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Sample records for 4-amino-tetrahydro-l-biopterine prevents brain

  1. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  2. Youth sports and concussions: preventing preventable brain injuries. One client, one cause, and a new law.

    PubMed

    Adler, Richard H

    2011-11-01

    Effective concussion prevention and management for youth athletes requires both education and legislation. Education alone effectively begins the awareness of an issue, but does not change behavior. Education and legislation are required to prevent preventable concussion and brain injuries in youth athletes.

  3. HEPES prevents edema in rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, D G; Chesler, M; Rice, M E

    2001-05-11

    Brain slices gain water when maintained in bicarbonate-buffered artificial cerebro-spinal fluid (ACSF) at 35 degrees C. We previously showed that this edema is linked to glutamate receptor activation and oxidative stress. An additional factor that may contribute to swelling is acidosis, which arises from high CO2 tension in brain slices. To examine the role of acidosis in slice edema, we added N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) to osmotically balanced ACSF (HEPES-ACSF), thereby increasing buffering capacity beyond that provided by bicarbonate/CO2. Water gain was markedly inhibited in HEPES-ACSF. After 3 h incubation in HEPES-ACSF at 35 degrees C, water gain was limited to that of fresh slices after 1 h recovery in ACSF at room temperature. The effect of HEPES in decreasing slice water gain was concentration dependent from 0.3 to 20 mM. The inhibition of water gain by HEPES suggests that tissue acidosis is a contributing factor in brain slice edema.

  4. Tetrahydrobiopterin in the Prevention of Hypertonia in Hypoxic Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Whitsett, Jennifer; Derrick, Matthew; Ji, Xinhai; Yu, Lei; Tan, Sidhartha

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency is one of the causes of dystonia at birth. We hypothesized that BH4 is a developmental factor determining vulnerability of the immature fetal brain to hypoxic-ischemic injury and subsequent motor deficits in newborns. Methods: Pregnant rabbits were subjected to 40-min uterine ischemia and fetal brains were investigated for global and focal changes in BH4. Newborn kits were assessed by neurobehavioral tests following vehicle and sepiapterin (BH4-analog) treatment of dams. Results: Naive fetal brains at 70% gestation (E22) were severely deficient for BH4 compared to maternal and other fetal tissues. BH4 concentration rapidly increased normally in the perinatal period with the highest concentrations found in the thalamus compared to basal ganglia, frontal, occipital, hippocampus and parietal cortex. Global sustained 40-min hypoxia-ischemia depleted BH4 in E22 thalamus and to a lesser extent in basal ganglia, but not in the frontal, occipital and parietal regions. Maternal supplementation prior to hypoxia-ischemia with sepiapterin increased BH4 in all brain regions and especially in the thalamus, but did not increase the intermediary metabolite, 7,8-BH2. Sepiapterin treatment also reduced incidence of severe motor deficits and perinatal death following E22 hypoxia-ischemia. Interpretation: We conclude that early developmental BH4 deficiency plays a critical role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Increasing brain BH4 via maternal supplementation may be an effective strategy in preventing motor deficits from antenatal hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:19798726

  5. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10 μg of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1 h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6 h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL vs. 32.2 ± 10.1 μg/mL; p < 0.002). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced permeability (28.3 ± 4.2 μg/mL vs. 109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL; p < 0.001). The intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p < 0.03). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced MLCK expression to sham levels. Intestinal TNF-α increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2 ± 7.1 pg/mL vs. 24.4 ± 2.2 pg/mL p < 0.001). Ghrelin reduced TNF-α to sham levels (29.2 ± 5.0 pg/mL; p = NS). We therefore conclude that ghrelin prevents TBI-induced injury, as determined by intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-α. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  6. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion Basic Information Get the Facts Signs and Symptoms ...

  7. Surgical brain injury: prevention is better than cure.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vikram; Zhang, John H

    2008-05-01

    Neurosurgical procedures can cause inevitable brain damage resulting from the procedure itself. Unavoidable cortical and parenchymal incisions, intraoperative hemorrhage, brain lobe retraction and thermal injuries from electrocautery can cause brain injuries attributable exclusively to the neurosurgical operations and collectively referred to as surgical brain injury (SBI). This particular brain damage cannot be demarcated from the underlying brain pathology and has not been studied previously. Recently, we developed rat and mouse models to study SBI and the underlying cellular mechanisms. The animal modeling mimics a neurosurgical operation and causes commonly encountered postoperative complications such as brain edema following blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and neuronal cell death. Furthermore, the SBI animal model allows screening of known experimental neuroprotective agents and therapeutic agents being tried in clinical trials as possible pretreatments before neurosurgical procedures. In the present review, we elaborate on SBI and its clinical impact, the SBI animal models and their clinical relevance, and the importance of blanket neuroprotection before neurosurgical procedures.

  8. Is primary prevention with antiepileptic drugs effective in brain tumors or brain metastases?

    PubMed

    Lobos-Urbina, Diego; Kittsteiner-Manubens, Lucas; Peña, José

    2017-03-21

    Patients with brain tumors –primary or metastatic- have an increased risk of presenting seizures during the course of their disease. So, prophylactic antiepileptic drugs have been proposed. However, the effects of this intervention are not yet clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified 12 systematic reviews including 80 studies overall. Twelve corresponded to randomized trials, but only two answered the question of interest. We extracted data, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE method. We concluded primary prevention with antiepileptic drugs might not reduce the risk of seizures, and it is associated to frequent adverse effects.

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  10. Hot Topics in Research: Preventive Neuroradiology in Brain Aging and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Raji, C A; Eyre, H; Wei, S H; Bredesen, D E; Moylan, S; Law, M; Small, G; Thompson, P M; Friedlander, R M; Silverman, D H; Baune, B T; Hoang, T A; Salamon, N; Toga, A W; Vernooij, M W

    2015-10-01

    Preventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multimodal brain imaging toward early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of modifiable risk factors. An insightful example of this is in the area of age-related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia with potentially modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diet, sleep, hypertension, diabetes, depression, supplementation, smoking, and physical activity. In studying this link between lifestyle and cognitive decline, brain imaging markers may be instrumental as quantitative measures or even indicators of early disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the major studies reflecting how lifestyle factors affect the brain and cognition aging. In this hot topics review, we will specifically focus on obesity and physical activity.

  11. Sonolysis in Prevention of Brain Infarction During Cardiac Surgery (SONORESCUE)

    PubMed Central

    Školoudík, David; Hurtíková, Eva; Brát, Radim; Herzig, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we examined whether intraoperative sonolysis can alter the risk of new ischemic lesions in the insonated brain artery territory during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve surgery. Silent brain ischemic lesions could be detected in as many as two-thirds of patients after CABG or valve surgery. Patients indicated for CABG or valve surgery were allocated randomly to sonolysis (60 patients, 37 males; mean age, 65.3 years) of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) during cardiac surgery and control group (60 patients, 37 males; mean age, 65.3 years). Neurologic examination, cognitive function tests, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were conducted before intervention as well as 24 to 72 hours and 30 days after surgery. New ischemic lesions on control diffusion-weighted MRI in the insonated MCA territory ≥0.5 mL were significantly less frequent in the sonolysis group than in the control group (13.3% vs 26.7%, P = 0.109). The sonolysis group exhibited significantly reduced median volume of new brain ischemic lesions (P = 0.026). Stenosis of the internal carotid artery ≥50% and smoking were independent predictors of new brain ischemic lesions ≥0.5 mL (odds ratio = 5.685 [1.272–25.409], P = 0.023 and 4.698 [1.092–20.208], P = 0.038, respectively). Stroke or transient ischemic attack occurred only in 2 control patients (P = 0.496). No significant differences were found in scores for postintervention cognitive tests (P > 0.05). This study provides class-II evidence that sonolysis during CABG or valve surgery reduces the risk of larger, new ischemic lesions in the brain. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01591018). PMID:27196464

  12. [Prevention of brain infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    The patients with cardioembolic stroke sometimes suffer from severe neurological deficit and from recurrent strokes. Since atrial fibrillation, especially non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is associated with over half of the cardioembolic strokes, the prevention of cardioembolic stroke in patients with NVAF is important. There have been some reports about how to prevent stroke. They have indicated that the best medication for preventing from stroke was anticoagulation by warfarin. Therefore, the guidelines recommended the patients with NVAF to take warfarin. In case with the older patients under 70 years, prothrombin international normalized ratio (PT-INR) should be kept from 2.0 to 3.0. On the other hand, if the patients with NVAF are over 70 years, PT-INR has to be controlled from 1.6 to 2.6. Before extraction of a tooth, anticoagulation should not be call off.

  13. Complement inhibition and statins prevent fetal brain cortical abnormalities in a mouse model of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pedroni, Silvia M A; Gonzalez, Juan M; Wade, Jean; Jansen, Maurits A; Serio, Andrea; Marshall, Ian; Lennen, Ross J; Girardi, Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Premature babies are particularly vulnerable to brain injury. In this study we focus on cortical brain damage associated with long-term cognitive, behavioral, attentional or socialization deficits in children born preterm. Using a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB), we demonstrated that complement component C5a contributes to fetal cortical brain injury. Disruption of cortical dendritic and axonal cytoarchitecture was observed in PTB-mice. Fetuses deficient in C5aR (-/-) did not show cortical brain damage. Treatment with antibody anti-C5, that prevents generation of C5a, also prevented cortical fetal brain injury in PTB-mice. C5a also showed a detrimental effect on fetal cortical neuron development and survival in vitro. Increased glutamate release was observed in cortical neurons in culture exposed to C5a. Blockade of C5aR prevented glutamate increase and restored neurons dendritic and axonal growth and survival. Similarly, increased glutamate levels - measured by (1)HMRS - were observed in vivo in PTB-fetuses compared to age-matched controls. The blockade of glutamate receptors prevented C5a-induced abnormal growth and increased cell death in isolated fetal cortical neurons. Simvastatin and pravastatin prevented cortical fetal brain developmental and metabolic abnormalities -in vivo and in vitro. Neuroprotective effects of statins were mediated by Akt/PKB signaling pathways. This study shows that complement activation plays a crucial role in cortical fetal brain injury in PTL and suggests that complement inhibitors and statins might be good therapeutic options to improve neonatal outcomes in preterm birth.

  14. Aqueous Date Fruit Efficiency as Preventing Traumatic Brain Deterioration and Improving Pathological Parameters after Traumatic Brain Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badeli, Hamze; Shahrokhi, Nader; KhoshNazar, Mahdieosadat; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Shabani, Mohammad; Eftekhar Vaghefi, Hassan; Khaksari, Mohammad; Basiri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury, disruption of blood-brain-barrier and consequent brain edema are critical events which might lead to increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), and nerve damage. The current study assessed the effects of aqueous date fruit extract (ADFE) on the aforementioned parameters. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, diffused traumatic brain injury (TBI) was generated in adult male rats using Marmarou’s method. Experimental groups include two pre-treatment (oral ADFE, 4 and 8 mL/kg for 14 days), vehicle (distilled water, for 14 days) and sham groups. Brain edema and neuronal injury were measured 72 hours after TBI. Veterinary coma scale (VCS) and ICP were determined at -1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI. Differences among multiple groups were assessed using ANOVA. Turkey’s test was employed for the ANOVA post-hoc analysis. The criterion of statistical significance was sign at P<0.05. Results Brain water content in ADFE-treated groups was decreased in comparison with the TBI+vehicle group. VCS at 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI showed a significant increase in ADFE groups in comparison with the TBI+vehicle group. ICP at 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI, was decreased in ADFE groups, compared to the TBI+vehicle. Brain edema, ICP and neuronal injury were also decreased in ADFE group, but VCS was increased following on TBI. Conclusion ADFE pre-treatment demonstrated an efficient method for preventing traumatic brain deterioration and improving pathological parameters after TBI. PMID:27602324

  15. Electroacupuncture Prevents Cognitive Impairments by Regulating the Early Changes after Brain Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Wen; Chen, Fu; Chen, Yan; Chen, Guan-Hao; Liu, Huan-Huan; Guan, Shi-Kuo; Deng, Yun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Sheng-Jian; Peng, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Wu, Kai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments severely affect the quality of life of patients who undergo brain irradiation, and there are no effective preventive strategies. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of electroacupuncture (EA) administered immediately after brain irradiation in rats. We detected changes in cognitive function, neurogenesis, and synaptic density at different time points after irradiation, but found that EA could protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expression, upregulate angiogenic cytokine expression, and modulate the levels of neurotransmitter receptors and neuropeptides in the early phase. Moreover, EA protected spatial memory and recognition in the delayed phase. At the cellular/molecular level, the preventative effect of EA on cognitive dysfunction was not dependent on hippocampal neurogenesis; rather, it was related to synaptophysin expression. Our results suggest that EA applied immediately after brain irradiation can prevent cognitive impairments by protecting against the early changes induced by irradiation and may be a novel approach for preventing or ameliorating cognitive impairments in patients with brain tumors who require radiotherapy. PMID:25830357

  16. Deep brain stimulation during early adolescence prevents microglial alterations in a model of maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine

    2016-12-07

    In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease.

  17. Loss of PAFR prevents neuroinflammation and brain dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiang-Jie; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Na; Hu, Jin-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide, which is a major public health problem. Death caused by TBI accounts for a third of all damage related illnesses, which 75% TBI occurred in low and middle income countries. With the increasing use of motor vehicles, the incidence of TBI has been at a high level. The abnormal brain functions of TBI patients often show the acute and long-term neurological dysfunction, which mainly associated with the pathological process of malignant brain edema and neuroinflammation in the brain. Owing to the neuroinflammation lasts for months or even years after TBI, which is a pivotal causative factor that give rise to neurodegenerative disease at late stage of TBI. Studies have shown that platelet activating factor (PAF) inducing inflammatory reaction after TBI could not be ignored. The morphological and behavioral abnormalities after TBI in wild type mice are rescued by general knockout of PAFR gene that neuroinflammation responses and cognitive ability are improved. Our results thus define a key inflammatory molecule PAF that participates in the neuroinflammation and helps bring about cerebral dysfunction during the TBI acute phase. PMID:28094295

  18. Prevention of brain infarction by postischemic administration of histidine in rats.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoto; Liu, Keyue; Arai, Tatsuru

    2005-03-28

    Focal cerebral ischemia for 2 h by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery provoked severe brain infarction in the rat brain after 24 h. Intraperitoneal administration of histidine, a precursor of histamine, immediately and 6 h after reperfusion, alleviated brain infarction. The infarct size in the histidine (200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, each time) groups was 71%, 39%, and 7% of that in the control group, respectively. Although intracerebroventricular administration of mepyramine (3 nmol), an H1 antagonist, did not affect the morphologic outcome in histidine-treated rats, ranitidine (30 nmol), an H2 antagonist, completely abolished the alleviation caused by histidine. These findings indicate that postischemic administration of histidine prevents development of brain infarction by stimulating central histamine H2 receptors.

  19. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.

  20. [Semax prevents elevation of nitric oxide generation caused by incomplete global ischemia in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Fadiukova, O E; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Tolordava, I A; Kuzenkov, V S; Mikoian, V D; Vanin, A F; Koshelev, V B; Raevskiĭ, K S

    2001-01-01

    A twofold increase in the nitric oxide (NO) production and a moderate increase in the content of secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in Wistar rats with incomplete global ischemia model induced by the bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries. A clear correlation was observed between the NO content in the rat brain and the level of neurological disturbance manifestations in the ischemized animals. The synthetic peptide semax (a fragment of ACTH4-7 Pro-Gly-Pro) in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg prevented from the development of both neurological disturbances and excess NO production in the rat brain cortex.

  1. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  2. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

  3. Curcumin boosts DHA in the brain: implications for the prevention of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiguo; Noble, Emily E.; Tyagi, Ethika; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3; DHA) is linked to the neuropathology of several cognitive disorders, including anxiety. DHA, which is essential for brain development and protection, is primarily obtained through the diet or synthesized from dietary precursors, however the conversion efficiency is low. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is a principal component of the spice turmeric, complements the action of DHA in the brain, and this study was performed to determine molecular mechanisms involved. We report that curcumin enhances the synthesis of DHA from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (C18: 3n-3; ALA) and elevates levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of DHA such as FADS2 and elongase 2 in both liver and brain tissue. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with curcumin and ALA reduced anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin enhances DHA synthesis, resulting in elevated brain DHA content. These findings have important implications for human health and the prevention of cognitive disease, particularly for populations eating a plant-based diet or who do not consume fish, a primary source of DHA, since DHA is essential for brain function and its deficiency is implicated in many types of neurological disorders. PMID:25550171

  4. Curcumin boosts DHA in the brain: Implications for the prevention of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aiguo; Noble, Emily E; Tyagi, Ethika; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA) is linked to the neuropathology of several cognitive disorders, including anxiety. DHA, which is essential for brain development and protection, is primarily obtained through the diet or synthesized from dietary precursors, however the conversion efficiency is low. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is a principal component of the spice turmeric, complements the action of DHA in the brain, and this study was performed to determine molecular mechanisms involved. We report that curcumin enhances the synthesis of DHA from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3; ALA) and elevates levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of DHA such as FADS2 and elongase 2 in both liver and brain tissues. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with curcumin and ALA reduced anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin enhances DHA synthesis, resulting in elevated brain DHA content. These findings have important implications for human health and the prevention of cognitive disease, particularly for populations eating a plant-based diet or who do not consume fish, a primary source of DHA, since DHA is essential for brain function and its deficiency is implicated in many types of neurological disorders.

  5. Metformin Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Brain Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenjun; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as ‘chemobrain’, is now widely recognized as a frequent adverse side effect of cancer treatment that often persists into survivorship. There are no drugs available to prevent or treat chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to establish a mouse model of cisplatin-induced cognitive deficits and to determine the potential preventive effects of the anti-diabetic drug metformin. Results Treatment of C57/BL6J mice with cisplatin (cumulative dose 34.5mg/kg) impaired performance in the novel object and place recognition task as well as in the social discrimination task indicating cognitive deficits. Co-administration of metformin prevented these cisplatin-induced cognitive impairments. At the structural level, we demonstrate that cisplatin reduces coherency of white matter fibers in the cingulate cortex. Moreover, the number of dendritic spines and neuronal arborizations as quantified on Golgi-stained brains was reduced after cisplatin treatment. Co-administration of metformin prevented all of these structural abnormalities in cisplatin-treated mice. In contrast to what has been reported in other models of chemobrain, we do not have evidence for persistent microglial or astrocyte activation in the brains of cisplatin-treated mice. Finally, we show that co-administration of metformin also protects against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion In summary, we show here for the first time that treatment of mice with cisplatin induces cognitive deficits that are associated with structural abnormalities in the brain. Moreover, we present the first evidence that the widely used and safe anti-diabetic drug metformin protects against these deleterious effects of cancer treatment. In view of the ongoing clinical trials to examine the potential efficacy of metformin as add-on therapy in patients treated for cancer, these findings should allow rapid clinical translation. PMID

  6. Early neuromodulation prevents the development of brain and behavioral abnormalities in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hadar, R; Bikovski, L; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Schimke, J; Maier, P; Ewing, S; Voget, M; Wieske, F; Götz, T; Desco, M; Hamani, C; Pascau, J; Weiner, I; Winter, C

    2017-04-04

    The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood. We found that mPFC-DBS successfully prevented the emergence of deficits in sensorimotor gating, attentional selectivity and executive function in adulthood, as well as the enlargement of lateral ventricle volumes and mal-development of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission. These data suggest that the mPFC may be a valuable target for effective preventive treatments. This may have significant translational value, suggesting that targeting the mPFC before the onset of psychosis via less invasive neuromodulation approaches may be a viable preventive strategy.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.52.

  7. Modafinil treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced brain function impairment by increasing MMP-9 expression.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Peng, Hua; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2011-12-02

    Previous work showed that sleep deprivation (SD) impairs hippocampal-dependent cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and a novel wake-promoting agent modafinil prevents SD-induced memory impairment in rat. However, the mechanisms by which modafinil prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of brain function remain poorly understood. In the present study, rats were sleep-deprived by using the modified multiple platform method and brain function was detected. The results showed that modafinil treatment prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of cognitive function. Modafinil significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo and upregulated synapsin I expression in the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. A synaptic plasticity-related gene, MMP-9 expression was also upregulated in modafinil-treated rats. Importantly, downregulation of MMP-9 expression by special siRNA decreased synapsin I protein levels and synapse numbers. Therefore, we demonstrated that modafinil increased cognition function and synaptic plasticity, at least in part by increasing MMP-9 expression in REM-SD rats.

  8. Vitamin E prevents oxidative modification of brain and lymphocyte band 3 proteins during aging.

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, J E; Cover, C; Gustafson, M R; Kay, M B

    1996-01-01

    Antioxidants may play an important role in preventing free radical damage associated with aging by interfering directly in the generation of radicals or by scavenging them. We investigated the effects of a high vitamin E and/or a high beta-carotene diet on aging of the anion transporter, band 3, in lymphocytes and brain. The band 3 proteins function as anion transporters, acid base regulators, C02 transporters, and structural proteins that provide a framework for membrane lipids and that link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton. Senescent cell antigen (SCA), which terminates the life of cells, is a degradation product of band 3. This study was conducted as a double-blind study in which eight groups of middle-aged or old mice received either high levels of beta-carotene and/or vitamin E or standard levels of these supplements in their diets. Anion transport kinetic assays were performed on isolated splenic lymphocytes. Immunoreactivity of an antibody that recognizes aging changes in old band 3 preceding generation of SCA was used to quantitate aged band 3 in brain tissue. Results indicate that vitamin E prevented the observed age-related decline in anion transport by lymphocytes and the generation of aged band 3 leading to SCA formation. beta-Carotene had no significant effect on the results of either assay. Since increased aged band 3 and decreased anion transport are initial steps in band 3 aging, which culminates in the generation of SCA and cellular removal, vitamin E prevents or delays aging of band 3-related proteins in lymphocytes and brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8643622

  9. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2016-04-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy.

  10. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  11. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  12. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  13. Intranasal delivery of obidoxime to the brain prevents mortality and CNS damage from organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Arun, Peethambaran; Appu, Abhilash P; Vijayakumar, Nivetha; Figueiredo, Taíza H; Braga, Maria F M; Baskota, Sudikshya; Olsen, Cara H; Farkas, Natalia; Dagata, John; Frey, William H; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2016-03-01

    Intranasal delivery is an emerging method for bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB) and targeting therapeutics to the CNS. Oximes are used to counteract the effects of organophosphate poisoning, but they do not readily cross the BBB. Therefore, they cannot effectively counteract the central neuropathologies caused by cholinergic over-activation when administered peripherally. For these reasons we examined intranasal administration of oximes in an animal model of severe organophosphate poisoning to determine their effectiveness in reducing mortality and seizure-induced neuronal degeneration. Using the paraoxon model of organophosphate poisoning, we administered the standard treatment (intramuscular pralidoxime plus atropine sulphate) to all animals and then compared the effectiveness of intranasal application of obidoxime (OBD) to saline in the control groups. Intranasally administered OBD was effective in partially reducing paraoxon-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the brain and substantially reduced seizure severity and duration. Further, intranasal OBD completely prevented mortality, which was 41% in the animals given standard treatment plus intranasal saline. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed extensive neuronal degeneration in the surviving saline-treated animals 24h after paraoxon administration, whereas no detectable degenerating neurons were observed in any of the animals given intranasal OBD 30min before or 5min after paraoxon administration. These findings demonstrate that intranasally administered oximes bypass the BBB more effectively than those administered peripherally and provide an effective method for protecting the brain from organophosphates. The addition of intranasally administered oximes to the current treatment regimen for organophosphate poisoning would improve efficacy, reducing both brain damage and mortality.

  14. Self-administered written prompts to teach home accident prevention skills to adults with brain injuries.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, M F; Green, G; Braunling-McMorrow, D

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of written checklists and task analyses as self-administered prompts to teach home accident prevention skills to 4 adults with brain injuries. Subsequent to baseline, participants used written checklists that identified potential in-home hazards but did not prompt behaviors necessary for hazard remediation. Written individualized task analyses, incorporating specific behavioral steps for correcting hazards that participants had failed to remediate during the checklist phase, were used to prompt appropriate responding when necessary. These were subsequently faded to transfer stimulus control to the natural conditions. A multiple probe technique across participants and settings was used. Results indicated that the checklist alone was sufficient to increase appropriate responses to many of the potential hazards. Individualized task analyses, when needed, resulted in appropriate remediation of all potential hazards. Generalization to untrained potential hazards occurred to some degree for all participants. Follow-up results showed that most skills trained were maintained over a 1-month period. PMID:2074235

  15. Retraining the addicted brain: a review of hypothesized neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness-based relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Addiction has generally been characterized as a chronic relapsing condition (Leshner, 1999). Several laboratory, preclinical, and clinical studies have provided evidence that craving and negative affect are strong predictors of the relapse process. These states, as well as the desire to avoid them, have been described as primary motives for substance use. A recently developed behavioral treatment, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), was designed to target experiences of craving and negative affect and their roles in the relapse process. MBRP offers skills in cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention integrated with mindfulness meditation. The mindfulness practices in MBRP are intended to increase discriminative awareness, with a specific focus on acceptance of uncomfortable states or challenging situations without reacting "automatically." A recent efficacy trial found that those randomized to MBRP, as compared with those in a control group, demonstrated significantly lower rates of substance use and greater decreases in craving following treatment. Furthermore, individuals in MBRP did not report increased craving or substance use in response to negative affect. It is important to note, areas of the brain that have been associated with craving, negative affect, and relapse have also been shown to be affected by mindfulness training. Drawing from the neuroimaging literature, we review several plausible mechanisms by which MBRP might be changing neural responses to the experiences of craving and negative affect, which subsequently may reduce risk for relapse. We hypothesize that MBRP may affect numerous brain systems and may reverse, repair, or compensate for the neuroadaptive changes associated with addiction and addictive-behavior relapse.

  16. Brain Gαi2-subunit proteins and the prevention of salt sensitive hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Casey Y.; Wainford, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    To counter the development of salt-sensitive hypertension, multiple brain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) systems are activated to facilitate sympathoinhibition, sodium homeostasis, and normotension. Currently there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the role of down-stream GPCR-activated Gα-subunit proteins in these critically important physiological regulatory responses required for long-term blood pressure regulation. We have determined that brain Gαi2-proteins mediate natriuretic and sympathoinhibitory responses produced by acute pharmacological (exogenous central nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP) and α2-adrenoceptor activation) and physiological challenges to sodium homeostasis (intravenous volume expansion and 1 M sodium load) in conscious Sprague–Dawley rats. We have demonstrated that in salt-resistant rat phenotypes, high dietary salt intake evokes site-specific up-regulation of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) Gαi2-proteins. Further, we established that PVN Gαi2 protein up-regulation prevents the development of renal nerve-dependent sympathetically mediated salt-sensitive hypertension in Sprague–Dawley and Dahl salt-resistant rats. Additionally, failure to up-regulate PVN Gαi2 proteins during high salt-intake contributes to the pathophysiology of Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) hypertension. Collectively, our data demonstrate that brain, and likely PVN specific, Gαi2 protein pathways represent a central molecular pathway mediating sympathoinhibitory renal-nerve dependent responses evoked to maintain sodium homeostasis and a salt-resistant phenotype. Further, impairment of this endogenous “anti-hypertensive” mechanism contributes to the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:26347659

  17. Moderate Peep After Tracheal Lipopolysaccharide Instillation Prevents Inflammation and Modifies the Pattern of Brain Neuronal Activation

    PubMed Central

    Quilez, María Elisa; Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Villar, Jesús; Kacmarek, Robert M.; Gómez, Ma Nieves; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís; López-Aguilar, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Ventilatory strategy and specifically positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can modulate the inflammatory response and pulmonary-to-systemic translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both inflammation and ventilatory pattern may modify brain activation, possibly worsening the patient's outcome and resulting in cognitive sequelae. Methods: We prospectively studied Sprague–Dawley rats randomly assigned to undergo 3 h mechanical ventilation with 7 mL/kg tidal ventilation and either 2 cmH2O or 7 cmH2O PEEP after intratracheal instillation of LPS or saline. Healthy nonventilated rats served as baseline. We analyzed lung mechanics, gas exchange, lung and plasma cytokine levels, lung apoptotic cells, and lung neutrophil infiltration. To evaluate brain neuronal activation, we counted c-Fos immunopositive cells in the retrosplenial cortex (RS), thalamus, supraoptic nucleus (SON), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and central amygdala (CeA). Results: LPS increased lung neutrophilic infiltration, lung and systemic MCP-1 levels, and neuronal activation in the CeA and NTS. LPS-instilled rats receiving 7 cmH2O PEEP had less lung and systemic inflammation and more c-Fos-immunopositive cells in the RS, SON, and thalamus than those receiving 2 cmH2O PEEP. Applying 7 cmH2O PEEP increased neuronal activation in the CeA and NTS in saline-instilled rats, but not in LPS-instilled rats. Conclusions: Moderate PEEP prevented lung and systemic inflammation secondary to intratracheal LPS instillation. PEEP also modified the neuronal activation pattern in the RS, SON, and thalamus. The relevance of these differential brain c-Fos expression patterns in neurocognitive outcomes should be explored. PMID:26398809

  18. Commentary on the special issue on the adolescent brain: Adolescence, trajectories, and the importance of prevention.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Susan L

    2016-11-01

    Adolescence as highlighted in this special issue is a period of tremendous growth, synaptic exuberance, and plasticity, but also a period for the emergence of mental illness and addiction. This commentary aims to stimulate research on prevention science to reduce the impact of early life events that often manifest during adolescence. By promoting a better understanding of what creates a normal and abnormal trajectory, the reviews by van Duijvenvoorde et al., Kilford et al., Lichenstein et al., and Tottenham and Galvan in this special issue comprehensively describe how the adolescent brain develops under typical conditions and how this process can go awry in humans. Preclinical reviews also within this issue describe how adolescents have prolonged extinction periods to maximize learning about their environment (Baker et al.), whereas Schulz and Sisk focus on the importance of puberty and how it interacts with stress (Romeo). Caballero and Tseng then set the stage of describing the neural circuitry that is often central to these changes and psychopathology. Factors that affect the mis-wiring of the brain for illness, including prenatal exposure to anti-mitotic agents (Gomes et al.) and early life stress and inflammation (Schwarz and Brenhouse), are included as examples of how exposure to early adversity manifests. These reviews are synthesized and show how information from the maturational stages that precede or occur during adolescence is likely to hold the key towards optimizing development to produce an adolescent and adult that is resilient and well adapted to their environment.

  19. Commentary on the special issue on the adolescent brain: Adolescence, trajectories, and the importance of prevention

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence as highlighted in this special issue is a period of tremendous growth, synaptic exuberance, and plasticity, but also a period for the emergence of mental illness and addiction. This commentary aims to stimulate research on prevention science to reduce the impact of early life events that often manifest during adolescence. By promoting a better understanding of what creates a normal and abnormal trajectory, the reviews by van Duijvenvoorde et al., Kilford et al., Lichenstein et al., and Tottenham and Galvan in this special issue comprehensively describe how the adolescent brain develops under typical conditions and how this process can go awry in humans. Preclinical reviews also within this issue describe how adolescents have prolonged extinction periods to maximize learning about their environment (Baker et al.), whereas Schulz and Sisk focus on the importance of puberty and how it interacts with stress (Romeo). Caballero and Tseng then set the stage of describing the neural circuitry that is often central to these changes and psychopathology. Factors that affect the mis-wiring of the brain for illness, including prenatal exposure to anti-mitotic agents (Gomes et al.) and early life stress and inflammation (Schwarz and Brenhouse), are included as examples of how exposure to early adversity manifests. These reviews are synthesized and show how information from the maturational stages that precede or occur during adolescence is likely to hold the key towards optimizing development to produce an adolescent and adult that is resilient and well adapted to their environment. PMID:27423540

  20. Broccoli sprout supplementation during pregnancy prevents brain injury in the newborn rat following placental insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Black, A M; Armstrong, E A; Scott, O; Juurlink, B J H; Yager, J Y

    2015-09-15

    Chronic placental insufficiency and subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increase the risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the newborn by 40 fold. The latter, in turn, increases the risk of cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities. This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of broccoli sprouts (BrSp), a rich source of the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, as a neuroprotectant in a rat model of chronic placental insufficiency and IUGR. Placental insufficiency and IUGR was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL) on day E20 of gestation. Dams were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 200mg of dried BrSp from E15 - postnatal day 14 (PD14). Controls received Sham surgery and the same dietary regime. Pups underwent neurologic reflex testing and open field testing, following which they were euthanized and their brains frozen for neuropathologic assessment. Compared to Sham, IUGR pups were delayed in attaining early reflexes and performed worse in the open field, both of which were significantly improved by maternal supplementation of BrSp (p<0.05). Neuropathology revealed diminished white matter, ventricular dilation, astrogliosis and reduction in hippocampal neurons in IUGR animals compared to Sham, whereas broccoli sprout supplementation improved outcome in all histological assessments (p<0.05). Maternal dietary supplementation with BrSp prevented the detrimental neurocognitive and neuropathologic effects of chronic intrauterine ischemia. These findings suggest a novel approach for prevention of cerebral palsy and/or developmental disabilities associated with placental insufficiency.

  1. Bacopa monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-04-20

    Bacopa monniera is a perennial herb, and is used as a nerve tonic in äyurveda, a traditional medicinal system in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bacopa monniera could potentially inhibit aluminium toxicity in the cerebral cortex. Male Wister rats (8 months old) were administered with AlCl(3) orally at a dose of 50mg/kg/day in drinking water for 1 month. Experimental rats were given AlCl(3) along with Bacopa monniera extract at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day. One group of rats was treated with l-deprenyl at a dose of 1mg/kg/day along with AlCl(3) treatment. We have observed that Bacopa monniera prevented accumulation of lipid and protein damage significantly, which resulted from aluminium intake. Decline in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes associated with aluminium administration was also inhibited by Bacopa monniera extract. The potential of Bacopa monniera to inhibit Al-induced oxidative stress was observed to be similar to that of l-deprenyl, which was taken as standard. The potential of Bacopa monniera extract to prevent aluminium neurotoxicity was reflected at the microscopic level as well, indicative of its neuroprotective effects. These findings strongly implicate that Bacopa monniera has potential to protect brain from oxidative damage resulting from aluminium toxicity.

  2. Omega-3 prevents behavior response and brain oxidative damage in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zugno, A I; Chipindo, H L; Volpato, A M; Budni, J; Steckert, A V; de Oliveira, M B; Heylmann, A S; da Rosa Silveira, F; Mastella, G A; Maravai, S G; Wessler, P G; Binatti, A R; Panizzutti, B; Schuck, P F; Quevedo, J; Gama, C S

    2014-02-14

    Supplementation with omega-3 has been identified as an adjunctive alternative for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, in order to minimize symptoms. Considering the lack of understanding concerning the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the present study hypothesized that omega 3 prevents the onset of symptoms similar to schizophrenia in young Wistar rats submitted to ketamine treatment. Moreover, the role of oxidative stress in this model was assessed. Omega-3 (0.8g/kg) or vehicle was given by orogastric gavage once daily. Both treatments were performed during 21days, starting at the 30th day of life in young rats. After 14days of treatment with omega-3 or vehicle, a concomitant treatment with saline or ketamine (25mg/kg ip daily) was started and maintained until the last day of the experiment. We evaluated the pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex, activity of antioxidant systems and damage to proteins and lipids. Our results demonstrate that supplementation of omega-3 prevented: decreased inhibition of startle reflex, damage to lipids in the hippocampus and striatum and damage to proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, these changes are associated with decreased GPx in brain tissues evaluated. Together, our results suggest the prophylactic role of omega-3 against the outcome of symptoms associated with schizophrenia.

  3. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Chul; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Joo Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.42 (0.24–0.73)), however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI): 0.83 (0.34–2.03). In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace. PMID:27801877

  4. Pazopanib reveals a role for tumor cell B-Raf in the prevention of HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gril, Brunilde; Palmieri, Diane; Qian, Yong; Smart, DeeDee; Ileva, Lilia; Liewehr, David J.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastases of breast cancer contribute significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. We have tested pazopanib, a recently approved anti-angiogenic drug that targets VEGFR1-3, PDGFRβ, PDGFRα and c-kit, for prevention of experimental brain metastases and mechanism of action. Experimental Design In vitro assays included B-Raf enzymatic assays, western blots and angiogenesis assays. For in vivo assays, HER2 transfectants of the brain seeking sublines of MDA-MB-231 cells (231-BR-HER2) and MCF7 cells (MCF7-HER2-BR3, derived herein) were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of mice and treated with vehicle or pazopanib beginning on day 3 post-injection. Brain metastases were counted histologically, imaged and immunostained. Results Treatment with 100 mg/kg pazopanib resulted in a 73% decline in large 231-BR-HER2 metastases (p<0.0001) and 39% decline in micrometastases (p=0.004). In vitro, pazopanib was directly anti-proliferative to 231-BR-HER2 breast cancer cells and inhibited MEK and ERK activation in vitro despite B-Raf and Ras mutations. Enzymatic assays demonstrated that pazopanib directly inhibited the wild type and exon 11 oncogenic mutant, but not the V600E mutant forms of B-Raf. Activation of the B-Raf targets pERK1/2 and pMEK1/2 was decreased in pazopanib treated brain metastases while blood vessel density was unaltered. In the MCF7-HER2-BR3 experimental brain metastasis model, pazopanib reduced overall brain metastasis volume upon MRI imaging by 55% (p=0.067), without affecting brain metastasis vascular density. Conclusions The data identify a new activity for pazopanib directly on tumor cells as a pan-Raf inhibitor, and suggest its potential for prevention of brain metastatic colonization of HER2+ breast cancer. PMID:21081656

  5. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  6. Long-term prehypertension treatment with losartan effectively prevents brain damage and stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    He, De-Hua; Zhang, Liang-Min; Lin, Li-Ming; Ning, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Hua-Jun; Xu, Chang-Sheng; Lin, Jin-Xiu

    2014-02-01

    Prehypertension has been associated with adverse cerebrovascular events and brain damage. The aims of this study were to investigate ⅰ) whether short‑ and long-term treatments with losartan or amlodipine for prehypertension were able to prevent blood pressure (BP)-linked brain damage, and ⅱ) whether there is a difference in the effectiveness of treatment with losartan and amlodipine in protecting BP-linked brain damage. In the present study, prehypertensive treatment with losartan and amlodipine (6 and 16 weeks treatment with each drug) was performed on 4-week‑old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The results showed that long-term (16 weeks) treatment with losartan is the most effective in lowering systolic blood pressure in the long term (up to 40 weeks follow-up). Additionally, compared with the amlodipine treatment groups, the short‑ and long-term losartan treatments protected SHRSP from stroke and improved their brains structurally and functionally more effectively, with the long-term treatment having more benefits. Mechanistically, the short‑ and long-term treatments with losartan reduced the activity of the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in a time-dependent manner and more effectively than their respective counterpart amlodipine treatment group mainly by decreasing AT1R levels and increasing AT2R levels in the cerebral cortex. By contrast, the amlodipine treatment groups inhibited brain cell apoptosis more effectively as compared with the losartan treatment groups mainly through the suppression of local oxidative stress. Taken together, the results suggest that long-term losartan treatment for prehypertension effectively protects SHRSP from stroke-induced brain damage, and this protection is associated with reduced local RAAS activity than with brain cell apoptosis. Thus, the AT1R receptor blocker losartan is a good candidate drug that may be used in the clinic for long-term treatment on prehypertensive

  7. Prophylactic Edaravone Prevents Transient Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: Implications for Perioperative Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Li, Yikun; Wali, Bushra; Li, Yuancheng; Lee, Jolly; Heinmiller, Andrew; Abe, Koji; Stein, Donald G.; Mao, Hui; Sayeed, Iqbal; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypoperfusion-induced thrombosis is an important mechanism for post-surgery stroke and cognitive decline, but there are no perioperative neuroprotectants to date. This study investigated whether prophylactic application of Edaravone, a free radical scavenger already used in treating ischemic stroke in Japan, can prevent infarct and cognitive deficits in a murine model of transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transient hypoxic-ischemic (tHI) insult that consists of 30-min occlusion of the unilateral common carotid artery and exposure to 7.5% oxygen. Edaravone or saline was prophylactically applied to compare their effects on cortical oxygen saturation, blood flow, coagulation, oxidative stress, metabolites, and learning-memory using methods that include photoacoustic imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging, solid state NMR and Morris water maze. The effects on infarct size by Edaravone application at different time-points after tHI were also compared. Results Prophylactic administration of Edaravone (4.5 mg/kg × 2, IP, 1 h before and 1 h after tHI) improved vascular reperfusion, oxygen saturation, and the maintenance of brain metabolites, while reducing oxidative stress, thrombosis, white-matter injury, and learning impairment after tHI insult. Delayed Edaravone treatment after 3 h post-tHI became unable to reduce infarct size. Conclusions Acute application of Edaravone may be a useful strategy to prevent post-surgery stroke and cognitive impairment, especially in patients with severe carotid stenosis. PMID:26060244

  8. Pre-treatment of rats with ad-hepcidin prevents iron-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong Ming; Luo, Qian Qian; Sheng, Yuan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Xu, Yan Xin; Ke, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Our recent investigation showed that hepcidin can reduce iron in the brain of iron-overloaded rat by down-regulating iron-transport proteins. It has also been demonstrated that iron is a major generator of reactive oxygen species. We therefore hypothesized that hepcidin could prevent iron accumulation and thus reduce iron-mediated oxidative stress in iron-overloaded rats. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of pre-treatment of rats with recombinant-hepcidin-adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) on the contents of iron, dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane in the brain. Hepcidin expression was detected by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Iron contents were measured using Perl's staining as well as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an ELISA kit, respectively. We found that hepcidin contents in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra of rats treated with ad-hepcidin are 3.50, 2.98, 2.93 and 4.07 fold of those of the control rats respectively. Also, we demonstrated that the increased iron as well as dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane levels in all four brain regions, induced by injection of iron dextran, could be effectively prevented by pre-treatment of the rats with ad-hepcidin. We concluded that pre-treatment with ad-hepcidin could increase hepcidin expression and prevent the increase in iron and reduce reactive oxygen species in the brain of iron-overloaded rats.

  9. Dipeptide Mimetic of the Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Prevents Impairments of Neurogenesis in Stressed Mice.

    PubMed

    Gudasheva, T A; Povarnina, P Yu; Seredenin, S B

    2017-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays the central role in the mechanisms of regulation of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Impairment of these mechanisms is considered as one of the main etiological factors of depression. Dimeric dipeptide mimetic of BDNF loop 4 bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-seryl-l-lysine) hexamethylenediamide (GSB-106) was synthesized at the V. V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology. In vivo experiments revealed significant antidepressant properties of GSB-106 in doses of 0.1-10 mg/kg (intraperitoneally and orally). Effects of GSB-106 on hippocampal neurogenesis were studied in mice subjected to chronic predator stress. Proliferative activity in the subgranular zone of the dental gyrus was assessed immunohistochemically by Ki-67 expression (a marker of dividing cells). It was found that GSB-106 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 5 days) completely prevents neurogenesis disturbances in stressed mice. These findings suggest that GSB-106 is a promising candidate for the development of antidepressant agents with BDNF-like mechanism of action.

  10. How the brain prevents a second error in a perceptual decision-making task

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Rinaldo Livio; Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive tasks, error commission is usually followed by a performance characterized by post-error slowing (PES) and post-error improvement of accuracy (PIA). Three theoretical accounts were hypothesized to support these post-error adjustments: the cognitive, the inhibitory, and the orienting account. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the neural processes associated with the second error prevention. To this aim, we focused on the preparatory brain activities in a large sample of subjects performing a Go/No-go task. The main results were the enhancement of the prefrontal negativity (pN) component -especially on the right hemisphere- and the reduction of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) -especially on the left hemisphere- in the post-error trials. The ERP data suggested an increased top-down and inhibitory control, such as the reduced excitability of the premotor areas in the preparation of the trials following error commission. The results were discussed in light of the three theoretical accounts of the post-error adjustments. Additional control analyses supported the view that the adjustments-oriented components (the post-error pN and BP) are separated by the error-related potentials (Ne and Pe), even if all these activities represent a cascade of processes triggered by error-commission. PMID:27534593

  11. Intensive insulin therapy for preventing postoperative infection in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jin-ping; Song, Ying-lun; Zhao, Qi-huang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the effect of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for preventing postoperative infection in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: In total, 88 patients with TBI were randomly divided into 2 groups, 44 in each group. One group (group ITT) received IIT and the other group (group CIT) received conventional insulin therapy (CIT). This study was conducted between February 2013 and January 2016. Outcomes included infection rate, mortality, and neurological outcome (measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]). Results: A total of 81 patients completed the study. IIT showed greater efficacy than CIT, with a decreased infection rate in the IIT group compared to the CIT group (31.9% vs 52.3%, P = 0.03), and also a reduced duration of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) (IIT group, 4.5 ± 2.1 days vs CIT group, 5.7 ± 2.8 days, P = 0.02). In addition, a significant difference in scores on the GOS scale was observed between the 2 groups (P = 0.04). The mortality rates in hospital and at the 26-week follow-up were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusion: IIT leads to a reduced infection rate, shorter stays in ICU, and improved neurological outcome. PMID:28353579

  12. Genetic deletion of neuronal pentraxin 1 expression prevents brain injury in a neonatal mouse model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Thatipamula, Shabarish; Al Rahim, Md; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hossain, Mir Ahamed

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and children for which there is no promising therapy at present. Previously, we reported induction of neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1), a novel neuronal protein of the long-pentraxin family, following HI injury in neonatal brain. Here, we report that genetic deletion of NP1 expression prevents HI injury in neonatal brain. Elevated expression of NP1 was observed in neurons, not in astrocytes, of the ipsilateral cortical layers (I-IV) and in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of WT brains following hypoxia-ischemia; brain areas that developed infarcts (at 24-48 h), showed significantly increased numbers of TUNEL-(+) cells and tissue loss (at 7 days). In contrast, NP1-KO mice showed no evidence of brain infarction and tissue loss after HI. The immunofluorescence staining of brain sections with mitochondrial protein COX IV and subcellular fractionation analysis showed increased accumulation of NP1 in mitochondria, pro-death protein Bax activation and NP1 co-localization with activated caspase-3 in WT, but not in the NP1-KO brains; corroborating NP1 interactions with the mitochondria-derived pro-death pathways. Disruption of NP1 translocation to mitochondria by NP1-siRNA in primary cortical cultures significantly reduced ischemic neuronal death. NP1 was immunoprecipitated with activated Bax [6A7] proteins; HI caused increased interactions of NP1 with Bax, thereby, facilitating Bax translocation to mitochondrial and neuronal death. To further delineate the specificity of NPs, we found that NP1 but not the NP2 induction is specifically involved in brain injury mechanisms and that knockdown of NP1 only results in neuroprotection. Furthermore, live in vivo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including fractional anisotropy (FA) mapping showed no sign of delayed brain injury or tissue loss in the NP1-KO mice as compared to the WT at different post-HI periods (4-24 weeks

  13. Genetic deletion of neuronal pentraxin 1 expression prevents brain injury in a neonatal mouse model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Thatipamula, Shabarish; Rahim, Md Al; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hossain, Mir Ahamed

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and children for which there is no promising therapy at present. Previously, we reported induction of neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1), a novel neuronal protein of the long-pentraxin family, following HI injury in neonatal brain. Here, we report that genetic deletion of NP1 expression prevents HI injury in neonatal brain. Elevated expression of NP1 was observed in neurons, not in astrocytes, of the ipsilateral cortical layers (I–IV) and in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of WT brains following hypoxia-ischemia; brain areas that developed infarcts (at 24–48 h), showed significantly increased numbers of TUNEL-(+) cells and tissue loss (at 7 d). In contrast, NP1-KO mice showed no evidence of brain infarction and tissue loss after HI. The immunofluorescence staining of brain sections with mitochondrial protein COX IV and subcellular fractionation analysis showed increased accumulation of NP1 in mitochondria, pro-death protein Bax activation and NP1 co-localization with activated caspase-3 in WT, but not in the NP1-KO brains; corroborating NP1 interactions with the mitochondria-derived pro-death pathways. Disruption of NP1 translocation to mitochondria by NP1-siRNA in primary cortical cultures significantly reduced ischemic neuronal death. NP1 was immunoprecipitated with activated Bax[6A7] proteins; HI caused increased interactions of NP1 with Bax, thereby, facilitating Bax translocation to mitochondrial and neuronal death. To further delineate the specificity of NPs, we found that NP1 but not the NP2 induction is specifically involved in brain injury mechanisms and that knockdown of NP1 only results in neuroprotection. Furthermore, live in vivo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including fractional anisotropy (FA) mapping showed no sign of delayed brain injury or tissue loss in the NP1-KO mice as compared to the WT at different post-HI periods (4–24 weeks

  14. Brain signaling systems in the Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: promising target to treat and prevent these diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shpakov, Alexander O; Derkach, Kira V; Berstein, Lev M

    2015-01-01

    The changes in the brain signaling systems play an important role in etiology and pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS), being a possible cause of these diseases. Therefore, their restoration at the early stages of T2DM and MS can be regarded as a promising way to treat and prevent these diseases and their complications. The data on the functional state of the brain signaling systems regulated by insulin, IGF-1, leptin, dopamine, serotonin, melanocortins and glucagon-like peptide-1, in T2DM and MS, are analyzed. The pharmacological approaches to restoration of these systems and improvement of insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, lipid metabolism, and to prevent diabetic complications are discussed. PMID:28031898

  15. Prevention of status epilepticus-induced brain edema and neuronal cell loss by repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kouichi; Inamine, Moriyoshi; Oshima, Wataru; Kotani, Masaharu; Chiba, Yoichi; Ueno, Masaki; Ishihara, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-22

    The management of status epilepticus (SE) is important to prevent mortality and the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy. Acquired epilepsy after an initial brain insult by SE can be experimentally reproduced in the murine model of SE induced by pilocarpine. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of treatment with a high-dose of levetiracetam in this model. Repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after termination of SE by diazepam significantly prevented the incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and mortality for at least 28 days. To determine the brain alterations after SE, magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Both T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging showed changes in the limbic regions. These changes in the limbic regions demonstrated the development of cytotoxic edema three hours after SE, followed by the development of vasogenic edema two days after SE. In the pilocarpine-SE model, the incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after SE was strongly associated with neuronal damage within a few hours to days after SE by the development of vasogenic edema via the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the limbic regions. High-dose levetiracetam significantly suppressed the parameters in the limbic areas. These data indicate that repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam for at least two days after SE termination by diazepam is important for controlling the neuronal damage by preventing brain edema. Therefore, these findings suggest that early treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after SE termination by diazepam may protect against adverse sequelae via the inhibition of neurotoxicity induced by brain edema events.

  16. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  17. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  18. Melatonin prevents brain oxidative stress induced by obstructive jaundice in rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Adolfo; Túnez, Isaac; Martínez, Rubén; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan Rafael; Ramírez, Luz María; Recio, Marta; Ochoa, Luís; Arjona, Alvaro; Montilla, Pedro; Muntané, Jordi; Padillo, Francisco J

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of melatonin on brain oxidative stress in experimental biliary obstruction. Cholestasis was done by a double ligature and section of the extrahepatic biliary duct. Melatonin was injected intraperitoneally (500 microg/kg/day). Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) contents were determined in the brain tissue. Biliary obstruction raised MDA and reduced GSH contents in the cortex, cerebellum, and hypothalamus areas. Moreover, the scavenger enzyme activity significantly dropped in all areas of the brain. Melatonin drastically reduced MDA concentration and enhanced GSH concentration, as well as all antioxidant enzyme activity in all brain areas obtained from the bile duct-ligated animals. In conclusion, the treatment with melatonin decreased lipid peroxidation and recovered the antioxidant status in the brain from cholestatic animals.

  19. Pre-treatment with LCZ696, an orally active angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, prevents ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hui-Yu; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Kukida, Masayoshi; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Higaki, Akinori; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-09-05

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to prevent ischemic brain damage after stroke. Natriuretic peptides, which are increased by a neprilysin inhibitor, are also reported to protect against brain damage. Therefore, we investigated the possible protective effect of valsartan (VAL) compared with LCZ696 (VAL+ neprilysin inhibitor; 1:1) after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with VAL (3mg/kg per day) or LCZ696 (6mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks before MCA occlusion. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by telemetry. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Ischemic area was evaluated by triphenytetrasodium chloride staining, and oxidative stress was determined by dihydroethidium staining. Blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different before and after treatment. Pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL reduced the ischemic area, and this effect of LCZ696 was more marked than that of VAL pre-treatment. The decrease in CBF in the peripheral region of the ischemic area was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL, without any significant effect on CBF in the core region. VAL or LCZ696 pre-treatment significantly decreased the increase of superoxide anion production in the cortex on the ischemic side. However, no significant difference in CBF and superoxide anion production was observed between VAL and LCZ696 pre-treatment. The preventive effect of LCZ696 on ischemic brain damage after stroke was more marked than that of VAL. LCZ696 could be used as a new approach to prevent brain damage after stroke. (246 words).

  20. MicroRNAs Linked to Trastuzumab Resistance, Brain Metastases | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have tied increased levels of a microRNA (miRNA) to resistance to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Another research team has discovered a “signature” of miRNAs in brain metastases in patients with melanoma—a signature that is also present in the primary tumor and could identify melanoma patients at increased risk of brain metastases. |

  1. Inhibition of autophagy prevents irradiation-induced neural stem and progenitor cell death in the juvenile mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Zhou, Kai; Li, Tao; Xu, Yiran; Xie, Cuicui; Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yaodong; Rodriguez, Juan; Blomgren, Klas; Zhu, Changlian

    2017-03-23

    Radiotherapy is an effective tool in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. However, damage to brain stem and progenitor cells constitutes a major problem and is associated with long-term side effects. Autophagy has been shown to be involved in cell death, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibition on neural stem and progenitor cell death in the juvenile brain. Ten-day-old selective Atg7 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a single 6Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation. Cell death and proliferation as well as microglia activation and inflammation were evaluated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and in the cerebellum at 6 h after irradiation. We found that cell death was reduced in Atg7 KO compared with WT mice at 6 h after irradiation. The number of activated microglia increased significantly in both the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum of WT mice after irradiation, but the increase was lower in the Atg7 KO mice. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines decreased, especially in the cerebellum, in the Atg7 KO group. These results suggest that autophagy might be a potential target for preventing radiotherapy-induced neural stem and progenitor cell death and its associated long-term side effects.

  2. Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer's disease mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Jiang; Thomas, Philip; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Bi, Fang-Fang; Kosaraju, Shantha; Pollard, Anthony; Fenech, Michael; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols extracted from grape seeds are able to inhibit amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregation, reduce Abeta production and protect against Abeta neurotoxicity in vitro. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. APP(Swe)/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were fed with normal AIN-93G diet (control diet), AIN-93G diet with 0.07% curcumin or diet with 2% GSE beginning at 3 months of age for 9 months. Total phenolic content of GSE was 592.5 mg/g dry weight, including gallic acid (49 mg/g), catechin (41 mg/g), epicatechin (66 mg/g) and proanthocyanidins (436.6 mg catechin equivalents/g). Long-term feeding of GSE diet was well tolerated without fatality, behavioural abnormality, changes in food consumption, body weight or liver function. The Abeta levels in the brain and serum of the mice fed with GSE were reduced by 33% and 44%, respectively, compared with the Alzheimer's mice fed with the control diet. Amyloid plaques and microgliosis in the brain of Alzheimer's mice fed with GSE were also reduced by 49% and 70%, respectively. Curcumin also significantly reduced brain Abeta burden and microglia activation. Conclusively, polyphenol-rich GSE prevents the Abeta deposition and attenuates the inflammation in the brain of a transgenic mouse model, and this thus is promising in delaying development of AD.

  3. Subacute administration of fluoxetine prevents short-term brain hypometabolism and reduces brain damage markers induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiha, Ahmed Anis; de Cristóbal, Javier; Delgado, Mercedes; Fernández de la Rosa, Rubén; Bascuñana, Pablo; Pozo, Miguel A; García-García, Luis

    2015-02-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in epileptogenesis still remains controversial. In this regard, it has been reported that serotonergic drugs can alter epileptogenesis in opposite ways. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine administered subacutely (10mg/kg/day×7 days) on the eventual metabolic impairment induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. In vivo 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to assess the brain glucose metabolic activity on days 3 and 30 after the insult. In addition, at the end of the experiment (day 33), several histochemical and neurochemical assessments were performed for checking the neuronal functioning and integrity. Three days after the insult, a marked reduction of [(18)F] FDG uptake (about 30% according to the brain region) was found in all brain areas studied. When evaluated on day 30, although a hypometabolism tendency was observed, no statistically significant reduction was present in any region analyzed. In addition, lithium-pilocarpine administration was associated with medium-term hippocampal and cortical damage, since it induced neurodegeneration, glial activation and augmented caspase-9 expression. Regarding the effect of fluoxetine, subacute treatment with this SSRI did not significantly reduce the mortality rate observed after pilocarpine-induced seizures. However, fluoxetine did prevent not only the short-term metabolic impairment, but also the aforementioned signs of neuronal damage in surviving animals to lithium-pilocarpine protocol. Finally, fluoxetine increased the density of GABAA receptor both at the level of the dentate gyrus and CA1-CA2 regions in pilocarpine-treated animals. Overall, our data suggest a protective role for fluoxetine against pilocarpine-induced brain damage. Moreover, this action may be associated with an increase of

  4. Hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, prevents acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, El-Sayed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Abd-Alla, Gamil M

    2008-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a volatile, toxic liquid used as a monomer in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, styrene plastics, acrylic fiber, and adhesives. ACN is a potent neurotoxin. A role for free radical mediated lipid peroxidation in the toxicity of ACN has been suggested. We examined the ability of hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, to attenuate ACN-induced alterations in lipid peroxidation in rat brains. The daily oral administration of ACN to male albino rats in a dose of 50 mg/kg bwt for a period of 28 days produced a significant elevation in brain lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) amounting to 107%, accompanied by a marked decrease in brain-reduced glutathione (GSH) content reaching 63%. In addition, ACN administration resulted in significant reductions in the enzymatic antioxidant parameters of brain; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) recording 43%, 64%, 52%, and 43%, respectively. On the other hand, pretreatment with hesperidin and its coadministration with ACN once daily in a dose of 200 mg/kg bwt i.p. for 28 days ameliorated ACN-induced alterations in brain lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that hesperidin may have a beneficial role against ACN-induced oxidative stress in the brain; an effect that is mainly attributed to the antioxidant property of hesperidin.

  5. Dizocilpine (MK-801) arrests status epilepticus and prevents brain damage induced by Soman. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Sparenborg, S.; Brennecke, L.H.; Jaax, N.K.; Braitman, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    The involvement of the NMDA receptor in the neurotoxicity induced by soman, an organophosphorus compound which irreversibly inhibits cholinesterase, was studied in guinea pigs. The drug MK-801 (0.5, 1 or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) was given as a pretreatment before a convulsant dose of soman or as a post treatment (30, 100 or 300 micron g/kg, i.m.) 5 min after the development of soman-induced status epilepticus. Pyridostigmine, atropine and pralidoxime chloride were also given to each subject to counteract the lethality of soman. All subjects that were challenged with soman and given the vehicle for MK-801 (saline) exhibited severe convulsions and electrographic seizure activity. Neuronal necrosis was found in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and the pyriform and cerebral cortices of those subjects surviving for 48 hr. Pretreatment with 0.5 or 1 mg/kg doses of MK-801 did not prevent nor delay the onset of seizure activity but did diminish its intensity and led to its early arrest. At the largest dose (5 mg/kg), MK-801 completely prevented the development of seizure activity and brain damage. Post treatment with MK-801 prevented, arrested or reduced seizure activity, convulsions and neuronal necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. The NMDA receptor may play a more critical role in the spread and maintenance, rather than the initiation of cholinergically-induced seizure activity....Seizure-related brain damage, Organophosphorus compound, Nerve agent, Cholinesterase inhibition, Excitotoxicity, Guinea pig.

  6. The Role of 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone in Preventing Dendrite Degeneration in Cortex After Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Weiren; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    Our previous research showed that traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) not only causes massive cell death, but also results in extensive dendrite degeneration in those spared neurons in the cortex. Cell death and dendrite degeneration in the cortex may contribute to persistent cognitive, sensory, and motor dysfunction. There is still no approach available to prevent cells from death and dendrites from degeneration following TBI. When we treated the animals with a small molecule, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) that mimics the function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through provoking TrkB activation reduced dendrite swellings in the cortex. DHF treatment also prevented dendritic spine loss after TBI. Functional analysis showed that DHF improved rotarod performance on the third day after surgery. These results suggest that although DHF treatment did not significantly reduced neuron death, it prevented dendrites from degenerating and protected dendritic spines against TBI insult. Consequently, DHF can partially improve the behavior outcomes after TBI.

  7. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...

  8. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers prevent pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and morphological changes in rat brain neurons.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Aleksey V; Kim, Kira Kh; Vasilev, Dmitry S; Lukomskaya, Nera Ya; Lavrentyeva, Valeria V; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A; Magazanik, Lev G

    2015-03-01

    Alterations in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission play a central role in the etiology of epilepsy, with overstimulation of glutamate receptors influencing epileptic activity and corresponding neuronal damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, play a primary role in this process. This study compared the anticonvulsant properties of two NMDA receptor channel blockers, memantine and 1-phenylcyclohexylamine (IEM-1921), in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures in rats and investigated their potencies in preventing PTZ-induced morphological changes in the brain. The anticonvulsant properties of IEM-1921 (5 mg/kg) were more pronounced than those of memantine at the same dose. IEM-1921 and memantine decreased the duration of convulsions by 82% and 37%, respectively. Both compounds were relatively effective at preventing the tonic component of seizures but not myoclonic seizures. Memantine significantly reduced the lethality caused by PTZ-induced seizures from 42% to 11%, and all animals pretreated with IEM-1921 survived. Morphological examination of the rat brain 24 hr after administration of PTZ revealed alterations in the morphology of 20-25% of neurons in the neocortex and the hippocampus, potentially induced by excessive glutamate. The expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 protein was increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rats. However, dark neurons did not express caspase-3 and were immunopositive for the neuronal nuclear antigen protein, indicating that these neurons were alive. Both NMDA antagonists prevented neuronal abnormalities in the brain. These results suggest that NMDA receptor channel blockers might be considered possible neuroprotective agents for prolonged seizures or status epilepticus leading to neuronal damage.

  9. Prevention of brain disease from severe 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Morton, D Holmes; Puffenberger, Erik G; Hendrickson, Christine; Robinson, Donna L; Wagner, Conrad; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Chwatko, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Niculescu, Mihai D; Mudd, S Harvey

    2007-06-01

    Over a four-year period, we collected clinical and biochemical data from five Amish children who were homozygous for missense mutations in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR c.1129C>T). The four oldest patients had irreversible brain damage prior to diagnosis. The youngest child, diagnosed and started on betaine therapy as a newborn, is healthy at her present age of three years. We compared biochemical data among four groups: 16 control subjects, eight heterozygous parents, and five affected children (for the latter group, both before and during treatment with betaine anhydrous). Plasma amino acid concentrations were used to estimate changes in cerebral methionine uptake resulting from betaine therapy. In all affected children, treatment with betaine (534+/-222 mg/kg/day) increased plasma S-adenosylmethionine, improved markers of tissue methyltransferase activity, and resulted in a threefold increase of calculated brain methionine uptake. Betaine therapy did not normalize plasma total homocysteine, nor did it correct cerebral 5-methyltetrahydrofolate deficiency. We conclude that when the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate content of brain tissue is low, dietary betaine sufficient to increase brain methionine uptake may compensate for impaired cerebral methionine recycling. To effectively support the metabolic requirements of rapid brain growth, a large dose of betaine should be started early in life.

  10. Therapeutic administration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 prevents hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Nemkul, Niza; Shereen, Ahmed; Jone, Alice; Dunn, R Scott; Lawrence, Daniel A; Lindquist, Diana; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2009-07-08

    Disruption of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important mechanism of cerebrovascular diseases, including neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Although both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) can produce BBB damage, their relationship in neonatal cerebral HI is unclear. Here we use a rodent model to test whether the plasminogen activator (PA) system is critical for MMP-9 activation and HI-induced brain injury in newborns. To test this hypothesis, we examined the therapeutic effect of intracerebroventricular injection of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in rat pups subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion and systemic hypoxia. We found that the injection of PAI-1 greatly reduced the activity of both tPA and urokinase-type plasminogen activator after HI. It also blocked HI-induced MMP-9 activation and BBB permeability at 24 h of recovery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis showed the PAI-1 treatment reduced brain edema, axonal degeneration, and cortical cell death at 24-48 h of recovery. Finally, the PAI-1 therapy provided a dose-dependent decrease of brain tissue loss at 7 d of recovery, with the therapeutic window at 4 h after the HI insult. Together, these results suggest that the brain PA system plays a pivotal role in neonatal cerebral HI and may be a promising therapeutic target in infants suffering hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  11. Voluntary Running Prevents Progressive Memory Decline and Increases Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Growth Factor Expression After Whole-Brain Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Pfau, Madeline L.; Flores, Catherine T.; Fraser, Jennifer A.; Williams, Christina L.; Jones, Lee W.

    2010-01-01

    Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on spatial learning and memory retention, and determined whether voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and up to four months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice received daily voluntary wheel access starting one month after sham- or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunolabeling and ELISA indicated that this behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration of newborn BrdU+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor, and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy. Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity, thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:20884629

  12. Inhibition of brain prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 prevents the preparturient increase in fetal adrenocorticotropin secretion in the sheep fetus.

    PubMed

    Gersting, Jason; Schaub, Christine E; Keller-Wood, Maureen; Wood, Charles E

    2008-08-01

    Maturation of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is critical for the timely somatic development of the fetus and readiness for birth. Recently, we proposed that prostaglandin generation within the fetal central nervous system is critical for the modulation of hypotension-induced fetal ACTH secretion. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the preparturient increase in fetal ACTH secretion is dependent upon fetal central nervous system prostaglandin synthesis mediated by the activity of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGHS)-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) in the fetal brain. We performed two studies in chronically catheterized fetal sheep. In the first study, we infused nimesulide or vehicle intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v) into singleton fetal sheep and collected blood samples until spontaneous parturition. Nimesulide significantly delayed parturition, and inhibited fetal ACTH and proopiomelanocortin secretion but did not prevent the preparturient increase in fetal plasma cortisol concentration. In the second study, we used twin fetuses. One fetus received intracerebroventricular nimesulide and the other intracerebroventricular vehicle. Nimesulide reduced brain tissue concentrations of prostaglandin estradiol, while not affecting plasma prostaglandin E(2) concentrations, demonstrating an action restricted to the fetal brain. Nimesulide reduced PGHS-2 mRNA and increased PGHS-2 protein, while not altering PGHS-1 mRNA or protein in most brain regions, suggesting an effect of the inhibitor on PGHS-2 turnover and relative specificity for PGHS-2 in vivo. We conclude that the preparturient increase in fetal ACTH and proopiomelanocortin is dependent upon the activity of PGHS-2 in the fetal brain. However, we also conclude that the timing of parturition is not solely dependent upon ACTH in this species.

  13. The Role of Posttraumatic Hypothermia in Preventing Dendrite Degeneration and Spine Loss after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan-fang; Zhao, Cheng-cheng; Jiang, Gan; Gu, Xiao; Feng, Jun-feng; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic hypothermia prevents cell death and promotes functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known regarding the effect of hypothermia on dendrite degeneration and spine loss after severe TBI. In the present study, we used thy1-GFP transgenic mice to investigate the effect of hypothermia on the dendrites and spines in layer V/VI of the ipsilateral cortex after severe TBI. We found that hypothermia (33 °C) dramatically prevented dendrite degeneration and spine loss 1 and 7 days after CCI. The Morris water maze test revealed that hypothermia preserved the learning and memory functions of mice after CCI. Hypothermia significantly increased the expression of the synaptic proteins GluR1 and PSD-95 at 1 and 7 days after CCI in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus compared with that of the normothermia TBI group. Hypothermia also increased cortical and hippocampal BDNF levels. These results suggest that posttraumatic hypothermia is an effective method to prevent dendrite degeneration and spine loss and preserve learning and memory function after severe TBI. Increasing cortical and hippocampal BDNF levels might be the mechanism through which hypothermia prevents dendrite degeneration and spine loss and preserves learning and memory function. PMID:27833158

  14. Increased folate uptake prevents dietary development of folate deficiency in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    McMartin, K.E.; Collins, T.D.; Eisenga, B.H.; Bhandari, S.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Folic acid and folate deficiency have been implicated in disorders of the central nervous system. In a study of the mechanism for the effects of chronic ethanol on folate homeostasis, the uptake of {sup 3}H-folic acid by the rat brain has been studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed sulfonamide-supplemented folate-sufficient and folate-deficient liquid diets containing either ethanol or isoenergic carbohydrate as a control. After 16 weeks, severe folate depletion occurred in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung intestine, testes), but not in the brain. Tissue retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was increased four-fold in the brain of folate-deficient rats. A smaller increase in uptake was observed in the other tissues, except for the liver, in which the retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was slightly decreased. Chronic ethanol feeding decreased hepatic folate uptake, but not that by the increase the uptake of folate from the plasma of folate-deficient rats, thereby inhibiting the development of brain folate deficiency.

  15. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the aversive effects of obesity on locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Tina; Ketterer, Caroline; Kullmann, Stephanie; Balzer, Michelle; Rotermund, Carola; Binder, Sonja; Hallschmid, Manfred; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Somoza, Veronika; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2012-07-01

    Fat and physical inactivity are the most evident factors in the pathogenesis of obesity, and fat quality seems to play a crucial role for measures of glucose homeostasis. However, the impact of dietary fat quality on brain function, behavior, and sleep is basically unknown. In this study, mice were fed a diet supplemented with either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their impact on glucose homeostasis, locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior was evaluated. MUFAs and SFAs led to a significant increase in fat mass but only feeding of SFAs was accompanied by glucose intolerance in mice. Radiotelemetry revealed a significant decrease in cortical activity in SFA-mice whereas MUFAs even improved activity. SFAs decreased wakefulness and increased non-rapid eye movement sleep. An intracerebroventricular application of insulin promoted locomotor activity in MUFA-fed mice, whereas SFA-mice were resistant. In humans, SFA-enriched diet led to a decrease in hippocampal and cortical activity determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Together, dietary intake of MUFAs promoted insulin action in the brain with its beneficial effects for cortical activity, locomotion, and sleep, whereas a comparable intake of SFAs acted as a negative modulator of brain activity in mice and humans.

  16. The immunology of traumatic brain injury: a prime target for Alzheimer’s disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A global health problem, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is especially prevalent in the current era of ongoing world military conflicts. Its pathological hallmark is one or more primary injury foci, followed by a spread to initially normal brain areas via cascades of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines resulting in an amplification of the original tissue injury by microglia and other central nervous system immune cells. In some cases this may predispose individuals to later development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The inflammatory-based progression of TBI has been shown to be active in humans for up to 17 years post TBI. Unfortunately, all neuroprotective drug trials have failed, and specific treatments remain less than efficacious. These poor results might be explained by too much of a scientific focus on neurons without addressing the functions of microglia in the brain, which are at the center of proinflammatory cytokine generation. To address this issue, we provide a survey of the TBI-related brain immunological mechanisms that may promote progression to AD. We discuss these immune and microglia-based inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression of post-trauma brain damage to AD. Flavonoid-based strategies to oppose the antigen-presenting cell-like inflammatory phenotype of microglia will also be reviewed. The goal is to provide a rationale for investigations of inflammatory response following TBI which may represent a pathological link to AD. In the end, a better understanding of neuroinflammation could open therapeutic avenues for abrogation of secondary cell death and behavioral symptoms that may mediate the progression of TBI to later AD. PMID:22849382

  17. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans.

  18. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Fares, Raafat P; Belmeguenai, Amor; Sanchez, Pascal E; Kouchi, Hayet Y; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

  19. Predicting and Preventing Skull Overheating in Non Invasive Brain HIFU Treatment Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Pernot, Mathieu; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Tanter, Mickael; Fink, Mathias

    2005-03-28

    Ultrasound brain therapy is currently limited by the strong phase and amplitude aberrations induced by the heterogeneities of the skull. However the development of aberration correction techniques has made it possible to correct the beam distortion induced by the skull and to produce a sharp focus in the brain. Moreover, using the density of the skull bone that can be obtained with high-resolution CT scans, the corrections needed to produce this sharp focus can be calculated using ultrasound propagation models. We propose here a model for computing the temperature elevation in the skull during High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) transcranial therapy. Based on CT scans, the wave propagation through the skull is computed with 3D finite differences wave propagation software. The acoustic simulation is combined with a 3D thermal diffusion code and the temperature elevation inside the skull is computed. Finally, the simulation is validated experimentally by measuring the temperature elevation in several locations of the skull.

  20. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Huang, Q L; Zhao, C M; Tang, J L; Wang, Y L

    2011-06-01

    White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05) and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05). Injection of GM1 increased the content of GM1 in lipid rafts as well as NF155 expression and its lipid raft association in HIBD rat brains. GM1 may repair the structure of lipid rafts, promote the association of NF155 (or other important proteins) with lipid rafts, stabilize the structure of paranodes, and eventually prevent myelin sheath damage, suggesting a novel mechanism for its neuroprotective properties.

  1. Exercise for the diabetic brain: how physical training may help prevent dementia and Alzheimer's disease in T2DM patients.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Sebastian; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review, which is based on recent studies, presents a molecular framework that links the two diseases and explains how physical training could help counteract neurodegeneration in T2DM patients. Inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic changes in T2DM patients cause cerebrovascular complications and can lead to blood-brain-barrier (BBB) breakdown. Peripherally increased pro-inflammatory molecules can then pass the BBB more easily and activate stress-activated pathways, thereby promoting key pathological features of dementia/AD such as brain insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, leading to synaptic loss, neuronal dysfunction, and cell death. Ceramides can also pass the BBB, induce pro-inflammatory reactions, and disturb brain insulin signaling. In a vicious circle, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory environment intensify, leading to further cognitive decline. Low testosterone levels might be a common risk factor in T2DM and AD. Regular physical exercise reinforces antioxidative capacity, reduces oxidative stress, and has anti-inflammatory effects. It improves endothelial function and might increase brain capillarization. Physical training can further counteract dyslipidemia and reduce increased ceramide levels. It might also improve Aβ clearance by up-regulating Aβ transporters and, in some cases, increase basal testosterone levels. In addition, regular physical activity can induce neurogenesis. Physical training should therefore be emphasized as a part of prevention programs developed for diabetic patients to minimize the risk of the onset of neurodegenerative diseases among this specific patient group.

  2. Prevention of venous thrombotic events in brain injury: review of current practices.

    PubMed

    Glassner, Stuart; Srivastava, Karan; Cofnas, Paul; Deegan, Brian; Demaria, Peter; Denis, Rimsky; Ginzburg, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic event after traumatic brain injury represents a unique clinical challenge. Physicians must balance appropriate timing of chemoprophylaxis with risk of increased cerebral hemorrhage. Despite an increase in the literature since the 1990s, there are clear disparities in treatment strategies. This review discusses the prominent studies and subsequent findings regarding the topic with an attempt to establish recommendations using the existing evidence-based literature.

  3. Brain death provokes very acute alteration in myocardial morphology detected by echocardiography: preventive effect of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, René; Hadour, Guylaine; Tamion, Fabienne; Henry, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Paul; Richard, Vincent; Thuillez, Christian; Ovize, Michel; Derumeaux, Geneviève

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate immediate acute changes in myocardial function during the autonomic storm of brain death (BD). Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/group): controls without any treatment, β-blocker (Esmolol®, 10 mg/kg), calcium channel blocker (Diltiazem®, 10 mg/kg), or alpha-blocker (Prazosin®, 0.3 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intravenously 5 min before BD induction. Echocardiography (ATL-5000, 8 MHz) was performed to measure left ventricular (LV) dimensions and fractional shortening at baseline, during BD induction and 5 min and 15 min after BD. In controls, BD was immediately associated with an increase in wall thickness and a decrease in LV cavity dimension. This myocardial wall hypertrophy was completely prevented by β-blockers, but not with calcium- and alpha-blockers. Extensive myocardial interstitial edema was found in all groups, except in the β-blocker group. Myocardial wall hypertrophy was also prevented during a longer follow-up of 180 min after BD in β-blocker group as opposed to controls. In conclusion, BD is associated with an immediate and severe myocardial damage related to an important interstitial edema which is prevented by β-blockers.

  4. Active sleep and its role in the prevention of apoptosis in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael J; Duntley, S P; Anch, A M; Nonneman, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify a possible function of Active Sleep (AS), also known as Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) in humans, as a protective state during early Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Previous research suggest pharmacological agents that inhibit high levels of neuronal activity in the CNS (e.g., benzodiazepines, ethanol, and anesthetics) precipitate massive CNS programmed cell death (PCD), in developing mammals. AS is characterized by high levels of CNS activity at levels comparable to waking. AS occupies up to 75% of the circadian cycle in developing mammals (rodents from postnatal days 1-14 days (p1-p14), and humans from prenatal month seven to postnatal year one). Many studies have implicated AS as having an active role in the normal development of the visual system and have documented myriad behavioral anomalies as a result of AS deprivation. Reduced adult brain mass has also been observed after AS deprivation in developing rats during this period, however, no study to date has documented this process as it occurs (i.e., the cellular mechanisms that result in behavioral anomalies or reduced adult brain mass). The purpose of this study is to begin documentation of this process by utilizing histological techniques that identify the PCD process, if it occurs, after acute and prolonged AS deprivation in rats from ages p7 to p14 (a time of active synaptogenesis). Our methodology includes utilization of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine, to deprive rat pups of AS at ages varying from p7 to p14. Pilot data from our laboratory has shown that an acute exposure to clonidine significantly reduces time spent in AS. The animals that were AS deprived also showed a statistically significant decrease in brain mass and have stained positively for PCD. If our hypotheses are correct, this research will have major implications with regard to determining the function(s) of REM sleep.

  5. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging.

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, J Eric; Geda, Yonas E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2011-09-01

    A rapidly growing literature strongly suggests that exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, may attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. We used PubMed (keywords exercise and cognition) and manuscript bibliographies to examine the published evidence of a cognitive neuroprotective effect of exercise. Meta-analyses of prospective studies documented a significantly reduced risk of dementia associated with midlife exercise; similarly, midlife exercise significantly reduced later risks of mild cognitive impairment in several studies. Among patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documented better cognitive scores after 6 to 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls. Meta-analyses of RCTs of aerobic exercise in healthy adults were also associated with significantly improved cognitive scores. One year of aerobic exercise in a large RCT of seniors was associated with significantly larger hippocampal volumes and better spatial memory; other RCTs in seniors documented attenuation of age-related gray matter volume loss with aerobic exercise. Cross-sectional studies similarly reported significantly larger hippocampal or gray matter volumes among physically fit seniors compared with unfit seniors. Brain cognitive networks studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging display improved connectivity after 6 to 12 months of exercise. Animal studies indicate that exercise facilitates neuroplasticity via a variety of biomechanisms, with improved learning outcomes. Induction of brain neurotrophic factors by exercise has been confirmed in multiple animal studies, with indirect evidence for this process in humans. Besides a brain neuroprotective effect, physical exercise may also attenuate cognitive decline via mitigation of cerebrovascular risk, including the contribution of small vessel disease to dementia. Exercise should not be overlooked as an important therapeutic strategy.

  6. Estradiol prevents ozone-induced increases in brain lipid peroxidation and impaired social recognition memory in female rats.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Guzmán, R; Arriaga, V; Kendrick, K M; Bernal, C; Vega, X; Mercado-Gómez, O F; Rivas-Arancibia, S

    2009-03-31

    There is increasing concern about the neurodegenerative and behavioral consequences of ozone pollution in industrialized urban centers throughout the world and that women may be more susceptible to brain neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic (30 or 60 days) exposure to ozone on olfactory perception and memory and on levels of lipid peroxidation, alpha and beta estrogen receptors and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb in ovariectomized female rats. The ability of 17beta-estradiol to prevent these effects was then assessed. Results showed that ozone exposure for 30 or 60 days impaired formation/retention of a selective olfactory recognition memory 120 min after exposure to a juvenile stimulus animal with the effect at 60 days being significantly greater than at 30 days. They also showed impaired speed in locating a buried chocolate reward after 60 days of ozone exposure indicating some loss of olfactory perception. These functional impairments could all be prevented by coincident estradiol treatment. In the olfactory bulb, levels of lipid peroxidation were increased at both 30- and 60-day time-points and numbers of cells with immunohistochemical staining for alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase were reduced as were alpha and beta estrogen receptor protein levels. These effects were prevented by estradiol treatment. Oxidative stress damage caused by chronic exposure to ozone does therefore impair olfactory perception and social recognition memory and may do so by reducing noradrenergic and estrogen receptor activity in the olfactory bulb. That these effects can be prevented by estradiol treatment suggests increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders in aging women may be contributed to by reduced estrogen levels post-menopause.

  7. Physical training prevents depressive symptoms and a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tuon, T; Valvassori, S S; Dal Pont, G C; Paganini, C S; Pozzi, B G; Luciano, T F; Souza, P S; Quevedo, J; Souza, C T; Pinho, R A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Many studies have suggested that physical exercise can have an antidepressant effect by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and may also prevent neurodegenerative disease. However, different forms of training may promote different changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of physical training on depressive-like behavior, and on the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB, in a mouse model of PD. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 days of exercise: either running on a treadmill or performing a strength exercise. PD was induced by striatal administration of 6-OHDA 24h after the last physical exercise session. Seven days after 6-OHDA injection, depressive-like behavior and apomorphine-induced rotational behavior were evaluated. The levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TRKB were measured in the striatum and the hippocampus of mice by immunoblotting assay. The 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant increase in immobility time and rotational behavior compared with the control group. In addition, significant decreases in the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB were observed in the 6-OHDA group. Both types of physical exercise prevented depressive-like behavior and restored the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TrkB in the striatum and hippocampus of mice administered 6-OHDA. Our results demonstrate that exercise training was effective for neuroprotection in the striatum and the hippocampus in an experimental model of PD.

  8. Sodium sulfide prevents water diffusion abnormality in the brain and improves long term outcome after cardiac arrest in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Kotaro; Minamishima, Shizuka; Wang, Huifang; Ren, JiaQian; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Nozari, Ala; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Ichinose, Fumito

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Previously we demonstrated that administration of sodium sulfide (Na2S), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, markedly improved the neurological outcome and survival rate at 24h after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Na2S and its impact on the long-term survival after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min at 37°C whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. Mice received Na2S (0.55 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle 1 min before CPR. Results Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and received vehicle exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/12) and depressed neurological function. Cardiac arrest and CPR induced abnormal water diffusion in the vulnerable regions of the brain, as demonstrated by hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 24h after CA/CPR. Extent of hyperintense DWI was associated with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, worse neurological outcomes, and poor survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR. Administration of Na2S prevented the development of abnormal water diffusion and MMP-9 activation and markedly improved neurological function and long-term survival (9/12, P<0.05 vs. vehicle) after CA/CPR. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of Na2S 1 min before CPR improves neurological function and survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR by preventing water diffusion abnormality in the brain potentially via inhibiting MMP-9 activation early after resuscitation. PMID:22370005

  9. L-carnitine Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Brains of Rats Subjected to a Chemically Induced Chronic Model of MSUD.

    PubMed

    Mescka, Caroline Paula; Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Schirmbeck, Gabriel; da Rosa, Thales Hein; Catarino, Felipe; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Guerreiro, Gilian; Sitta, Angela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2016-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or branched-chain α-keto aciduria, is an inherited disorder that is caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD) activity. Blockade of this pathway leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, and their respective ketoacids in tissues. The main clinical symptoms presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, opisthotonos, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, convulsions, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation. Although increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of this disease, the mechanisms of the brain damage caused by this disorder remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BCAAs on some oxidative stress parameters and evaluated the efficacy of L-carnitine (L-car), an efficient antioxidant that may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in some inherited neurometabolic diseases, against these possible pro-oxidant effects of a chronic MSUD model in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats. Our results showed that chronic BCAA administration was able to promote both lipid and protein oxidation, impair brain antioxidant defenses, and increase reactive species production, particularly in the cerebral cortex, and that L-car was able to prevent these effects. Taken together, the present data indicate that chronic BCAA administration significantly increased oxidative damage in the brains of rats subjected to a chronic model of MSUD and that L-car may be an efficient antioxidant in this disorder.

  10. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  11. Physical Activity, Cognitive Function, and Brain Health: What Is the Role of Exercise Training in the Prevention of Dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Sara M.; Parker, Beth; Thompson, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The population of elderly adults in the US is growing, and the prevalence of age-related cognitive decline and dementia is expected to increase in turn. Effective and inexpensive interventions or preventive measures are necessary to attenuate the increased economic and social burden of dementia. This review will focus on the potential for physical activity and exercise training to promote brain health and improve cognitive function via neurophysiological changes. We will review pertinent animal and human research examining the effects of physical activity on cognitive function and neurophysiology. We will discuss cross-sectional and longitudinal studies addressing the relationship between neurocognitive health and cardiorespiratory fitness or habitual activity level. We will then present and discuss longitudinal investigations examining the effects of exercise training on cognitive function and neurophysiology. We will conclude by summarizing our current understanding of the relationship between physical activity and brain health, and present areas for future research given the current gaps in our understanding of this issue. PMID:24961266

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and prevent behavior deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Chao, Honglu; Li, Zheng; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Yinlong; Bao, Zhongyuan; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation. GW1100, a GPR40 inhibitor, eliminated the anti-inflammatory effect of ω-3 FAs after TBI. β-Arrestin-2 (ARRB2), a downstream scaffold protein of GPR40, was activated to inhibit inflammation via directly binding with NLRP3 in the ω-3 FAs treatment group. Interestingly, we also observed that ω-3 FAs prevented NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, which was reversed by GW1100. Furthermore, ω-3 FAs markedly ameliorated neuronal death and behavioral deficits after TBI, while GW1100 significantly suppressed this effect. Collectively, these data indicate that the GPR40-mediated pathway is involved in the inhibitory effects of ω-3 FAs on TBI-induced inflammation and ARRB2 is activated to interact with NLRP3.

  13. Periodic Estrogen Receptor-Beta Activation: A Novel Approach to Prevent Ischemic Brain Damage.

    PubMed

    Cue, Lauren; Diaz, Francisca; Briegel, Karoline J; Patel, Hersila H; Raval, Ami P

    2015-10-01

    In women, the risk for cerebral ischemia climbs rapidly after menopause. At menopause, production of ovarian hormones; i.e., progesterone and estrogen, slowly diminishes. Estrogen has been suggested to confer natural protection to premenopausal women from ischemic stroke and some of its debilitating consequences. This notion is also strongly supported by laboratory studies showing that a continuous chronic 17β-estradiol (E2; a potent estrogen) regimen protects brain from ischemic injury. However, concerns regarding the safety of the continuous intake of E2 were raised by the failed translation to the clinic. Recent studies demonstrated that repetitive periodic E2 pretreatments, in contrast to continuous E2 treatment, provided neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia in ovariectomized rats. Periodic E2 pretreatment protects hippocampal neurons through activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). Apart from neuroprotection, periodic activation of ER-β in ovariectomized rats significantly improves hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Difficulties in learning and memory loss are the major consequence of ischemic brain damage. Periodic ER-β agonist pretreatment may provide pharmacological access to a protective state against ischemic stroke and its debilitating consequences. The use of ER-β-selective agonists constitutes a safer target for future research than ER-α agonist or E2, inasmuch as it lacks the ability to stimulate the proliferation of breast or endometrial tissue. In this review, we highlight ER-β signaling as a guide for future translational research to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women, while avoiding the side effects produced by chronic E2 treatment.

  14. Nicotinamide prevents the down-regulation of MEK/ERK/p90RSK signaling cascade in brain ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin-Hee; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinamide attenuates neuronal cell death related to focal cerebral ischemic injury. This study investigated whether nicotinamide exerts a neuroprotective effect through the activation of Raf- mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-ERK and its downstream targets, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) or vehicle 2 hr after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brains were collected 24 hr after MCAO. In the present study, nicotinamide significantly reduces the volume of infarct regions and decreases the number of positive cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in the cerebral cortex. Nicotinamide prevents injury-induced decrease in Raf-1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. As part of the downstream cascade, nicotinamide inhibits the injury-induced decrease in p90RSK and Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, nicotinamide prevents the injury-induced increase in cleaved caspase-3 levels. These findings suggest that nicotinamide protects neuronal cells against cerebral ischemic injury and that MEK-ERK-p90RSK cascade activation by nicotinamide contributes to these neuroprotective effects.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent cdk1 inhibition prevents G2/M progression in differentiating tetraploid neurons.

    PubMed

    Ovejero-Benito, María C; Frade, José M

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is often associated with DNA synthesis in neurons, the latter usually remaining for a long time as tetraploid cells before dying by apoptosis. The molecular mechanism preventing G2/M transition in these neurons remains unknown, but it may be reminiscent of the mechanism that maintains tetraploid retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a G2-like state during normal development, thus preventing their death. Here we show that this latter process, known to depend on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), requires the inhibition of cdk1 by TrkB. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of chick RGCs previously shown to become tetraploid co-expresses TrkB and cdk1 in vivo. By using an in vitro system that recapitulates differentiation and cell cycle re-entry of chick retinal neurons we show that BDNF, employed at concentrations specific for the TrkB receptor, reduces the expression of cdk1 in TrkB-positive, differentiating neurons. In this system, BDNF also inhibits the activity of both endogenous cdk1 and exogenously-expressed cdk1/cyclin B1 complex. This inhibition correlates with the phosphorylation of cdk1 at Tyr15, an effect that can be prevented with K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor commonly used to prevent the activity of neurotrophins through their Trk receptors. The effect of BDNF on cdk1 activity is Tyr15-specific since BDNF cannot prevent the activity of a constitutively active form of cdk1 (Tyr15Phe) when expressed in differentiating retinal neurons. We also show that BDNF-dependent phosphorylation of cdk1 at Tyr15 could not be blocked with MK-1775, a Wee1-selective inhibitor, indicating that Tyr15 phosphorylation in cdk1 does not seem to occur through the canonical mechanism observed in proliferating cells. We conclude that the inhibition of both expression and activity of cdk1 through a BDNF-dependent mechanism contributes to the maintenance of tetraploid RGCs in a G2-like state.

  16. Magnesium Sulfate Prevents Placental Ischemia-Induced Increases in Brain Water Content and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokines in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linda W.; Warrington, Junie P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines. To test this hypothesis, MgSO4 was administered via mini-osmotic pump (60 mg/day, i.p.) to pregnant and placental ischemic rats, induced by mechanical reduction of uterine perfusion pressure, from gestational day 14–19. This treatment regimen of MgSO4 led to therapeutic level of 2.8 ± 0.6 mmol/L Mg in plasma. MgSO4 had no effect on improving placental ischemia-induced changes in mean arterial pressure, number of live fetuses, or fetal and placental weight. Placental ischemia increased, while MgSO4 prevented the increase in water content in the anterior cerebrum. Cytokine and chemokine levels were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid using a multi-plex assay. Results demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid, obtained via the cisterna magna, had reduced protein, albumin, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-18, IL-2, eotaxin, fractalkine, interferon gamma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 following MgSO4 treatment. These data support the hypothesis that MgSO4 offers neuroprotection by preventing placental ischemia-induced cerebral edema and reducing levels of cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:28008305

  17. Ferrous Iron Induces Nrf2 Expression in Mouse Brain Astrocytes to Prevent Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenwen; Zhong, Zhihong; Yang, Yong; Wang, Baofeng; Sun, Yuhao; Sun, Qingfang; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Bian, Liuguan

    2016-08-01

    Free radical damage caused by ferrous iron is involved in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a major phase II gene regulator that binds to antioxidant response element, represents an important cellular cytoprotective mechanism against oxidative damage. We hypothesized that Nrf2 might protect astrocytes from damage by Fe(2+) . Therefore, we examined cytotoxicity in primary astrocytes induced by iron overload and evaluated the effects of Fe(2+) on Nrf2 expression. The results demonstrated that 24-h Fe(2+) exposure exerted time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in astrocytes. Furthermore, Fe(2+) exposure in astrocytes resulted in time- and concentration-dependent increases in Nrf2 expression, which preceded Fe(2+) toxicity. Nrf2-specific siRNA further knocked down Nrf2 levels, resulting in greater Fe(2+) -induced astrocyte cytotoxicity. These data indicate that induction of Nrf2 expression could serve as an adaptive self-defense mechanism, although it is insufficient to completely protect primary astrocytes from Fe(2+) -induced neurotoxicity.

  18. Rosuvastatin reduces microglia in the brain of wild type and ApoE knockout mice on a high cholesterol diet; implications for prevention of stroke and AD.

    PubMed

    Famer, D; Wahlund, L-O; Crisby, M

    2010-11-12

    We have previously shown that a high cholesterol (HC) diet results in increases in microglia load and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the brains of wild type (WT) and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. In the present investigation, we analyzed whether treatment with rosuvastatin, an inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, would prevent the increases in inflammatory microglia and IL-6 levels in the brain and plasma of WT and ApoE-/- mice. We report that a HC diet resulted in an increased microglia load in the brains of WT and ApoE-/- mice, in support of our previous study. Treatment with rosuvastatin significantly decreased the microglia load in the brains of WT and ApoE-/- mice on a HC diet. Rosuvastatin treatment resulted in lowered plasma IL-6 levels in WT mice on a HC diet. However, in the present study the number of IL-6 positive cells in the brain was not significantly affected by a HC diet. A recent clinical study has shown that rosuvastatin reduces risk of ischemic stroke in patients with high plasma levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein by 50%. The results from our study show that rosuvastatin reduces inflammatory cells in the brain. This finding is essential for furthering the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and stroke.

  19. NAP prevents acute cerebral oxidative stress and protects against long-term brain injury and cognitive impairment in a model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Samuel; de Paula, Simone; de Oliveira, Iuri M; Trindade, Cristiano; Rosa, Renato M; Henriques, João A P; DaCosta, Jaderson C

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common cause of neonatal brain damage with lifelong morbidities in which current therapies are limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of neuropeptide NAP (NAPVSIPQ) on early cerebral oxidative stress, long-term neurological function and brain injury after neonatal HI. Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to an HI model by applying a unilateral carotid artery occlusion and systemic hypoxia. The animals were randomly assigned to groups receiving an intraperitoneal injection of NAP (3 μg/g) or vehicle immediately (0 h) and 24 h after HI. Brain DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined 24 h after the last NAP injection. Cognitive impairment was assessed on postnatal day 60 using the spatial version of the Morris water maze learning task. Next, the animals were euthanized to assess the cerebral hemispheric volume using the Cavalieri principle associated with the counting point method. We observed that NAP prevented the acute HI-induced DNA and lipid membrane damage and also recovered the GSH levels in the injured hemisphere of the HI rat pups. Further, NAP was able to prevent impairments in learning and long-term spatial memory and to significantly reduce brain damage up to 7 weeks following the neonatal HI injury. Our findings demonstrate that NAP confers potent neuroprotection from acute brain oxidative stress, long-term cognitive impairment and brain lesions induced by neonatal HI through, at least in part, the modulation of the glutathione-mediated antioxidant system.

  20. [Multiplicity and prevention for patients with hydrocephalus secondary to severe traumatic brain injury after surgery].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke; Meng, Guangran; Li, Zongzheng; Wang, Faxuan; Ma, Hui

    2015-09-01

    目的:探讨重型颅脑伤(severe traumatic brain injury,STBI)患者术后发生继发性脑积水的相关因素,为临床上如何早期防治继发性脑积水提供指导方案及理论依据。方法:对按同一标准纳入的107例于2010年6月至2013年6月入住宁夏医科大学附属总医院神经外科STBI患者进行前瞻性研究,对年龄、性别、手术前/后格拉斯哥昏迷评分(Glasgow coma scale,GCS)、术后是否继发脑室系统出血、手术前/后颅脑CT中脑导水管及环池结构情况、腰椎穿刺术与继发性脑积水形成之间的关系进行logistic多因素回归分析,探讨术后继发性脑积水的危险因素与保护因素,并着重对保护因素进行分析。结果:多因素回归分析显示:患者术前(OR=0.099,95% CI:0.028~0.350)/术后(OR=0.088,95% CI:0.012~0.649)GCS评分低、术后脑室系统出血(OR=0.168,95% CI:0.029~0.979)、术前(OR=0.134,95% CI:0.038~0.473)/术后(OR=0.221,95% CI:0.055~0.882)颅脑CT中脑导水管及环池结构不清均为STBI术后患者继发性脑积水的危险因素;腰椎穿刺术(OR=75.885,95% CI:9.612~599.122)为STBI术后患者继发性脑积水的保护性因素。且术后脑积水主要发生于术后2周内和2周~3个月,对照组脑积水发生率均明显高于腰椎穿刺组(P<0.05),术后3个月后2组之间继发性脑积水发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。 结论:对于STBI术后患者,在生命体征稳定的情况下,早期辅以行腰椎穿刺术可显著降低术后急性期、亚急性期继发性脑积水的发生率,改善患者预后。.

  1. Adaptive Immune Responses to Zika Virus Are Important for Controlling Virus Infection and Preventing Infection in Brain and Testes.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Clayton W; Myers, Lara M; Woods, Tyson A; Messer, Ronald J; Carmody, Aaron B; McNally, Kristin L; Scott, Dana P; Hasenkrug, Kim J; Best, Sonja M; Peterson, Karin E

    2017-03-22

    The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models. Thus, as we show in this article, although wild-type C57BL/6 mice mount cell-mediated and humoral adaptive immune responses to ZIKV, these responses were not required to prevent disease. However, when the type I IFN response of mice was suppressed, then the adaptive immune responses became critical. For example, when type I IFN signaling was blocked by Abs in Rag1(-/-) mice, the mice showed dramatic weight loss and ZIKV infection in the brain and testes. This phenotype was not observed in Ig-treated Rag1(-/-) mice or wild-type mice treated with anti-type I IFNR alone. Furthermore, we found that the CD8(+) T cell responses of pregnant mice to ZIKV infection were diminished compared with nonpregnant mice. It is possible that diminished cell-mediated immunity during pregnancy could increase virus spread to the fetus. These results demonstrate an important role for the adaptive immune response in the control of ZIKV infection and imply that vaccination may prevent ZIKV-related disease, particularly when the type I IFN response is suppressed as it is in humans.

  2. Nourish Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tags: brain, brain-healthy, cognitive decline, dementia, diet, exercise, health, lifestyle Family Health, Prevention and Wellness, Seniors, Staying Healthy December 2010 Copyright © American Academy of ...

  3. Arterial line blood sampling: preventing hypoglycaemic brain injury 2014: the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, T E; Cook, T M; Gupta, K J; Hartle, A

    2014-04-01

    Drawing samples from an indwelling arterial line is the method of choice for frequent blood analysis in adult critical care areas. Sodium chloride 0.9% is the recommended flush solution for maintaining the patency of arterial catheters, but it is easy to confuse with glucose-containing bags on rapid visual examination. The unintentional use of a glucose-containing solution has resulted in artefactually high glucose concentrations in blood samples drawn from the arterial line, leading to insulin administration causing hypoglycaemia and fatal neuroglycopenic brain injury. Recent data show that it remains a common error for incorrect fluids to be administered as arterial line flush infusions. Adherence to the National Patient Safety Agency's 2008 Rapid Response Report on this topic may not be enough to prevent such errors. This guideline makes detailed recommendations on the prescription, checking and administration of arterial line infusions in adult practice. We also make recommendations about storage, arterial pressure monitoring and sampling systems and techniques. Finally, we make recommendations about glucose monitoring and insulin administration. It is intended that adherence to these guidelines will reduce the frequency of sample contamination errors in arterial line use and capture events, when they do occur, before they cause patient harm.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor improves brain insulin sensitivity, but fails to prevent cognitive impairment in orchiectomy obese rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-08-01

    It is unclear whether the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor can counteract brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived obese rats. We hypothesized that DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats received either a sham-operated (S, n=6) or bilateral orchiectomy (ORX, n=24). ORX rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a normal diet (ND (NDO)) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n=6/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle or vildagliptin (3 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 4 weeks. After treatment, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and brain mitochondrial function were determined in each rat. We found that HFO rats exhibited peripheral and brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline. NDO rats did not develop peripheral and brain insulin resistance. However, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline occurred. Vildagliptin significantly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, restored brain insulin sensitivity and decreased brain mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in HFO rats. However, vildagliptin did not restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in both NDO and HFO rats. These findings suggest that vildagliptin could not counteract the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived subjects, despite its effects on improved peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity as well as brain mitochondrial function.

  5. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... been linked to the buildup of fatty substances (atherosclerosis) in the carotid artery, the main neck artery ... disability. The most common blood vessel disease is atherosclerosis. Hypertension promotes atherosclerosis and causes mechanical damage to ...

  6. Potential of the Antibody Against cis-Phosphorylated Tau in the Early Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Alzheimer Disease and Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun Ping; Kondo, Asami; Albayram, Onder; Herbert, Megan K; Liu, Hekun; Zhou, Xiao Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) share a common neuropathologic signature-neurofibrillary tangles made of phosphorylated tau-but do not have the same pathogenesis or symptoms. Although whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) could cause AD has not been established, CTE is shown to be associated with TBI. Until recently, whether and how TBI leads to tau-mediated neurodegeneration was unknown. The unique prolyl isomerase Pin1 protects against the development of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in AD by converting the phosphorylated Thr231-Pro motif in tau (ptau) from the pathogenic cis conformation to the physiologic trans conformation, thereby restoring ptau function. The recent development of antibodies able to distinguish and eliminate both conformations specifically has led to the discovery of cis-ptau as a precursor of tau-induced pathologic change and an early driver of neurodegeneration that directly links TBI to CTE and possibly to AD. Within hours of TBI in mice or neuronal stress in vitro, neurons prominently produce cis-ptau, which causes and spreads cis-ptau pathologic changes, termed cistauosis. Cistauosis eventually leads to widespread tau-mediated neurodegeneration and brain atrophy. Cistauosis is effectively blocked by the cis-ptau antibody, which targets intracellular cis-ptau for proteasome-mediated degradation and prevents extracellular cis-ptau from spreading to other neurons. Treating TBI mice with cis-ptau antibody not only blocks early cistauosis but also prevents development and spreading of tau-mediated neurodegeneration and brain atrophy and restores brain histopathologic features and functional outcomes. Thus, cistauosis is a common early disease mechanism for AD, TBI, and CTE, and cis-ptau and its antibody may be useful for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these devastating diseases.

  7. Training the brain: practical applications of neural plasticity from the intersection of cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and prevention science.

    PubMed

    Bryck, Richard L; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Prior researchers have shown that the brain has a remarkable ability for adapting to environmental changes. The positive effects of such neural plasticity include enhanced functioning in specific cognitive domains and shifts in cortical representation following naturally occurring cases of sensory deprivation; however, maladaptive changes in brain function and development owing to early developmental adversity and stress have also been well documented. Researchers examining enriched rearing environments in animals have revealed the potential for inducing positive brain plasticity effects and have helped to popularize methods for training the brain to reverse early brain deficits or to boost normal cognitive functioning. In this article, two classes of empirically based methods of brain training in children are reviewed and critiqued: laboratory-based, mental process training paradigms and ecological interventions based upon neurocognitive conceptual models. Given the susceptibility of executive function disruption, special attention is paid to training programs that emphasize executive function enhancement. In addition, a third approach to brain training, aimed at tapping into compensatory processes, is postulated. Study results showing the effectiveness of this strategy in the field of neurorehabilitation and in terms of naturally occurring compensatory processing in human aging lend credence to the potential of this approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Nocturnal decreases in nitric oxide and cyclic GMP contents in the chick brain and their prevention by light.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J M; Pablos, M I; Ortiz, G G; Agapito, M T; Reiter, R J

    1996-10-01

    The diurnal variations in the contents of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP were studied in the chick brain. NO and cyclic GMP contents in the chick brain were lower at night than during the day and were inversely correlated with high night-time tissue melatonin levels. Furthermore, when animals were kept in light at night, tissue melatonin levels remained at low diurnal values, whereas NO and cyclic GMP contents remained high. Since we have previously shown that physiological concentrations of melatonin inhibit nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in different brain areas, the nocturnal decrease in brain NO and cyclic GMP contents may be, in part, a consequence of the nocturnal inhibitory effect of melatonin on NOS activity.

  9. rAAV8-733-Mediated Gene Transfer of CHIP/Stub-1 Prevents Hippocampal Neuronal Death in Experimental Brain Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Miranda, Felipe; Nicoloso-Simões, Elisa; Adão-Novaes, Juliana; Chiodo, Vince; Hauswirth, William W; Linden, Rafael; Chiarini, Luciana Barreto; Petrs-Silva, Hilda

    2017-02-01

    Brain ischemia is a major cause of adult disability and death, and it represents a worldwide health problem with significant economic burden for modern society. The identification of the molecular pathways activated after brain ischemia, together with efficient technologies of gene delivery to the CNS, may lead to novel treatments based on gene therapy. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is an effective platform for gene transfer to the CNS. Here, we used a serotype 8 rAAV bearing the Y733F mutation (rAAV8-733) to overexpress co-chaperone E3 ligase CHIP (also known as Stub-1) in rat hippocampal neurons, both in an oxygen and glucose deprivation model in vitro and in a four-vessel occlusion model of ischemia in vivo. We show that CHIP overexpression prevented neuronal degeneration in both cases and led to a decrease of both eIF2α (serine 51) and AKT (serine 473) phosphorylation, as well as reduced amounts of ubiquitinated proteins following hypoxia or ischemia. These data add to current knowledge of ischemia-related signaling in the brain and suggest that gene therapy based on the role of CHIP in proteostasis may provide a new venue for brain ischemia treatment.

  10. Vasodilation by in vivo activation of astrocyte endfeet via two-photon calcium uncaging as a strategy to prevent brain ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanxin; Mancuso, James; Zhao, Zhen; Li, Xuping; Cheng, Jie; Roman, Gustavo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Decreased cerebral blood flow causes brain ischemia and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In this study, we photomodulated astrocytes in the live animal by a combination of two-photon calcium uncaging in the astrocyte endfoot and in vivo imaging of neurovasculature and astrocytes by intravital two-photon microscopy after labeling with cell type specific fluorescent dyes. Our study demonstrates that photomodulation at the endfoot of a single astrocyte led to a 25% increase in the diameter of a neighboring arteriole, which is a crucial factor regulating cerebral microcirculation in downstream capillaries. Two-photon uncaging in the astrocyte soma or endfoot near veins does not show the same effect on microcirculation. These experimental results suggest that infrared photomodulation on astrocyte endfeet may be a strategy to increase cerebral local microcirculation and thus prevent brain ischemia.

  11. The AT{sub 1} Receptor Antagonist, L-158,809, Prevents or Ameliorates Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Mike E. Payne, Valerie B.S.; Tommasi, Ellen B.S.; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brown, William R.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Olson, John; Zhao Weiling

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, L-158,809, to young adult male rats would prevent or ameliorate fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI)-induced cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Groups of 80 young adult male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F344xBN) rats, 12-14 weeks old, received either: (1) fractionated WBI; 40 Gy of {gamma} rays in 4 weeks, 2 fractions/week, (2) sham-irradiation; (3) WBI plus L-158,809 (20 mg/L drinking water) starting 3 days prior, during, and for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation; and (4) sham-irradiation plus L-158,809 for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation. An additional group of rats (n = 20) received L-158,809 before, during, and for 5 weeks postirradiation, after which they received normal drinking water up to 28 weeks postirradiation. Results: Administration of L-158,809 before, during, and for 28 or 54 weeks after fractionated WBI prevented or ameliorated the radiation-induced cognitive impairment observed 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. Moreover, giving L-158,809 before, during, and for only 5 weeks postirradiation ameliorated the significant cognitive impairment observed 26 weeks postirradiation. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments occurred without any changes in brain metabolites or gross histologic changes assessed at 28 and 54 weeks postirradiation, respectively. Conclusions: Administering L-158,809 before, during, and after fractionated WBI can prevent or ameliorate the chronic, progressive, cognitive impairment observed in rats at 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain tumor patients.

  12. Brain-Permeable Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Hsp90 Prevent α-Synuclein Oligomer Formation and Rescue α-Synuclein-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Putcha, Preeti; Danzer, Karin M.; Kranich, Lisa R.; Scott, Anisa; Silinski, Melanie; Mabbett, Sarah; Hicks, Carol D.; Veal, James M.; Steed, Paul M.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (αsyn) is a hallmark of sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Lewy bodies contain αsyn and several heat shock proteins (Hsp), a family of molecular chaperones up-regulated by the cell under stress. We have previously shown that direct expression of Hsp70 and pharmacological up-regulation of Hsp70 by geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, are protective against αsyn-induced toxicity and prevent aggregation in culture. Here, we use a novel protein complementation assay to screen a series of small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitors for their ability to prevent αsyn oligomerization and rescue toxicity. By use of this assay, we found that several compounds prevented αsyn oligomerization as measured by decreased luciferase activity, led to a reduction in high-molecular-mass oligomeric αsyn, and protected against αsyn cytotoxicity. A lead compound, SNX-0723 (2-fluoro-6-[(3S)-tetrahydrofuran-3-ylamino]-4-(3,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indol-1-yl)benzamide) was determined to have an EC50 for inhibition of αsyn oligomerization of approximately 48 nM and was able to rescue αsyn-induced toxicity. In vivo assessment of SNX-0723 showed significant brain concentrations along with induction of brain Hsp70. With a low EC50, brain permeability, and oral availability, these novel inhibitors represent an exciting new therapeutic strategy for PD. PMID:19934398

  13. Alzheimer's disease and blood-brain barrier function - Why have anti-β-amyloid therapies failed to prevent dementia progression?

    PubMed Central

    Pahnke, Jens; Walker, Lary C.; Scheffler, Katja; Krohn, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Proteopathies of the brain are defined by abnormal, disease-inducing protein deposition that leads to functional abrogation and death of neurons. Immunization trials targeting the removal of amyloid-β plaques in Alzheimer's disease have so far failed to stop the progression of dementia, despite autopsy findings of reduced plaque load. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the relationship between AD pathology and blood-brain barrier function, and propose that the activation of the excretion function of the blood-brain barrier might help to achieve better results in trials targeting the dissolution of cerebral amyloid-β aggregates. We further discuss a possible role of oligomers in limiting the efficacy of immunotherapy. PMID:19481107

  14. Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by methionine without lowering homocysteine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely believed to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate ...

  15. Alpha- and gamma- tocopherol prevent age-related transcriptional alterations in the heart and brain of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the global effects of vitamin E supplementation on aging, we used high density oligonucleotide arrays to measure transcriptional alterations in the heart and brain (neocortex) of 30-month-old B6C3F1 mice supplemented with alpha- and gamma-tocopherol since middle age (15 months). Gene ...

  16. Taurine-like GABA aminotransferase inhibitors prevent rabbit brain slices against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Lorenzo; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Frosini, Maria

    2012-06-01

    The activation of the GABAergic system has been shown to protect brain tissues against the damage that occurs after cerebral ischaemia. On the other hand, the taurine analogues (±)Piperidine-3-sulphonic- (PSA), 2-aminoethane phosphonic- (AEP), 2-(N-acetylamino) cyclohexane sulfonic-acids (ATAHS) and 2-aminobenzene sulfonate-acids (ANSA) have been reported to block GABA metabolism by inhibiting rabbit brain GABA aminotransferase and to increase GABA content in rabbit brain slices. The present investigation explored the neuroprotection provided by GABA, Vigabatrin (VIGA) and taurine analogues in the course of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion induced damage of rabbit brain slices. Tissue damage was assessed by measuring the release of glutamate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during reperfusion and by determining final tissue water gain, measured as the index of cell swelling. GABA (30-300 μM) and VIGA (30-300 μM) significantly antagonised LDH and glutamate release, as well as tissue water gain caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion. Lower (1-10 μM) or higher concentrations (up to 3,000 μM) were ineffective. ANSA, PSA and ATAHS significantly reduced glutamate and LDH release and tissue water gain in a range of concentrations between 30 and 300 μM. Lower (0-10 μM) or higher (up to 3,000 μM) concentrations were ineffective. Both mechanisms suggest hormetic ("U-shaped") effects. These results indicate that the GABAergic system activation performed directly by GABA or indirectly through GABA aminotransferase inhibition is a promising approach for protecting the brain against ischemia and reperfusion-induced damage.

  17. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Foglio, E; Buffoli, B; Exley, C; Rezzani, R; Rodella, L F

    2012-08-01

    Silicon is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and, to date, whether it has a biological role or beneficial effects in humans is not known. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation might have a protective effect both for limiting aluminium absorption across the gut and for the removal of systemic aluminium via the urine, hence, preventing potential accumulation of aluminium in the brain. Since our previous studies demonstrated that aluminium exposure reduces the number of nitrergic neurons, the aim of the present study was to compare the distribution and the morphology of NO-containing neurons in brain cortex of mice exposed to aluminium sulphate dissolved in silicic acid-rich or poor drinking water to assess the potential protective role of silicon against aluminium toxicity in the brain. NADPH-d histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry showed that high concentrations of silicon in drinking water were able to minimize the impairment of the function of nitrergic neurons induced by aluminium administration. We found that silicon protected against aluminium-induced damage to the nitrergic system: in particular, we demonstrated that silicon maintains the number of nitrergic neurons and their expression of nitrergic enzymes at physiological levels, even after a 12 and 15 month exposure to aluminium.

  18. Ecdysterone protects gerbil brain from temporal global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via preventing neuron apoptosis and deactivating astrocytes and microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Feng, Wan-Yu; Wang, Zhan-You; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Ecdysterone (EDS), a common derivative of ecdysteroid, has shown its effects on alleviating cognitive impairment and improving the cognition and memory. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. Using temporal global forebrain ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain injury as a model system, we investigated the roles of EDS in improving cognitive impairment in gerbil. Our results demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of EDS obviously increased the number of surviving neuron cells by Nissl and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining. Indeed, the protecting effects of EDS are because of its ability to prevent the apoptosis of neuron cells as evidenced by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 deactivation in the brain of temporal global forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-treated gerbil. Moreover, EDS administration suppressed the ischemia stimulated activity of astrocytes and microglia cells by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in the brain of gerbil. More importantly, these actions of neurons and astrocytes/microglia cells in response to EDS treatment played pivotal roles in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in the ischemia/reperfusion-injured gerbil. In view of these observations, we not only decipher the mechanisms of EDS in reducing the syndrome of ischemia, but also provide novel perspectives to combat ischemic stroke.

  19. Neurotrophic peptides, ADNF-9 and NAP, prevent alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation in fetal brains of C57BL/6 mouse.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Weedman, Jason M; Nkrumah-Abrokwah, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to induce fetal brain growth deficits at different embryonic stages. We focused this study on investigating the neuroprotective effects against alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation using activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF)-9, a peptide (SALLRSIPA) derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, and NAP, a peptide (NAPVSIPQ) derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein. We used an established fetal alcohol exposure mouse model. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched pregnant females were assigned to the following groups: (1) ethanol liquid diet (ALC) group with 25 % (4.49 %, v/v) ethanol-derived calories, (2) pair-fed (PF) control group, (3) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of ADNF-9 (ALC/ADNF-9) group, (4) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of NAP (ALC/NAP) group, (5) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of ADNF-9 (PF/ADNF-9) group, and (6) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of NAP (PF/NAP) group. On day 15 (E15), fetal brains were collected, weighed, and assayed for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. ADNF-9 or NAP was administered daily from E7 to E15 alongside PF or ALC liquid diet exposure. Our results show that NAP and ADNF-9 significantly prevented alcohol-induced weight reduction of fetal brains. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining; NAP or ADNF-9 administration alongside alcohol exposure significantly prevented alcohol-induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells in primordium of the cingulate cortex and ganglionic eminence. These findings may pave the path toward potential therapeutics against alcohol intoxication during pregnancy stages.

  20. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  1. Flight restriction prevents associative learning deficits but not changes in brain protein-adduct formation during honeybee ageing.

    PubMed

    Tolfsen, Christina C; Baker, Nicholas; Kreibich, Claus; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-04-15

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) senesce within 2 weeks after they discontinue nest tasks in favour of foraging. Foraging involves metabolically demanding flight, which in houseflies (Musca domestica) and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) is associated with markers of ageing such as increased mortality and accumulation of oxidative damage. The role of flight in honeybee ageing is incompletely understood. We assessed relationships between honeybee flight activity and ageing by simulating rain that confined foragers to their colonies most of the day. After 15 days on average, flight-restricted foragers were compared with bees with normal (free) flight: one group that foraged for ∼15 days and two additional control groups, for flight duration and chronological age, that foraged for ∼5 days. Free flight over 15 days on average resulted in impaired associative learning ability. In contrast, flight-restricted foragers did as well in learning as bees that foraged for 5 days on average. This negative effect of flight activity was not influenced by chronological age or gustatory responsiveness, a measure of the bees' motivation to learn. Contrasting their intact learning ability, flight-restricted bees accrued the most oxidative brain damage as indicated by malondialdehyde protein adduct levels in crude cytosolic fractions. Concentrations of mono- and poly-ubiquitinated brain proteins were equal between the groups, whereas differences in total protein amounts suggested changes in brain protein metabolism connected to forager age, but not flight. We propose that intense flight is causal to brain deficits in aged bees, and that oxidative protein damage is unlikely to be the underlying mechanism.

  2. Catalase prevents elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by alcohol in cultured canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: Possible relationship to alcohol-induced stroke and brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyan; Liu, Weimin; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2003-01-15

    Several studies have suggested that alcohol-induced brain injury is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recent findings, that antioxidants (Vitamin E and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)) prevent intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) overload in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells, induced by alcohol, demonstrate indirectly that ROS formation is related to cerebral vascular injury. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that catalase, an hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging enzyme, can prevent or ameliorate alcohol-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). Preincubation of cultured canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells with catalase (20-1000 units/ml) didn't produce any apparent changes from controls in resting levels of [Ca(2+)](i) after 1-3 days. Exposure of the cerebral vascular cells to culture media containing 10-100mM ethanol resulted in significant rises in [Ca(2+)](i) (p<0.01). Although exposure of these cells to a low concentration of catalase (20 units/ml) failed to prevent the increased level of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by ethanol, concomitant addition of higher concentrations of catalase (100-1000 units/ml) and ethanol (10-100mM) inhibited or ameliorated the rises of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by ethanol either at 24h or at 3 days, in a concentration-dependent manner. Catalase, in the range of 100-200 units/ml, inhibited approximately 50% of the [Ca(2+)](i) increases caused by ethanol in the first 24h. Catalase at a concentration of 1000 units/ml inhibited completely excessive [Ca(2+)](i) accumulation. The present results when viewed in light of other recently published data suggest that H(2)O(2) generation may be one of the earliest events triggered by alcohol in alcohol-induced brain-vascular damage, neurobehavioral actions and stroke.

  3. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice.

  4. IL-10 deficiency exacerbates the brain inflammatory response to permanent ischemia without preventing resolution of the lesion

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de Puig, Isabel; Miró, Francesc; Salas-Perdomo, Angélica; Bonfill-Teixidor, Ester; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Márquez-Kisinousky, Leonardo; Planas, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Stroke induces inflammation that can aggravate brain damage. This work examines whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficiency exacerbates inflammation and worsens the outcome of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Expression of IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) increased after ischemia. From day 4, reactive astrocytes showed strong IL-10R immunoreactivity. Interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mice kept in conventional housing showed more mortality after pMCAO than the wild type (WT). This effect was associated with the presence of signs of colitis in the IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that ongoing systemic inflammation was a confounding factor. In a pathogen-free environment, IL-10 deficiency slightly increased infarct volume and neurologic deficits. Induction of proinflammatory molecules in the IL-10 KO brain was similar to that in the WT 6 hours after ischemia, but was higher at day 4, while differences decreased at day 7. Deficiency of IL-10 promoted the presence of more mature phagocytic cells in the ischemic tissue, and enhanced the expression of M2 markers and the T-cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4. These findings agree with a role of IL-10 in attenuating local inflammatory reactions, but do not support an essential function of IL-10 in lesion resolution. Upregulation of alternative immunosuppressive molecules after brain ischemia can compensate, at least in part, the absence of IL-10. PMID:24022622

  5. Train the vessel, gain the brain: physical activity and vessel function and the impact on stroke prevention and outcome in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolf; Endres, Matthias; Dimeo, Fernando; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2013-01-01

    The burden of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is huge and therapeutic options are limited. Physical activity is effective in preventing coronary heart and peripheral artery disease both experimentally and clinically. It is likely that the protective effects of exercise can be extended to both CVD and cognitive impairment. The pleiotropic protective and preventive mechanisms induced by physical activity include increased perfusion as well as mechanisms of collateral recruitment and neovascularization mediated by arterio- and angiogenesis. Physical activity increases the bioavailability of nitric oxide, bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells and growth factors, all of which promote neovascularization. Additionally, shear stress is discussed as a potential mechanism for vessel growth. Moreover, physical activity plays a role in endothelial function and cerebral autoregulation in small- and large-artery CVD. The vascular niche hypothesis highlights the complex interactions of neuro- and angiogenesis for regenerative and repair mechanisms in the human brain. Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate the positive impact of prior physical activity on stroke lesion size and on outcome after stroke. Clinical trials are necessary to further address the impact of physical activity on primary and secondary stroke prevention, outcome and cognitive function.

  6. Brain AVM (Arteriovenous Malformation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a brain scan for another health issue or after the blood vessels rupture and cause bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). Once diagnosed, a brain AVM can often be treated successfully to prevent complications, such as brain damage or stroke. Find out why Mayo Clinic is the best ...

  7. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Abdul-Raouf; Seugnet, Laurent; Klarsfeld, André

    2017-01-01

    Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing) than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1) clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila. PMID:28072817

  8. Selective vasopressin-1a receptor antagonist prevents brain edema, reduces astrocytic cell swelling and GFAP, V1aR and AQP4 expression after focal traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Marmarou, Christina R; Liang, Xiuyin; Abidi, Naqeeb H; Parveen, Shanaz; Taya, Keisuke; Henderson, Scott C; Young, Harold F; Filippidis, Aristotelis S; Baumgarten, Clive M

    2014-09-18

    A secondary and often lethal consequence of traumatic brain injury is cellular edema that we posit is due to astrocytic swelling caused by transmembrane water fluxes augmented by vasopressin-regulated aquaporin-4 (AQP4). We therefore tested whether vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) inhibition would suppress astrocyte AQP4, reduce astrocytic edema, and thereby diminish TBI-induced edematous changes. V1aR inhibition by SR49059 significantly reduced brain edema after cortical contusion injury (CCI) in rat 5h post-injury. Injured-hemisphere brain water content (n=6 animals/group) and astrocytic area (n=3/group) were significantly higher in CCI-vehicle (80.5±0.3%; 18.0±1.4 µm(2)) versus sham groups (78.3±0.1%; 9.5±0.9 µm(2)), and SR49059 blunted CCI-induced increases in brain edema (79.0±0.2%; 9.4±0.8µm(2)). CCI significantly up-regulated GFAP, V1aR and AQP4 protein levels and SR49059 suppressed injury induced up regulation (n=6/group). In CCI-vehicle, sham and CCI-SR49059 groups, GFAP was 1.58±0.04, 0.47±0.02, and 0.81±0.03, respectively; V1aR was 1.00±0.06, 0.45±0.05, and 0.46±0.09; and AQP4 was 2.03±0.34, 0.49±0.04, and 0.92±0.22. Confocal immunohistochemistry gave analogous results. In CCI-vehicle, sham and CCI-SR49059 groups, fluorescence intensity of GFAP was 349±38, 56±5, and 244±30, respectively, V1aR was 601±71, 117.8±14, and 390±76, and AQP4 was 818±117, 158±5, and 458±55 (n=3/group). The results support that edema was predominantly cellular following CCI and documented that V1aR inhibition with SR49059 suppressed injury-induced up regulation of GFAP, V1A and AQP4, blunting edematous changes. Our findings suggest V1aR inhibitors may be potential therapeutic tools to prevent cellular swelling and provide treatment for post-traumatic brain edema.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonism prevents renal damage and the oxidative stress and inflammatory processes affecting the brains of stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Gelosa, Paolo; Banfi, Cristina; Gianella, Anita; Brioschi, Maura; Pignieri, Alice; Nobili, Elena; Castiglioni, Laura; Cimino, Mauro; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic kidney disease is a significant risk for cardiovascular events and stroke regardless of traditional risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists on the tissue damage affecting salt-loaded spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats ( SHRSPs), an animal model that develops a complex pathology characterized by systemic inflammation, hypertension, and proteinuria and leads to end-organ injury (initially renal and subsequently cerebral). Compared with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, the PPARα ligands fenofibrate and clofibrate significantly increased survival (p < 0.001) by delaying the occurrence of brain lesions monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (p < 0.001) and delaying increased proteinuria (p < 0.001). Fenofibrate completely prevented the renal disorder characterized by severe vascular lesions, tubular damage, and glomerular sclerosis, reduced the number of ED-1-positive cells and collagen accumulation, and decreased the renal expression of interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. It also prevented the plasma and urine accumulation of acute-phase and oxidized proteins, suggesting that the protection induced by PPARα agonists was at least partially caused by their anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The results of this study demonstrate that PPAR agonism has beneficial effects on spontaneous brain and renal damage in SHRSPs by inhibiting systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, and they support carrying out future studies aimed at evaluating the effect of PPARα agonists on proteinuria and clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients with renal disease at increased risk of stroke.

  10. Administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist pioglitazone during fractionated brain irradiation prevents radiation-induced cognitive impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Weiling; Payne, Valerie; Tommasi, Ellen; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, F.-C.; Robbins, Mike E. . E-mail: mrobbins@wfubmc.edu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the anti-inflammatory peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone (Pio) to adult male rats would inhibit radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Methods and Materials: Young adult male F344 rats received one of the following: (1) fractionated whole brain irradiation (WBI); 40 or 45 Gy {gamma}-rays in 4 or 4.5 weeks, respectively, two fractions per week and normal diet; (2) sham-irradiation and normal diet; (3) WBI plus Pio (120 ppm) before, during, and for 4 or 54 weeks postirradiation; (4) sham-irradiation plus Pio; or (5) WBI plus Pio starting 24h after completion of WBI. Results: Administration of Pio before, during, and for 4 or 54 weeks after WBI prevented Radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Administration of Pio for 54 weeks starting after completion of fractionated WBI substantially but not significantly reduced Radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Conclusions: These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life and increasing the therapeutic window for brain tumor patients.

  11. The preventive effect of dexmedetomidine on paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in severe traumatic brain injury patients who have undergone surgery: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qilin; Wu, Xiang; Weng, Weiji; Li, Hongpeng; Feng, Junfeng; Mao, Qing; Jiang, Jiyao

    2017-01-01

    Background Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) results and aggravates in secondary brain injury, which seriously affects the prognosis of severe traumatic brain injury patients. Although several studies have focused on the treatment of PSH, few have concentrated on its prevention. Methods Ninety post-operation (post-op) severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) patients admitted from October 2014 to April 2016 were chosen to participate in this study. Fifty of the post-op sTBI patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and were referred as the “dexmedetomidine group” (admitted from May 2015 to April 2016). The other 40 patients (admitted from October 2014 to May 2015) received other sedations and were referred as the “control group.” The two groups were then compared based on their PSH scores and the scores and ratios of those patients who met the criteria of “probable,” “possible” and “unlikely” using the PSH assessment measure (PSH-AM) designed by Baguley et al. (2014). The durations of the neurosurgery intensive care unit (NICU) and hospital stays and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) values for the two groups were also compared to evaluate the therapeutic effects and the patients’ prognosis. Results The overall PSH score for the dexmedetomidine group was 5.26 ± 4.66, compared with 8.58 ± 8.09 for the control group. The difference between the two groups’ PSH scores was significant (P = 0.017). The score of the patients who met the criterion of “probable” was 18.33 ± 1.53 in the dexmedetomidine group and 22.63 ± 2.97 in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.045). The ratio of patients who were classified as “unlikely” between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.028); that is, 42 (84%) in the dexmedetomidine group and 25 (62.5%) in the control group. The differences in NICU, hospital stays and GOS values between the two groups were not significant. Conclusion

  12. Novel role of red wine-derived polyphenols in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease dementia and brain pathology: experimental approaches and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that by the middle of this century, as many as 14 million Americans will have Alzheimer's disease, creating an enormous strain on families, the health care system and the federal budget. There are still widespread misconceptions about issues related to the prevention and/or treatment of disease pathogenesis, leaving us unprepared to deal with the disease. To address these challenges, several therapeutic approaches are currently under investigation, mainly in an attempt to delay disease onset and eventually slow down its progression. Recent epidemiological evidence has implicated the protective role of dietary polyphenols from grape products against Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that certain bioactive grape-derived polyphenols may protect against Alzheimer's disease-type cognitive deterioration, in part by interfering with the generation and assembly of β-amyloid peptides into neurotoxic oligomeric aggregated species. Brain-targeting polyphenols have been shown to significantly reduce the generation of β-amyloid peptides in primary cortico-hippocampal neuron cultures, and preliminary results indicate that they may influence neuronal synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence has also implicated the role of certain grape-derived preparations in beneficially modulating tau neuropathology, including reducing tau aggregation. Studies suggest that dietary polyphenolics may benefit Alzheimer's disease by modulating multiple disease-modifying modalities, both β-amyloid-dependent and independent mechanisms, and provide impetus for the development of polyphenolic compounds for Alzheimer's disease prevention and/or therapy.

  13. Combination of N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol substantially prevents the brain synaptosomal alterations and memory and learning deficits of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thakurta, Ishita Guha; Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Bagh, Maria Bindu; Ghosh, Arindam; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Chattopadhyay, Sita; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-02-01

    This study has compared several synaptosomal parameters in three groups of rats: young (46 months), aged (22-24 months) and antioxidant supplemented aged rats (antioxidant supplementation given with the diet as a combination of N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol from 18 months onwards till 22-24 months). The synaptosomes from aged rat brain, in comparison to those of young animals, exhibit an increased membrane potential with altered contents of Na(+) and K(+) under basal incubation condition and in the presence of depolarizing agents. The intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) is also higher in aged than in young rat. These age-dependent changes in synaptosomal parameters are prevented markedly in the antioxidant supplemented group. When examined on T-maze, the aged animals are noticeably impaired in learning and memory functions, but the deficit is remarkably prevented in the antioxidant supplemented aged animals. It is suggested that the synaptosomal alterations partly contribute to the cognitive deficits of aged animals, and both are rescued by long-term antioxidant supplementation.

  14. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... not ride on these vehicles. After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need ...

  15. NP031112, a thiadiazolidinone compound, prevents inflammation and neurodegeneration under excitotoxic conditions: potential therapeutic role in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Luna-Medina, Rosario; Cortes-Canteli, Marta; Sanchez-Galiano, Susana; Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2007-05-23

    Inflammation and neurodegeneration coexist in many acute damage and chronic CNS disorders (e.g., stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease). A well characterized animal model of brain damage involves administration of kainic acid, which causes limbic seizure activity and subsequent neuronal death, especially in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons in the hilus of the hippocampus. Our previous work demonstrated a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of two thiadiazolidinones compounds, NP00111 (2,4-dibenzyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione) and NP01138 (2-ethyl-4-phenyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione), in primary cultures of cortical neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Here, we show that injection of NP031112, a more potent thiadiazolidinone derivative, into the rat hippocampus dramatically reduces kainic acid-induced inflammation, as measured by edema formation using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and glial activation and has a neuroprotective effect in the damaged areas of the hippocampus. Last, NP031112-induced neuroprotection, both in vitro and in vivo, was substantially attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide), a known antagonist of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, suggesting that the effects of NP031112 can be mediated through activation of this receptor. As such, these findings identify NP031112 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Antioxidants prevent ethanol-induced contractions of canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle: relation to alcohol-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Zheng, T; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    2001-03-30

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that alpha-tocopherol (Vit. E) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) might exert direct effects on alcohol-induced contractions of canine basilar cerebral arteries. After precontraction of arterial ring segments with ethanol, PDTC (10(-8)-10(-6) M) and Vit. E (10(-6)-10(-4) M) induced concentration-dependent relaxations of cerebral arteries, compared to untreated controls. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% of the maximal relaxation responses (EC(50) values) were about 2.48+/-0.09 x 10(-7) M for PDTC, and 1.87+/-0.10 x 10(-5) mM for Vit. E, respectively. Preincubation of these arterial rings with EC(50)'s of PDTC or Vit. E for 40 min attenuate markedly the contractions produced by alcohol, at concentrations of 1-400 mM. However, both PDTC and Vit.E do not relax equi-potent precontractions induced by either KCl or prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) or inhibit their contractions. These data suggest that alcohol-induced contractions of cerebral arteries are mediated via excitation-contraction coupling pathways different from those used by KCl or receptor-mediated agonists such as PGF(2alpha). The present results, when viewed in light of other recently published data, suggest that antioxidants may prove useful in the amelioration and treatment of alcohol-induced brain damage and strokes.

  17. Prevention of cognitive deficits and brain oxidative stress with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Aaron; Doctrow, Susan; Baudry, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Continuous decline in cognitive performance accompanies the natural aging process in humans, and multiple studies in both humans and animal models have indicated that this decrease in cognitive function is associated with an age-related increase in oxidative stress. Treating aging mammals with exogenous free radical scavengers has generally been shown to attenuate age-related cognitive decline and oxidative stress. The present study assessed the effectiveness of the superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics EUK-189 and EUK-207 on age-related decline in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress. C57/BL6 mice received continuous treatment via osmotic minipumps with either EUK-189 or EUK-207 for 6 months starting at 17 months of age. At the end of treatment, markers for oxidative stress were evaluated by analyzing levels of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and oxidized nucleic acids in brain tissue. In addition, cognitive performance was assessed after 3 and 6 months of treatment with fear conditioning. Both EUK-189 and EUK-207 treatments resulted in significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid oxidation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In addition, the treatments also significantly improved age-related decline in performance in the fear-conditioning task. Our results thus confirm a critical role for oxidative stress in age-related decline in learning and memory and strongly suggest a potential usefulness for salen-manganese complexes in reversing age-related declines in cognitive function and oxidative load.

  18. Caffeine prevents d-galactose-induced cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Faheem; Ali, Tahir; Ullah, Najeeb; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-11-01

    d-galactose has been considered a senescent model for age-related neurodegenerative disease. It induces oxidative stress which triggers memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Caffeine act as anti-oxidant and has been used in various model of neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, the effect of caffeine against d-galactose aging murine model of age-related neurodegenerative disease elucidated. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against d-galactose. We observed that chronic treatment of caffeine (3 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p) for 60 days) improved memory impairment and synaptic markers (Synaptophysin and PSD95) in the d-galactose treated rats. Chronic caffeine treatment reduced the oxidative stress via the reduction of 8-oxoguanine through immunofluorescence in the d-galactose-treated rats. Consequently caffeine treatment suppressed stress kinases p-JNK. Additionally, caffeine treatment significantly reduced the d-galactose-induced neuroinflammation through alleviation of COX-2, NOS-2, TNFα and IL-1β. Furthermore we also analyzed that caffeine reduced cytochrome C, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 level. Moreover by evaluating the immunohistochemical results of Nissl and Fluro-Jade B staining showed that caffeine prevented the neurodegeneration in the d-galactose-treated rats. Our results showed that caffeine prevents the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress and consequently alleviated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; and synaptic dysfunction and memory impairment. Therefore, we could suggest that caffeine might be a dietary anti-oxidant agent and a good candidate for the age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. CXCL9 Is Important for Recruiting Immune T Cells into the Brain and Inducing an accumulation of the T Cells to the areas of tachyzoite proliferation to prevent reactivation of chronic cerebral infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T cells are required to maintain the latency of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii in the brain. In the present study, we examined the role of non-ELR (glutamic acid-leucine-arginine) CXC chemokine CXCL9 for T cell recruitment to prevent reactivation of infection with T. gondii. SCID mice were...

  20. Failure of thyroid hormone treatment to prevent inflammation-induced white matter injury in the immature brain

    PubMed Central

    Schang, Anne-Laure; Van Steenwinckel, Juliette; Chevenne, Didier; Alkmark, Marten; Hagberg, Henrik; Gressens, Pierre; Fleiss, Bobbi

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is very strongly associated with maternal/foetal inflammation and leads to permanent neurological deficits. These deficits correlate with the severity of white matter injury, including maturational arrest of oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. Preterm birth and exposure to inflammation causes hypothyroxinemia. As such, supplementation with thyroxine (T4) seems a good candidate therapy for reducing white matter damage in preterm infants as oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination is regulated by thyroid hormones. We report on a model of preterm inflammation-induced white matter damage, in which induction of systemic inflammation by exposure from P1 to P5 to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) causes oligodendrocyte maturational arrest and hypomyelination. This model identified transient hypothyroidism and wide-ranging dysfunction in thyroid hormone signalling pathways. To test whether a clinically relevant dose of T4 could reduce inflammation-induced white matter damage we concurrently treated mice exposed to IL-1β from P1 to P5 with T4 (20 μg/kg/day). At P10, we isolated O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes and gene expression analysis revealed that T4 treatment did not recover the IL-1β-induced blockade of oligodendrocyte maturation. Moreover, at P10 and P30 immunohistochemistry for markers of oligodendrocyte lineage (NG2, PDGFRα and APC) and myelin (MBP) similarly indicated that T4 treatment did not recover IL-1β-induced deficits in the white matter. In summary, in this model of preterm inflammation-induced white matter injury, a clinical dose of T4 had no therapeutic efficacy. We suggest that additional pre-clinical trials with T4 covering the breadth and scope of causes and outcomes of perinatal brain injury are required before we can correctly evaluate clinical trials data and understand the potential for thyroid hormone as a widely implementable clinical therapy. PMID:24240022

  1. EphrinB3 blocks EphB3 dependence receptor functions to prevent cell death following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Theus, M H; Ricard, J; Glass, S J; Travieso, L G; Liebl, D J

    2014-05-08

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins, have a variety of roles in the developing and adult central nervous system that require direct cell-cell interactions; including regulating axon path finding, cell proliferation, migration and synaptic plasticity. Recently, we identified a novel pro-survival role for ephrins in the adult subventricular zone, where ephrinB3 blocks Eph-mediated cell death during adult neurogenesis. Here, we examined whether EphB3 mediates cell death in the adult forebrain following traumatic brain injury and whether ephrinB3 infusion could limit this effect. We show that EphB3 co-labels with microtubule-associated protein 2-positive neurons in the adult cortex and is closely associated with ephrinB3 ligand, which is reduced following controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In the complete absence of EphB3 (EphB3(-/-)), we observed reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and functional improvements in motor deficits after CCI injury as compared with wild-type and ephrinB3(-/-) mice. We also demonstrated that EphB3 exhibits dependence receptor characteristics as it is cleaved by caspases and induces cell death, which is not observed in the presence of ephrinB3. Following trauma, infusion of pre-clustered ephrinB3-Fc molecules (eB3-Fc) into the contralateral ventricle reduced cortical infarct volume and TUNEL staining in the cortex, dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampus of wild-type and ephrinB3(-/-) mice, but not EphB3(-/-) mice. Similarly, application of eB3-Fc improved motor functions after CCI injury. We conclude that EphB3 mediates cell death in the adult cortex through a novel dependence receptor-mediated cell death mechanism in the injured adult cortex and is attenuated following ephrinB3 stimulation.

  2. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  3. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  4. Flavonoid Chrysin prevents age-related cognitive decline via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of BDNF levels in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Antunes, Michelle Silva; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Donato, Franciele; Prigol, Marina; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), an important member of the flavonoid family, on memory impairment, oxidative stress and BDNF reduction generated by aging in mice were investigated. Young and aged mice were treated daily per 60days with Chrysin (1 and 10mg/kg; per oral, p.o.) or veichle (10ml/kg; p.o.). Mice were trained and tested in Morris Water Maze task. After the behavioural test, the levels of reactive species (RS), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as the activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) of mice. Results demonstrated that the age-related memory decline was partially protected by Chrysin at a dose of 1mg/kg, and normalized at the dose of 10mg/kg (p<0.001). Treatment with Chrysin significantly attenuated the increase of RS levels and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activities of aged mice. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in PFC and HP of aged mice was also attenuated by Chrysin treatment. Moreover, Chrysin marked mitigated the decrease of BDNF levels in the PFC and HC of aged mice. These results demonstrated that flavonoid Chrysin, an antioxidant compound, was able to prevent age-associated memory probably by their free radical scavenger action and modulation of BDNF production. Thus, this study indicates that Chrysin may represent a new pharmacological approach to alleviate the age-related declines during normal age, acting as an anti-aging agent.

  5. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Dubner, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD.

  6. Outreach and Prevention Staff Focus Guide. Building Bridges: Supporting the Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Needs of Military and Veteran Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Substance Abuse Prevention and Early Intervention 64 Information for Outreach and Prevention Staff 64 Information to Give Families 65 O. Suicide ...Prevention and Intervention 66 DoD/Service-Specific Suicide Prevention Programs 66 Resources for Health Care Providers 67 Non-Military Suicide ... Suicide Prevention Hotline: 800-273-TALK (8255) My HealtheVet My HealtheVet is VHA’s eHealth portal which provides access to trusted

  7. Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylate) prevents increases in brain PGE2, 15-epi-lipoxin A4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in 9 month-old HIV-1 transgenic rats, a model for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Helene C.; Taha, Ameer Y.; Rapoport, Stanley I; Yuan, Zhi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background Older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transgenic rats are a model for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). They show behavioral changes, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, and increased brain arachidonic acid (AA) enzymes. Aspirin (acetylsalicylate, ASA) inhibits AA oxidation by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Hypothesis Chronic low-dose ASA will downregulate brain AA metabolism in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Methods Nine month-old HIV-1 transgenic and wildtype rats were given 42 days of 10 mg/kg/day ASA or nothing in drinking water; eicosanoids were measured using ELISAs on microwaved brain extracts. Results Brain 15-epi-lipoxin A4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher in HIV-1 transgenic than wildtype rats; these differences were prevented by ASA. ASA reduced prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 concentrations in HIV-1 Tg but not wildtype rats. Thromboxane B2, 15-HETE, lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 concentrations were unaffected by genotype or treatment. Conclusion Chronic low-dose ASA reduces AA-metabolite markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in a rat model for HAND. PMID:25638779

  8. A Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Prevents Thrombin-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via the Inhibition of Microglial Activation and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Tao, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Yang, Yang; Feng, Zhou; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Liming; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Thrombin mediates the life-threatening cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage that occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We previously found that the selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist JWH-133 reduced brain edema and neurological deficits following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). We explored whether CB2R stimulation ameliorated thrombin-induced brain edema and BBB permeability as well as the possible molecular mechanism involved. A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats received a thrombin (20 U) injection in the right basal ganglia. JWH-133 (1.5 mg/kg) or SR-144528 (3.0 mg/kg) and vehicle were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected 1 h after surgery. Brain water content measurement, Evans blue (EB) extravasation, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to study the effects of a CB2R agonist 24 h after surgery. The results demonstrated that JWH-133 administration significantly decreased thrombin-induced brain edema and reduced the number of Iba-1-positive microglia. JWH-133 also decreased the number of P44/P42(+)/Iba-1(+) microglia, lowered Evans blue extravasation, and inhibited the elevated matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-12 activities. However, a selective CB2R antagonist (SR-144528) reversed these effects. We demonstrated that CB2R stimulation reduced thrombin-induced brain edema and alleviated BBB damage. We also found that matrix metalloproteinase suppression may be partially involved in these processes.

  9. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds.

  10. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  11. Alter Ego. Drug and brain--information to prevent. Compared analysis of opinions, knowledge and habits among a multicentric sample of secondary school students about drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M; Gentile, A; Langiano, E; De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Ricciardi, G

    2006-03-01

    Repression and control have been shown to be inadequate for drug addiction issues. Recent history, however has proved that information is one of the most effective measures against the spread of drugs. The wide range of drug circulation and the need for the spread of correct information on the effects of drugs in man, especially his brain, have led the Center for Scientific Culture Diffusion of Cassino University, to widen the scope of "Alter Ego. Drugs and the brain", a touring educational exhibition, which opened in 1994, by dedicating more attention to socially accepted drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco, and to new substances like ecstasy and similar drugs. Concurrently with the Alter Ego touring exhibition, a study was undertaken to obtain information on public awareness of the dangers of psychotropic drug abuse and to assess the effectiveness of the exhibition as an instrument of scientific information about drug addiction among its visitors, during its tour of over 60 Italian towns.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not neurotrophin-3, prevents ischaemia-induced neuronal cell death in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Pringle, A K; Sundstrom, L E; Wilde, G J; Williams, L R; Iannotti, F

    1996-06-28

    We have investigated the neuroprotective actions of neurotrophins in a model of ischaemia using slice cultures. Ischaemia was induced in organotypic hippocampal cultures by simultaneous oxygen and glucose deprivation. Cell death was assessed 24 h later by propidium iodide fluorescence. Pre- but not post-ischaemic addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced a concentration-dependent reduction in neuronal damage. Neurotrophin-3 was not neuroprotective. These data suggest that BDNF may form part of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism.

  13. 4-Methylcatechol prevents derangements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB-related signaling in anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain with depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kozo; Yasuda, Seiko; Fukuhara, Kayoko; Iwanaga, Yasutake; Ida, Yuika; Ishikawa, Junko; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Ono, Midori; Kakeda, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Toshizo

    2014-03-05

    Chronic pain with mood disorder, resulting from a peripheral nerve injury, is a serious clinical problem affecting the quality of life. A lack of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and abnormal intercellular signaling in the brain can mediate this symptom. BDNF is induced in cultured neurons by 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), but little is known about its role in pain-emotion. Thus, we characterized the actions of 4-MC on TrkB receptor-related pERK and BDNF mRNA in discreet brain regions related to pain-emotion after chronic pain in rat. Rats implanted with a stainless steel cannula into the lateral ventricular were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Pain was assessed by changes in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat stimuli after CCI. Immobility time during the forced swimming testing was measured for depression-like behavior. Analgesic and antidepression modulations with 4-MC were examined by an anti-BDNF antibody (K252a, a TrkB receptor inhibitor). The animals were perfused and fixed (4% paraformaldehyde) for immunohistochemistry analysis (c-FOS/pERK). BDNF mRNA expression (anterior cingulate cortex) was determined using reverse transcription-PCR. Rats showed a sustained decrease in PWL, associated with a prolonged immobility time after CCI. 4-MC reduced decreases in PWL and increased immobility time. 4-MC reduced increases in pERK immunoreactivity and decreases in BDNF mRNA expression in regions related to pain and the limbic system. Anti-BDNF blocked effects induced by 4-MC. We suggest that a lack of BDNF associated with activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the pain-emotion network may be involved in depression-like behavior during chronic pain. 4-MC ameliorates pain-emotion symptoms by inducing BDNF and normalizing pERK activities.

  14. Mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis and Prevention: The Brain, Neural Pathology, N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors, Tau Protein and Other Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kocahan, Sayad; Doğan, Zumrut

    2017-01-01

    The characteristic features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are the appearance of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the intracellular environment, neuronal death and the loss of synapses, all of which contribute to cognitive decline in a progressive manner. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain AD. Abnormal tau phosphorylation may contribute to the formation of abnormal neurofibrillary structures. Many different structures are susceptible to AD, including the reticular formation, the nuclei in the brain stem (e.g., raphe nucleus), thalamus, hypothalamus, locus ceruleus, amygdala, substantia nigra, striatum, and claustrum. Excitotoxicity results from continuous, low-level activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Premature synaptotoxicity, changes in neurotransmitter expression, neurophils loss, accumulation of amyloid β-protein deposits (amyloid/senile plaques), and neuronal loss and brain atrophy are all associated with stages of AD progression. Several recent studies have examined the relationship between Aβ and NMDA receptors. Aβ-induced spine loss is associated with a decrease in glutamate receptors and is dependent upon the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, which has also been linked to long-term depression. PMID:28138104

  15. The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist MK-801 Prevents Thallium-Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Alterations in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Rico, Laura; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Santamaría, Abel; Königsberg, Mina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Thallium (Tl(+)) is a toxic heavy metal capable of increasing oxidative damage and disrupting antioxidant defense systems. Thallium invades the brain cells through potassium channels, increasing neuronal excitability, although until now the possible role of glutamatergic transmission in this event has not been investigated. Here, we explored the possible involvement of a glutamatergic component in the Tl(+)-induced toxicity through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in rats. The effects of MK-801 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) on early (24 hours) motor alterations, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH peroxidase activity induced by Tl(+) acetate (32 mg/kg, ip) were evaluated in adult rats. MK-801 attenuated the Tl(+)-induced hyperactivity and lipid peroxidation in the rat striatum, hippocampus and midbrain, and produced mild effects on other end points. Our findings suggest that glutamatergic transmission via NMDA receptors might be involved in the Tl(+)-induced altered regional brain redox activity and motor performance in rats.

  16. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  17. Antioxidant Formulae, Shengmai San, and LingGuiZhuGanTang, Prevent MPTP Induced Brain Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of antioxidative traditional oriental medicine formulae, Shengmai San (SMS) and LingGuiZhuGanTang (LGZGT), against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (i.p 30 mg·kg−1 for 5 consecutive days) induced neurotoxicity. In in vitro antioxidant assays measured with Trolox and butyl hydroxyl toluene as reference antioxidant revealed that SMS has higher scavenging potential against hydroxyl radical than superoxide anion radical, but LGZGT was the reverse. The neuroprotective effect of SMS and LGZGT against MPTP was evaluated in mice by behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical studies. In the behavioral study, both SMS and LGZGT significantly reversed the locomotive impairment induced by MPTP. Simultaneously, both formulae significantly prevented the MPTP induced dopaminergic neuron loss assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase in the midbrain. Both SMS and LGZGT significantly attenuated the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls levels by MPTP. The DNA damage induced by MPTP was also prevented by both formulae. Although a little difference in the protective functions was observed between the two formulae, such as in DNA damage and behavioral studies, the results indicate that both SMS and LGZGT with antioxidant property act as a good candidate applicable for the antioxidant based complementary therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26612995

  18. Defective macroautophagic turnover of brain lipids in the TgCRND8 Alzheimer mouse model: prevention by correcting lysosomal proteolytic deficits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Saito, Mitsuo; Kumar, Asok; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose A; Pawlik, Monika; Huo, Chunfeng; Walkley, Steven U; Saito, Mariko; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for the turnover of intracellular organelles is markedly impaired in neurons in Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer mouse models. We have previously reported that severe lysosomal and amyloid neuropathology and associated cognitive deficits in the TgCRND8 Alzheimer mouse model can be ameliorated by restoring lysosomal proteolytic capacity and autophagy flux via genetic deletion of the lysosomal protease inhibitor, cystatin B. Here we present evidence that macroautophagy is a significant pathway for lipid turnover, which is defective in TgCRND8 brain where lipids accumulate as membranous structures and lipid droplets within giant neuronal autolysosomes. Levels of multiple lipid species including several sphingolipids (ceramide, ganglioside GM3, GM2, GM1, GD3 and GD1a), cardiolipin, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters are elevated in autophagic vacuole fractions and lysosomes isolated from TgCRND8 brain. Lipids are localized in autophagosomes and autolysosomes by double immunofluorescence analyses in wild-type mice and colocalization is increased in TgCRND8 mice where abnormally abundant GM2 ganglioside-positive granules are detected in neuronal lysosomes. Cystatin B deletion in TgCRND8 significantly reduces the number of GM2-positive granules and lowers the levels of GM2 and GM3 in lysosomes, decreases lipofuscin-related autofluorescence, and eliminates giant lipid-containing autolysosomes while increasing numbers of normal-sized autolysosomes/lysosomes with reduced content of undigested components. These findings have identified macroautophagy as a previously unappreciated route for delivering membrane lipids to lysosomes for turnover, a function that has so far been considered to be mediated exclusively through the endocytic pathway, and revealed that autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in TgCRND8 brain impedes lysosomal turnover of lipids as well as proteins. The amelioration of lipid accumulation in TgCRND8 by removing cystatin B

  19. Elevation of brain allopregnanolone rather than 5-HT release by short term, low dose fluoxetine treatment prevents the estrous cycle-linked increase in stress sensitivity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Devall, Adam J; Santos, Julia M; Fry, Jonathan P; Honour, John W; Brandão, Marcus L; Lovick, Thelma A

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal from long-term dosing with exogenous progesterone precipitates increased anxiety-linked changes in behavior in animal models due to the abrupt decrease in brain concentration of allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone. We show that a withdrawal-like effect also occurs during the late diestrus phase (LD) of the natural ovarian cycle in rats, when plasma progesterone and ALLO are declining but estrogen secretion maintains a stable low level. This effect at LD was prevented by short-term treatment with low dose fluoxetine. During LD, but not at other stages of the estrous cycle, exposure to anxiogenic stress induced by whole body vibration at 4 Hz for 5 min evoked a significant decrease in tail flick latency (stress-induced hyperalgesia) and a decrease in the number of Fos-positive neurons present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The threshold to evoke fear-like behaviors in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal PAG was lower in the LD phase, indicating an increase in the intrinsic excitability of the PAG circuitry. All these effects were blocked by short-term administration of fluoxetine (2 × 1.75 mg kg(-1) i.p.) during LD. This dosage increased the whole brain concentration of ALLO, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but was without effect on the extracellular concentration of 5-HT in the dorsal PAG, as measured by microdialysis. We suggest that fluoxetine-induced rise in brain ALLO concentration during LD offsets the sharp physiological decline, thus removing the trigger for the development of anxiogenic withdrawal effects.

  20. Schistosoma co-infection protects against brain pathology but does not prevent severe disease and death in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Kirsten; Dietz, Klaus; Lackner, Peter; Pasche, Bastian; Fendel, Rolf; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ben-Smith, Anne; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H

    2011-01-01

    Co-infections of helminths and malaria parasites are common in human populations in most endemic areas. It has been suggested that concomitant helminth infections inhibit the control of malaria parasitemia but down-modulate severe malarial disease. We tested this hypothesis using a murine co-infection model of schistosomiasis and cerebral malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 8-9 weeks later, when Schistosoma infection was patent, mice were co-infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. We found that a concomitant Schistosoma infection increased parasitemia at the beginning of the P. berghei infection. It did not protect against P. berghei-induced weight loss and hypothermia, and P. berghei-mono-infected as well as S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals showed a high case fatality between days 6 and 8 of malarial infection. However, co-infection significantly reduced P. berghei-induced brain pathology. Over 40% of the S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals that died during this period were completely protected against haemorrhaging, plugging of blood vessels and infiltration, indicating that mortality in these animals was not related to cerebral disease. Schistosoma mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected mice had elevated plasma concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13 and on day 6 lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) than P. berghei-mono-infected mice. We conclude that in P. berghei infections, disease and early death are caused by distinct pathogenic mechanisms, which develop in parallel and are differentially influenced by the immune response to S. mansoni. This might explain why, in co-infected mice, death could be induced in the absence of brain pathology.

  1. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  2. Nerolidol-loaded nanospheres prevent behavioral impairment via ameliorating Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities as well as reducing oxidative stress in the brain of Trypanosoma evansi-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Grando, Thirssa H; Moreira, Karen L S; Schafer, Andressa S; Cossetin, Luciana F; da Silva, Ana P T; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerolidol-loaded nanospheres (N-NS) on the treatment of memory impairment caused by Trypanosoma evansi in mice, as well as oxidative stress, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain tissue. Animals were submitted to behavioral tasks (inhibitory avoidance task and open-field test) 4 days postinfection (PI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities were measured on the fifth-day PI. T. evansi-infected mice showed memory deficit, increased ROS and TBARS levels and SOD and AChE activities, and decreased CAT and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities compared to uninfected mice. N-NS prevented memory impairment and oxidative stress parameters (except SOD activity), while free nerolidol (N-F) restored only CAT activity. Also, N-NS treatment was able to prevent alterations in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities caused by T. evansi infection. A significantly negative correlation was observed between memory and ROS production (p < 0.001; r = -0.941), as well as between memory and AChE activity (p < 0.05; r = -0.774). On the contrary, a significantly positive correlation between memory and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was observed (p < 0.01; r = 0.844). In conclusion, N-NS was able to reverse memory impairment and to prevent increased ROS and TBARS levels due to amelioration of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities and to activation of the antioxidant enzymes, respectively. These results suggest that N-NS treatment may be a useful strategy to treat memory dysfunction and oxidative stress caused by T. evansi infection.

  3. How the Statistical Validation of Functional Connectivity Patterns Can Prevent Erroneous Definition of Small-World Properties of a Brain Connectivity Network

    PubMed Central

    Toppi, J.; De Vico Fallani, F.; Vecchiato, G.; Maglione, A. G.; Cincotti, F.; Mattia, D.; Salinari, S.; Babiloni, F.; Astolfi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Graph Theory to the brain connectivity patterns obtained from the analysis of neuroelectrical signals has provided an important step to the interpretation and statistical analysis of such functional networks. The properties of a network are derived from the adjacency matrix describing a connectivity pattern obtained by one of the available functional connectivity methods. However, no common procedure is currently applied for extracting the adjacency matrix from a connectivity pattern. To understand how the topographical properties of a network inferred by means of graph indices can be affected by this procedure, we compared one of the methods extensively used in Neuroscience applications (i.e. fixing the edge density) with an approach based on the statistical validation of achieved connectivity patterns. The comparison was performed on the basis of simulated data and of signals acquired on a polystyrene head used as a phantom. The results showed (i) the importance of the assessing process in discarding the occurrence of spurious links and in the definition of the real topographical properties of the network, and (ii) a dependence of the small world properties obtained for the phantom networks from the spatial correlation of the neighboring electrodes. PMID:22919427

  4. A Novel Ligustrazine Derivative T-VA Prevents Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells and Protects the Brain against Ischemia Injury in MCAO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoling; Tian, Yufei; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hong, Ying; Hao, Yingzhi; Chen, Chunxiao; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    Broad-spectrum drugs appear to be more promising for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In our previous work, a new ligustrazine derivative (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methoxy]benzoate (T-VA) showed neuroprotective effect on injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM). In the current study, we show that this beneficial effect was due to the modulation of nuclear transcription factor-κB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. We also show that T-VA exhibited neuroprotective effect in a rat model of ischemic stroke with concomitant improvement of motor functions. We propose that the protective effect observed in vivo is owing to increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, decreased oxidative stress, and up-regulation of Ca2+–Mg2+ ATP enzyme activity. Altogether, our results warrant further studies on the utility of T-VA for the potential treatment of ischemic brain injuries, such as stroke. PMID:26370988

  5. Administration of low dose methamphetamine 12 h after a severe traumatic brain injury prevents neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Rau, Thomas F; Kothiwal, Aakriti S; Rova, Annela R; Brooks, Diane M; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Poulsen, Austin J; Hutchinson, Jim; Poulsen, David J

    2014-03-01

    We recently published data that showed low dose of methamphetamine is neuroprotective when delivered 3 h after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the current study, we further characterized the neuroprotective potential of methamphetamine by determining the lowest effective dose, maximum therapeutic window, pharmacokinetic profile and gene expression changes associated with treatment. Graded doses of methamphetamine were administered to rats beginning 8 h after severe TBI. We assessed neuroprotection based on neurological severity scores, foot fault assessments, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze, and histopathology. We defined 0.250 mg/kg/h as the lowest effective dose and treatment at 12 h as the therapeutic window following severe TBI. We examined gene expression changes following TBI and methamphetamine treatment to further define the potential molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection and determined that methamphetamine significantly reduced the expression of key pro-inflammatory signals. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that a 24-hour intravenous infusion of methamphetamine at a dose of 0.500 mg/kg/h produced a plasma Cmax value of 25.9 ng/ml and a total exposure of 544 ng/ml over a 32 hour time frame. This represents almost half the 24-hour total exposure predicted for a daily oral dose of 25mg in a 70 kg adult human. Thus, we have demonstrated that methamphetamine is neuroprotective when delivered up to 12 h after injury at doses that are compatible with current FDA approved levels.

  6. Preventing the Return of Fear Using Reconsolidation Update Mechanisms Depends on the Met-Allele of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Manish Kumar; Brunhuber, Bettina; Mühlberger, Andreas; Reif, Andreas; Schneider, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Memory reconsolidation is the direct effect of memory reactivation followed by stabilization of newly synthesized proteins. It has been well proven that neural encoding of both newly and reactivated memories requires synaptic plasticity. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been extensively investigated regarding its role in the formation of synaptic plasticity and in the alteration of fear memories. However, its role in fear reconsolidation is still unclear; hence, the current study has been designed to investigate the role of the BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) in fear memory reconsolidation in humans. Methods: An auditory fear-conditioning paradigm was conducted, which comprised of three stages (acquisition, reactivation, and spontaneous recovery). One day after fear acquisition, the experimental group underwent reactivation of fear memory followed by the extinction training (reminder group), whereas the control group (non-reminder group) underwent only extinction training. On day 3, both groups were subjected to spontaneous recovery of earlier learned fearful memories. The treat-elicited defensive response due to conditioned threat was measured by assessing the skin conductance response to the conditioned stimulus. All participants were genotyped for rs6265. Results: The results indicate a diminishing effect of reminder on the persistence of fear memory only in the Met-allele carriers, suggesting a moderating effect of the BDNF polymorphism in fear memory reconsolidation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a new role for BDNF gene variation in fear memory reconsolidation in humans. PMID:26721948

  7. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  8. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  9. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  10. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  11. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  12. Campaign for the Brain.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jolene

    2017-04-01

    A stroke alert is an emergency. An event in the brain can end in long-term deficits that may be prevented if attention is given to the signs. The message needs to be told. Be fast. This is a poem to promote code stroke.

  13. Selective activation of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 decreases cocaine's reinforcing efficacy and prevents cocaine-induced changes in brain reward thresholds.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yue; Mortas, Patrick; Hoener, Marius C; Canales, Juan J

    2015-12-03

    The newly discovered trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has emerged as a promising target for medication development in stimulant addiction due to its ability to regulate dopamine (DA) function and modulate stimulants' effects. Recent findings indicate that TAAR1 activation blocks some of the abuse-related physiological and behavioral effects of cocaine. However, findings from existing self-administration studies are inconclusive due to the very limited range of cocaine unit doses tested. Here, in order to shed light on the influence of TAAR1 on cocaine's reward and reinforcement, we studied the effects of partial and full activation of TAAR1on (1) the dose-response curve for cocaine self-administration and (2) cocaine-induced changes in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In the first experiment, we examined the effects of the selective full and partial TAAR1 agonists, RO5256390 and RO5203648, on self-administration of five unit-injection doses of cocaine (0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.45, and 1mg/kg/infusion). Both agonists induced dose-dependent downward shifts in the cocaine dose-response curve, indicating that both partial and full TAAR1 activation decrease cocaine, reinforcing efficacy. In the second experiment, RO5256390 and the partial agonist, RO5263397, dose-dependently prevented cocaine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds. Taken together, these data demonstrated that TAAR1 stimulation effectively suppresses the rewarding and reinforcing effects of cocaine in self-administration and ICSS models, supporting the candidacy of TAAR1 as a drug discovery target for cocaine addiction.

  14. Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis often is characterized by an acute brain dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is highly complex, resulting from both inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, which may induce significant alterations in vulnerable areas of the brain. Important mechanisms include excessive microglial activation, impaired cerebral perfusion, blood–brain-barrier dysfunction, and altered neurotransmission. Systemic insults, such as prolonged inflammation, severe hypoxemia, and persistent hyperglycemia also may contribute to aggravate sepsis-induced brain dysfunction or injury. The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in sepsis relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as EEG and neuroimaging. A brain MRI should be considered in case of persistent brain dysfunction after control of sepsis and exclusion of major confounding factors. Recent MRI studies suggest that septic shock can be associated with acute cerebrovascular lesions and white matter abnormalities. Currently, the management of brain dysfunction mainly consists of control of sepsis and prevention of all aggravating factors, including metabolic disturbances, drug overdoses, anticholinergic medications, withdrawal syndromes, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Modulation of microglial activation, prevention of blood–brain-barrier alterations, and use of antioxidants represent relevant therapeutic targets that may impact significantly on neurologic outcomes. In the future, investigations in patients with sepsis should be undertaken to reduce the duration of brain dysfunction and to study the impact of this reduction on important health outcomes, including functional and cognitive status in survivors. PMID:23718252

  15. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  16. Chronic Treatment with a Water-Soluble Extract from the Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Prevents Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Injury of Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Meiyan; Okazaki, Mari; Iwata, Naohiro; Asano, Satoshi; Kamiuchi, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Miyano, Yoshiyuki; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Hibino, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been known to increase systemic oxidative stress by chronic hyperglycemia and visceral obesity and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury. On the basis of our previous study regarding a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (designed as MAK), which exerts antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, the present study was conducted to evaluate the preventive effects of MAK on apoptosis and necroptosis (a programmed necrosis) induced by hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. H/I was induced by a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation with hypoxia (8% O2 for 20 min) and subsequent reoxygenation. Pretreatment with MAK (1 g/kg, p.o.) for a week significantly reduced H/I-induced neurological deficits and brain infarction volume assessed at 24 h of reoxygenation. Histochemical analysis showed that MAK significantly suppressed superoxide production, neuronal cell death, and vacuolation in the ischemic penumbra, which was accompanied by a decrease in the numbers of TUNEL- or cleaved caspase-3-positive cells. Furthermore, MAK decreased the expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 mRNA and protein, a key molecule for necroptosis. These results suggest that MAK confers resistance to apoptotic and necroptotic cell death and relieves H/I-induced cerebral ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:25945116

  17. Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Vardon, Fanny; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variations in temperature. The prevention of fever has been proposed as a therapeutic tool to limit neuronal injury. However, temperature control after traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or stroke can be challenging. Furthermore, fever may also have beneficial effects, especially in cases involving infections. While therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in animal models, its use is still debated in clinical practice. This paper aims to describe the physiology and pathophysiology of changes in brain temperature after brain injury and to study the effects of controlling brain temperature after such injury. PMID:23326261

  18. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  19. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests don't provide enough information. Screening for brain aneurysms The use of imaging tests to screen ... and occupational therapy to relearn skills. Treating unruptured brain aneurysms Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling can be ...

  20. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed the f… Series Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Each of these age-based handouts are based ... report from the National Academy of Sciences on child and brain development. Podcast Nurturing Brain Development From Birth to Three ...

  1. Brain Fog

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendships and relationships. • Take your body to the gym and don’t forget to visit the “BRAIN SPA” – both will improve brain function. • Recent scientific data show that longevity ...

  2. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  3. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  4. Brain Lesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue. Usually, a brain lesion is an incidental finding unrelated to the condition or symptom that led to the imaging test in the first place. ...

  5. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  6. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  7. Preventable and Potentially Preventable Traumatic Death Rates in Neurosurgery Department: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Mahnjeong; Kim, Byung Chul; Choi, Seonuoo; Cho, Won Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preventable and potentially preventable traumatic death rates is a method to evaluate the preventability of the traumatic deaths in emergency medical department. To evaluate the preventability of the traumatic deaths in patients who were admitted to neurosurgery department, we performed this study. Methods A retrospective review identified 52 patients who admitted to neurosurgery department with severe traumatic brain injuries between 2013 and 2014. Based on radiologic and clinical state at emergency room, each preventability of death was estimated by professional panel discussion. And the final death rates were calculated. Results The preventable and potentially preventable traumatic death rates was 19.2% in this study. This result is lower than that of the research of 2012, Korean preventable and potentially preventable traumatic death rates. The rate of preventable and potentially preventable traumatic death of operation group is lower than that of conservative treatment group. Also, we confirmed that direct transfer and the time to operation are important to reduce the preventability. Conclusion We report the preventable and potentially preventable traumatic death rates of our institute for evaluation of preventability in severe traumatic brain injuries during the last 2 years. For decrease of preventable death, we suggest that continuous survey of the death rate of traumatic brain injury patients is required. PMID:27857910

  8. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques.

  9. Brain to music to brain!

    PubMed

    Azizi, S Ausim

    2009-07-31

    It has been implicitly understood that culture and music as collective products of human brain in turn influence the brain itself. Now, imaging and anatomical data add substance to this notion. The impact of playing piano on the brain of musicians and its possible effects on cultural and neurological evolution are briefly discussed.

  10. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  11. Galactosaemia: A Preventable Form of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Galectosaemia, a treatable and potentially preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation is discussed with emphasis on neonatal screening tests, treatment with a galactose-free diet, and evidence of treatment effectiveness. (DB)

  12. Brain surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take these medicines. If you had a brain aneurysm , you may also have other symptoms or problems. ... chap 28. Read More Acoustic neuroma Brain abscess Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Brain tumor - children Brain tumor - ...

  13. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  14. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  15. Genetic deletion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor prevents nicotine-induced upregulation of α7, but not α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the brain.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Athanasios; Al-Hasani, Ream; Farshim, Pamela; Tubby, Kristina; Berwick, Amy; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2013-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate cholinergic neurotransmission, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, and nicotine-induced behavioural effects. To explore the interaction between A(2A) and nAChRs, we examined if the complete genetic deletion of adenosine A(2A)Rs in mice induces compensatory alterations in the binding of different nAChR subtypes, and whether the long-term effects of nicotine on nAChR regulation are altered in the absence of the A(2A)R gene. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure cytisine-sensitive [¹²⁵I]epibatidine and [¹²⁵I]α-bungarotoxin binding to α4β2* and α7 nAChRs, respectively, in brain sections of drug-naïve (n = 6) or nicotine treated (n = 5-7), wild-type and adenosine A(2A)R knockout mice. Saline or nicotine (7.8 mg/kg/day; free-base weight) were administered to male CD1 mice via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for a period of 14 days. Blood plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine were measured at the end of treatment. There were no compensatory developmental alterations in nAChR subtype distribution or density in drug-naïve A(2A)R knockout mice. In nicotine treated wild-type mice, both α4β2* and α7 nAChR binding sites were increased compared with saline treated controls. The genetic ablation of adenosine A(2A)Rs prevented nicotine-induced upregulation of α7 nAChRs, without affecting α4β2* receptor upregulation. This selective effect was observed at plasma levels of nicotine that were within the range reported for smokers (10-50 ng ml⁻¹). Our data highlight the involvement of adenosine A(2A)Rs in the mechanisms of nicotine-induced α7 nAChR upregulation, and identify A(2A)Rs as novel pharmacological targets for modulating the long-term effects of nicotine on α7 receptors.

  16. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  17. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  18. Preventing schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease: comparative ethics.

    PubMed

    Post, S G

    2001-08-01

    Schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease are both diseases of the brain that involve genetic susceptibility factors and for which the prevention or delay of symptom onset are important research goals. This paper provides some comparisons between current preventive efforts in schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease, focusing on certain ethical features of these endeavors such as potential discrimination, misdiagnosis, and stigma.

  19. [Brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Pälvimäki, Esa-Pekka; Siironen, Jari; Pohjola, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Brain concussion is a common disturbance caused by external forces or acceleration affecting the head. It may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness and amnesia. Typical symptoms include headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two. Some patients may experience transient loss of inability to create new memories or other brief impairment of mental functioning. Treatment is symptomatic. Some patients may suffer from prolonged symptoms, the connection of which with brain concession is difficult to show. Almost invariably the prognosis of brain concussion is good.

  20. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  1. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  2. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  3. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  4. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of ...

  5. Fragile Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes three types of brain disorders: the sluggish, the oppositional, and the depressed. Explains how to identify these disorders and offers educators strategies for dealing with each. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  6. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... small abscess (less than 2 cm) An abscess deep in the brain An abscess and meningitis Several ... or MRI scan may be needed for a deep abscess. During this procedure, medicines may be injected ...

  7. Brain Basics

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  8. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monthly Donation Named Funds Planned Giving Gifts of Stock Business Partnerships Host an Event AFTD-Team Races ... family members to reach a closure after a long struggle. Brain autopsy is often done in conjunction ...

  9. Prevent Cyberbullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  10. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  11. How the body controls brain temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingming; Ackerman, Joseph J. H.; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.

    2007-01-01

    Normal brain functioning largely depends on maintaining brain temperature. However, the mechanisms protecting brain against a cooler environment are poorly understood. Reported herein is the first detailed measurement of the brain-temperature profile. It is found to be exponential, defined by a characteristic temperature shielding length, with cooler peripheral areas and a warmer brain core approaching body temperature. Direct cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements with microspheres show that the characteristic temperature shielding length is inversely proportional to the square root of CBF in excellent agreement with a theoretical model. This “temperature shielding effect” quantifies the means by which CBF prevents “extracranial cold” from penetrating deep brain structures. The effect is crucial for research and clinical applications; the relationship between brain, body, and extracranial temperatures can now be quantitatively predicted. PMID:16840581

  12. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  13. Transient Delivery of Adenosine as a Novel Therapy to Prevent Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Using silk-based brain implants engineered to release adenosine we demonstrated that reversal of epigenetic changes prevents epileptogenesis. We...biodegradable silk-based brain implants ) to prevent epileptogenesis long term. These findings constitute a novel scientific advance with direct clinical...implications. Specifically, using bioengineered silk- based brain implants we demonstrated that transient delivery of a defined focal dose of adenosine

  14. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  15. Brain heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Ho, Linh

    2009-03-01

    We present a case with intractable partial complex seizures in a 14-year-old girl who was found to have brain heterotopia on MRI and PET-CT. The patient presented with intractable partial complex seizures and a normal electroencephalogram. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed heterotopic gray matter lining the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Subsequent PET-CT demonstrated moderate tracer localization in the heterotopic gray matter surrounding the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Heterotopia may demonstrate normal or increased FDG uptake on PET, therefore its appearance may be deceiving when other pathologies are being considered.

  16. Brain Tissue Oxygen Monitoring in Neurocritical Care.

    PubMed

    De Georgia, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Brain injury results from ischemia, tissue hypoxia, and a cascade of secondary events. The cornerstone of neurocritical care management is optimization and maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen and substrate delivery to prevent or attenuate this secondary damage. New techniques for monitoring brain tissue oxygen tension (PtiO2) are now available. Brain PtiO2 reflects both oxygen delivery and consumption. Brain hypoxia (low brain PtiO2) has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with brain injury. Strategies to improve brain PtiO2 have focused mainly on increasing oxygen delivery either by increasing CBF or by increasing arterial oxygen content. The results of nonrandomized studies comparing brain PtiO2-guided therapy with intracranial pressure/cerebral perfusion pressure-guided therapy, while promising, have been mixed. More studies are needed including prospective, randomized controlled trials to assess the true value of this approach. The following is a review of the physiology of brain tissue oxygenation, the effect of brain hypoxia on outcome, strategies to increase oxygen delivery, and outcome studies of brain PtiO2-guided therapy in neurocritical care.

  17. Preventing Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo supervisor in the Office of Environmental Health in New Mexico identifies diseases and their risk factors, administers an injury prevention program, and ensures compliance with various health-related codes. She assists in the planning and direction of environmental health programs and public health education for local Navajo…

  18. Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  19. Shoplifting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The retailers' concern about shoplifting and shoplifting losses provided impetus for the development of this programed text. The self-instructional booklet is designed for all retail employees as an aid to preventing financial losses to the store caused by shoplifting. The common characteristics of shoplifters, methods used by shoplifters, and a…

  20. What Do We Know About Preventing Alzheimer's? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease What Do We Know About Preventing Alzheimer's? Past ... the Brain Currently, the most definite diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is made after death, by examining brain tissue ...

  1. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  2. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains?

  3. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  4. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  5. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  6. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors A A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  7. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  8. Preeclampsia prevention

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. Objective: To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. Results: The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. Conclusions: 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia. PMID:26848195

  9. The Creative Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children? A risk ... Factors with uncertain, controversial, or unproven effects on brain tumor risk Cell phone use Cell phones give ...

  11. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  12. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  13. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  14. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  15. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  16. Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.

    PubMed

    Amantea, Diana; Fratto, Vincenza; Maida, Simona; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Ragusa, Salvatore; Nappi, Giuseppe; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    The effects of bergamot essential oil (BEO; Citrus bergamia, Risso) on brain damage caused by permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rat were investigated. Administration of BEO (0.1-0.5 ml/kg but not 1 ml/kg, given intraperitoneally 1 h before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, MCAo) significantly reduced infarct size after 24 h permanent MCAo. The most effective dose (0.5 ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction of infarct extension throughout the brain, especially in the medial striatum and the motor cortex as revealed by TTC staining of tissue slices. Microdialysis experiments show that BEO (0.5 ml/kg) did not affect basal amino acid levels, whereas it significantly reduced excitatory amino acid, namely aspartate and glutamate, efflux in the frontoparietal cortex typically observed following MCAo. Western blotting experiments demonstrated that these early effects were associated, 24 h after permanent MCAo, to a significant increase in the phosphorylation and activity of the prosurvival kinase, Akt. Indeed, BEO significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of the deleterious downstream kinase, GSK-3beta, whose activity is negatively regulated via phosphorylation by Akt.

  17. Anesthesia for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Maung, Adrian A

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a wide spectrum of disease and disease severity. Because the primary brain injury occurs before the patient enters the health care system, medical interventions seek principally to prevent secondary injury. Anesthesia teams that provide care for patients with TBI both in and out of the operating room should be aware of the specific therapies and needs of this unique and complex patient population.

  18. TOWARD SUICIDE PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Venkoba A.

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustration, unemployement and poor parenting are major causes for youth suicide. There is biological evidence of suicidal behaviour. Fall in the level of serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CSF and in hind brain is found in subjects dying from suicide. Researchers have found decreased melatonin level in depression and suicide attempters. Long term therapy with antidepressants (Tricyclics), mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and new SSRIs prevent relapses and lessen suicide. It was concluded that general hospital doctors are in position of reducing suicide rates. Education of physician in detection of depression and suicide prevention will result in decline in number of suicides. The important measures include limiting the ability of methods of self-harm, antidepressants, paracetamol and insecticides. PMID:21430799

  19. Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context. PMID:17330151

  20. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  1. Molsidomine for the prevention of vasospasm-related delayed ischemic neurological deficits and delayed brain infarction and the improvement of clinical outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a single-center clinical observational study.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Angelika; Schmidt, Christoph; Wölfer, Johannes; Manthei, Gerd; Jacobs, Andreas H; Brüning, Roland; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Stummer, Walter; Pluta, Ryszard M; Hesselmann, Volker

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are responsible fora poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), most likely because of a decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) in the cerebral microcirculation. In this study, the authors examined the effects of treatment with the NO donor molsidomine with regard to decreasing the incidence of spasm-related delayed brain infarctions and improving clinical outcome in patients with SAH. METHODS Seventy-four patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH were included in this post hoc analysis. Twenty-nine patients with SAH and proven CVS received molsidomine in addition to oral or intravenous nimodipine. Control groups consisted of 25 SAH patients with proven vasospasm and 20 SAH patients without. These patients received nimodipine therapy alone. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) before and after treatment was analyzed for CVS-related infarcts. A modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to assess outcomes at a 3-month clinical follow-up. RESULTS Four of the 29 (13.8%) patients receiving molsidomine plus nimodipine and 22 of the 45 (48%) patients receiving nimodipine therapy alone developed vasospasm-associated brain infarcts (p < 0.01). Follow-up revealed a median mNIHSS score of 3.0 and a median mRS score of 2.5 in the molsidomine group compared with scores of 11.5 and 5.0, respectively, in the nimodipine group with CVS (p < 0.001). One patient in the molsidomine treatment group died, and 12 patients in the standard care group died (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis, patients with CVS who were treated with intravenous molsidomine had a significant improvement in clinical outcome and less cerebral infarction. Molsidomine offers a promising therapeutic option in patients with severe SAH and CVS and should be assessed in a prospective study.

  2. Alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia Interact with P-glycoprotein of primary brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from porcine brain blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mahringer, Anne; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of toxic compounds from blood circulation into brain tissue. Unfortunately, drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, and other diseases also do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we used isolated porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and a flow cytometric calcein-AM assay to analyze inhibition of P-glycoprotein, a major constituent of the blood-brain barrier. We tested 8 alkamides isolated from Echinacea angustifolia and found that four of them inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein transport in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells.

  3. Zinc: indications in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Bharti, Kanchan; Majeed, Abu Bakar A

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is the authoritative metal which is present in our body, and reactive zinc metal is crucial for neuronal signaling and is largely distributed within presynaptic vesicles. Zinc also plays an important role in synaptic function. At cellular level, zinc is a modulator of synaptic activity and neuronal plasticity in both development and adulthood. Different importers and transporters are involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT-3 is a main transporter involved in zinc homeostasis in the brain. It has been found that alterations in brain zinc status have been implicated in a wide range of neurological disorders including impaired brain development and many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and mood disorders including depression, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion disease. Furthermore, zinc has also been implicated in neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizure. Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is thus critical to the development of preventive and treatment strategies for these and other neurological disorders.

  4. Peroxide detoxification by brain cells.

    PubMed

    Dringen, Ralf; Pawlowski, Petra G; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    Peroxides are generated continuously in cells that consume oxygen. Among the different peroxides, hydrogen peroxide is the molecule that is formed in highest quantities. In addition, organic hydroperoxides are synthesized as products of cellular metabolism. Generation and disposal of peroxides is a very important process in the human brain, because cells of this organ consume 20% of the oxygen used by the body. To prevent cellular accumulation of peroxides and damage generated by peroxide-derived radicals, brain cells contain efficient antioxidative defense mechanisms that dispose of peroxides and protect against oxidative damage. Cultured brain cells have been used frequently to investigate peroxide metabolism of neural cells. Efficient disposal of exogenous hydrogen peroxide was found for cultured astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and neurons. Comparison of specific peroxide clearance rates revealed that cultured oligodendrocytes dispose of the peroxide quicker than the other neural cell cultures. Both catalase and the glutathione system contribute to the clearance of hydrogen peroxide by brain cells. For efficient glutathione-dependent reduction of peroxides, neural cells contain glutathione in high concentration and have substantial activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and enzymes that supply the NADPH required for the glutathione reductase reaction. This article gives an overview on the mechanisms involved in peroxide detoxification in brain cells and on the capacity of the different types of neural cells to dispose of peroxides.

  5. Role of exercise on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases. The present study suggests that exercise improves brain functions and prevents decline of cognition across the lifespan. Understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of exercise on brain functions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27807514

  6. Fortress brain.

    PubMed

    Royall, Donald R

    2013-02-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuronal inclusions, comprised of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD) such lesions are distributed in a hierarchical retrograde transynaptic spatial pattern. This implies a retrograde transynaptic temporal propagation as well. There can be few explanations for this other than infectious agents (prions and viruses). This suggests that AD and LBD (at least) may have infectious origins. Transynaptic infiltration of the CNS along cranial nerve or other major projections, by one or more infectious agents has important implications. The clinical syndrome and natural history of each neurodegenerative disorder will reflect its portal of entry. There may be a different neurodegenerative syndrome for each cranial nerve or other portal of entry, and not all may manifest as "dementia". Each syndrome may be associated with more than one pathological lesion. Each pathology may be associated with several clinical syndromes. Host-parasite interactions are species specific. This may explain the rarity of AD-like pathology in most other older mammals. Over evolutionary timescales, the human brain should be adapted to predation by neurotropic agents. Viewed from this perspective, the prion-like pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of β-amyloid and other proteins may be adaptive, and anti-microbial. Reductions in synaptic density may slow the progress of invading pathogens, while perineuronal nets and other structures may guard the gates. This suggests a defense in depth of a structure, the brain, that is inherently vulnerable to invasion along its neural networks.

  7. Estradiol and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol is the most potent and ubiquitous member of a class of steroid hormones called estrogens. Fetuses and newborns are exposed to estradiol derived from their mother, their own gonads, and synthesized locally in their brains. Receptors for estradiol are nuclear transcription factors that regulate gene expression but also have actions at the membrane, including activation of signal transduction pathways. The developing brain expresses high levels of receptors for estradiol. The actions of estradiol on developing brain are generally permanent and range from establishment of sex differences to pervasive trophic and neuroprotective effects. Cellular end points mediated by estradiol include the following: 1) apoptosis, with estradiol preventing it in some regions but promoting it in others; 2) synaptogenesis, again estradiol promotes in some regions and inhibits in others; and 3) morphometry of neurons and astrocytes. Estradiol also impacts cellular physiology by modulating calcium handling, immediate-early-gene expression, and kinase activity. The specific mechanisms of estradiol action permanently impacting the brain are regionally specific and often involve neuronal/glial cross-talk. The introduction of endocrine disrupting compounds into the environment that mimic or alter the actions of estradiol has generated considerable concern, and the developing brain is a particularly sensitive target. Prostaglandins, glutamate, GABA, granulin, and focal adhesion kinase are among the signaling molecules co-opted by estradiol to differentiate male from female brains, but much remains to be learned. Only by understanding completely the mechanisms and impact of estradiol action on the developing brain can we also understand when these processes go awry. PMID:18195084

  8. Brain tumors: Special characters for research and banking

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Dashti, Sepideh; Khalaj, Zahra; Nazemroaia, Fatemeh; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    A brain tumor is an intracranial neoplasm within the brain or in the central spinal canal. Primary malignant brain tumors affect about 200,000 people worldwide every year. Brain cells have special characters. Due to the specific properties of brain tumors, including epidemiology, growth, and division, investigation of brain tumors and the interpretation of results is not simple. Research to identify the genetic alterations of human tumors improves our knowledge of tumor biology, genetic interactions, progression, and preclinical therapeutic assessment. Obtaining data for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy requires sufficient samples, and brain tumors have a wide range. As a result, establishing the bank of brain tumors is very important and essential. PMID:25625110

  9. Brain injuries from blast.

    PubMed

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  10. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/22556195 . Szeder V, Tateshima S, Duckwiler GR. Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, ... chap 67. Read More Aneurysm in the brain Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Recovering after stroke Seizures Smoking - ...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  12. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Board Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  13. Brain-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

  14. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  15. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain to bump against the inside of your skull. Common TBIs, such as concussions, can happen during ... an object, like a bullet or piece of skull, pierces your brain. Symptoms of a traumatic brain ...

  17. That's Using Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Dana R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new adult learning theories, including those of Roger Sperry (left brain/right brain), Paul McLean (triune brain), and Howard Gardner (multiple intelligences). Relates adult learning theory to training. (JOW)

  18. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  19. Do metals that translocate to the brain exacerbate traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed

    Kalinich, John F; Kasper, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Metal translocation to the brain is strictly controlled and often prevented by the blood-brain barrier. For the most part, only those metals required to maintain normal function are transported into the brain where they are under tight metabolic control. From the literature, there are reports that traumatic brain injury disrupts the blood-brain barrier. This could allow the influx of metals that would normally have been excluded from the brain. We also have preliminary data showing that metal pellets, surgically-implanted into the leg muscle of a rat to simulate a shrapnel wound, solubilize and the metals comprising the pellet can enter the brain. Surprisingly, rats implanted with a military-grade tungsten alloy composed of tungsten, nickel, and cobalt also showed significantly elevated uranium levels in their brains as early as 1 month after pellet implantation. The only source of uranium was low levels that are naturally found in food and water. Conversely, rats implanted with depleted uranium pellets demonstrated elevated uranium levels in brain resulting from degradation of the implanted pellets. However, when cobalt levels were measured, there were no significant increases in the brain until the rats had reached old age. The only source of cobalt for these rats was the low levels found in their food and water. These data suggest that some metals or metal mixtures (i.e., tungsten alloy), when embedded into muscle, can enhance the translocation of other, endogenous metals (e.g., uranium) across the blood-brain barrier. For other embedded metals (i.e., depleted uranium), this effect is not observed until the animal is of advanced age. This raises the possibility that metal body-burdens can affect blood-brain barrier permeability in a metal-specific and age-dependent manner. This possibility is disconcerting when traumatic brain injury is considered. Traumatic brain injury has been called the "signature" wound of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, often, an

  20. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  1. The Correlation between Brain Development, Language Acquisition, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Leslie Haley

    2007-01-01

    There continues to be a debate whether educators should use brain research to their advantage in the classroom. This debate should not prevent educators from using their new found knowledge toward enhancing their students' learning. By understanding how the brain learns, educators are able to determine what developmental level the child is…

  2. A randomized double-blind crossover trial of deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus in patients with treatment-resistant depression: a pilot study of relapse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Puigdemont, Dolors; Portella, Maria J.; Pérez-Egea, Rosario; Molet, Joan; Gironell, Alexandre; de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Martín, Anna; Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Àlvarez, Enric; Artigas, Francesc; Pérez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, antidepressant drugs show limited efficacy, leaving a large number of patients experiencing severe and persistent symptoms of major depression. Previous open-label clinical trials have reported significant sustained improvements with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) in patients with severe, chronic treatment-resistant depression (TRD). This study aimed to confirm the efficacy and measure the impact of discontinuation of the electrical stimulation. Methods We conducted a 6-month double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled crossover study in implanted patients with previous severe TRD who experienced full remission after chronic stimulation. After more than 3 months of stable remission, patients were randomly assigned to 2 treatment arms: the ON–OFF arm, which involved active electrode stimulation for 3 months followed by sham stimulation for 3 months, and the OFF–ON arm, which involved sham stimulation for 3 months followed by active stimulation for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) total score between sham and active stimulation. Results We enrolled 5 patients in our trial. A Friedman repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of treatment (χ21 = 5.0, p = 0.025) in patients with higher depression scores during sham stimulation. At the end of active stimulation, depression was remitted in 4 of 5 patients and none of them had experienced a relapse, whereas at the end of sham stimulation, 2 patients remained in remission, 2 relapsed and 1 showed a progressive worsening without reaching relapse criteria. Limitations The small sample size limited the statistical power and external validity. Conclusion These preliminary findings indicate that DBS of the SCG is an effective and safe treatment for severe forms of TRD and that continuous electrical stimulation is required to maintain therapeutic effects

  3. The stomach-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    required instead of widely utilised opportunistic stool microbiome studies. In summary, it is now well established that there are important links between the brain and the stomach that have significant effects on gastric function. However, the stomach also influences the brain. Disturbances in the crosstalk between the stomach and the brain may manifest as functional GI disorders while disturbances in the stomach-brain communication may also result in an altered regulation of satiety and as a consequence may affect eating behaviour and mood. These observations may enable the identification of novel therapies targeted at the gastroduodenum that positively alter brain function and treat or prevent conditions such as obesity or functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  5. Long-term treatment with l-DOPA and an mGlu5 receptor antagonist prevents changes in brain basal ganglia dopamine receptors, their associated signaling proteins and neuropeptides in parkinsonian monkeys.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Jourdain, Vincent A; Morissette, Marc; Grégoire, Laurent; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2014-04-01

    Brain glutamate overactivity is well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD) and antiglutamatergic drugs decrease L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LID); the implication of dopamine neurotransmission is not documented in this anti-LID activity. Therefore, we evaluated changes of dopamine receptors, their associated signaling proteins and neuropeptides mRNA, in normal control monkeys, in saline-treated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys and in L-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys, without or with an adjunct treatment to reduce the development of LID: 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), the prototypal metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor antagonist. All de novo treatments were administered for 1 month and the animals were sacrificed thereafter. MPTP monkeys treated with l-DOPA + MPEP developed significantly less LID than MPTP monkeys treated with l-DOPA alone. [(3)H]SCH-23390 specific binding to D1 receptors of all MPTP monkeys was decreased as compared to controls in the basal ganglia and no difference was observed between all MPTP groups, while striatal D1 receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged. [(3)H]raclopride specific binding to striatal D2 receptors and mRNA levels of D2 receptors were increased in MPTP monkeys compared to controls; l-DOPA treatment reduced this binding in MPTP monkeys while it remained elevated with the l-DOPA + MPEP treatment. Striatal [(3)H]raclopride specific binding correlated positively with D2 receptor mRNA levels of all MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Striatal preproenkephalin/preprodynorphin mRNA levels and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK3β levels increased only in L-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys as compared to controls, saline treated-MPTP and l-DOPA + MPEP treated MPTP monkeys. Hence, reduction of development of LID with MPEP was associated with changes in D2 receptors, their associated signaling proteins and neuropeptides.

  6. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain.

  7. Nanoparticles for Brain Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Masserini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system, one of the most delicate microenvironments of the body, is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulating its homeostasis. BBB is a highly complex structure that tightly regulates the movement of ions of a limited number of small molecules and of an even more restricted number of macromolecules from the blood to the brain, protecting it from injuries and diseases. However, the BBB also significantly precludes the delivery of drugs to the brain, thus, preventing the therapy of a number of neurological disorders. As a consequence, several strategies are currently being sought after to enhance the delivery of drugs across the BBB. Within this review, the recently born strategy of brain drug delivery based on the use of nanoparticles, multifunctional drug delivery systems with size in the order of one-billionth of meters, is described. The review also includes a brief description of the structural and physiological features of the barrier and of the most utilized nanoparticles for medical use. Finally, the potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles is discussed, and future technological approaches are described. The strong efforts to allow the translation from preclinical to concrete clinical applications are worth the economic investments. PMID:25937958

  8. Brain endothelial TAK1 and NEMO safeguard the neurovascular unit

    PubMed Central

    Ridder, Dirk A.; Wenzel, Jan; Müller, Kristin; Töllner, Kathrin; Tong, Xin-Kang; Assmann, Julian C.; Stroobants, Stijn; Weber, Tobias; Niturad, Cristina; Fischer, Lisanne; Lembrich, Beate; Wolburg, Hartwig; Grand’Maison, Marilyn; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Korpos, Eva; Truchetet, Francois; Rades, Dirk; Sorokin, Lydia M.; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Bedell, Barry J.; Pasparakis, Manolis; Balschun, Detlef; D’Hooge, Rudi; Löscher, Wolfgang; Hamel, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a key component of NF-κB signaling, cause the genetic disease incontinentia pigmenti (IP). This leads to severe neurological symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying brain involvement were unclear. Here, we show that selectively deleting Nemo or the upstream kinase Tak1 in brain endothelial cells resulted in death of endothelial cells, a rarefaction of brain microvessels, cerebral hypoperfusion, a disrupted blood–brain barrier (BBB), and epileptic seizures. TAK1 and NEMO protected the BBB by activating the transcription factor NF-κB and stabilizing the tight junction protein occludin. They also prevented brain endothelial cell death in a NF-κB–independent manner by reducing oxidative damage. Our data identify crucial functions of inflammatory TAK1–NEMO signaling in protecting the brain endothelium and maintaining normal brain function, thus explaining the neurological symptoms associated with IP. PMID:26347470

  9. Sedation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Oliver; Hellings, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Several different classes of sedative agents are used in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). These agents are used at induction of anaesthesia, to maintain sedation, to reduce elevated intracranial pressure, to terminate seizure activity and facilitate ventilation. The intent of their use is to prevent secondary brain injury by facilitating and optimising ventilation, reducing cerebral metabolic rate and reducing intracranial pressure. There is limited evidence available as to the best choice of sedative agents in TBI, with each agent having specific advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses these agents and offers evidence-based guidance as to the appropriate context in which each agent may be used. Propofol, benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, etomidate, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine are reviewed and compared. PMID:23050154

  10. Preventing head and neck injury.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  11. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  12. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  13. Improving brain drug targeting through exploitation of the nose-to-brain route: a physiological and pharmacokinetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Badhan, R K S; Kaur, M; Lungare, S; Obuobi, S

    2014-01-01

    With an ageing population and increasing prevalence of central-nervous system (CNS) disorders new approaches are required to sustain the development and successful delivery of therapeutics into the brain and CNS. CNS drug delivery is challenging due to the impermeable nature of the brain microvascular endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and which prevent the entry of a wide range of therapeutics into the brain. This review examines the role intranasal delivery may play in achieving direct brain delivery, for small molecular weight drugs, macromolecular therapeutics and cell-based therapeutics, by exploitation of the olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways. This approach is thought to deliver drugs into the brain and CNS through bypassing the BBB. Details of the mechanism of transfer of administrated therapeutics, the pathways that lead to brain deposition, with a specific focus on therapeutic pharmacokinetics, and examples of successful CNS delivery will be explored.

  14. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  15. Acid extrusion via blood-brain barrier causes brain alkalosis and seizures after neonatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Mohamed M; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Watkins, Paul V; Voipio, Juha; Kanold, Patrick O; Kaila, Kai

    2012-11-01

    Birth asphyxia is often associated with a high seizure burden that is predictive of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The mechanisms underlying birth asphyxia seizures are unknown. Using an animal model of birth asphyxia based on 6-day-old rat pups, we have recently shown that the seizure burden is linked to an increase in brain extracellular pH that consists of the recovery from the asphyxia-induced acidosis, and of a subsequent plateau level well above normal extracellular pH. In the present study, two-photon imaging of intracellular pH in neocortical neurons in vivo showed that pH changes also underwent a biphasic acid-alkaline response, resulting in an alkaline plateau level. The mean alkaline overshoot was strongly suppressed by a graded restoration of normocapnia after asphyxia. The parallel post-asphyxia increase in extra- and intracellular pH levels indicated a net loss of acid equivalents from brain tissue that was not attributable to a disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as demonstrated by a lack of increased sodium fluorescein extravasation into the brain, and by the electrophysiological characteristics of the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, electrode recordings of pH in the brain and trunk demonstrated a net efflux of acid equivalents from the brain across the blood-brain barrier, which was abolished by the Na/H exchange inhibitor, N-methyl-isobutyl amiloride. Pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange also suppressed the seizure activity associated with the brain-specific alkalosis. Our findings show that the post-asphyxia seizures are attributable to an enhanced Na/H exchange-dependent net extrusion of acid equivalents across the blood-brain barrier and to consequent brain alkalosis. These results suggest targeting of blood-brain barrier-mediated pH regulation as a novel approach in the prevention and therapy of neonatal seizures.

  16. Healthy cognitive aging and dementia prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glenn E

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral prevention strategies can help maintain high levels of cognition and functional integrity, and can reduce the social, medical, and economic burden associated with cognitive aging and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Interventions involving physical exercise and cognitive training have consistently shown positive effects on cognition in older adults. "Brain fitness" interventions have now been shown to have sustained effects lasting 10 years or more. A meta-analysis suggests these physical exercise and brain fitness exercises produce nearly identical impact on formal measures of cognitive function. Behavioral interventions developed and deployed by psychologists are key in supporting healthy cognitive aging. The National Institutes of Health should expand research on cognitive health and behavioral and social science to promote healthy aging and to develop and refine ways to prevent and treat dementia. Funding for adequately powered, large-scale trials is needed. Congress must maintain support for crucial dementia-related initiatives like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthy Brain Initiative and fund training programs to insure there is a work force with skills to provide high quality care for older adults. Insurers must provide better coverage for behavioral interventions. Better coverage is needed so there can be increased access to evidence-based disease prevention and health promotion services with the potential for reducing dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Polio and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  18. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs Preventing ... Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep vein ...

  19. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  20. Metabolism and functions of copper in brain.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Ivo F; Mercer, Julian F B; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Copper is an important trace element that is required for essential enzymes. However, due to its redox activity, copper can also lead to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cellular uptake, storage as well as export of copper have to be tightly regulated in order to guarantee sufficient copper supply for the synthesis of copper-containing enzymes but also to prevent copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, copper is of importance for normal development. In addition, both copper deficiency as well as excess of copper can seriously affect brain functions. Therefore, this organ possesses ample mechanisms to regulate its copper metabolism. In brain, astrocytes are considered as important regulators of copper homeostasis. Impairments of homeostatic mechanisms in brain copper metabolism have been associated with neurodegeneration in human disorders such as Menkes disease, Wilson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This review article will summarize the biological functions of copper in the brain and will describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in copper transport, storage and export of brain cells. The role of copper in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis will also be discussed.

  1. Surgical Resection Followed by Whole Brain Radiotherapy Versus Whole Brain Radiotherapy Alone for Single Brain Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kieckebusch, Susanne; Haatanen, Tiina; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2008-04-01

    control within the entire brain, but did not prevent the development of new brain metastases distant to the original site.

  2. Folate nutrition and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stover, Patrick J; Durga, Jane; Field, Martha S

    2017-04-01

    Mammals require essential nutrients from dietary sources to support normal metabolic, physiological and neuronal functions, to prevent diseases of nutritional deficiency as well as to prevent chronic disease. Disease and/or its treatment can modify fundamental biological processes including cellular nutrient accretion, stability and function in cells. These effects can be isolated to a specific diseased organ in the absence of whole-body alterations in nutrient status or biochemistry. Loss of blood-brain barrier function, which occurs in in-born errors of metabolism and in chronic disease, can cause brain-specific folate deficiency and contribute to disease co-morbidity. The role of brain folate deficiency in neuropsychiatric disorders is reviewed, as well as emerging diagnostic and nutritional strategies to identify and address brain folate deficiency in blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

  3. Site-Specific, Sustained Release of Drugs to the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodor, Nicholas; Farag, Hassan H.; Brewster, Marcus E.

    1981-12-01

    A dihydropyridine-pyridinium salt type of redox system is used in a general and flexible method for site-specific or sustained delivery (or both) of drugs to the brain. A biologically active compound linked to a lipoidal dihydropyridine carrier easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier. Oxidation of the carrier part in vivo to the ionic pyridinium salt prevents its elimination from the brain, while elimination from the general circulation is accelerated. Subsequent cleavage of the quaternary carrier-drug species results in sustained delivery of the drug in the brain and facile elimination of the carrier part.

  4. Tracking the silent epidemic and educating the public: CDC's traumatic brain injury-associated activities under the TBI Act of 1996 and the Children's Health Act of 2000.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean A; Marr, Angela; Mitchko, Jane; Johnson, Renee L

    2005-01-01

    The Traumatic Brain Injury Act of 1996 and the Children's Health Act of 2000 authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct several activities associated with traumatic brain injury. This article describes how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention responded to the legislation in 2 key areas: traumatic brain injury surveillance, and education and awareness.

  5. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  6. Blood-brain interfaces and bilirubin-induced neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghersi-Egea, J F; Gazzin, S; Strazielle, N

    2009-01-01

    The endothelium of the brain microvessels and the choroid plexus epithelium form highly specialized cellular barriers referred to as blood-brain interfaces through which molecular exchanges take place between the blood and the neuropil or the cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. Within the brain, the ependyma and the pia-glia limitans modulate exchanges between the neuropil and the cerebrospinal fluid. All these interfaces are key elements of neuroprotection and fulfill trophic functions; both properties are critical to harmonious brain development and maturation. By analogy to hepatic bilirubin detoxification pathways, we review the transport and metabolic mechanisms which in all these interfaces may participate in the regulation of bilirubin cerebral bioavailability in physiologic conditions, both in adult and in developing brain. We specifically address the role of ABC and OATP transporters, glutathione-S-transferases, and the potential involvement of glucuronoconjugation and oxidative metabolic pathways. Regulatory mechanisms are explored which are involved in the induction of these pathways and represent potential pharmacological targets to prevent bilirubin accumulation into the brain. We then review the possible alteration of the neuroprotective and trophic barrier functions in the course of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunctions resulting from hyperbilirubinemia. Finally, we highlight the role of the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers in regulating the brain biodisposition of candidate drugs for the treatment or prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury.

  7. Traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Kaj; Brody, David L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Levin, Harvey; McKee, Ann; Ribbers, Gerard M; Yaffe, Kristine; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-11-17

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available. Most patients with mild TBI will recover quickly, but others report persistent symptoms, called post-concussive syndrome, the underlying pathophysiology of which is largely unknown. Repeated concussive and subconcussive head injuries have been linked to the neurodegenerative condition chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has been reported post-mortem in contact sports athletes and soldiers exposed to blasts. Insights from severe injuries and CTE plausibly shed light on the underlying cellular and molecular processes involved in mild TBI. MRI techniques and blood tests for axonal proteins to identify and grade axonal injury, in addition to PET for tau pathology, show promise as tools to explore CTE pathophysiology in longitudinal clinical studies, and might be developed into diagnostic tools for CTE. Given that CTE is attributed to repeated head trauma, prevention might be possible through rule changes by sports organizations and legislators.

  8. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  9. Brain rhythms reveal a hierarchical network organization.

    PubMed

    Steinke, G Karl; Galán, Roberto F

    2011-10-01

    Recordings of ongoing neural activity with EEG and MEG exhibit oscillations of specific frequencies over a non-oscillatory background. The oscillations appear in the power spectrum as a collection of frequency bands that are evenly spaced on a logarithmic scale, thereby preventing mutual entrainment and cross-talk. Over the last few years, experimental, computational and theoretical studies have made substantial progress on our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms underlying the generation of network oscillations and their interactions, with emphasis on the role of neuronal synchronization. In this paper we ask a very different question. Rather than investigating how brain rhythms emerge, or whether they are necessary for neural function, we focus on what they tell us about functional brain connectivity. We hypothesized that if we were able to construct abstract networks, or "virtual brains", whose dynamics were similar to EEG/MEG recordings, those networks would share structural features among themselves, and also with real brains. Applying mathematical techniques for inverse problems, we have reverse-engineered network architectures that generate characteristic dynamics of actual brains, including spindles and sharp waves, which appear in the power spectrum as frequency bands superimposed on a non-oscillatory background dominated by low frequencies. We show that all reconstructed networks display similar topological features (e.g. structural motifs) and dynamics. We have also reverse-engineered putative diseased brains (epileptic and schizophrenic), in which the oscillatory activity is altered in different ways, as reported in clinical studies. These reconstructed networks show consistent alterations of functional connectivity and dynamics. In particular, we show that the complexity of the network, quantified as proposed by Tononi, Sporns and Edelman, is a good indicator of brain fitness, since virtual brains modeling diseased states display lower

  10. Neural repair in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic injury to the adult brain often results in substantial loss of neural tissue and subsequent permanent functional impairment. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been developed to harness the regenerative potential of neural stem cells and the existing fate plasticity of neural cells in the nervous system to prevent tissue loss or to enhance structural and functional regeneration upon injury. Here, we review recent advances of stem cell-associated neural repair in the adult brain, discuss current challenges and limitations, and suggest potential directions to foster the translation of experimental stem cell therapies into the clinic. PMID:26918167

  11. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use. PMID:21691215

  12. Modulating brain oscillations to drive brain function.

    PubMed

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-12-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions.

  13. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  14. Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

  15. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  16. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  17. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  18. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  19. Brain cancer spreads.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-07-30

    The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue).

  20. Biophysics: Unfolding the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    The folded surface of the human brain, although striking, continues to evade understanding. Experiments with swelling gels now fuel the notion that brain folding is modulated by physical forces, and not by genetic, biological or chemical events alone.

  1. Brain Training for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 65, stimulating your brain with activities and games can keep your mind sharp later in life ( ... you currently have some form of dementia, brain games and “active mind” activity can still help.There ...

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Eric S; Zhang, Michael; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Azagury, Dan E; Bohon, Cara; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is now the third leading cause of preventable death in the US, accounting for 216,000 deaths annually and nearly 100 billion dollars in health care costs. Despite advancements in bariatric surgery, substantial weight regain and recurrence of the associated metabolic syndrome still occurs in almost 20-35% of patients over the long-term, necessitating the development of novel therapies. Our continually expanding knowledge of the neuroanatomic and neuropsychiatric underpinnings of obesity has led to increased interest in neuromodulation as a new treatment for obesity refractory to current medical, behavioral, and surgical therapies. Recent clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in chronic cluster headache, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of targeting the hypothalamus and reward circuitry of the brain with electrical stimulation, and thus provide the basis for a neuromodulatory approach to treatment-refractory obesity. In this study, we review the literature implicating these targets for DBS in the neural circuitry of obesity. We will also briefly review ethical considerations for such an intervention, and discuss genetic secondary-obesity syndromes that may also benefit from DBS. In short, we hope to provide the scientific foundation to justify trials of DBS for the treatment of obesity targeting these specific regions of the brain. PMID:26180683

  3. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    et al. Statins and neuroprotectants: A comparatife in vitro study of lipopholicity, blood-brain barrier penetration, lowering of brain cholesterol ...heterogeneous disease involving multiple brain injury phenotypes and that success of an agent tested across multiple established TBI models using an...coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor Simvastatin reduces serum cholesterol but also inhibits neuro-inflammation and has possible effects on brain

  4. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  5. Brain Death Determination.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Irene M

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, each year 1% to 2% of deaths are brain deaths. Considerable variation in the practice of determining brain death still remains, despite the publication of practice parameters in 1995 and an evidence-based guideline update in 2010. This review is intended to give bedside clinicians an overview of definition, the causes and pitfalls of misdiagnosing brain death, and a focus on the specifics of the brain death determination process.

  6. Your Brain and Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  7. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  8. Your Brain and Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  9. Brain and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, Antonio R., Damasio, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advances made in understanding the brain structures responsible for language. Presents findings made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomographic (PET) scans to study brain activity. These findings map the structures in the brain that manipulate concepts and those that turn concepts into words. (MCO)

  10. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  11. Our Amazing Brains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

  12. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  13. Brain Research and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, Mary

    Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

  14. [Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease and Nutrients].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    The dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are the Mediterranean diet and the Japanese-style diet, both of which contain well-balanced nutrients from fish and vegetables. These diets are rich in vitamin E, carotenes, antioxidant flavonoids, vitamin B12, folate, and n-3PUFA. According to recent review supplementation of folate and vitamin E may protect against elderly people's cognitive decline when the serum folate is <12 nmol/L or the vitamin E intake is <6.1 mg/day. Another nutritional topic with regard to dementia and diet is the association of type-2 diabetes and hyperinsulinemia with AD. Expression array data of the brain tissue of AD patients in the Hisayama study strongly suggests a disturbance in insulin signaling in the AD brain. The dysfunction of insulin signaling could directly lead to disrupted glucose utilization in the AD brain. Instead of improperly utilized glucose, the medium chain triglyceride ketone bodies can be an alternative energy resource for the AD brain. In conclusion, the dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of AD are a high consumption of fish, vegetables, and low glycemic index fruits; a moderate amount of meat and dairy products; and a lower amount of carbohydrates and refined sugar.

  15. Brain fag: New perspectives from case observations.

    PubMed

    Ebigbo, Peter O; Lekwas, Elekwachi Chimezie; Chukwunenyem, Nweze Felix

    2015-06-01

    Brain fag was originally described as a culture-bound syndrome among West African students. The term "brain fag" literally means "brain fatigue." Available literature indicates that brain fag symptoms usually present in formal academic settings when African students are required to transit to a reliance on written literature (as opposed to more traditional oral forms of information transmission) and to adapt to westernized, individualistic systems of education that, at times, oppose the values of relatively collectivistic African societies. Based on detailed observation of two typical and two nontypical cases of brain fag, the authors suggest that the syndrome may not be solely related to tensions in the academic sphere, but may function more generally as an expression of psychological distress that results from societal pressures that exceed the coping capacity of the individual. The brain fag symptoms, including lack of concentration, sensations of internal heat in the head and body, heaviness, and multiple somatic complaints, may constitute a defensive process which helps prevent a full-fledged decompensation.

  16. [Dementia prevention: potential treatments and how to target high risk patients].

    PubMed

    Samaras, Nikolaos; Samaras, Dimitrios; Frangos, Emilia; Forster, Alexandre

    2013-05-22

    The burden related to the ever-increasing dementia prevalence in older individuals, imposes the implementation of prevention strategies. It is now known that brain lesions related to Alzheimer's disease precede the onset of the first symptoms. Consequently, prevention strategies should be implemented early, before clinically overt dementia. Blood and spine fluid tests, electroencephalogram, brain magnetic resonance and brain nuclear imaging should help physicians to better target "high-risk" patients prone to benefit from such strategies, already in a preclinical disease stage. Since no efficient pharmacological treatments exist for the time being, lifestyle factors such as nutritionand physical exercise are the cornerstones for dementia prevention.

  17. Exercise, nutrition and the brain.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Romain

    2014-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and can improve cognitive function. Exercise has been promoted as a possible prevention for neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise will have a positive influence on cognition and it increases the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin. Several dietary components have been identified as having effects on cognitive abilities. In particular, polyphenols have been reported to exert their neuroprotective actions through the potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function. Dietary factors can affect multiple brain processes by regulating neurotransmitter pathways, synaptic transmission, membrane fluidity, and signal-transduction pathways. Flavonols are part of the flavonoid family that is found in various fruits, cocoa, wine, tea and beans. Although the antioxidant effects of flavonols are well established in vitro, there is general agreement that flavonols have more complex actions in vivo. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that a higher intake of flavonoids from food may be associated with a better cognitive evolution. Whether this reflects a causal association remains to be elucidated. Several studies have tried to 'manipulate' the brain in order to postpone central fatigue. Most studies have clearly shown that in normal environmental circumstances these interventions are not easy to perform. There is accumulating evidence that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution will improve endurance performance. There is a need for additional well controlled studies to explore the possible impact of diet and nutrition on brain functioning.

  18. Dissection of the Process of Brain Metastasis Reveals Targets and Mechanisms for Molecular-based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwendlyn; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases outnumber the incidence of brain tumors by a factor of ten. Patients with brain metastases have a dismal prognosis and current treatment modalities achieve only a modest clinical benefit. We discuss the process of brain metastasis with respect to mechanisms and involved targets to outline options for therapeutic intervention and focus on breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma. We describe the process of penetration of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) by disseminated tumor cells, establishment of a metastatic niche, colonization and outgrowth in the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, the role of angiogenesis in colonization of the brain parenchyma, interactions of extravasated tumor cells with microglia and astrocytes, as well as their propensity for neuromimicry, is discussed. We outline targets suitable for prevention of metastasis and summarize targets suitable for treatment of established brain metastases. Finally, we highlight the implications of findings revealing druggable mutations in brain metastases that cannot be identified in matching primary tumors.

  19. Effects of a disrupted blood-brain barrier on cholesterol homeostasis in the brain.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Ahmed A; Genové, Guillem; Li, Tian; Lütjohann, Dieter; Olin, Maria; Mast, Natalia; Pikuleva, Irina A; Crick, Peter; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William; Betsholtz, Christer; Björkhem, Ingemar

    2014-08-22

    The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for cholesterol metabolism in the brain, preventing uptake of lipoprotein-bound cholesterol from the circulation. The metabolic consequences of a leaking BBB for cholesterol metabolism have not been studied previously. Here we used a pericyte-deficient mouse model, Pdgfb(ret/ret), shown to have increased permeability of the BBB to a range of low-molecular mass and high-molecular mass tracers. There was a significant accumulation of plant sterols in the brains of the Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. By dietary treatment with 0.3% deuterium-labeled cholesterol, we could demonstrate a significant flux of cholesterol from the circulation into the brains of the mutant mice roughly corresponding to about half of the measured turnover of cholesterol in the brain. We expected the cholesterol flux into the brain to cause a down-regulation of cholesterol synthesis. Instead, cholesterol synthesis was increased by about 60%. The levels of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) were significantly reduced in the brains of the pericyte-deficient mice but increased in the circulation. After treatment with 1% cholesterol in diet, the difference in cholesterol synthesis between mutants and controls disappeared. The findings are consistent with increased leakage of 24S-OHC from the brain into the circulation in the pericyte-deficient mice. This oxysterol is an efficient suppressor of cholesterol synthesis, and the results are consistent with a regulatory role of 24S-OHC in the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a defective BBB may lead to increased flux of a lipophilic compound out from the brain. The relevance of the findings for the human situation is discussed.

  20. Whither brain death?

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2014-01-01

    The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human death but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain death are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain death is equivalent to human death. Brain death remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public.

  1. Brain adaptation to acute hyponatremia in young rats.

    PubMed

    Silver, S M; Schroeder, B M; Bernstein, P; Sterns, R H

    1999-06-01

    Brain swelling after acute hyponatremia in prepubescent rats, in contrast to adults, has recently been associated with an increase in brain sodium and a high mortality that could be prevented by preadministration of testosterone. To reexamine the effect of acute hyponatremia in young brain, we measured brain water and solute content in prepubescent rats after induction of hyponatremia over 4 h with water and arginine vasopressin. An 18% decrease in plasma sodium was associated with a 13% increase in brain water and a decrease in brain sodium and glutamate contents. No animals died. To assess the effect of sex hormones on brain adaptation, prepubescent rats were pretreated with estrogen or testosterone before acute hyponatremia. Brain sodium and potassium contents were significantly reduced in comparison to normonatremia in testosterone-pretreated but not estrogen-pretreated animals. However, there was no difference between estrogen-pretreated and testosterone-pretreated groups in mortality or in brain contents of water, electrolytes, or major organic osmolytes. In conclusion, we found that brain adaptation to acute hyponatremia in prepubescent rats is similar to that observed in adults.

  2. Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sibille, Etienne

    2013-03-01

    The increased risk for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with extended lifespan has long suggested mechanistic links between chronological age and brain-related disorders, including depression, Recent characterizations of age-dependent gene expression changes now show that aging of the human brain engages a specific set of biological pathways along a continuous lifelong trajectory, and that the same genes that are associated with normal brain aging are also frequently and similarly implicated in depression and other brain-related disorders. These correlative observations suggest a model of age-by-disease molecular interactions, in which brain aging promotes biological changes associated with diseases, and additional environmental factors and genetic variability contribute to defining disease risk or resiliency trajectories. Here we review the characteristic features of brain aging in terms of changes in gene function over time, and then focus on evidence supporting accelerated molecular aging in depression. This proposed age-by-disease biological interaction model addresses the current gap in research between "normal" brain aging and its connection to late-life diseases. The implications of this model are profound, as it provides an investigational framework for identifying critical moderating factors, outlines opportunities for early interventions or preventions, and may form the basis for a dimensional definition of diseases that goes beyond the current categorical system.

  3. Brain plasticity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Bryan; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Gibb, Robbin

    2013-01-01

    The developing normal brain shows a remarkable capacity for plastic change in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, psychoactive drugs, parent-child relationships, peer relationships, stress, gonadal hormones, intestinal flora, diet, and injury. The effects of injury vary with the precise age-at-injury, with the general result being that injury during cell migration and neuronal maturation has a poor functional outcome, whereas similar injury during synaptogenesis has a far better outcome. A variety of factors influence functional outcome including the nature of the behavior in question and the age at behavioral assessment as well as pre- and postinjury experiences. Here, we review the phases of brain development, how factors influence brain, and behavioral development in both the normal and perturbed brain, and propose mechanisms that may underlie these effects.

  4. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.

  5. Selfish brain and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cha, Danielle S; Asevedo, Elson; McIntyre, Roger S; Brietzke, Elisa

    2013-06-03

    Bipolar disorder is associated with increases in mortality rates due to metabolic complications when compared to the general population. The "selfish brain" theory postulates that the CNS modulates energy metabolism in the periphery in order to prioritize its own demand and offers an heurist value framework to understand how and why metabolic abnormalities develop in the course of BD. Mood episodes, especially those of manic polarity are neurotoxic, because of the acute release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate, oxidative species, inflammatory cytokines and the deprivation of neuroprotective factors, such as neurotrophins. The cell loss and malfunctioning require from the brain an extra effort to repair itself, which will demand energetic supplies. Application of "selfish brain" theory in BD can potentially offer new insights about how to prevent and treat metabolic complications in BD.

  6. Cellular senescence and the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Chinta, Shankar J.; Woods, Georgia; Rane, Anand; Demaria, Marco; Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that arrests the proliferation of mitotically competent cells to prevent malignant transformation. Senescent cells accumulate with age in a variety of human and mouse tissues where they express a complex ‘senescence-associated secretory phenotype’ (SASP). The SASP includes many pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and proteases that have the potential to cause or exacerbate age-related pathology, both degenerative and hyperplastic. While cellular senescence in peripheral tissues has recently been linked to a number of age-related pathologies, its involvement in brain aging is just beginning to be explored. Recent data generated by several laboratories suggest both aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by an increase in SASP-expressing senescent cells of non-neuronal origin in the brain. Moreover, this increase correlates with neurodegeneration. Senescent cells in the brain could therefore constitute novel therapeutic targets for treating age-related neuropathologies. PMID:25281806

  7. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  8. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  9. Oxidative stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Love, S

    1999-01-01

    depends on the severity and precise nature of the ischemic injury. Recent studies have emphasized the role of peroxynitrite in causing single-strand breaks in DNA, which activate the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This catalyzes the cleavage and thereby the consumption of NAD+, the source of energy for many vital cellular processes. Over-activation of PARP, with resulting depletion of NAD+, has been shown to make a major contribution to brain damage after transient focal ischemia in experimental animals. Neuronal accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the end-product of PARP activity has been demonstrated after brain ischemia in man. Several therapeutic strategies have been used to try to prevent oxidative damage and its consequences after brain ischemia in man. Although some of the drugs used in early studies were ineffective or had unacceptable side effects, other trials with antioxidant drugs have proven highly encouraging. The findings in recent animal studies are likely to lead to a range of further pharmacological strategies to limit brain injury in stroke patients.

  10. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23 ). Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) : This U.S. trial investigated whether daily supplementation with ... the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301(1):39-51. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  11. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visitor Information Contact Us Research > NIAID's Role in Research > Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter ... Prevention, Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antimicrobial ... To prevent antimicrobial resistance, you and your healthcare ...

  12. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    HPV CANCER PREVENTION HPV VACCINE IS CANCER PREVENTION HPV vaccine protects against HPV types that most commonly cause ... professionals are the key to protecting adolescents from HPV cancers. VACCINATE YOUR 11-12 YEAR OLDS. www. cdc. ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure Prevention Steps You Can Take You can take steps to prevent high blood pressure by adopting these healthy lifestyle habits. Follow a ...

  14. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  15. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary Care Justice System Adult Justice System Juvenile Justice System ... About Suicide Effective Prevention Resources & Programs Training & Events News & Highlights Organizations The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) is supported ...

  16. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  17. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  18. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  19. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  20. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  1. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, O

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer. PMID:21614274

  2. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  3. Melatonin and brain inflammaging.

    PubMed

    Hardeland, Rüdiger; Cardinali, Daniel P; Brown, Gregory M; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R

    2015-04-01

    Melatonin is known to possess several properties of value for healthy aging, as a direct and indirect antioxidant, protectant and modulator of mitochondrial function, antiexcitotoxic agent, enhancer of circadian amplitudes, immune modulator and neuroprotectant. It is levels tend to decrease in the course of senescence and are more strongly reduced in several neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer's disease, and in diseases related to insulin resistance such as diabetes type 2. Although the role of melatonin in aging and age-related diseases has been repeatedly discussed, the newly emerged concept of inflammaging, that is, the contribution of low-grade inflammation to senescence progression has not yet been the focus of melatonin research. This review addresses the multiple protective actions of melatonin and its kynuramine metabolites that are relevant to the attenuation of inflammatory responses and progression of inflammaging in the brain, i.e. avoidance of excitotoxicity, reduction of free radical formation by support of mitochondrial electron flux, prevention of NADPH oxidase activation and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, as well as downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The experimental evidence is primarily discussed on the basis of aging and senescence-accelerated animals, actions in the immune system, and the relationship between melatonin and sirtuins, having properties of aging suppressors. Sirtuins act either as accessory components or downstream factors of circadian oscillators, which are also under control by melatonin. Inflammaging is assumed to strongly contribute to neurodegeneration of the circadian master clock observed in advanced senescence and, even more, in Alzheimer's disease, a change that affects countless physiological functions.

  4. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall-prevention plan. High heels, floppy slippers and shoes with slick soles can make you slip, stumble ... your stocking feet. Instead, wear properly fitting, sturdy shoes with nonskid soles. Sensible shoes may also reduce ...

  5. Fire Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmann, Jeanne; Claus, William C.

    The fire prevention education bulletin helps schools continue their work to make the home, school, and community safe places in which to live and to help children and young people live in safe ways without developing undue fears. Briefly discussed are the goals of a fire prevention program, who should be concerned with fire prevention education,…

  6. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  7. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  8. The brain melanocortin system, sympathetic control, and obesity hypertension.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alexandre A; do Carmo, Jussara M; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2014-05-01

    Excess weight gain is the most significant, preventable cause of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with primary (essential) hypertension and increases the risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of the brain melanocortin system in causing increased sympathetic activity in obesity and other forms of hypertension. In addition, we highlight potential mechanisms by which the brain melanocortin system modulates metabolic and cardiovascular functions.

  9. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  10. Progress in Neuroprotective Strategies for Preventing Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Munjal M.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroprotection is increasingly considered as a promising therapy for preventing and treating temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The development of chronic TLE, also termed as epileptogenesis, is a dynamic process. An initial precipitating injury (IPI) such as the status epilepticus (SE) leads to neurodegeneration, abnormal reorganization of the brain circuitry and a significant loss of functional inhibition. All of these changes likely contribute to the development of chronic epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent motor seizures (SRMS) and learning and memory deficits. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current state of knowledge pertaining to neuroprotection in epileptic conditions, and to highlight the efficacy of distinct neuroprotective strategies for preventing or treating chronic TLE. Although the administration of certain conventional and new generation antiepileptic drugs is effective for primary neuroprotection such as reduced neurodegeneration after acute seizures or the SE, their competence for preventing the development of chronic epilepsy after an IPI is either unknown or not promising. On the other hand, alternative strategies such as the ketogenic diet therapy, administration of distinct neurotrophic factors, hormones or antioxidants seem useful for preventing and treating chronic TLE. However, long term studies on the efficacy of these approaches introduced at different time-points after the SE or an IPI are lacking. Additionally, grafting of fetal hippocampal cells at early time-points after an IPI holds considerable promise for preventing TLE, though issues regarding availability of donor cells, ethical concerns, timing of grafting after SE, and durability of graft-mediated seizure suppression need to be resolved for further advances with this approach. Overall, from the studies performed so far, there is consensus that neuroprotective strategies need to be employed as quickly as possible after the onset of the SE or an IPI for

  11. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  12. Robust Brain Hyperglycemia during General Anesthesia: Relationships with Metabolic Brain Inhibition and Vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Bola, R. Aaron; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    Glucose is the main energetic substrate for the metabolic activity of brain cells and its proper delivery into the extracellular space is essential for maintaining normal neural functions. Under physiological conditions, glucose continuously enters the extracellular space from arterial blood via gradient-dependent facilitated diffusion governed by the GLUT-1 transporters. Due to this gradient-dependent mechanism, glucose levels rise in the brain after consumption of glucose-containing foods and drinks. Glucose entry is also accelerated due to local neuronal activation and neuro-vascular coupling, resulting in transient hyperglycemia to prevent any metabolic deficit. Here, we explored another mechanism that is activated during general anesthesia and results in significant brain hyperglycemia. By using enzyme-based glucose biosensors we demonstrate that glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) strongly increase after iv injection of Equthesin, a mixture of chloral hydrate and sodium pentobarbital, which is often used for general anesthesia in rats. By combining electrochemical recordings with brain, muscle, and skin temperature monitoring, we show that the gradual increase in brain glucose occurring during the development of general anesthesia tightly correlate with decreases in brain-muscle temperature differentials, suggesting that this rise in glucose is related to metabolic inhibition. While the decreased consumption of glucose by brain cells could contribute to the development of hyperglycemia, an exceptionally strong positive correlation (r = 0.99) between glucose rise and increases in skin-muscle temperature differentials was also found, suggesting the strong vasodilation of cerebral vessels as the primary mechanism for accelerated entry of glucose into brain tissue. Our present data could explain drastic differences in basal glucose levels found in awake and anesthetized animal preparations. They also suggest that glucose entry into brain tissue could be

  13. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    permeability and integrity of the brain endothelium using in vitro and in vivo models. 3) Determine the protective effects of PARP inhibitors and/or selenium ...in preventing BBB-induced damage by oxidative stress, and in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Further, since selenium has anti...inhibitor and ROS inhibitor of BMEC-TJs HBMEC cocultures were preincubated with PARP inhibitor (30mM) or with ROS inhibitor (10mM selenium ) for 6

  14. Left Brain, Right Brain, Super Brain: The Holistic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellin, David

    Recent discoveries about the whole brain seem to call for a holistic approach to learning, one in which educators would teach the whole person, including physical and emotional states as well as cognitive abilities. Three holistic techniques are particularly relevant to education: (1) biofeedback; (2) yoga; and (3) the Lozanov method. Biofeedback…

  15. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

  16. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    PubMed

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  17. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training.

  18. Heart-brain interactions in cardiac arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Taggart, P; Critchley, H; Lambiase, P D

    2011-05-01

    This review examines current knowledge of the effects of higher brain centres and autonomic control loops on the heart with particular relevance to arrhythmogenesis. There is now substantial evidence that higher brain function (cortex), the brain stem and autonomic nerves affect cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmia, and that these may function as an interactive system. The roles of mental stress and emotion in arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death are no longer confined to the realms of anecdote. Advances in molecular cardiology have identified cardiac cellular ion channel mutations conferring vulnerability to arrhythmic death at the myocardial level. Indeed, specific channelopathies such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome are selectively sensitive to either sympathetic or vagal stimulation. There is increasing evidence that afferent feedback from the heart to the higher centres may affect efferent input to the heart and modulate the cardiac electrophysiology. The new era of functional neuroimaging has identified the central neural circuitry in this brain-heart axis. Since precipitants of sudden fatal arrhythmia are frequently environmental and behavioural, central pathways translating stress into autonomic effects on the heart might be considered as therapeutic targets. These brain-heart interactions help explain the apparent randomness of sudden cardiac events and provide new insights into future novel therapies to prevent sudden death.

  19. Iron deficiency and brain development.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Georgieff, Michael K

    2006-09-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants worldwide. Rodent models show that ID during gestation/lactation alters neurometabolism, neurotransmitters, myelination, and gene/protein profiles before and after iron repletion at weaning. Human infants with iron deficiency anemia test lower in cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and neurophysiologic development than comparison group infants. Iron therapy does not consistently improve developmental outcome, with long-term differences observed. Poorer outcome has also been shown in human and monkey infants with fetal/neonatal ID. Recent randomized trials of infant iron supplementation show benefits, indicating that adverse effects can be prevented and/or reversed with iron earlier in development or before ID becomes severe or chronic. This body of research emphasizes the importance of protecting the developing brain from ID.

  20. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  1. The blood-brain barrier as a regulatory interface in the gut-brain axes.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A

    2006-11-30

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the unrestricted movement of peptides and proteins between the brain and blood. However, some peptides and regulatory proteins can cross the BBB by saturable and non-saturable mechanisms. Leptin and insulin each cross the BBB by their own transporters. Impaired transport of leptin occurs in obesity and accounts for peripheral resistance; that is, the condition wherein an obese animal loses weight when given leptin directly into the brain but not when given leptin peripherally. Leptin transport is also inhibited in starvation and by hypertriglyceridemia. Since hypertriglyceridemia occurs in both starvation and obesity, we have postulated that the peripheral resistance induced by hypertriglyceridemia may have evolved as an adaptive mechanism in response to starvation. Insulin transport is also regulated. For example, treatment of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases insulin transport across the BBB by about threefold. Since many of the actions of CNS insulin oppose those of peripheral insulin and since LPS releases proinflammatory cytokines, enhanced transport of insulin across the BBB could be a mechanism which promotes insulin resistance in sepsis. The brain endothelial cells which comprise the BBB secrete many substances including cytokines. Such secretion can be stimulated from one side of the BBB with release into the other side. For example, it appears that adiponectin can inhibit release of interleukin-6 from brain endothelial cells. Overall, the BBB represents an important interface in mediating gut-brain axes.

  2. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain’s region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex

  3. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-addicted subjects, striatal DA D2 receptor availability is reduced in obese subjects, which may predispose obese subjects to seek food as a means to temporarily compensate for understimulated reward circuits. Decreased DA D2 receptors in the obese subjects are also associated with decreased metabolism in prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control, which may underlie their inability to control food intake. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates cortical and limbic regions involved with self-control, motivation, and memory. These brain regions are also activated during drug craving in drug-addicted subjects. Obese subjects have increased metabolism in the somatosensory cortex, which suggests an enhanced sensitivity to the sensory properties of food. The reduction in DA D2 receptors in obese subjects coupled with the enhanced sensitivity to food palatability could make food their most salient reinforcer putting them at risk for compulsive eating and obesity. The results from these studies suggest that multiple but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug addiction and suggest that strategies aimed at improving DA function might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:21603099

  4. Preconditioning for traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Shoji; Mazzeo, Anna T; Hosein, Khadil; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bullock, M. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is now focused on the prevention of primary injury and reduction of secondary injury. However, no single effective treatment is available as yet for the mitigation of traumatic brain damage in humans. Both chemical and environmental stresses applied before injury, have been shown to induce consequent protection against post-TBI neuronal death. This concept termed “preconditioning” is achieved by exposure to different pre-injury stressors, to achieve the induction of “tolerance” to the effect of the TBI. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this “tolerance” phenomenon are not fully understood in TBI, and therefore even less information is available about possible indications in clinical TBI patients. In this review we will summarize TBI pathophysiology, and discuss existing animal studies demonstrating the efficacy of preconditioning in diffuse and focal type of TBI. We will also review other non-TBI preconditionng studies, including ischemic, environmental, and chemical preconditioning, which maybe relevant to TBI. To date, no clinical studies exist in this field, and we speculate on possible futureclinical situation, in which pre-TBI preconditioning could be considered. PMID:24323189

  5. Preconditioning for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yokobori, Shoji; Mazzeo, Anna T; Hosein, Khadil; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W Dalton; Bullock, M Ross

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is now focused on the prevention of primary injury and reduction of secondary injury. However, no single effective treatment is available as yet for the mitigation of traumatic brain damage in humans. Both chemical and environmental stresses applied before injury have been shown to induce consequent protection against post-TBI neuronal death. This concept termed "preconditioning" is achieved by exposure to different pre-injury stressors to achieve the induction of "tolerance" to the effect of the TBI. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this "tolerance" phenomenon are not fully understood in TBI, and therefore even less information is available about possible indications in clinical TBI patients. In this review, we will summarize TBI pathophysiology, and discuss existing animal studies demonstrating the efficacy of preconditioning in diffuse and focal type of TBI. We will also review other non-TBI preconditioning studies, including ischemic, environmental, and chemical preconditioning, which maybe relevant to TBI. To date, no clinical studies exist in this field, and we speculate on possible future clinical situations, in which pre-TBI preconditioning could be considered.

  6. Brain Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transducer originally used to measure air pressure in aircraft wind tunnel tests is the basis for a development important in diagnosis and treatment of certain types of brain damage. A totally implantable device, tbe intracranial pressure monitor measures and reports brain pressure by telemetry.

  7. Split Brain Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)

  8. The Emerging Scholarly Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

  9. Brain and Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... other regions of the brain (such as the hippocampus and amygdala) for long-term storage and retrieval. As these messages travel through the brain, they too create pathways that serve as the basis of our memory. Movement. Different parts of the cerebrum are responsible ...

  10. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  11. Brain Friendly School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Judith Anne

    2006-01-01

    This title gives concrete practical examples of how to align school library programs and instructional practice with the six key concepts of brain-compatible learning: increasing input to the brain; increasing experiential data; multiple source feedback; reducing threat; involving students in learning decision making; and interdisciplinary unit…

  12. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  13. Imaging the Working Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swithenby, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

  14. Drugs and the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

  15. Measuring brain lipids.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Glyn

    2015-08-01

    The rapid development of analytical technology has made lipidomics an exciting new area and this review will focus more on modern approaches to lipidomics than on earlier technology. Although not fully comprehensive for all possible brain lipids, the intent is to at least provide a reference for the analysis of classes of lipids found in brain and nervous tissue. We will discuss problems posed by the brain because of its structural and functional heterogeneity, the development changes it undergoes (myelination, aging, pathology etc.) and its cellular heterogeneity (neurons, glia etc.). Section 2 will discuss the various ways in which brain tissue can be extracted to yield lipids for analysis and section 3 will cover a wide range of techniques used to analyze brain lipids such as chromatography and mass-spectrometry. In Section 4 we will discuss ways of analyzing some of the specific biologically active brain lipids found in very small amounts except in pathological conditions and section 5 looks to the future of experimental lipidomic modification in the brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  16. What a Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Outlines basic concepts about how the brain develops and considers how Head Start teachers and parents can take full advantage of the brain's multisensory learning approach to develop more effective ways to interact with children. Focuses on the critical developmental period for stimulating neurons and developing neural connections. Suggests…

  17. [Brain death diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Dolores

    2009-05-01

    Brain death has been recognized by the scientific community as the person's death, and accepted in the legislation of different countries. Brain death is defined as the irreversible ending of the functions of all the intracranial neurological structure in both the brain and brain stem. This clinical situation appears when intracranial pressure exceeds the patient's systolic blood pressure, leading to brain circulatory arrest. The most frequent are cerebral hemorrhage and cranioencephalic trauma. Clinical diagnostic must be done by doctors with expertise in neurocritical patient treatment. This diagnosis is based on a systematic, complete and extremely rigorous clinical examination that confirms a non-reactive coma, absence of brain stem reflex, and absence of spontaneous breathing. Instrumental tests may be obligatory in some cases, this depending on each country. Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials are the electrophysiological tests used. In patients treated with sedative drugs, cerebral blood flow evaluation tests, such as cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler or 99Tc-HMPAO scintigraphy, will be used. More than 92% of the transplants performed in Spain are performed with brain death donor organs. Brain death confirmation is a high responsibility act, with medical, ethical and legal significance since it requires removal of all artificial support, or organs extraction for transplant. Extensive knowledge on its diagnostic and correct decision making avoid unnecessary use of resources and improves management of organs for transplant.

  18. The Resilient Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  19. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  20. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  1. [Prevention of psychic disorders].

    PubMed

    Siepmann, M

    2012-06-01

    Prevention aims to avoid the occurrence of psychiatric illness and disability caused by psychic disorders. The relevant interventions refer to the individual, the family context and other environmental factors. Universal and primary prevention target the entire population or a part of this (i. e. students). Secondary and selective intervention should prevent the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals (i. e. children with behavioral problems). Tertiary measures aim at preventing the worsening or recurrence of symptoms in individuals who already suffer from mental illness. Within the past 25 years protective and risk factors that reduce or increase the probability of occurrence of mental disorders have increasingly been identified. This results in improved prevention. The present article gives an overview of preventive measures against the most common mental disorders in the light of the current evidence base.

  2. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  3. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  4. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  5. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 5 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at children because it is early in life that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of child development,…

  6. A Child's Brain. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The first of a series of articles on the human brain focuses on the cyclic nature of brain development. Educational and social issues evolving from current discoveries about the brain are also discussed. (CJ)

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury and Dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic Brain Injury & Dystonia Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma damages to the brain. TBI can occur when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and ...

  8. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Laviña, Bàrbara

    2016-01-01

    Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases. PMID:28042833

  9. Values in Preventive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Barry

    1992-01-01

    We know how lifestyle affects health, yet concern for preventing illness by promoting healthy lifestyles remains marginal in medical practice. Effective preventive strategies can raise daunting moral and political problems about the extent to which individual freedoms may be infringed, particularly on paternalistic grounds. Evaluative questions also arise about more specific matters, such as identifying risk and causal factors, determining what level of risk is acceptable, and deciding how compelling the evidence must be to take preventive action. PMID:11651426

  10. Familiality in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familiality in brain tumors is not definitively substantiated. Methods: We used the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a genealogy representing the Utah pioneers and their descendants, record-linked to statewide cancer records, to describe the familial nature of primary brain cancer. We examined the familial clustering of primary brain tumors, including subgroups defined by histologic type and age at diagnosis. The UPDB includes 1,401 primary brain tumor cases defined as astrocytoma or glioblastoma, all with at least three generations of genealogy data. We tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness of brain tumor cases using the Genealogical Index of Familiality method. We estimated relative risks for brain tumors in relatives using rates of brain tumors estimated internally. Results: Significant excess relatedness was observed for astrocytomas and glioblastomas considered as a group (n = 1,401), for astrocytomas considered separately (n = 744), but not for glioblastomas considered separately (n = 658). Significantly increased risks to first- and second-degree relatives for astrocytomas were identified for relatives of astrocytomas considered separately. Significantly increased risks to first-degree relatives, but not second degree, were observed for astrocytoma and glioblastoma cases considered together, and for glioblastoma cases considered separately. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a familial contribution to primary brain cancer risk. There is evidence that this familial aspect includes not only shared environment, but also a heritable component. Extended high-risk brain tumor pedigrees identified in the UPDB may provide the opportunity to identify predisposition genes responsible for familial brain tumors. GLOSSARY GBM = glioblastoma; GIF = Genealogical Index of Familiality; HGG = high-grade gliomas; ICD-O = International Classification of Disease–Oncology; LGG = low-grade gliomas; RR = relative risks; SEER = Surveillance

  11. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  12. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence Data LGB Suicidal Thoughts & Experiences Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  13. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  14. Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented? Since smoking is linked to the ... Syndromes? Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented? More In Myelodysplastic Syndromes About Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  16. The blood-brain barrier: connecting the gut and the brain.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A

    2008-08-07

    The BBB prevents the unrestricted exchange of substances between the central nervous system (CNS) and the blood. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) also conveys information between the CNS and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through several mechanisms. Here, we review three of those mechanisms. First, the BBB selectively transports some peptides and regulatory proteins in the blood-to-brain or the brain-to-blood direction. The ability of GI hormones to affect functions of the BBB, as illustrated by the ability of insulin to alter the BBB transport of amino acids and drugs, represents a second mechanism. A third mechanism is the ability of GI hormones to affect the secretion by the BBB of substances that themselves affect feeding and appetite, such as nitric oxide and cytokines. By these and other mechanisms, the BBB regulates communications between the CNS and GI tract.

  17. Research Review: Cholinergic Mechanisms, Early Brain Development, and Risk for Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; Stevens, Karen E.; Proctor, William R.; Leonard, Sherry; Kisley, Michael A.; Hunter, Sharon K.; Freedman, Robert; Adams, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    The onset of diagnostic symptomology for neuropsychiatric diseases is often the end result of a decades-long process of aberrant brain development. Identification of novel treatment strategies aimed at normalizing early brain development and preventing mental illness should be a major therapeutic goal. However, there are few models for how this…

  18. Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Until now, antioxidant based initiatives for preventing dementia have lacked a means to detect deficiency or measure pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ. Objective: Our objective was to apply a novel method to measure key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the ...

  19. Inflammatory events at blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders: implications for clinical disease.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Helga E; Kooij, Gijs; Frenkel, Dan; Georgopoulos, Spiros; Monsonego, Alon; Janigro, Damir

    2012-11-01

    Proper function of the neurovasculature is required for optimal brain function and preventing neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Within this review, we discuss alterations of the function of the blood-brain barrier in neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease and address potential underlying mechanisms.

  20. Bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy for metastatic brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Staples, Meaghan; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Sanberg, Paul R; Freeman, Thomas B; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    We propose that stem cell therapy may be a potent treatment for metastatic melanoma in the brain. Here we discuss the key role of a leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) that accompanies the development of brain metastases. We review the need to characterize the immunological and inflammatory responses associated with tumor-derived BBB damage in order to reveal the contribution of this brain pathological alteration to the formation and growth of brain metastatic cancers. Next, we discuss the potential repair of the BBB and attenuation of brain metastasis through transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with the endothelial progenitor cell phenotype. In particular, we review the need for evaluation of the efficacy of stem cell therapy in repairing a disrupted BBB in an effort to reduce neuroinflammation, eventually attenuating brain metastatic cancers. The demonstration of BBB repair through augmented angiogenesis and vasculogenesis will be critical to establishing the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment/prevention of metastatic brain tumors. The overarching hypothesis we advanced here is that BBB breakdown is closely associated with brain metastatic cancers of melanoma, exacerbating the inflammatory response of the brain during metastasis, and ultimately worsening the outcome of metastatic brain cancers. Abrogating this leaky BBB-mediated inflammation via stem cell therapy represents a paradigm-shifting approach to treating brain cancer. This review article discusses the pros and cons of cell therapy for melanoma brain metastases.

  1. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  2. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  3. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Brain Tumor Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that often carry a poor prognosis for patients. Despite tremendous efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic avenues, the treatment of brain tumors remains a formidable challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. Physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier result in insufficient accumulation of therapeutic agents at the site of a tumor, preventing adequate destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, there is a need for improvements in brain tumor imaging to allow for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer the potential to improve upon many of these issues and may lead to breakthroughs in brain tumor management. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanoparticles for brain tumors with an emphasis on innovative approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging, and therapeutic agent delivery. Clinically feasible nanoparticle administration strategies for brain tumor patients are also examined. Furthermore, we address the barriers towards clinical implementation of multifunctional nanoparticles in the context of brain tumor management. PMID:24060923

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of brain microbleeds].

    PubMed

    Bokura, Hirokazu; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2013-07-01

    Brain microbleeds (MBs) are represented as low-intensity spotty lesions on T2 *-weighted MR images and are frequently detected in healthy people and not only stroke patients. A recent meta-analysis revealed that MBs were present in 34% of patients with ischemic stroke and 60% with intracerebral hemorrhage, respectively. On the other hand, MBs only occur in approximately 4-6% of subjects without cerebrovascular disease and neurological symptoms. The occurrence of MBs in healthy elderly subjects is associated with advanced age or chronic hypertension. The pathological findings of MBs depend on the region of the brain, in which lobar and deep brain MBs are associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertensive vasculopathy, respectively. To prevent stroke, risk factors should be carefully managed in subjects with MBs factors. Since hypertension was also found in all subjects who experienced stroke after presenting with MBs, such patients should be treated with intensive anti-hypertensive medication to prevent subsequent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Additionally, antithrombotic drugs should be carefully used in patients with MBs.

  5. The Brain from Within

    PubMed Central

    di Porzio, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a powerful way to visualize brain functions and observe brain activity in response to tasks or thoughts. It allows displaying brain damages that can be quantified and linked to neurobehavioral deficits. fMRI can potentially draw a new cartography of brain functional areas, allow us to understand aspects of brain function evolution or even breach the wall into cognition and consciousness. However, fMRI is not deprived of pitfalls, such as limitation in spatial resolution, poor reproducibility, different time scales of fMRI measurements and neuron action potentials, low statistical values. Thus, caution is needed in the assessment of fMRI results and conclusions. Additional diagnostic techniques based on MRI such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and the measurement of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provide new tools to assess normal brain development or disruption of anatomical networks in diseases. A cutting edge of recent research uses fMRI techniques to establish a “map” of neural connections in the brain, or “connectome”. It will help to develop a map of neural connections and thus understand the operation of the network. New applications combining fMRI and real time visualization of one’s own brain activity (rtfMRI) could empower individuals to modify brain response and thus could enable researchers or institutions to intervene in the modification of an individual behavior. The latter in particular, as well as the concern about the confidentiality and storage of sensitive information or fMRI and lie detectors forensic use, raises new ethical questions. PMID:27375460

  6. Bilirubin oxidation in brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T W

    2000-01-01

    Bilirubin is a product of heme catabolism which by virtue of its lipid solubility can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. Neonatal jaundice is a common transitional phenomenon which is due to the combination of increased heme catabolism and rate limitations as far as hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion of bilirubin. In the great majority of cases this is an innocuous condition, which is even posited to have some beneficial effects due to the ability of bilirubin to quench free oxygen radicals. However, because bilirubin is neurotoxic, hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn may exceptionally result in death in the neonatal period, or survival with severe neurological sequelae (kernicterus). Bilirubin enters the brain through an intact blood-brain barrier. Clearance of bilirubin from brain partly involves retro-transfer through the blood-brain barrier, and possibly also through the brain-CSF barrier into CSF. Work in our lab during the past 5 years has substantiated earlier work which had suggested that bilirubin may also be metabolized in brain. The responsible enzyme is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and oxidizes bilirubin at a rate of 100-300 pmol bilirubin/mg protein/minute. The enzyme activity is lower in the newborn compared with the mature animal, and is also lower in neurons compared with glia. Studies of different rat strains have documented genetic variability. The enzyme is cytochrome-c-dependent, but has as yet not been unequivocally identified. The rate of oxidation of bilirubin is such that this enzyme probably contributes meaningfully to the clearance of bilirubin from brain.

  7. Prevention across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Emily C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes curriculum infusion, a prevention strategy that is particularly effective on commuter campuses. Faculty design modules for their own courses in which the prevention information fits seamlessly with the scholarly content and students actively process that information. Workers in academic affairs identify courses, recruit and train…

  8. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  9. Neverstreaming: Preventing Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    Schools can reduce special-education and remedial instruction costs by helping students succeed in early grades. This article profiles several prevention and early intervention programs, including Success for All, Reading Recovery, Prevention of Learning Disabilities, the Carolina Abecedarian Project, Comer's School Development Program, and…

  10. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  11. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  12. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? A ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  13. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  14. Building Brains for Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    34dU UAI:5 L.OVERED August 1993 memorandum 4. TITLE ANg SUBTITLn S. FUNDING NUMBERS Building Brains for Bodies N00014-91-J-4038 6. AUTHOR(S) Rodney...FIrS INSTfIflTE OF TEI( ’IINOL()( ;Y ARTIFI(’IAL INTLLWEII ,N’iE L,11OHXIOtlY A.I. Memo No. 1439 August. 1993 Building Brains for Bodies Rodney A...atioiial Ali enabling technology such as lie brain t hat we will power simply has not previously been available. build- has thle abilityv to revol itt onize

  15. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  16. Brain Organization and Psychodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Avi; Geva, Amir B.

    1999-01-01

    Any attempt to link brain neural activity and psychodynamic concepts requires a tremendous conceptual leap. Such a leap may be facilitated if a common language between brain and mind can be devised. System theory proposes formulations that may aid in reconceptualizing psychodynamic descriptions in terms of neural organizations in the brain. Once adopted, these formulations can help to generate testable predictions about brain–psychodynamic relations and thus significantly affect the future of psychotherapy. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:24–39) PMID:9888105

  17. [Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Donoso S, Archibaldo; Delgado D, Carolina

    2009-02-01

    The pharmacological interventions for Alzheimer disease should be based in its pathogenic mechanisms such as amyloidogenesis, tau hyperphosphorilation, disturbances in neurotransmission and changes in neuronal trophism. Other therapies derive from epidemiological observations, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogens, statins and anti hypertensive drugs. Some life style interventions, such as changes in diet, exercise and brain stimulation could also be beneficial for the prevention of Alzheimer disease. Ongoing research on pathogenic mechanisms promises the discovery of more effective therapies. Healthy life style should always be recommended due to its benefit and lack of untoward effects.

  18. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  19. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  20. Brain Imaging and Behavioral Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1996-01-01

    This review explores the cellular pathology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to neurobehavioral outcomes, the relationship of brain imaging findings to underlying pathology, brain imaging techniques, various image analysis procedures and how they relate to neuropsychological testing, and the importance of brain imaging…

  1. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  2. Tumor Angiogenesis as a Target for Dietary Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Li, William W.; Li, Vincent W.; Hutnik, Michelle; Chiou, Albert S.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2050, the number of new cancer patients diagnosed annually is expected to double, with an accompanying increase in treatment costs of more than $80 billion over just the next decade. Efficacious strategies for cancer prevention will therefore be vital for improving patients' quality of life and reducing healthcare costs. Judah Folkman first proposed antiangiogenesis as a strategy for preventing dormant microtumors from progressing to invasive cancer. Although antiangiogenic drugs are now available for many advanced malignancies (colorectal, lung, breast, kidney, liver, brain, thyroid, neuroendocrine, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome), cost and toxicity considerations preclude their broad use for cancer prevention. Potent antiangiogenic molecules have now been identified in dietary sources, suggesting that a rationally designed antiangiogenic diet could provide a safe, widely available, and novel strategy for preventing cancer. This paper presents the scientific, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence supporting the role of an antiangiogenic diet for cancer prevention. PMID:21977033

  3. Assessing brain plasticity across the lifespan with transcranial magnetic stimulation: why, how, and what is the ultimate goal?

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Catarina; Farzan, Faranak; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Sustaining brain and cognitive function across the lifespan must be one of the main biomedical goals of the twenty-first century. We need to aim to prevent neuropsychiatric diseases and, thus, to identify and remediate brain and cognitive dysfunction before clinical symptoms manifest and disability develops. The brain undergoes a complex array of changes from developmental years into old age, putatively the underpinnings of changes in cognition and behavior throughout life. A functionally “normal” brain is a changing brain, a brain whose capacity and mechanisms of change are shifting appropriately from one time-point to another in a given individual's life. Therefore, assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity across the lifespan is critical to gain insight into an individual's brain health. Indexing brain plasticity in humans is possible with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which, in combination with neuroimaging, provides a powerful tool for exploring local cortical and brain network plasticity. Here, we review investigations to date, summarize findings, and discuss some of the challenges that need to be solved to enhance the use of TMS measures of brain plasticity across all ages. Ultimately, TMS measures of plasticity can become the foundation for a brain health index (BHI) to enable objective correlates of an individual's brain health over time, assessment across diseases and disorders, and reliable evaluation of indicators of efficacy of future preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:23565072

  4. Reduction of brain kynurenic acid improves cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A

    2014-08-06

    The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitive function and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia.

  5. Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain ... Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and ...

  6. Alzheimer's disease prevention: A way forward.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Pareja, F; Llamas-Velasco, S; Villarejo-Galende, A

    2016-12-01

    This review proposes a more optimistic view of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in contrast to that contributed by the ageing of the population and the failure of potentially curative therapies (vaccines and others). Treatment failure is likely due to the fact that AD gestates in the brain for decades but manifests in old age. This review updates the concept of AD and presents the results of recent studies that show that primary prevention can reduce the incidence and delay the onset of the disease. Half of all cases of AD are potentially preventable through education, the control of cardiovascular risk factors, the promotion of healthy lifestyles and specific drug treatments. These approaches could substantially reduce the future incidence rate of this disease.

  7. Undiagnosed amebic brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Riganti, Mario

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of amebic brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica. The patient was a 31-year-old man who presented with amebic liver abscess. His clinical course deteriorated in spite of proper drainage and treatment. He developed delirium, lethargy and then expired. With a history of heroin addiction, withdrawal syndrome from heroin was suspected. At autopsy, amebic abscesses were detected in the liver, large intestine, meninges and brain. A 19 cm amebic liver abscess was found in the right lobe of the liver. A 4 cm amebic brain abscess was found in the right occipital lobe. Microscopically, the tissue sections from the affected organs were confirmed to have degenerated E. histolytica trophozoites. Involvement of the brain in amebic liver abscess should be suspected in patients with neurological signs and symptoms.

  8. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... them create an advance directive and power of attorney for health care. Support Groups You can ease ... surgery Brain tumor - children Breast cancer Increased intracranial pressure Lung cancer - small cell Melanoma Renal cell carcinoma ...

  9. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skull causing pressure on brain ( subdural hematoma ) Concussion BREATHING CONDITIONS Low oxygen in the body (hypoxia) ... disease Arrhythmias Chronic subdural hematoma CO2 blood test Concussion Confusion Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Dementia due to metabolic ...

  10. Brain and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... reward circuit” of the brain Some drugs, like marijuana and heroin , have chemical structures that mimic that ... Pleasure Effect Most drugs of abuse— nicotine , cocaine , marijuana , and others—affect the brain’s “reward” circuit, which ...

  11. Brain injury - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... But usually there is improvement. Behavior and Social Interaction People may display inappropriate behavior after a brain ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  12. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tell the difference between Parkinson disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... identify where the seizures start in your brain Movement disorders (such as Parkinson disease )

  13. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information ...

  14. Brains on video games.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-11-18

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.

  15. Genetics and the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find us on YouTube Follow us on Instagram Genetics and the Brain by Carl Sherman September 10, ... effects that may be responsible. How Much Is Genetic? [x] , [xi] , [xii] , [xiii] A basic question in ...

  16. Modular Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics. PMID:26393868

  17. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  18. Management of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Soffietti, Riccardo; Rudā, Roberta; Mutani, Roberto

    2002-10-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time. Lung, breast and skin (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15% of patients the primary site remains unknown. After the introduction of MRI, multiple lesions have outnumbered single lesions. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis. There are no pathognomonic features on CT or MRI that distinguish brain metastases from primary malignant brain tumors or nonneoplastic conditions: therefore a tissue diagnosis by biopsy should be always obtained in patients with unknown primary tumor before undergoing radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Some factors are prognostically important: a high Performance Status, a solitary brain metastasis, an absence of systemic metastases, a controlled primary tumor and a younger age. Based on these factors, subgroups of patients with different prognosis have been identified (RPA class I, II, III). Symptomatic therapy includes corticosteroids to reduce vasogenic cerebral edema and anticonvulsants to control seizures. In patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases prophylactic anticonvulsants should not be used routinely. The combination of surgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is superior to WBRT alone for the treatment of single brain metastasis in patients with limited or absent systemic disease and good neurological condition. Complete surgical resection allows a relief of intracranial hypertension, seizures and focal neurological deficits. Radiosurgery, alone or in conjunction with WBRT, yields results which are comparable to those reported after surgery followed by WBRT, provided that lesion's diameter does not exceed 3-3.5 cm. Radiosurgery offers the potential of treating patients with surgically inaccessible metastases. Still controversial is the need for WBRT after surgery or radiosurgery: local control seems better with the combined approach, but overall survival does not

  19. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  20. Prevention of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Monica Zavaloni; van Reekum, Robert

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding prevention of Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to highlight the role of family medicine. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Most of the evidence relating to prevention of AD is derived from observational (cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal) studies. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available only for blood pressure control and for hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women. MAIN MESSAGE Many preventive approaches to AD have been identified, but no RCTs support their efficacy. Evidence from RCTs supports the effectiveness of blood pressure control in reducing incidence of AD, but demonstrates that postmenopausal women’s use of estrogen is ineffective in reducing it. Observational studies suggest that some preventive approaches, such as healthy lifestyle, ongoing education, regular physical activity, and cholesterol control, play a role in prevention of AD. These approaches can and should be used for every patient because they carry no significant risk. Currently, no effective pharmacologic interventions have been researched enough to support their use in prevention of AD. CONCLUSION Health professionals should educate patients, especially patients at higher risk of AD, about preventive strategies and potentially modifiable risk factors. PMID:16529393

  1. Prevention of hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Meunier, P J

    1993-11-30

    For a 50-year old Caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining life-time is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continuous increase in life expectancy will cause a three-fold increase in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years. Through diagnostic bone mass measurements at the hip and assessment of biochemical parameters, a great deal has been learned in recent years about reduction of hip fracture risk. Preventive strategies are based on prevention of falls, use of hip protectors, and prevention of bone fragility. The latter includes the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and also late prevention consisting in reversing senile secondary hyperparathyroidism, which plays an important role in the decrease of skeletal strength. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, which results from both vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake, is preventable with vitamin D3 and calcium supplements. They have recently been shown capable of providing effective prevention of hip fractures in elderly women living in nursing homes, with a reduction of about 25% in the number of hip fractures noted in a 3-year controlled study in 3,270 women (intention-to-treat analysis). In conclusion, it is never too early to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and never too late to prevent hip fractures.

  2. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  3. Evolution of brain elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Large, complex brains have evolved independently in several lineages of protostomes and deuterostomes. Sensory centres in the brain increase in size and complexity in proportion to the importance of a particular sensory modality, yet often share circuit architecture because of constraints in processing sensory inputs. The selective pressures driving enlargement of higher, integrative brain centres has been more difficult to determine, and may differ across taxa. The capacity for flexible, innovative behaviours, including learning and memory and other cognitive abilities, is commonly observed in animals with large higher brain centres. Other factors, such as social grouping and interaction, appear to be important in a more limited range of taxa, while the importance of spatial learning may be a common feature in insects with large higher brain centres. Despite differences in the exact behaviours under selection, evolutionary increases in brain size tend to derive from common modifications in development and generate common architectural features, even when comparing widely divergent groups such as vertebrates and insects. These similarities may in part be influenced by the deep homology of the brains of all Bilateria, in which shared patterns of developmental gene expression give rise to positionally, and perhaps functionally, homologous domains. Other shared modifications of development appear to be the result of homoplasy, such as the repeated, independent expansion of neuroblast numbers through changes in genes regulating cell division. The common features of large brains in so many groups of animals suggest that given their common ancestry, a limited set of mechanisms exist for increasing structural and functional diversity, resulting in many instances of homoplasy in bilaterian nervous systems. PMID:26554044

  4. Brain Research: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch-Shinn, Jenella; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    This paper attempts to examine the research of split-brain, hemispheric specialization, and brain function, as it pertains to handwriting, brain wave patterns, and lateral differences. Studies are reviewed which point to asymmetric differentiated functions and capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres in split-brain patients and in normal…

  5. Traumatic Brain Injuries. Guidelines Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.

    This paper on traumatic brain injuries begins with statistics on the incidence of the disorder, especially as they relate to Colorado. Traumatic brain injury is then defined, and problems caused by traumatic brain injury are discussed. The components of effective programming for students with traumatic brain injuries are described, followed by the…

  6. Brain meets body: the blood-brain barrier as an endocrine interface.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A

    2012-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) separates the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral tissues. However, this does not prevent hormones from entering the brain, but shifts the main control of entry to the BBB. In general, steroid hormones cross the BBB by transmembrane diffusion, a nonsaturable process resulting in brain levels that reflect blood levels, whereas thyroid hormones and many peptides and regulatory proteins cross using transporters, a saturable process resulting in brain levels that reflect blood levels and transporter characteristics. Protein binding, brain-to-blood transport, and pharmacokinetics modulate BBB penetration. Some hormones have the opposite effect within the CNS than they do in the periphery, suggesting that these hormones cross the BBB to act as their own counterregulators. The cells making up the BBB are also endocrine like, both responding to circulating substances and secreting substances into the circulation and CNS. By dividing a hormone's receptors into central and peripheral pools, the former of which may not be part of the hormone's negative feed back loop, the BBB fosters the development of variable hormone resistance syndromes, as exemplified by evidence that altered insulin action in the CNS can contribute to Alzheimer's disease. In summary, the BBB acts as a regulatory interface in an endocrine-like, humoral-based communication between the CNS and peripheral tissues.

  7. Brain Meets Body: The Blood-Brain Barrier as an Endocrine Interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) separates the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral tissues. However, this does not prevent hormones from entering the brain, but shifts the main control of entry to the BBB. In general, steroid hormones cross the BBB by transmembrane diffusion, a nonsaturable process resulting in brain levels that reflect blood levels, whereas thyroid hormones and many peptides and regulatory proteins cross using transporters, a saturable process resulting in brain levels that reflect blood levels and transporter characteristics. Protein binding, brain-to-blood transport, and pharmacokinetics modulate BBB penetration. Some hormones have the opposite effect within the CNS than they do in the periphery, suggesting that these hormones cross the BBB to act as their own counterregulators. The cells making up the BBB are also endocrine like, both responding to circulating substances and secreting substances into the circulation and CNS. By dividing a hormone's receptors into central and peripheral pools, the former of which may not be part of the hormone's negative feed back loop, the BBB fosters the development of variable hormone resistance syndromes, as exemplified by evidence that altered insulin action in the CNS can contribute to Alzheimer's disease. In summary, the BBB acts as a regulatory interface in an endocrine-like, humoral-based communication between the CNS and peripheral tissues. PMID:22778219

  8. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice.

  9. [Brain-gut interactions].

    PubMed

    Bonaz, B

    2010-08-01

    Our digestive tract has an autonomous functioning but also has a bidirectional relation with our brain known as brain-gut interactions. This communication is mediated by the autonomous nervous system, i.e., the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, with a mixed afferent and efferent component, and the circumventricular organs located outside the blood-brain barrier. The vagus nerve, known as the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 90% afferent fibers, which has physiological roles due to its putative vegetative functions. The vagus nerve has also anti-inflammatory properties both through the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (through its afferents) and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (through its efferents). The sympathetic nervous system has a classical antagonist effect on the parasympathetic nervous system at the origin of an equilibrated sympathovagal balance in normal conditions. The brain is able to integrate inputs coming from the digestive tract inside a central autonomic network organized around the hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex (insula, prefrontal, cingulate) and in return to modify the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the frame of physiological loops. A dysfunction of these brain-gut interactions, favoured by stress, is most likely involved in the pathophysiology of digestive diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome or even inflammatory bowel diseases. A better knowledge of these brain-gut interactions has therapeutic implications in the domain of pharmacology, neurophysiology, behavioural and cognitive management.

  10. Brain Imaging Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BOWMAN, F. DUBOIS

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of brain imaging technologies has led to intense neuroscientific inquiry into the human brain. Studies often investigate brain function related to emotion, cognition, language, memory, and numerous other externally induced stimuli as well as resting-state brain function. Studies also use brain imaging in an attempt to determine the functional or structural basis for psychiatric or neurological disorders and, with respect to brain function, to further examine the responses of these disorders to treatment. Neuroimaging is a highly interdisciplinary field, and statistics plays a critical role in establishing rigorous methods to extract information and to quantify evidence for formal inferences. Neuroimaging data present numerous challenges for statistical analysis, including the vast amounts of data collected from each individual and the complex temporal and spatial dependence present. We briefly provide background on various types of neuroimaging data and analysis objectives that are commonly targeted in the field. We present a survey of existing methods targeting these objectives and identify particular areas offering opportunities for future statistical contribution. PMID:25309940

  11. Serotonin and brain development.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Monsheel S K; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    The role of the serotonergic system in the neuroplastic events that create, repair, and degenerate the brain has been explored. Synaptic plasticity occurs throughout life and is critical during brain development. Evidence from biochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies demonstrates the huge importance of an intact serotonergic system for normal central nervous system (CNS)function. Serotonin acts as a growth factor during embryogenesis, and serotonin receptor activity forms a crucial part of the cascade of events leading to changes in brain structure. The serotonergic system interacts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100beta, and other chemical messengers, in addition to ts cross talk with the GABAergic, glutamatergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Disruption of these processes may contribute to CNS disorders that have been associated with impaired development. Furthermore, many psychiatric drugs alter serotonergic activity and have been shown to create changes in brain structure with long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms for their therapeutic efficacy are still unclear. Treatments for psychiatric illness are usually chronic and alleviate psychiatric symptoms, rather than cure these diseases. Therefore, greater exploration of the serotonin system during brain development and growth could lead to real progress in the discovery of treatments for mental disorders.

  12. Modules and brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2011-05-01

    This review highlights the key role of modularity and the additive factors method in functional neuroimaging. Our focus is on structure-function mappings in the human brain and how these are disclosed by brain mapping. We describe how modularity of processing (and possibly processes) was a key point of reference for establishing functional segregation as a principle of brain organization. Furthermore, modularity plays a crucial role when trying to characterize distributed brain responses in terms of functional integration or coupling among brain areas. We consider additive factors logic and how it helped to shape the design and interpretation of studies at the inception of brain mapping, with a special focus on factorial designs. We look at factorial designs in activation experiments and in the context of lesion-deficit mapping. In both cases, the presence or absence of interactions among various experimental factors has proven essential in understanding the context-sensitive nature of distributed but modular processing and discerning the nature of (potentially degenerate) structure-function relationships in cognitive neuroscience.

  13. Serpins promote cancer cell survival and vascular co-option in brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Valiente, Manuel; Obenauf, Anna C; Jin, Xin; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Lee, Derek J; Chaft, Jamie E; Kris, Mark G; Huse, Jason T; Brogi, Edi; Massagué, Joan

    2014-02-27

    Brain metastasis is an ominous complication of cancer, yet most cancer cells that infiltrate the brain die of unknown causes. Here, we identify plasmin from the reactive brain stroma as a defense against metastatic invasion, and plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitory serpins in cancer cells as a shield against this defense. Plasmin suppresses brain metastasis in two ways: by converting membrane-bound astrocytic FasL into a paracrine death signal for cancer cells, and by inactivating the axon pathfinding molecule L1CAM, which metastatic cells express for spreading along brain capillaries and for metastatic outgrowth. Brain metastatic cells from lung cancer and breast cancer express high levels of anti-PA serpins, including neuroserpin and serpin B2, to prevent plasmin generation and its metastasis-suppressive effects. By protecting cancer cells from death signals and fostering vascular co-option, anti-PA serpins provide a unifying mechanism for the initiation of brain metastasis in lung and breast cancers.

  14. Management of traumatic brain injury: nursing practice guidelines for cerebral perfusion and brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) systems.

    PubMed

    Hession, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Traditional modes of preventing brain cell death in traumatic brain injury (TBI) focus on the enhancement of cerebral perfusion pressure and control of intracranial pressure. Brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) monitoring systems are currently available to provide early detection of diminished cerebral oxygenation, and ultimately, ischemia. Research has demonstrated that early detection in PbtO2 is a more delicate measurement of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. Monitoring PbtO2, in conjunction with cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure, has been shown to be a better guide to the prevention and treatment of secondary cerebral ischemia. This article reviews TBI, a PbtO2 monitor system description and indications for use, and the importance of nursing practice guidelines and education. With proper guidelines and education, this new technology can be used effectively by bedside clinicians and educators in adult and pediatric intensive care units.

  15. Neurologic sequelae of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nicole J

    2009-11-01

    Neurologic signs and symptoms are often the initial presenting features of a primary brain tumor and may also emerge during the course of therapy or as late effects of the tumor and its treatment. Variables that influence the development of such neurologic complications include the type, size, and location of the tumor, the patient's age at diagnosis, and the treatment modalities used. Heightened surveillance and improved neuroimaging modalities have been instrumental in detecting and addressing such complications, which are often not appreciated until many years after completion of therapy. As current brain tumor therapies are continually refined and newer targeted therapies are developed, it will be important for future cooperative group studies to include systematic assessments to determine the incidence of neurologic complications and to provide a framework for the development of novel strategies for prevention and intervention.

  16. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  17. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  18. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework integrates neuroscience and prevention research and postulates underlying brain regulatory mechanisms that explain the impact of mindfulness on psychological outcomes via self-regulation mechanisms linked to underlying brain systems. We conclude by discussing potential clinical and practice implications of this model and directions for future research.

  19. Impact of stress and mast cells on brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Rozniecki, Jacek J; Sahagian, Gary; Jocobson, Stanley; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Conti, Pio; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris

    2008-12-15

    Metastases continue to be the chief cause of morbidity and mortality for many tumors, including brain metastases of lung and mammary adenocarcinoma. Stress appears to increase metastases, but the mechanism is not understood. Recent evidence suggests that local inflammation is conducive for cancer growth and a unique immune cell, the mast cell, accumulates in the stroma surrounding tumors and is critically located at the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Mast cells express receptors for and can be stimulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), secreted under stress, to release mediators such as histamine, IL-8, tryptase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which disrupt the BBB permitting metastases. Stress and mast cells could serve as new targets for drug development to prevent brain metastases, especially since CRH receptor antagonists and brain mast cell inhibitors have recently been developed.

  20. Sports-related brain injuries: connecting pathology to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.

  1. [Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Caceres, Alfredo; Palacio, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain. Brain injury is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, a considerable group of these children will develop long term neurological sequels. Despite the great clinical and social significance and the advances in neonatal medicine, no therapy yet does exist that prevent or decrease detrimental effects in cases of neonatal brain injury. Our objective was to review recent research in relation to the hypothesis for repair mechanism in the developing brain, based in animal models that show developmental compensatory mechanisms that promote neural and functional plasticity. A better understanding of these adaptive mechanisms will help clinicians to apply knowledge derived from animals to human clinical situations.

  2. Third International Congress on Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Rektor, Ivan; Schachter, Steven C; Arya, Ravindra; Arzy, Shahar; Braakman, Hilde; Brodie, Martin J; Brugger, Peter; Chang, Bernard S; Guekht, Alla; Hermann, Bruce; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn; Kanner, Andres M; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mareš, Pavel; Mula, Marco; Neufeld, Miri; Risse, Gail L; Ryvlin, Philippe; Seeck, Margitta; Tomson, Torbjörn; Korczyn, Amos D

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsy is both a disease of the brain and the mind. Here, we present the second of two papers with extended summaries of selected presentations of the Third International Congress on Epilepsy, Brain and Mind (April 3-5, 2014; Brno, Czech Republic). Humanistic, biologic, and therapeutic aspects of epilepsy, particularly those related to the mind, were discussed. The extended summaries provide current overviews of epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and treatment, including brain functional connectivity and functional organization; juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; cognitive problems in newly diagnosed epilepsy; SUDEP including studies on prevention and involvement of the serotoninergic system; aggression and antiepileptic drugs; body, mind, and brain, including pain, orientation, the "self-location", Gourmand syndrome, and obesity; euphoria, obsessions, and compulsions; and circumstantiality and psychiatric comorbidities.

  3. Nutrition and the brain: what advice should we give?

    PubMed

    Cooper, James K

    2014-09-01

    The knowledge base of nutrition and the brain is steadily expanding. Much of the research is aimed at ways to protect the brain from damage. In adults, the major causes of brain damage are aging and dementia. The most prominent dementia, and the condition that grabs the most public attention, is Alzheimer's disease. The assumption in the field is that possibly some change in nutrition could protect the brain and prevent, delay, or minimize Alzheimer's disease damage. Presented here is a framework for understanding the implications of this research. There is a gap between publishing research results and change in public nutrition behavior. Several influencing elements intervene. These include regulatory agencies and all the organizations and people who advise the public, all with their own perspectives. In considering what advice to give, advisors may consider effectiveness, research model, persuasiveness, and risks, among other factors. Advice about nutrition and Alzheimer's disease today requires several caveats.

  4. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: ...

  5. Preventive Law on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Paul; Tribbensee, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, by fostering a teamwork relationship between administrators and university attorneys, the preventive law approach can effectively identify risks and develop strategies and policies in advance of any individual legal dispute. (EV)

  6. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  7. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed ... Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time Screening tests can find abnormal cells so they ...

  8. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  9. Preventability of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Wei, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas models of cancer disparities and variation in cancer burden within population groups now specify multiple levels of action from biologic processes to individual risk factors and social and physical contextual factors, approaches to estimating the preventable proportion of cancer use more traditional direct models often from single exposures to cancer at specific organ sites. These approaches are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations are presented. The need for additional multilevel data and approaches to estimation of preventability are identified. International or regional variation in cancer may offer the most integrated exposure assessment over the life course. For the four leading cancers, which account for 50% of incidence and mortality, biologic, social, and physical environments play differing roles in etiology and potential prevention. Better understanding of the interactions and contributions across these levels will help refine prevention strategies. PMID:22224878

  10. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  11. Chemical Accident Prevention Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include chemical safety alerts, emergency preparedness and prevention advisories, and topical backgrounders. Excess flow valves, protecting workers in ethylene oxide sterilization facilities, reactivity hazards, and delayed coker units are covered.

  12. Wound Care: Preventing Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent swelling. Take care of your whole self – body, mind, and spirit. Eat well and drink plenty of water to strengthen your body’s natural healing capacity. Check your residual limb regularly ...

  13. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  14. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research 2012 Annual Report All related news Home Contact Accessibility Web Policies and Notices FOIA Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube ...

  15. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a ... American Association of Poison Control Centers, Inc. CDC: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Prevention Guidelines U.S. Food and Drug ...

  16. Prevent Bite Wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... of immune globulin and begin a series of immunizations against the rabies virus, which will prevent the ...

  17. Cleanup and Prevention Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA takes strides to prevent and cleanup contamination and contaminated sites located on or near Tribal lands. Our programs work hand-in-hand with tribes to ensure we protect their health and the environment.

  18. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  19. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  20. Prevention of premature birth.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F

    1980-03-01

    With six different groups of pharmacologic agents that potentially can inhibit undesirable uterine contractions, prevention of premature births should be increasingly successful. The rationale for the use of each of these agents and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  1. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Error processing SSI file Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  2. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  3. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351

  4. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  5. Adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Novick, Lloyd F; Cibula, Donald A; Sutphen, Sally M

    2003-05-01

    This case-prevention of adolescent suicide-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This teaching case examines the issue of prevention of adolescent and young adult suicide both at an individual and at a population or community level, using data from the Onondaga County Health Department. In the first section of the case, students are asked to determine whether five deaths related to falling or jumping at a local shopping mall should be considered to be suicidal deaths. Students then develop skills in the reporting as well as in the epidemiology of adolescent suicidal deaths in Onondaga County. As the case progresses, students analyze the results of a local surveillance study of suicidal attempts and ideation. The case concludes with students evaluating a hypothetical screening study intended to reduce the risk of suicidal death and discussing a research design to examine the effectiveness of this prevention strategy.

  6. [Insurance and preventive medicine].

    PubMed

    Delachaux, A; Stark, E W; von Schroeder, F

    1978-12-01

    Not only do insurance companies have to pay in case of death, injuries or disease, they are also concerned with their prevention. This is particularly true for the "Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund" (Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents--(CNA): for them the prevention of work related accidents and occupational diseases is required by law. Preventive activities in this area are very promising. The progress in the sickness insurance programmes for preventive medicine in the general population has, however, not been as successful. To date, the legislation denies payment for preventive medical care. Why is there this difference? In the case of accidents and occupational diseases, the cause of the pathologies are for the most part exogenous and develop in well known and controlled environments. In the case of disease or invalidity in the general population, the factors are in a large part endogenous and therefore very difficult to supervise, as they develop in much more complex and uncontrolled environments. Nevertheless progress has been done in this field as well. At present, some selected scientifically proven preventive examinations could be included in insurance programmes as part of a general plan and with strict quality control of laboratory findings.

  7. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  8. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  9. Drinking Water and the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    While the problem of unsafe tap water in Flint, Michigan fueled outrage and better awareness in regard to the hazards of lead in tap water, the problem has existed in city after city for years in the US and in other countries. Our author, a winner of the MacArthur Foundation "genius" grant for her work in identifying preventable causes of human disease related to environmental exposures, points out that problems extend well beyond lead. Many potentially harmful contaminants have yet to be evaluated, much less regulated. Her article examines a number of neurotoxins and related issues as they pertain to brain development.

  10. Sports-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shawn; Woessner, Derek

    2015-06-01

    Concussions have garnered more attention in the medical literature, media, and social media. As such, in the nomenclature according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the term concussion has been supplanted by the term mild traumatic brain injury. Current numbers indicate that 1.7 million TBIs are documented annually, with estimates around 3 million annually (173,285 sports- and recreation-related TBIs among children and adolescents). The Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool 3 and the NFL Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool are commonly used sideline tools.

  11. Quantitative analysis of drug delivery to the brain via nasal route.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, Luba; Abou-Kaoud, Mohammed; Stepensky, David

    2014-09-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents drugs' permeability into the brain and limits the management of brain diseases. Intranasal delivery is a convenient route of drug administration that can bypass the BBB and lead to a direct delivery of the drug to the brain. Indeed, drug accumulation in the brain following intranasal application of a drug solution, or of a drug encapsulated in specialized delivery systems (DDSs), has been reported in numerous scientific publications. We aimed to analyze the available quantitative data on drug delivery to the brain via the nasal route and to reveal the efficiency of brain drug delivery and targeting by different types of nasally-administered DDSs. We searched for scientific publications published in 1970-2014 that reported delivery of drugs or model compounds to the brain via intranasal and parenteral routes, and contained quantitative data that were sufficient for calculation of brain targeting efficiency. We identified 73 publications (that reported data on 82 compounds) that matched the search criteria and analyzed their experimental settings, formulation types, analytical methods, and the claimed efficiencies of drug brain targeting: drug targeting efficiency (%DTE) and nose-to-brain direct transport (%DTP). Outcomes of this analysis indicate that efficiency of brain delivery by the nasal route differs widely between the studies, and does not correlate with the drug's physicochemical properties. Particle- and gel-based DDSs offer limited advantage for brain drug delivery in comparison to the intranasal administration of drug solution. Nevertheless, incorporation of specialized reagents (e.g., absorption enhancers, mucoadhesive compounds, targeting residues) can increase the efficiency of drug delivery to the brain via the nasal route. More elaborate and detailed methodological and analytical characterizations and standardized reporting of the experimental outcomes are required for reliable quantification of drug targeting

  12. Is chronic brain damage in boxing a hazard of the past?

    PubMed

    Kaste, M; Kuurne, T; Vilkki, J; Katevuo, K; Sainio, K; Meurala, H

    1982-11-27

    Of fourteen boxers with a mean age of 31 years who had been Finnish, Scandinavian, or European champions, only one showed deficits in neurological status and he and one other had had episodes of inappropriate behaviour which were attributed to boxing. However, computed tomography revealed pathological findings attributable to brain injury in four of six professional and one of eight amateur boxers. Two of the professionals and four of the amateurs had electroencephalographic abnormalities which may have been caused by brain injury. Twelve of the boxers had psychological test results which suggested brain injury, although only two professionals had definite deviation from normal. The results indicate that modern medical control of boxing cannot prevent chronic brain injuries but may create a dangerous illusion of safety. The only way to prevent brain injuries is to disqualify blows to the head.

  13. Brain controlled robots.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-06-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey's motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis's lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the "Computational Brain Project." CB-i's locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey's voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot.

  14. Bacterial Brain Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Significant advances in the diagnosis and management of bacterial brain abscess over the past several decades have improved the expected outcome of a disease once regarded as invariably fatal. Despite this, intraparenchymal abscess continues to present a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Brain abscess may result from traumatic brain injury, prior neurosurgical procedure, contiguous spread from a local source, or hematogenous spread of a systemic infection. In a significant proportion of cases, an etiology cannot be identified. Clinical presentation is highly variable and routine laboratory testing lacks sensitivity. As such, a high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary for prompt diagnosis and intervention. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer a timely and sensitive method of assessing for abscess. Appearance of abscess on routine imaging lacks specificity and will not spare biopsy in cases where the clinical context does not unequivocally indicate infectious etiology. Current work with advanced imaging modalities may yield more accurate methods of differentiation of mass lesions in the brain. Management of abscess demands a multimodal approach. Surgical intervention and medical therapy are necessary in most cases. Prognosis of brain abscess has improved significantly in the recent decades although close follow-up is required, given the potential for long-term sequelae and a risk of recurrence. PMID:25360205

  15. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  16. Pediatric brain death determination.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Mudit; Ashwal, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Clinical guidelines for the determination of brain death in children were first published in 1987. These guidelines were revised in 2011 under the auspices of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Child Neurology Society, and provide the minimum standards that must be satisfied before brain death can be declared in infants and children. After achieving physiologic stability and exclusion of confounders, two examinations including apnea testing separated by an observation period (24 hours for term newborns up to 30 days of age, and 12 hours for infants and children from 31 days up to 18 years) are required to establish brain death. Apnea testing should demonstrate a final arterial PaCO2 20 mm Hg above the baseline and ≥ 60 mm Hg with no respiratory effort during the testing period. Ancillary studies (electroencephalogram and radionuclide cerebral blood flow) are not required to establish brain death and are not a substitute for the neurologic examination. The committee concluded that ancillary studies may be used (1) when components of the examination or apnea testing cannot be completed, (2) if uncertainty about components of the neurologic examination exists, (3) if a medication effect may be present, or (4) to reduce the interexamination observation period. When ancillary studies are used, a second clinical examination and apnea test should still be performed and components that can be completed must remain consistent with brain death.

  17. Brain microvascular endothelium induced-annexin A1 secretion contributes to small cell lung cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Shuo; Wu, Peng-Fei; Li, Qiang; Dai, Wu-Min; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Ting-Ting; Miao, Zi-Wei; Fang, Wen-Gang; Chen, Yu-Hua; Li, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Small cell lung cancer is the most aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer, with a strong predilection for metastasizing to brain early. However, the cellular and molecular basis is poorly known. Here, we provided evidence to reveal the role of annexin A1 in small cell lung cancer metastasis to brain. Firstly, the elevated annexin A1 serum levels in small cell lung cancer patients were associated with brain metastasis. The levels of annexin A1 were also upregulated in NCI-H446 cells, a small cell lung cancer cell line, upon migration into the mice brain. More interestingly, annexin A1 was secreted by NCI-H446 cells in a time-dependent manner when co-culturing with human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which was identified with the detections of annexin A1 in the co-cultured cellular supernatants by ELISA and western blot. Further results showed that blockage of annexin A1 in the co-cultured cellular supernatants using a neutralized antibody significantly inhibited NCI-H446 cells adhesion to brain endothelium and its transendothelial migration. Conversely, the addition of Ac2-26, an annexin A1 mimic peptide, enhanced these effects. Furthermore, knockdown of annexin A1 in NCI-H446 cells prevented its transendothelial migration in vitro and metastasis to mice brain in vivo. Our data showed that small cell lung cancer cell in brain microvasculature microenvironment could express much more annexin A1 and release it outside, which facilitated small cell lung cancer cell to gain malignant properties of entry into brain. These findings provided a potential target for the management of SCLC brain metastasis.

  18. [Preface and comments: Protection of the brain and the spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    2007-03-01

    Basic and clinical investigations have been performed, focusing on the mechanism of ischemic brain and spinal cord injuries, and preventive measures against ischemic insults such as drug therapy, hypothermia, maintenace of blood flow to brain and spinal cord, preconditioning, and no use of high dose fentanyl. In this special issue, five experts have provided new relevant information concerning brain and spinal cord protection. Further research in brain and spinal cord protection will contribute to better understanding of ischemic central nervous system injuries and to the establishment of novel therapies for protection of central nervous system.

  19. Medicinal Effect of Nutraceutical Fruits for the Cognition and Brain Health

    PubMed Central

    Keservani, Raj K.; Sharma, Anil K.; Kesharwani, Rajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease. PMID:26966612

  20. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...