measurements of sea-surface backscattering are not available at small grazing angles relevant to low-frequency active sonar (1-3 kHz). Accurate theoretical predictions of scattering strength require a good understanding of physical mechanisms giving rise to the scattering and the relative importance of these. In this paper, scattering from individual resonant bubbles is introduced as a potential mechanism and a scattering model is derived that incorporates the contribution from these together with that of rough surface scattering. The model results are fitted to Critical Sea Test (CST) measurements at a frequency of 940 Hz, treating the number of large bubbles, parameterized through the spectral slope of the size spectrum for bubbles whose radii exceed 1 mm, as a free parameter. This procedure illustrates that the CST data can be explained by scattering from a small number of large resonant bubbles, indicating that these provide an alternative mechanism to that of scattering from bubble clouds.