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Sample records for 4-aminobiphenyl-induced dna adducts

  1. The inverse relationship between bladder and liver in 4-aminobiphenyl-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Klaene, Joshua J; Li, Yun; Paonessa, Joseph D; Stablewski, Aimee B; Vouros, Paul; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-20

    Bladder cancer risk is significantly higher in men than in women. 4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a major human bladder carcinogen from tobacco smoke and other sources. In mice, male bladder is more susceptible to ABP-induced carcinogenesis than female bladder, but ABP is more carcinogenic in the livers of female mice than of male mice. Here, we show that castration causes male mice to acquire female phenotype regarding susceptibility of bladder and liver to ABP. However, spaying has little impact on organ susceptibility to ABP. Liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are believed to protect liver against but sensitize bladder to ABP, as glucuronidation of ABP and its metabolites generally reduces their toxicity and promotes their elimination via urine, but the metabolites are labile in urine, delivering carcinogenic species to the bladder. Indeed, liver expression of ABP-metabolizing human UGT1A3 transgene in mice increases bladder susceptibility to ABP. However, ABP-specific liver UGT activity is significantly higher in wild-type female mice than in their male counterparts, and castration also significantly increases ABP-specific UGT activity in the liver. Taken together, our data suggest that androgen increases bladder susceptibility to ABP via liver, likely by modulating an ABP-metabolizing liver enzyme, but exclude UGT as an important mediator.

  2. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps = 0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps = 0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps = 0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on

  3. Detection of DNA adducts by bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunqing; Tan, Xianglin; Yao, Qunfeng; He, Min; Zhou, Yikai; Chen, Jian

    2001-09-01

    Luminescent assay for detection ATP is very sensitive with limitation of 10-17 moles. ATP using styrene oxide as a model carcinogen we currently apply a luminescence technique to detect the very low levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo. The bioluminescent assay of DNA adducts entails three consecutive steps: digestion of modified DNA to adducted dinucleoside monophosphate and normal nucleotide are hydrolyzed to nucleosides (N) by nuclease P1 and prostatic acid phosphomonesterase (PAP); incorporation of (gamma) -P of ATP into normal nucleoside(N); detection of consumption of ATP by luminescence. This assay does not require separate manipulation because of the selective property of nuclease P1. One fmol of carcinogen- DNA adducts was detected by luminescent assay. A good correlation between results of luminescent assay and 32P-postlabeling procedures has been observed. We detect 1 adduct in 108 nucleotides for 10(mu) g DNA sample. The procedures of luminescent method is very simple and low- cost. IT appears applicable to the ultra sensitive detection of low levels of DNA adducts without radioactive isotope.

  4. Human DNA adduct measurements: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.C.; Weston, A.

    1996-10-01

    Human DNA adduct formation (covalent modification of DNA with chemical carcinogens) is a promising biomarker for elucidating the molecular epidemiology of cancer. Classes of compounds for which human DNA adducts have been observed include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines, mycotoxins, aromatic amines, heterocyclic amines, ultraviolet light, and alkylating cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Most human DNA adduct exposure monitoring has been performed with either {sup 32}P-postlabeling or immunoassays, neither of which is able to chemically characterize specific DNA adducts. Recently developed combinations of methods with chemical and physical end points have allowed identification of specific adducts in human tissues. Studies are presented that demonstrate that high ambient levels of benzo[a]pyrene are associated with high levels of DNA adducts in human blood cell DNA and that the same DNA adduct levels drop when the ambient PAH levels decrease significantly. DNA adduct dosimetry, which has been achieved with some dietary carcinogens and cancer chemotherapeutic agents, is described, as well as studies correlating DNA adducts with other biomarkers. It is likely that some toxic, noncarcinogenic compounds may have genotoxic effects, including oxidative damage, and that adverse health outcomes other than cancer may be correlated with DNA adduct formation. The studies presented here may serve as useful prototypes for exploration of other toxicological end points. 156 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  6. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. A fluorescence-based analysis of aristolochic acid-derived DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Sidorenko, Victoria; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Whyard, Terry; Grollman, Arthur P

    2012-08-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs), major components of plant extracts from Aristolochia species, form (after metabolic activation) pro-mutagenic DNA adducts in renal tissue. The DNA adducts can be used as biomarkers for studies of AA toxicity. Identification of these adducts is a complicated and time-consuming procedure. We present here a fast, nonisotopic, fluorescence-based assay for the detection of AA-DNA adducts in multiple samples. This approach allows analysis of AA adducts in synthetic DNA with known nucleotide composition and analysis of DNA adducts formed from chemically diverse AAs in vitro. The method can be applied to compare AA-DNA adduct formation in cells and tissues.

  8. Detection of adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Kate; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2010-01-01

    There have been many attempts in the past to determine whether significant levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts form in cells and contribute to the anticancer activity of this agent. Supraclincal drug levels have been required to study drug-DNA adducts because of the lack of sensitivity associated with many of the techniques employed, including liquid scintillation counting of radiolabeled drug. The use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adduct formation in cells at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection (compared to liquid scintillation counting) and has revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. The rigorous protocol required for this approach, together with many notes on the precautions and procedures required in order to ensure that absolute levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts can be determined with good reproducibility, is outlined in this chapter.

  9. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T.; Pan, Chong-xian

    2016-01-01

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). This rapid report provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic. PMID:26544157

  10. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; ...

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid report provides themore » first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.« less

  11. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T.; Pan, Chong-xian

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid report provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.

  12. A mitomycin-N6-deoxyadenosine adduct isolated from DNA.

    PubMed

    Palom, Y; Lipman, R; Musser, S M; Tomasz, M

    1998-03-01

    A minor N6-deoxyadenosine adduct of mitomycin C (MC) was isolated from synthetic oligonucleotides and calf thymus DNA, representing the first adduct of MC and a DNA base other than guanine. The structure of the adduct (8) was elucidated using submilligram quantities of total available material. UV difference spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and electrospray mass spectroscopy as well as chemical transformations were utilized in deriving the structure of 8. A series of synthetic oligonucleotides was designed to probe the specificities of the alkylation of adenine by MC. The nature and frequency of the oligonucleotide-MC adducts formed under conditions of reductive activation of MC were determined by their enzymatic digestion to the nucleoside level followed by quantitative analysis of the products by HPLC. The analyses indicated the following: (i) (A)n sequence is favored over (AT)n for adduct formation; (ii) the alkylation favors the duplex structure; (iii) at adenine sites only monofunctional alkylation occurs; (iv) the adenine-to-alkylation frequency in the model oligonucleotides was 0.3-0.6 relative to guanine alkylation at the 5'-ApG sequence but only 0.02-0.1 relative to guanine alkylation at 5'-CpG. The 5'-phosphodiester linkage of the MC-adenine adduct is resistant to snake venom diesterase. The overall ratio of adenine to guanine alkylation in calf thymus DNA was 0.03, indicating that 8 is a minor MC-DNA adduct relative to MC-DNA adducts at guanine residues in the present experimental residues in the present experimental system. However, the HPLC elution time of 8 coincides with that of a major, unknown MC adduct detected previously in mouse mammary tumor cells treated with radiolabeled MC [Bizanek, R., Chowdary, D., Arai, H., Kasai, M., Hughes, C. S., Sartorelli, A. C., Rockwell, S., and Tomasz, M. (1993) Cancer Res. 53, 5127-5134]. Thus, 8 may be identical or closely related to this major adduct formed in vivo. This possibility can now be tested by

  13. DNA adducts: Mass spectrometry methods and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, P.B. . E-mail: pbf1@le.ac.uk; Brown, K.; Tompkins, E.; Emms, V.L.; Jones, D.J.L.; Singh, R.; Phillips, D.H.

    2005-09-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10{sup 12} nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [{sup 14}C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [{sup 14}C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing {sup 32}P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens.

  14. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  15. Ultraviolet irradiation of monkey cells enhances the repair of DNA adducts in alpha DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Leadon, S.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-11-01

    Excision repair of bulky adducts in alpha DNA of African green monkey cells has previously been shown to be deficient relative to that in the overall genome. We have found that u.v. irradiation of these cells results in the enhanced removal of both aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts from the alpha DNA sequences without affecting repair in the bulk of the DNA. The degree of enhanced removal of AFB1 is dependent upon the u.v. dose and the time interval between irradiation and AFB1 treatment. The u.v. enhancement is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Exposure of the cells to dimethylsulfate or gamma-rays does not affect AFB1 adduct repair. The formation and removal of N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF) adducts from alpha and bulk DNA was studied in detail. A higher initial level of the acetylated C8 adduct of guanine was found in alpha DNA than in bulk DNA. Although both the acetylated and deacetylated C8 adducts were removed from the two DNA species, the level of repair was significantly greater in the bulk DNA. Irradiation of cells with u.v. prior to treatment with NA-AAF enhanced the removal of both adducts from alpha DNA with little or no effect on repair in bulk DNA. We conclude that the presence of u.v. photoproducts or some intermediate in their processing alters the chromatin structure of alpha DNA thereby rendering bulky adducts accessible to repair enzymes. In addition, the differential formation and repair of AAF adducts in alpha DNA compared with that in the bulk of the genome supports the hypothesis of an altered chromatin structure for alpha domains.

  16. NMR at the Picomole Level of a DNA Adduct

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Roger; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the limit of detection for obtaining NMR data of a DNA adduct using modern microscale NMR instrumentation, once the adduct has been isolated at the pmol level. Eighty nanograms (130 pmol) of a DNA adduct standard, N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene 5′-monophosphate (AAF-dGMP), in 1.5 μL of D2O with 10% methanol-d4, in a vial, was completely picked up as a droplet suspended in a fluorocarbon liquid, and loaded efficiently into a microcoil probe. This work demonstrates a practical manual method of droplet microfluidic sample loading, previously demonstrated using automated equipment, which provides a several-fold advantage over conventional flow injection. Eliminating dilution during injection and confining the sample into the observed volume realizes the full theoretical mass sensitivity of a microcoil, comparable to a micro-cryo probe. With 80 ng, an NMR spectrum acquired over 40 hr showed all of the resonances seen in a standard spectrum of AAF-dGMP, with a S/N of at least 10, despite broadening due to previously-noted effects of conformational exchange. Also a 2D TOCSY spectrum (total correlation spectroscopy) was acquired on 1.6 μg in 18 hr. This work helps to define the utility of NMR in combination with other analytical methods for the structural characterization of a small amount of a DNA adduct. PMID:24028148

  17. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  18. Theoretical investigations on the formation of nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2011-09-07

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The thermochemical formation cascades were calculated for six 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts employing its arylnitrenium ion as precursor using density functional theory (DFT). Clear exothermic pathways were found for four adducts, i.e., 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone. All four have been observed to be formed in cell-free experimental systems. The formation of N-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone is predicted to be not thermochemically viable explaining its absence in either in vitro or in vivo model systems. However, 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, can be formed, albeit not as a major product, and is a viable candidate for an unknown adenine adduct observed experimentally. 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), an isomer of 3-NBA, was also included in the calculations; it has a higher abundance in ambient air than 3-NBA, but a much lower genotoxic potency. Similar thermochemical profiles were obtained for the calculated 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts. This leads to the conclusion that enzymatic activation as well as the stability of its arylnitrenium ion are important determinants of 2-NBA genotoxicity.

  19. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals.

  20. Nitropyrene: DNA binding and adduct formation in respiratory tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M A; King, L C; Ball, L M; Ghayourmanesh, S; Jeffrey, A M; Lewtas, J

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 1-nitro (14C)pyrene (NP) or its metabolites to cellular DNA and protein in cultures of rabbit alveolar macrophages, lung tissue, and tracheal tissue was examined. DNA binding in tracheal tissue (136 +/- 18.3 pmole NP/mg DNA) was four to five times the levels measured in either lung tissue (38 +/- 9.4 pmole NP/mg DNA) or macrophages (26 +/- 7.5 pmole NP/mg DNA). Adduct analysis of DNA isolated from lung tissue incubated with 1-nitro[H3]pyrene in vitro resulted in the identification of 2 to 5% of the NP adducts as C8-deoxyguanosine 1-aminopyrene. NP was also bound to cellular protein in tracheal tissue and lung tissue, and at a lower level in macrophages. Cocultivation of the macrophages with lung and tracheal tissue decreased the DNA binding in tracheal tissue by 45%. Following intratracheal instillation of diesel particles (5 mg) vapor-coated with 14C-NP (380 ppm, 0.085 muCi/mg) particles into rats, 5-8% of the radioactivity remained in the lungs after 20 hr. Most of the diesel particles were also deposited in the lung. Examination of DNA and protein binding in this tissue showed 5 to 12% of the pulmonary 14C bound to protein and no detectable levels of 14C bound to DNA. PMID:3841313

  1. Serological characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diolepoxide-DNA adducts using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Newman, M J; Weston, A; Carver, D C; Mann, D L; Harris, C C

    1990-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of structurally related compounds that are present in the environment in complex mixtures as common pollutants. These compounds have been studied extensively because of their carcinogenic and toxic properties to humans. We reported previously that humans exposed to certain PAHs produce antibodies that bind to different PAH diolepoxide-DNA (PAH-DNA) adducts. The ability to detect and measure antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts in human blood samples could prove useful as a biological dosimeter for identifying persons that have been exposed to high levels of PAHs, i.e. persons who may be at high cancer risk. In our initial studies we found that it was common for persons who were exposed to PAH to produce antibodies against PAH-DNA adducts. However, we were unable to identify the actual chemical types of PAH-DNA adducts that were recognized by the serum antibodies because many serum samples contained antibody activity to more than one adduct. These data indicate that different PAH-DNA adducts may be serologically similar or that humans actually produce immune responses against more than a single PAH-DNA adduct. We have used monoclonal antibody technology to determine the extent to which different PAH-DNA adducts share serologically recognized epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against two different PAH-DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide-DNA (BPDE-DNA) and benz[a]anthracene diolepoxide-DNA (BADE-DNA). The binding of these antibodies to five PAH-DNA adduct preparations and to soluble PAHs was assessed. We found that most monoclonal antibodies bound to more than a single type of PAH-DNA adduct, documenting the serological relatedness of different PAH-DNA adducts. However, two monoclonal antibodies were produced that bound only to BPDE-DNA. Soluble non-metabolized PAHs and PAH tetraols were not recognized by these antibodies, thus demonstrating their specificity for PAH-DNA adducts and not the PAHs alone

  2. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  3. Detection of DNA Adducts in Human Breast Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    techniques employed are kept simple, which in turn limits the resolution and characterization. Fourth, the limited resolution can make it difficult to...PROCEDURES Our basic scheme for detecting DNA adducts in human samples consists of three general steps. In step I, standard techniques are used to isolate...this adjustment was done without changing the pH. Buffer A was added to part B to keep the volume the same. The samples were stored at room temperature

  4. Stability and proton transfer in DNA base pairs of AMD473-DNA adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, Pubalee; Deka, Ramesh C.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the energetics of four different adducts of cisplatin analogue cis-[PtCl 2(NH 3)(2-picoline)] (AMD473) with a duplex DNA using DFT/ONIOM methods to probe their stabilities. Further, we study the possibilities of proton transfer between DNA base pairs of the most stable drug-DNA adduct. The adduct b(2-picoline trans to 3'-G and 2-methyl group directs to the DNA major groove) is found to be the most stable configuration among all the possible adducts. From the proton transfer analysis we found that the single proton transfer between N1 position of guanine (G) and N3 position of cytosine (C) of each GC pair gives a structure energetically as stable as the original one.

  5. Thermal stability of DNA adducts induced by cyanomorpholinoadriamycin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Cullinane, C; Phillips, D R

    1993-01-01

    The Adriamycin derivative, cyanomorpholinoadriamycin (CMA) was reacted with DNA in vitro to form apparent interstrand crosslinks. The extent of interstrand crosslink formation was monitored by a gel electrophoresis assay and maximal crosslinking of DNA was observed within 1 hr with 5 microM of drug. The interstrand crosslinks were heat labile, with a midpoint melting temperature of 70 degrees C (10 min exposure to heat) in 45% formamide. When CMA-induced adducts were detected as blockages of lambda-exonuclease, 12 blockage sites were observed with 8 being prior to 5'-GG sequences, one prior to 5'-CC, one prior to 5'-GC and 2 at unresolved combinations of these sequences. These exonuclease-detected blockages reveal the same sites of CMA-induced crosslinking as detected by in vitro transcription footprinting and primer-extension blockages on single strand DNA, where the blockages at 5'-GG and 5'-CC were identified as sites of intrastrand crosslinking and the 5'-GC blockage as a probable site of interstrand crosslinking. The thermal stability of both types of crosslink (10 min exposure to heat) ranged from 63-70 degrees C at individual sites. High levels of adduct were detected with poly (dG-dC) but not with poly (dI-dC). These results suggest adduct formation involving an aminal linkage between the 3 position of the morpholino moiety and N2 of guanine. Images PMID:8493102

  6. Acetaldehyde and the genome: beyond nuclear DNA adducts and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2014-03-01

    The designation of acetaldehyde associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has brought renewed attention to the biological effects of acetaldehyde, as the primary oxidative metabolite of alcohol. Therefore, the overall focus of this review is on acetaldehyde and its direct and indirect effects on the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. We first consider different acetaldehyde-DNA adducts, including a critical assessment of the evidence supporting a role for acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in alcohol related carcinogenesis, and consideration of additional data needed to make a conclusion. We also review recent data on the role of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway in protecting against acetaldehyde genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, as well as teratogenicity. We also review evidence from the older literature that acetaldehyde may impact the genome indirectly, via the formation of adducts with proteins that are themselves critically involved in the maintenance of genetic and epigenetic stability. Finally, we note the lack of information regarding acetaldehyde effects on the mitochondrial genome, which is notable since aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the primary acetaldehyde metabolic enzyme, is located in the mitochondrion, and roughly 30% of East Asian individuals are deficient in ALDH2 activity due to a genetic variant in the ALDH2 gene. In summary, a comprehensive understanding of all of the mechanisms by which acetaldehyde impacts the function of the genome has implications not only for alcohol and cancer, but types of alcohol related pathologies as well.

  7. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Myungkoo

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ~25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G2 or G3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N2-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N2-dG.

  8. Mass spectrometry for the assessment of the occurrence and biological consequences of DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous sources of chemical species can react, directly or after metabolic activation, with DNA to yield DNA adducts. If not repaired, DNA adducts may compromise cellular functions by blocking DNA replication and/or inducing mutations. Unambiguous identification of the structures and accurate measurements of the levels of DNA adducts in cellular and tissue DNA constitute the first and important step towards understanding the biological consequences of these adducts. The advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation in the past 2–3 decades have rendered MS an important tool for structure elucidation, quantification, and revelation of the biological consequences of DNA adducts. In this review, we summarized the development of MS techniques on these fronts for DNA adduct analysis. We placed our emphasis of discussion on sample preparation, the combination of MS with gas chromatography-or liquid chromatography (LC)-based separation techniques for the quantitative measurement of DNA adducts, and the use of LC-MS along with molecular biology tools for understanding the human health consequences of DNA adducts. The applications of mass spectrometry-based DNA adduct analysis for predicting the therapeutic outcome of anti-cancer agents, for monitoring the human exposure to endogenous and environmental genotoxic agents, and for DNA repair studies were also discussed. PMID:26204249

  9. Hydroxyl radical Thymine adduct induced DNA damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyman, Patric; Eriksson, Leif A.; Zhang, Ru bo; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2008-06-01

    DNA damages caused by a 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine-6-yl radical (5-OHT-6yl) abstracting a C2‧ hydrogen from a neighboring sugar (inter-H abstraction) have been theoretically investigated using hybrid DFT in gas phase and in water solution. The inter-H abstraction was here shown to be comparable in energy (24 kcal mol-1) with the intra-H abstraction in which the 5-OHT-6yl abstracts a C2‧ hydrogen from its own sugar. The effect of a neutrally or a negatively charged phosphate group was also studied and the results show no significant impact on the activation energy of the hydrogen abstraction whereas base release and strand break reactions are affected.

  10. Formation of monofunctional cisplatin-DNA adducts in carbonate buffer.

    PubMed

    Binter, Alexandra; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2006-07-01

    Carbonate in its various forms is an important component in blood and the cytosol. Since, under conditions that simulate therapy, carbonate reacts with cisplatin to form carbonato complexes, one of which is taken up and/or modified by the cell [C.R. Centerwall, J. Goodisman, D.J. Kerwood, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) 12768-12769], cisplatin-carbonato complexes may be important in the mechanism of action of cisplatin. In this report we study the binding of cisplatin to pBR322 DNA in two different buffers, using gel electrophoresis. In 23.8mM HEPES, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, 5mM NaCl, pH 7.4 buffer, cisplatin produces aquated species, which react with DNA to unwind supercoiled Form I DNA, increasing its mobility, and reducing the binding of ethidium to DNA. This behavior is consistent with the formation of the well-known intrastrand crosslink on DNA. In 23.8mM carbonate buffer, 5mM NaCl, pH 7.4, cisplatin forms carbonato species that produce DNA-adducts which do not significantly change supercoiling but enhance binding of ethidium to DNA. This behavior is consistent with the formation of a monofunctional cisplatin adduct on DNA. These results show that aquated cisplatin and carbonato complexes of cisplatin produce different types of lesions on DNA and they underscore the importance of carrying out binding studies with cisplatin and DNA using conditions that approximate those found in the cell.

  11. Diallyl sulfide inhibits diethylstilbesterol-induced DNA adducts in the breast of female ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Wilson, C; Newell, O; Sadrud-Din, S; Thomas, R

    2005-09-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is metabolized to reactive intermediates that produce DNA adducts and ultimately cancer. Diallyl sulfide (DAS) has been shown to inhibit the metabolism of several procarcinogens. The ability of DES to produce DNA adducts in microsomal, mitochondrial, and nuclear in vitro metabolic systems and in the breast of female ACI rats, as well as ability of DAS to inhibit DNA adducts were investigated. Microsomes, mitochondria, and nuclei isolated from breast tissue of female ACI rats were used to catalyze oxidation reactions. Female ACI rats were treated i.p. as follows: (1) corn oil, (2) 200mg/kg DES, (3) 200mg/kg DES/200mg/kg of DAS, (4) 200mg/kg DES/400mg/kg DAS. DES produced DNA adducts in each metabolic system. The relative adduct levels were 2.1 x 10(-4), 6.2 x 10(-6), and 2.9 x 10(-7) in microsomal, mitochondrial, and nuclear reactions, respectively. DAS inhibited DNA adducts in each metabolic system. The percent inhibition ranged from 86% in microsomes to 93% in nuclei. DES produced DNA adducts in mtDNA and nDNA. DAS completely inhibited the DES-induced mtDNA adducts and caused a dose dependent decrease in nDNA adduct formation. These findings suggest that DAS could inhibit DES-induced breast cancer by inhibiting its metabolism.

  12. Structure of adduct X, the last unknown of the six major DNA adducts of mitomycin C formed in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Palom, Y; Belcourt, M F; Musser, S M; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S; Tomasz, M

    2000-06-01

    Treatment of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells with mitomycin C (MC) results in the formation of six major MC-DNA adducts. We identified the last unknown of these ("adduct X") as a guanine N(2) adduct of 2, 7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), in which the mitosene is linked at its C-10 position to guanine N(2). The assigned structure is based on UV and mass spectra of adduct X isolated directly from the cells, as well as on its difference UV, second-derivative UV, and circular dichroism spectra, synthesis from [8-(3)H]deoxyguanosine, and observation of its heat stability. These tests were carried out using 17 microg of synthetic material altogether. The mechanism of formation of adduct X involves reductive metabolism of MC to 2,7-DAM, which undergoes a second round of reductive activation to alkylate DNA, yielding adduct X and another 2,7-DAM-guanine adduct (adduct Y), which is linked at guanine N7 to the mitosene. Adduct Y has been described previously. Adduct X is formed preferentially at GpC, while adduct Y favors the GpG sequence. In contrast to MC-DNA adducts, the 2,7-DAM-DNA adducts are not cytotoxic.

  13. Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by 32P-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Akkineni, L K; Zeisig, M; Baranczewski, P; Ekström, L G; Möller, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by 32P-postlabeling and 32P-high-performance liquid chromatography (32p-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 degrees C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16

  14. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    SciTech Connect

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Bérard, Izabel; and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  15. Formation and persistence of arylamine DNA adducts in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Beland, F A; Kadlubar, F F

    1985-01-01

    Aromatic amines are urinary bladder carcinogens in man and induce tumors at a number of sites in experimental animals including the liver, mammary gland, intestine, and bladder. In this review, the particular pathways involved in the metabolic activation of aromatic amines are considered as well as the specific DNA adducts formed in target and nontarget tissue. Particular emphasis is placed on the following compounds: 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-acetylamino-4'-fluorobiphenyl, 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl, 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzidine, N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene, 4-aminoazobenzene, and 2-acetylaminophenanthrene. PMID:4085422

  16. Depurinating acylfulvene-DNA adducts: characterizing cellular chemical reactions of a selective antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jiachang; Vaidyanathan, V G; Yu, Xiang; Kensler, Thomas W; Peterson, Lisa A; Sturla, Shana J

    2007-02-21

    Acylfulvenes (AFs) are a class of semisynthetic agents with high toxicity toward certain tumor cells, and for one analogue, hydroxymethylacylfulvene (HMAF), clinical trials are in progress. DNA alkylation by AFs, mediated by bioreductive activation, is believed to contribute to cytotoxicity, but the structures and chemical properties of corresponding DNA adducts are unknown. This study provides the first structural characterization of AF-specific DNA adducts. In the presence of a reductive enzyme, alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR), AF selectively alkylates dAdo and dGuo in reactions with a monomeric nucleoside, as well as in reactions with naked or cellular DNA, with 3-alkyl-dAdo as the apparently most abundant AF-DNA adduct. Characterization of this adduct was facilitated by independent chemical synthesis of the corresponding 3-alkyl-Ade adduct. In addition, in naked or cellular DNA, evidence was obtained for the formation of an additional type of adduct resulting from direct conjugate addition of Ade to AF followed by hydrolytic cyclopropane ring-opening, indicating the potential for a competing reaction pathway involving direct DNA alkylation. The major AF-dAdo and AF-dGuo adducts are unstable under physiologically relevant conditions and depurinate to release an alkylated nucleobase in a process that has a half-life of 8.5 h for 3-alkyladenine and less than approximately 2 h for dGuo adducts. DNA alkylation further leads to single-stranded DNA cleavage, occurring exclusively at dGuo and dAdo sites, in a nonsequence-specific manner. In AF-treated cells that were transfected with either AOR or control vectors, the DNA adducts identified match those from in vitro studies. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between DNA adduct levels and cell sensitivity to AF. The potential contributing roles of AOR-mediated bioactivation and adduct stability to the cytotoxicity of AF are discussed.

  17. Effect of phytochemical intervention on dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-induced DNA adduct formation

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Gilandra K.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Vadhanam, Manicka V.

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) has been found to be the most potent carcinogen of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Primary sources for DBP in the environment are combustion of wood and coal burning, gasoline and diesel exhaust, and tires. Given the likelihood of environmental exposure to DBP and strong experimental evidence of its potency, it is likely to contribute to lung cancer development. Intervention with compounds of natural origin (“phytochemicals”) is considered an effective means to prevent cancer development and favorably modulate the underlying mechanisms, including DNA adduct formation. In this study, several agents have been identified that inhibit environmental carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation using a cell-free microsomal system. Of the ten agents tested, resveratrol (648 ± 26 adducts/109 nucleotides), oltipraz (1007 ± 348 adducts/109 nucleotides), delphinidin (1252 ± 142 adducts/109 nucleotides), tanshinone I (1981 ± 213 adducts/109 nucleotides), tanshinone IIA (2606 ± 478 adducts/109 nucleotides) and diindoylmethane (3643 ± 469 adducts/109 nucleotides) were the most effective compared to vehicle treatment (14,062 ± 1097 adducts/109 nucleotides). DBP is metabolized by phase I metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. DBP-induced DNA adducts can be inhibited by several mechanisms. We found that all the test agents inhibited DNA adducts by inhibiting one or more of these enzymes. Oltipraz inhibited DNA adducts entirely by inhibiting the CYP450s, while resveratrol and delphinidin inhibited DNA adducts by also interacting directly with the carcinogenic metabolite, anti-dibenzo(a,l)pyrene-11,12-dihydrodiol-13,14-epoxide. PMID:25794985

  18. MRN, CtIP, and BRCA1 mediate repair of topoisomerase II-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Tomas; Baer, Richard; Gottesman, Max; Gautier, Jean

    2016-02-15

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with complex ends poses a special challenge, as additional processing is required before DNA ligation. For example, protein-DNA adducts must be removed to allow repair by either nonhomologous end joining or homology-directed repair. Here, we investigated the processing of topoisomerase II (Top2)-DNA adducts induced by treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide. Through biochemical analysis in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, we establish that the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex, CtIP, and BRCA1 are required for both the removal of Top2-DNA adducts and the subsequent resection of Top2-adducted DSB ends. Moreover, the interaction between CtIP and BRCA1, although dispensable for resection of endonuclease-generated DSB ends, is required for resection of Top2-adducted DSBs, as well as for cellular resistance to etoposide during genomic DNA replication.

  19. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  20. Liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry of DNA adducts formed with mitomycin C, porfiromycin and thiotepa.

    PubMed

    Musser, S M; Pan, S S; Callery, P S

    1989-07-14

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thermospray mass spectrometry were combined for the analysis of DNA adducts formed from the interaction of the anticancer drugs mitomycin C, porfiromycin and thiotepa with calf thymus DNA. The adducts formed from reaction of mitomycin C and porfiromycin with DNA were separated from unmodified nucleosides by HPLC on a C18 column and identified by thermospray mass spectrometry. Thiotepa DNA adducts readily depurinated from DNA and were chromatographed and identified by thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as the modified bases without the ribose moiety attached. The utility of thermospray mass spectrometry for the identification of microgram quantities of nucleoside adducts and depurinated base adducts of these anticancer drugs was demonstrated.

  1. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger; Peluso, Marco; Phillips, David H.; Agudo, Antonio; Georgiadis, Panos; Loft, Steffen; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Palli, Domenico; Perera, Frederica; Vermeulen, Roel; Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J.; Munnia, Armelle; Rosa, Fabio; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect an individual’s ability to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants. Methods We pooled eleven studies (3,600 subjects) in which bulky DNA adducts were measured in human white blood cells with similar 32P-postlabelling techniques and for which a similar set of variables was available, including individual data on age, gender, ethnicity, batch, smoking habits, BMI, season of blood collection and a limited set of gene variants. Results Lowest DNA adduct levels were observed in the spring (median 0.50 adducts per 108 nucleotides), followed by summer (0.64), autumn (0.70) and winter (0.85) (p=0.006). The same pattern emerged in multivariate analysis, but only among never smokers (p=0.02). Adduct levels were significantly lower (p=0.001) in Northern Europe (the Netherlands, Denmark) (mean 0.60, median 0.40) than in Southern Europe (Italy, Spain, France, Greece) (mean 0.79, median 0.60). Conclusions In this large pooled analysis, we have found only weak associations between bulky DNA adducts and exposure variables. Seasonality (with higher adducts levels in winter) and air pollution may partly explain some of the inter-area differences (North vs South Europe), but most inter-area and inter-individual variation in adduct levels still remain unexplained. Impact Our study describes the largest pooled analysis of bulky DNA adducts so far, showing that inter-individual variation is still largely unexplained, though seasonality appears to play a role. PMID:20921335

  2. Microfluidic array for simultaneous detection of DNA oxidation and DNA-adduct damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Boya; Shen, Min; Jiang, Di; Malla, Spundana; Mosa, Islam M; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Rusling, James F

    2016-10-21

    Exposure to chemical pollutants and pharmaceuticals may cause health issues caused by metabolite-related toxicity. This paper reports a new microfluidic electrochemical sensor array with the ability to simultaneously detect common types of DNA damage including oxidation and nucleobase adduct formation. Sensors in the 8-electrode screen-printed carbon array were coated with thin films of metallopolymers osmium or ruthenium bipyridyl-poly(vinylpyridine) chloride (OsPVP, RuPVP) along with DNA and metabolic enzymes by layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly. After a reaction step in which test chemicals and other necessary reagents flow over the array, OsPVP selectively detects oxidized guanines on the DNA strands, and RuPVP detects DNA adduction by metabolites on nucleobases. We demonstrate array performance for test chemicals including 17β-estradiol (E2), its metabolites 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), catechol, 2-nitrosotoluene (2-NO-T), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). Results revealed DNA-adduct and oxidation damage in a single run to provide a metabolic-genotoxic chemistry screen. The array measures damage directly in unhydrolyzed DNA, and is less expensive, faster, and simpler than conventional methods to detect DNA damage. The detection limit for oxidation is 672 8-oxodG per 10(6) bases. Each sensor requires only 22 ng of DNA, so the mass detection limit is 15 pg (∼10 pmol) 8-oxodG.

  3. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  4. A mathematical model for intracellular effects of toxins on DNA adduction and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Gaver, D.P.; Jacobs, P.A.; Carpenter, R.L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The processes by which certain classes of toxic compounds or their metabolites may react with DNA to alter the genetic information contained in subsequent generations of cells or organisms are a major component of hazard associated with exposure to chemicals in the environment. Many classes of chemicals may form DNA adducts and there may or may not be a defined mechanism to remove a particular adduct from DNA independent of replication. Many compounds and metabolites that bind DNA also readily bind existing proteins; some classes of toxins and DNA adducts have the capacity to inactive a repair enzyme and divert the repair process competitively. This paper formulates an intracellular dynamic model for one aspect of the action of toxins that form DNA adducts, recognizing a capacity for removal of those adducts by a repair enzyme combined with reaction of the toxin and/or the DNA adduct to inactive the repair enzyme. This particular model illustrates the possible saturation of repair enzyme capacity by the toxin dosage and shows that bistable behavior can occur, with the potential to induce abrupt shifts away from steady-state equilibria. The model suggests that bistable behavior, dose and variation between individuals or tissues may combine under certain conditions to amplify the biological effect of dose observed as DNA adduction and its consequences as mutation. A model recognizing stochastic phenomena also indicates that variation in within-cell toxin concentration may promote jumps between stable equilibria.

  5. Adducts of mitomycin C and DNA in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells: effects of hypoxia and dicumarol on adduct patterns.

    PubMed

    Bizanek, R; Chowdary, D; Arai, H; Kasai, M; Hughes, C S; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S; Tomasz, M

    1993-11-01

    6-CH3-3H-Mitomycin C (MC) was used to identify MC-DNA adducts formed in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells. DNA was isolated from cells treated with 3H-MC. The DNA was enzymatically digested, and the digest was analyzed for 3H-labeled adducts by high performance liquid chromatography. All four major adducts previously isolated and characterized in cell-free systems were detected: two different monoadducts and two bisadducts forming DNA-interstrand and DNA-intrastrand cross-links, respectively. No MC-DNA adducts other than the DNA interstrand cross-link had been shown previously to be formed in living cells. A MC-deoxyguanosine adduct of unknown structure was also detected in DNA from EMT6 cells; this adduct was also formed with purified EMT6 DNA. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was further applied to study the relationship between DNA adducts and cytotoxicity. The number of adducts increased with the concentration of MC in both aerobic and hypoxic cells. At a constant drug level, more adducts were observed in cells treated under hypoxic conditions than in cells treated aerobically; at 2 microM MC, 4.8 x 10(-7) and 3.1 x 10(-7) adducts/nucleotide were observed under hypoxic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The increased adduct frequency under hypoxia correlates with the known increased cytotoxicity of MC to EMT6 cells under hypoxic conditions. In addition, a higher ratio of cross-linked adducts to monoadducts was observed in hypoxic cells. The high performance liquid chromatography techniques were also used to examine the effects of dicumarol (DIC) on adduct patterns in cells treated simultaneously with 3H-MC. The MC-DNA adduct frequencies in DIC-treated cells were increased 1.5-fold under hypoxia and decreased 1.6-fold under aerobic conditions from those observed without DIC. This finding correlates with the known DIC-induced increase and decrease in the cytotoxicity of MC in hypoxic and aerobic EMT6 cells, respectively. The monoadduct resulting

  6. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and the CYP1A1 restriction fragment length polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, P.G.; Bowman, E.D.; Weston, A.; Harris, C.C.; Sugimura, H.; Caporaso, N.E.; Petruzzelli, S.F. ); Trump, B.F. )

    1992-11-01

    Human cancer risk assessment at a genetic level involves the investigation of carcinogen metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Wide interindividual differences in metabolism result in different DNA adduct levels. For this and other reasons, many laboratories have considered DNA adducts to be a measure of the biologically effective dose of a carcinogen. Techniques for studying DNA adducts using chemically specific assays are becoming available. A modification of the [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts described here provides potential improvements in quantification. DNA adducts, however, reflect only recent exposure to carcinogens; in contrast, genetic testing for metabolic capacity indicates the extent to which carcinogens can be activated and exert genotoxic effects. Such studies may reflect both separate and integrated risk factors together with DNA adduct levels. A recently described restriction fragment length polymorphism for the CYP1A1, which codes for the cytochrome P450 enzyme primarily responsible for the metabolic activation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has been found to be associated with lung cancer risk in a Japanese population. In a subset of individuals enrolled in a US lung cancer case-control study, no association with lung cancer was found. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  8. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  9. Formation and persistence of benzo(a)pyrene metabolite-DNA adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, S J; Anderson, M W

    1985-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and are suspected to be carcinogenic in man. The in vivo formation of BP metabolite-DNA adducts has been characterized in a variety of target and nontarget tissues of mice and rabbits. Tissues included were lung, liver, forestomach, colon, kidney, muscle, and brain. The major adduct identified in each tissue was the (+)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BP (BPDEI)-deoxyguanosine adduct. A 7 beta, 8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 beta,10 beta-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BP (BPDEII)-deoxyguanosine adduct, a (-)-BPDEI-deoxyguanosine adduct, and an unidentified adduct were also observed. The adduct levels are unexpectedly similar in all the tissues examined from the same BP-treated animal. For example, the BPDEI-DNA adduct levels in muscle and brain of mice were approximately 50% of those in lung and liver at each oral BP dose used. We have also examined adduct levels formed in vivo in several cell types of lung and liver. Macrophages, type II cells, and Clara cells from lung and hepatocytes and nonpparenchymal cells from liver were isolated from BP-treated rabbits. BPDEI-deoxyguanosine adduct was observed in each cell type and, moreover, the levels were similar in various cell types. These and previous results strongly suggest that DNA in many human tissues is continuously damaged from known exposure of humans to BP and other PAH. Moreover, DNA adducts formed from BP are persistent in lung and brain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4085435

  10. Evolution of Research on the DNA Adduct Chemistry of N-Nitrosopyrrolidine and Related Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Wang, Mingyao

    2011-01-01

    This perspective reviews our work on the identification of DNA adducts of N-nitrosopyrrolidine and some related aldehydes. The research began as a focused project to investigate mechanisms of cyclic nitrosamine carcinogenesis but expanded into other areas as aldehyde metabolites of NPYR were shown to have their own diverse DNA adduct chemistry. A total of 69 structurally distinct DNA adducts were identified and some of these, found in human tissues, have provided intriguing leads for investigating carcinogenesis mechanisms in humans due to exposure to both endogenous and exogenous agents. PMID:21480629

  11. DNA adducts in carp exposed to artificial diesel-2 oil slicks.

    PubMed

    Kurelec, B; Garg, A; Krca, S; Britvić, S; Lucić, D; Gupta, R C

    1992-05-01

    In attempts to mimic field exposure, oil slicks prepared from diesel-2 oil/water emulsions were poured onto the surface of water in tanks prepared fresh every day and liver DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling in carp free-swimming in these tanks. 'Clusters' of lipophilic DNA adducts were detected, with five major and numerous minor adducts. Essentially a similar adduct pattern was found in the liver DNA of carp exposed to crude oil-polluted water. Diesel-2 adduct induction was observed slowly with a steady increase to greater than 3000 amol/microgram DNA at day 12. After this time fish were transferred to clean water. Adduct levels continued to increase through day 17 (approximately 10,000 amol/microgram DNA) despite the cessation of exposure, but a 30% and 80% decline was evident at day 22 and day 27, respectively. All major adducts were distinct from the known benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide-dG. These results indicate that diesel-2 oil can cause extensive DNA damage in carp in vivo and the damage accumulates proportionately with time of exposure.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, Sharon K. Gaudet, Mia M.; Eng, Sybil M.; Abrahamson, Page E.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Bell, Paula; Thomas, Joyce A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mammary carcinogens in animal studies, and a few epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts and breast cancer incidence. An association between PAH-DNA adducts and survival among breast cancer cases has not been previously reported. We conducted a survival analysis among women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, enrolled in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. DNA was isolated from blood samples that were obtained from cases shortly after diagnosis and assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using ELISA. Among the 722 cases with PAH-DNA adduct measurements, 97 deaths (13.4%) from all causes and 54 deaths (7.5%) due to breast cancer were reported to National Death Index (NDI) by December 31, 2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age at diagnosis, we did not find evidence that all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.37), or breast cancer mortality (HR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.63-2.28) was strongly associated with detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels compared with non-detectable adducts; additionally, no dose-response association was observed. Among a subgroup with treatment data (n=520), adducts were associated with over a two-fold higher mortality among those receiving radiation, but mortality for adducts was reduced among hormone therapy users. Results from this large population-based study do not provide strong support for an association between detectable PAH-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer, except perhaps among those receiving radiation treatment.

  13. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  14. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M J; Light, B A; Weston, A; Tollurud, D; Clark, J L; Mann, D L; Blackmon, J P; Harris, C C

    1988-01-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactions between the benzo[a]pyrene and the chrysene diol-epoxide adducts were present. Similar cross-reactivity between the benz[a]anthracene and the chrysene adducts was observed. Sera containing antibodies that were apparently specific for each of the three PAH-DNA adducts were also identified. The presence of antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts indicates both past exposure to these carcinogenic PAH and their metabolic activation to the DNA damaging metabolites. These antibodies may prove to be useful in both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of various diseases associated with PAH exposure. PMID:3392204

  15. Depurinating estrogen–DNA adducts in the etiology and prevention of breast and other human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on estrogen metabolism, formation of DNA adducts, mutagenicity, cell transformation and carcinogenicity have led to and supported the hypothesis that the reaction of specific estrogen metabolites, mostly the electrophilic catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, with DNA can generate the critical mutations to initiate breast and other human cancers. Analysis of depurinating estrogen–DNA adducts in urine demonstrates that women at high risk of, or with breast cancer, have high levels of the adducts, indicating a critical role for adduct formation in breast cancer initiation. Men with prostate cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma also have high levels of estrogen–DNA adducts. This knowledge of the first step in cancer initiation suggests the use of specific antioxidants that can block formation of the adducts by chemical and biochemical mechanisms. Two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and resveratrol, are prime candidates to prevent breast and other human cancers because in various in vitro and in vivo experiments, they reduce the formation of estrogen–DNA adducts. PMID:20021210

  16. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  17. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. PMID:21234336

  18. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N -nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O 6more » -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.« less

  19. Implications of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts for understanding alcohol-related carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Brooks, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Among various potential mechanisms that could explain alcohol carcinogenicity, the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde represents an obvious possible mechanism, at least in some tissues. The fundamental principle of genotoxic carcinogenesis is the formation of mutagenic DNA adducts in proliferating cells. If not repaired, these adducts can result in mutations during DNA replication, which are passed on to cells during mitosis. Consistent with a genotoxic mechanism, acetaldehyde does react with DNA to form a variety of different types of DNA adducts. In this chapter we will focus more specifically on N2-ethylidene-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), the major DNA adduct formed from the reaction of acetaldehyde with DNA and specifically highlight recent data on the measurement of this DNA adduct in the human body after alcohol exposure. Because results are of particular biological relevance for alcohol-related cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), we will also discuss the histology and cytology of the UADT, with the goal of placing the adduct data in the relevant cellular context for mechanistic interpretation. Furthermore, we will discuss the sources and concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol in different cell types during alcohol consumption in humans. Finally, in the last part of the chapter, we will critically evaluate the concept of carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde, which has been raised in the literature, and discuss how data from acetaldehyde genotoxicity are and can be utilized in physiologically based models to evaluate exposure risk.

  20. DNA adduct formation by the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone after intratracheal instillation in rats.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Christian A; Cornelius, Michael G; Klein, Reinhold; Arlt, Volker M; Wiessler, Manfred; Phillips, David H; Schmeiser, Heinz H

    2005-10-10

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an environmental pollutant and suspected human carcinogen found in emissions from diesel and gasoline engines and on the surface of ambient air particulate matter; human exposure to 3-NBA is likely to occur primarily via the respiratory tract. In our study female Sprague Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation with a single dose of 0.2 or 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA. Using the butanol enrichment version of the (32)P-postlabeling method, DNA adduct formation by 3-NBA 48 hr after intratracheal administration in different organs (lung, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, heart, small intestine and liver) and in blood was investigated. The same adduct pattern consisting of up to 5 DNA adduct spots was detected by thin layer chromatography in all tissues and blood and at both doses. Highest total adduct levels were found in lung and pancreas (350 +/- 139 and 620 +/- 370 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides for the high dose and 39 +/- 18 and 55 +/- 34 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides for the low dose, respectively) followed by kidney, urinary bladder, heart, small intestine and liver. Adduct levels were dose-dependent in all organs (approximately 10-fold difference between doses). It was demonstrated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that all 5 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts formed in rats after intratracheal instillation are identical to those formed by other routes of application and are, as previously shown, formed from reductive metabolites bound to purine bases. Although total adduct levels in the blood were much lower (41 +/- 27 and 9.5 +/- 1.9 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides for the high and low dose, respectively) than those found in the lung, they were related to dose and to the levels found in lung. These results show that uptake of 3-NBA by the lung induces high levels of specific DNA adducts in several organs of the rat and an identical adduct pattern in DNA from blood. Therefore, 3-NBA-DNA adducts present in the

  1. Smoking-related DNA adducts as potential diagnostic markers of lung cancer: new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, E S; Kokova, D A; Gratchev, A N; Cherdyntsev, E S; Buldakov, M A; Kzhyshkowska, J G; Cherdyntseva, N V

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the new direction such as identification of informative circulating markers reflecting molecular genetic changes in the DNA of tumor cells was actively developed. Smoking-related DNA adducts are very promising research area, since they indicate high pathogenetic importance in the lung carcinogenesis and can be identified in biological samples with high accuracy and reliability using highly sensitive mass spectrometry methods (TOF/TOF, TOF/MS, MS/MS). The appearance of DNA adducts in blood or tissues is the result of the interaction of carcinogenic factors, such as tobacco constituents, and the body reaction which is determined by individual characteristics of metabolic and repair systems. So, DNA adducts may be considered as a cumulative mirror of heterogeneous response of different individuals to smoking carcinogens, which finally could determine the risk for lung cancer. This review is devoted to analysis of the role of DNA adducts in lung carcinogenesis in order to demonstrate their usefulness as cancer associated markers. Currently, there are some serious limitations impeding the widespread use of DNA adducts as cancer biomarkers, due to failure of standardization of mass spectrometry analysis in order to correctly measure the adduct level in each individual. However, it is known that all DNA adducts are immunogenic, their accumulation over some threshold concentration leads to the appearance of long-living autoantibodies. Thus, detection of an informative pattern of autoantibodies against DNA adducts using innovative multiplex ELISA immunoassay may be a promising approach to find lung cancer at an early stage in high-risk groups (smokers, manufacturing workers, urban dwellers).

  2. [Mass spectrometric analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adducted to DNA]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barofsky, D.F.

    1992-12-31

    Studies described herein sought and to synthesize PAH-adducted residues of DNA to serve as models for carrying out the mass spectrometric studies; to construct and test a high performance, pulsed ion bombardment, time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer; to initiate an investigation of the efficacy of using thin wire sample holders to increase sensitivity and focused ion beam bombardment to increase ion yield and ion transmission; and to initiate an investigation of sensitivity enhancing matrices for PAH-adducted DNA.

  3. Synthesis of a major mitomycin C DNA adduct via a triaminomitosene.

    PubMed

    Champeil, Elise; Paz, Manuel M; Lukasiewicz, Elaan; Kong, Wan S; Watson, Stephanie; Sapse, Anne-Marie

    2012-12-01

    We report here the synthesis of two amino precursors for the production of mitomycin C and 10-decarbamoylmitomycin C DNA adducts with opposite stereochemistry at C-1. The triamino mitosene precursors were synthesized in 5 steps from mitomycin C. In addition synthesis of the major mitomycin C-DNA adduct has been accomplished via coupling of a triaminomitosene with 2-fluoro-O(6)-(2-p-nitrophenylethyl)deoxyinosine followed by deprotection at the N(2) and O(6) positions.

  4. 32P-postlabeling analysis of adducts formed between DNA and safrole 2',3'-epoxide: absence of adduct formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qato, M K; Guenthner, T M

    1995-01-01

    We have used the 32P-postlabeling technique to examine the binding of safrole 2',3'-oxide to DNA. At least 8 covalent adducts are formed when calf thymus DNA is incubated with this oxygenated metabolite of safrole in vitro. However, no corresponding adducts are formed with liver DNA when whole animals are exposed to safrole 2',3'-oxide, or safrole itself. Although safrole 2',3'-oxide is readily formed in vivo, and is sufficiently reactive to covalently bind to DNA, it is probably not a factor in the in vivo genotoxicity of safrole. We also demonstrate that adducts with similar mobility to the major safrole 2',3'-oxide-DNA adduct are formed in vitro between safrole 2',3'-oxide and deoxyguanosine, and also between its chemical analogs allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide or estragole 2',3'-oxide and DNA.

  5. DNA adducts of antitumor trans-[PtCl2 (E-imino ether)2].

    PubMed Central

    Brabec, V; Vrána, O; Nováková, O; Kleinwächter, V; Intini, F P; Coluccia, M; Natile, G

    1996-01-01

    It has been shown recently that some analogues of clinically ineffective trans-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (transplatin) exhibit antitumor activity. This finding has inverted the empirical structure-antitumor activity relationships delineated for platinum(II) complexes, according to which only the cis geometry of leaving ligands in the bifunctional platinum complexes is therapeutically active. As a result, interactions of trans platinum compounds with DNA, which is the main pharmacological target of platinum anticancer drugs, are of great interest. The present paper describes the DNA binding of antitumor trans-[PtCl(2)(E-imino ether)(2)] complex (trans-EE) in a cell-free medium, which has been investigated using three experimental approaches. They involve thiourea as a probe of monofunctional DNA adducts of platinum (II) complexes with two leaving ligands in the trans configuration, ethidium bromide as a probe for distinguishing between monofunctional and bifunctional DNA adducts of platinum complexes and HPLC analysis of the platinated DNA enzymatically digested to nucleosides. The results show that bifunctional trans-EE preferentially forms monofunctional adducts at guanine residues in double-helical DNA even when DNA is incubated with the platinum complex for a relatively long time (48 h at 37 degrees C in 10 mM NaCIO(4). It implies that antitumor trans-EE modifies DNA in a different way than clinically ineffective transplatin, which forms prevalent amount of bifunctional DNA adducts after 48 h. This result has been interpreted to mean that the major adduct of trans-EE, occurring in DNA even after long reaction times, is a monofunctional adduct in which the reactivity of the second leaving group is markedly reduced. It has been suggested that the different properties of the adducts formed on DNA by transplatin and trans-EE are relevant to their distinct clinical efficacy. PMID:8628659

  6. Cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gairola, C.G.; Gupta, R.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Formation of DNA adducts is regarded as an essential initial step in the process of chemical carcinogenesis. To determine how chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the distribution of DNA adducts in selected respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues. The authors exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats daily to fresh mainstream smoke from the Univ. of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only exposure system for 32 weeks. Blood carboxyhemoglobin, total particulate matter (TPM) intake, and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase values indicated effective exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. DNA was extracted from three respiratory (larynx, trachea, and lung) and three nonrespiratory (liver, heart, and bladder) tissues and analyzed for DNA adducts by the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay under conditions capable of detecting low levels of diverse aromatic/hydrophobic adducts. Data showed that the total DNA adducts in the lung, heart, and trachea, and larynx were increased by 10- to 20-fold in the smoke-exposed group. These data suggest selective formation of DNA adducts in the tissues.

  7. Recoveries of DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 32P-postlabelling assay.

    PubMed

    Segerbäck, D; Vodicka, P

    1993-12-01

    The 32P-postlabelling assay for analysis of DNA adducts of chemical carcinogens has been applied in a large number of experimental animal and human studies. Most human studies have dealt with occupational and environmental exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The postlabelling assay does not allow direct chemical identification, and most studies with this method have not been performed in a quantitative way. Very little is therefore known about the identity and absolute levels of adducts, which are important contributors to the process of risk identification and quantitation. In the present study it was, therefore, decided to test some parameters suspected to affect recoveries of adducts in the phosphorylation step of the assay. For this purpose 12 different PAHs were reacted individually and in a mixture with DNA in the presence of a rat liver S9 metabolizing system. Different concentrations of ATP, calcium chloride and polynucleotide kinase were tested using the nuclease P1 enhancement. We found that each factor contributed to adduct recovery and that optimal conditions could be defined. Diluting the modified DNA samples up to 1000 times had little influence on the recoveries of adducts. Comparing the nuclease P1 and the butanol extraction procedures for adduct purification showed that both methods gave similar patterns and levels of major adducts. The absolute recoveries in postlabelling, based on 3H-binding of radiolabelled compounds, were for most of the tested compounds relatively low. The fact that the nuclease P1 and the butanol extraction procedures gave similar recoveries points towards common factor(s) involved in the reduction of the recovered adduct levels. Based on the observed recoveries the conclusion can be drawn that when postlabelling related adducts in human samples the true total adduct levels can be considerably underestimated, even if optimal conditions are used.

  8. Repair of O6-methylguanine adducts in human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Lance M.; Spear, Tyler J.; Koontz, Colton J.; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is a single-cycle DNA repair enzyme that removes pro-mutagenic O6-alkylguanine adducts from DNA. Its functions with short single-stranded and duplex substrates have been characterized, but its ability to act on other DNA structures remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the functions of this enzyme on O6-methylguanine (6mG) adducts in the four-stranded structure of the human telomeric G-quadruplex. On a folded 22-nt G-quadruplex substrate, binding saturated at 2 AGT:DNA, significantly less than the ∼5 AGT:DNA found with linear single-stranded DNAs of similar length, and less than the value found with the telomere sequence under conditions that inhibit quadruplex formation (4 AGT:DNA). Despite these differences, AGT repaired 6mG adducts located within folded G-quadruplexes, at rates that were comparable to those found for a duplex DNA substrate under analogous conditions. Repair was kinetically biphasic with the amplitudes of rapid and slow phases dependent on the position of the adduct within the G-quadruplex: in general, adducts located in the top or bottom tetrads of a quadruplex stack exhibited more rapid-phase repair than did adducts located in the inner tetrad. This distinction may reflect differences in the conformational dynamics of 6mG residues in G-quadruplex DNAs. PMID:25080506

  9. The use of an artificial nucleotide for polymerase-based recognition of carcinogenic O6-alkylguanine DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Laura A.; Nilforoushan, Arman; Williams, David M.; Marx, Andreas; Sturla, Shana J.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic approaches for locating alkylation adducts at single-base resolution in DNA could enable new technologies for understanding carcinogenesis and supporting personalized chemotherapy. Artificial nucleotides that specifically pair with alkylated bases offer a possible strategy for recognition and amplification of adducted DNA, and adduct-templated incorporation of an artificial nucleotide has been demonstrated for a model DNA adduct O6-benzylguanine by a DNA polymerase. In this study, DNA adducts of biological relevance, O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) and O6-carboxymethylguanine (O6-CMG), were characterized to be effective templates for the incorporation of benzimidazole-derived 2′-deoxynucleoside-5′-O-triphosphates (BenziTP and BIMTP) by an engineered KlenTaq DNA polymerase. The enzyme catalyzed specific incorporation of the artificial nucleotide Benzi opposite adducts, with up to 150-fold higher catalytic efficiency for O6-MeG over guanine in the template. Furthermore, addition of artificial nucleotide Benzi was required for full-length DNA synthesis during bypass of O6-CMG. Selective incorporation of the artificial nucleotide opposite an O6-alkylguanine DNA adduct was verified using a novel 2′,3′-dideoxy derivative of BenziTP. The strategy was used to recognize adducts in the presence of excess unmodified DNA. The specific processing of BenziTP opposite biologically relevant O6-alkylguanine adducts is characterized herein as a basis for potential future DNA adduct sequencing technologies. PMID:27378785

  10. DNA Adduct Formation of 4-Aminobiphenyl and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaers, Gwendoline; Bessette, Erin E.; Gu, Dan; Tang, Yijin; Rageul, Julie; Fessard, Valérie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 107 DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation. PMID:21456541

  11. The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in inducing mutations in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti; Venugopal, Divya; Mailander, Paula C.; Meza, Jane L.; Higginbotham, Sheila; Cavalieri, Ercole L.; Rogan, Eleanor G.

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) form stable and depurinating DNA adducts in mouse skin to induce preneoplastic mutations. Some mutations transform cells, which then clonally expand to establish tumors. Strong clues about the mutagenic mechanism can be obtained if the PAH-DNA adducts can be correlated with both preneoplastic and tumor mutations. To this end, we studied mutagenesis in PAH-treated early preneoplastic skin (1 day after exposure) and in the induced papillomas in SENCAR mice. Papillomas were studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras gene and sequencing. For benzo[a]pyrene (BP), BP-7,8-dihydrodiol (BPDHD), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), the codon 13 (GGC to GTC) and codon 61 (CAA to CTA) mutations in papillomas corresponded to the relative levels of Gua and Ade-depurinating adducts, despite BP and BPDHD forming significant amounts of stable DNA adducts. Such a relationship was expected for DMBA and DB[a,l]P, as they formed primarily depurinating adducts. These results suggest that depurinating adducts play a major role in forming the tumorigenic mutations. To validate this correlation, preneoplastic skin mutations were studied by cloning H-ras PCR products and sequencing individual clones. DMBA- and DB[a,l]P-treated skin showed primarily A.T to G.C mutations, which correlated with the high ratio of the Ade/Gua-depurinating adducts. Incubation of skin DNA with T.G-DNA glycosylase eliminated most of these A.T to G.C mutations, indicating that they existed as G.T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if they were formed by errors in the repair of abasic sites generated by the depurinating adducts. BP and its metabolites induced mainly G.C to T.A mutations in preneoplastic skin. However, PCR over unrepaired anti-BPDE-N2dG adducts can generate similar mutations as artifacts of the study protocol, making it difficult to establish an adduct-mutation correlation for determining which BP-DNA adducts induce the early

  12. DNA adducts in hematopoietic tissues and blood of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated site in the Elizabeth River, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Rose, W L; French, B L; Reichert, W L; Faisal, M

    2000-01-01

    Hydrophobic DNA adducts were examined in liver, anterior kidney, spleen, and blood of tumor-prone mummichog (Fundulus heterclitus) from the creosote-contaminated Atlantic Wood (AW) site (Elizabeth River, Virginia). DNA adducts eluted in a diagonal radioactive zone, characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, in all examined tissues of AW fish. Mummichog demonstrated significantly higher levels of DNA adducts in spleen (394 +/- 109 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) than in liver (201 +/- 77 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) or anterior kidney (211 +/- 68 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides; P = 0.036). The levels of DNA adducts in the pooled blood (pool of four) were 142 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides. DNA adducts were not detected in the liver, anterior kidney, spleen and blood of fish collected from the reference site (< 2 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides). The high levels of DNA adducts detected in tissues of AW mummichog may be linked to the increased cancer incidence and immunosuppression in this population.

  13. Correlation of mutagenic potencies of various petroleum oils and oil coal tar mixtures with DNA adduct levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Schreiner, C A; Mackerer, C R

    1997-08-01

    An in vitro system was utilized to measure DNA adduct-forming ability of petroleum oils and oil coal tar mixtures to define correlations between DNA adduct levels and their mutagenic potencies. The system consisted of reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of oils with calf thymus DNA in the presence of Aroclor-induced hamster liver microsomes for 30 min. Following DNA extraction, DNA adducts were measured by the nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling assay coupled with two-dimensional polyethyleneimine (PEI)-cellulose TLC. Thin layer plates showed putative aromatic DNA adducts, with levels ranging from 60 to 1400 adducts per 10(9) DNA nucleotides. TLC mobilities suggested adducts to be aromatic compounds containing 4 or more rings. A good correlation (coefficient of correlation = 0.91) was observed between DNA adduct levels and Salmonella mutagenicity for 19 oils. All 19 samples tested produced DNA adducts. To expedite the TLC procedure, adducts were resolved by one-dimensional TLC and the radioactivity measured using a mechanical scanner. Results were comparable to those obtained by two-dimensional TLC and quantification after scraping. Our data show that the in vitro incubation system coupled with the postlabeling adduct assay is a useful screening method to identify mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic oils.

  14. Mutagenicity and DNA adduct formation by the urban air pollutant 2-nitrobenzanthrone.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Glatt, Hansruedi; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Phillips, David H

    2007-08-01

    2-Nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) has recently been detected in ambient air particulate matter. Its isomer 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The highest mutagenic activity of 2-NBA tested in Salmonella typhimurium was exhibited in strain TA1538-hSULT1A1 expressing human sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1. 2-NBA also induced mutations in Chinese hamster lung V79 cells expressing human N-acetyltransferase 2 or SULT1A1, but no mutagenicity was observed in the parental cell line. DNA adduct formation in vitro was examined in different human cell lines by thin-layer chromatography (32)P-postlabeling. Whereas 3-NBA formed characteristic DNA adducts in lung A549, liver HepG2, colon HCT116, and breast MCF-7 cells, 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts were only observed in A549 and HepG2 cells, indicating differences in the bioactivation of each isomer. The pattern of 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts in both cell lines consisted of a cluster of up to five adducts. In HepG2 cells DNA binding by 2-NBA was up to 14-fold lower than by 3-NBA. DNA adduct formation of 2-NBA was also investigated in vivo in Wistar rats treated with a single dose of 2, 10, or 100 mg/kg body weight (bw). No DNA adduct formation was detected at doses of up to 10 mg/kg bw 2-NBA, even though 3-NBA induced DNA adducts at a dose of 2 mg/kg bw. Only after administration of one high dose of 100 mg/kg bw 2-NBA was a low level of DNA adduct formation detected, and then only in lung tissue. Density functional theory calculations for both NBAs revealed that the nitrenium ion of the 3-isomer is considerably more stable ( approximately 10 kcal/mol) than that of the 2-isomer, providing a possible explanation for the large differences in DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity between 2- and 3-NBA.

  15. Studies on DNA adduction with heterocyclic amines by accelerator mass spectrometry: a new technique for tracing isotope-labelled DNA adduction.

    PubMed

    Turteltaub, K W; Vogel, J S; Frantz, C E; Fultz, E

    1993-01-01

    DNA adduction in rodents at doses equivalent to human dietary exposure (10(4)-10(6)-fold lower than laboratory studies) is being studied using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a nuclear physics technique for detection of cosmogenic isotopes and has been used for specifically selecting and counting 14C. Using AMS, DNA adducts are detectable at levels of 1-10 adducts/10(12) nucleotides following acute and chronic dosing regimes with 14C-labelled carcinogens. The adduct detection limit has been imposed by the natural abundance of 14C in the samples and animal-to-animal variation. AMS is also being coupled to HPLC, multidimensional TLC and radio-immunoassay. In addition, AMS's great sensitivity makes it useful for demonstrating that drugs and chemicals do not bind to DNA. The use of AMS, however, is limited to situations where radiolabelled agents can be used. The data suggest that AMS is extremely useful in obtaining quantitative data on the effects of carcinogens on DNA at the low doses common for actual human exposures and may be useful in human studies.

  16. DNA isolation and sample preparation for quantification of adduct levels by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Karen H; Ubick, Esther A; Vogel, John S; Ognibene, Ted J; Malfatti, Michael A; Kulp, Kristen; Haack, Kurt W

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive technique used for the quantification of adducts following exposure to carbon-14- or tritium-labeled chemicals, with detection limits in the range of one adduct per 10(11)-10(12) nucleotides. The protocol described in this chapter provides an optimal method for isolating and preparing DNA samples to measure isotope-labeled DNA adducts by AMS. When preparing samples, special precautions must be taken to avoid cross-contamination of isotope among samples and produce a sample that is compatible with AMS. The DNA isolation method described is based upon digestion of tissue with proteinase K, followed by extraction of DNA using Qiagen isolation columns. The extracted DNA is precipitated with isopropanol, washed repeatedly with 70 % ethanol to remove salt, and then dissolved in water. DNA samples are then converted to graphite or titanium hydride and the isotope content measured by AMS to quantify adduct levels. This method has been used to reliably generate good yields of uncontaminated, pure DNA from animal and human tissues for analysis of adduct levels.

  17. Base-Resolution Analysis of Cisplatin–DNA Adducts at the Genome Scale

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoting; Xiong, Xushen; Song, Jinghui; He, Chuan; Yi, Chengqi

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, crosslinks DNA and ultimately induces cell death. However, the genomic pattern of cisplatin–DNA adducts has remained unknown owing to the lack of a reliable and sensitive genome-wide method. Herein we present “cisplatin-seq” to identify genome-wide cisplatin crosslinking sites at base resolution. Cisplatin-seq reveals that mitochondrial DNA is a preferred target of cisplatin. For nuclear genomes, cisplatin–DNA adducts are enriched within promoters and regions harboring transcription termination sites. While the density of GG dinucleotides determines the initial crosslinking of cisplatin, binding of proteins to the genome largely contributes to the accumulative pattern of cisplatin–DNA adducts. PMID:27736024

  18. Persistence of benzo[a]pyrene--DNA adducts in hematopoietic tissues and blood of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Rose, W L; French, B L; Reichert, W L; Faisal, M

    2001-05-01

    The formation and persistence of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adducts were investigated in blood, liver and two hematopoietic tissues (anterior kidney and spleen) of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Fish were injected with a single, sublethal dose of B[a]P (12 mg/kg body weight) and sampled from 8 to 96 days post-injection. 32P-Postlabeling analysis and storage phosphor imaging were used to resolve and quantify hydrophobic DNA adducts. One major DNA adduct was present in each of the examined tissues at all sampling times. This adduct had similar chromatographic characteristics to those of the adduct standard, 7R,8S,9S-trihydroxy-10S-(N(2)-deoxyguanosyl-3'-phosphate)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]PDE-dG). Minor DNA adduct spots, representing less than 2% of the total DNA adducts, were observed in some liver, anterior kidney and spleen samples for up to 32 days post-injection. The B[a]P-DNA adducts reached maximal levels at 32 days post-injection and persisted for at least 96 days in all examined tissues. B[a]P-DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in the liver and anterior kidney than in the spleen from 16 to 96 days (P<0.001), although liver and anterior kidney DNA adduct levels were not significantly different at any time. This is the first controlled study to demonstrate the formation and persistence of B[a]P-DNA adducts in hematopoietic tissues and blood of fishes exposed to the prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, B[a]P. Although persistent DNA adducts are generally recognized as potential initiators of carcinogenic processes, adducts in these vital tissues may also lead to disruption of physiological functions such defense mechanisms and hematopoiesis.

  19. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  20. Estrogen-DNA Adducts as Novel Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer Risk and for Use in Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the association between ovarian cancer and (1) imbalances in estrogen metabolism that lead to higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts in urine and/or (2...provides a measure of the imbalance 6 of estrogen metabolism in a person. A high ratio indicates that the person’s estrogen metabolism is...polymorphisms and risk of hormonal cancers. The estrogen quinone resulting from CYP1B1 activity may proceed to adduct formation in the presence of

  1. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo.

  2. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo. PMID:26559182

  3. The analysis of DNA adducts: The transition from 32P-postlabeling to mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Klaene, Joshua J.; Sharma, Vaneet K.; Glick, James; Vouros, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The technique of 32P-postlabeling, which was introduced in 1982 for the analysis of DNA adducts, has long been the method of choice for in vivo studies because of its high sensitivity as it requires only <10 μg DNA to achieve the detection of 1 adduct in 1010 normal bases. 32P-postlabeling has therefore been utilized in numerous human and animal studies of DNA adduct formation. Like all techniques 32P-postlabeling does have several disadvantages including the use of radioactive phosphorus, lack of internal standards, and perhaps most significantly does not provide any structural information for positive identification of unknown adducts, a shortcoming that could significantly hamper progress in the field. Structural methods have since been developed to allow for positive identification of DNA adducts, but to this day, the same level of sensitivity and low sample requirements provided by 32P-postlabeling have not been matched. In this mini review we will discuss the 32P-postlabeling method and chronicle the transition to mass spectrometry via the hyphenation of gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and ultimately liquid chromatography which, some 30 years later, is only just starting to approach the sensitivity and low sample requirements of 32P-postlabeling. This paper focuses on the detection of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts, with no mention of oxidative damage or small alkylating agents. This is because the 32P-postlabeling assay is most compatible with bulky DNA adducts. This will also allow a more comprehensive focus on a subject that has been our particular interest since 1990. PMID:22960573

  4. Oral Cell DNA Adducts as Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-01-17

    This perspective considers the use of oral cell DNA adducts, together with exposure and genetic information, to potentially identify those cigarette smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, so that appropriate preventive measures could be initiated at a relatively young age before too much damage has been done. There are now well established and validated analytical methods for the quantitation of urinary and serum metabolites of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens. These metabolites provide a profile of exposure and in some cases lung cancer risk, but they do not yield information on the critical DNA damage parameter that leads to mutations in cancer growth control genes such as KRAS and TP53. Studies demonstrate a correlation between changes in the oral cavity and lung in cigarette smokers, due to the field effect of tobacco smoke. Oral cell DNA is readily obtained in contrast to DNA samples from the lung. Studies in which oral cell DNA and salivary DNA have been analyzed for specific DNA adducts are reviewed; some of the adducts identified have also been previously reported in lung DNA from smokers. The multiple challenges of developing a panel of oral cell DNA adducts that could be routinely quantified by mass spectrometry are discussed.

  5. Oral Cell DNA Adducts as Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    This perspective considers the use of oral cell DNA adducts, together with exposure and genetic information, to potentially identify those cigarette smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, so that appropriate preventive measures could be initiated at a relatively young age before too much damage has been done. There are now well established and validated analytical methods for the quantitation of urinary and serum metabolites of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens. These metabolites provide a profile of exposure and in some cases lung cancer risk. But they do not yield information on the critical DNA damage parameter that leads to mutations in cancer growth control genes such as KRAS and TP53. Studies demonstrate a correlation between changes in the oral cavity and lung in cigarette smokers, due to the field effect of tobacco smoke. Oral cell DNA is readily obtained in contrast to DNA samples from the lung. Studies in which oral cell DNA and salivary DNA have been analyzed for specific DNA adducts are reviewed; some of the adducts identified have also been previously reported in lung DNA from smokers. The multiple challenges of developing a panel of oral cell DNA adducts that could be routinely quantified by mass spectrometry are discussed. PMID:28092948

  6. The N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine Adduct Does Not Alter the Structure of B-DNA.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Pratibha P; Gore, Kiran R; Harikrishna, S; Samanta, Biswajit; Kottur, Jithesh; Nair, Deepak T; Pradeepkumar, P I

    2016-01-15

    N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine (fdG) is carcinogenic DNA adduct that originates from furfuryl alcohol. It is also a stable structural mimic of the damage induced by the nitrofurazone family of antibiotics. For the structural and functional studies of this model N(2)-dG adduct, reliable and rapid access to fdG-modified DNAs are warranted. Toward this end, here we report the synthesis of fdG-modified DNAs using phosphoramidite chemistry involving only three steps. The functional integrity of the modified DNA has been verified by primer extension studies with DNA polymerases I and IV from E. coli. Introduction of fdG into a DNA duplex decreases the Tm by ∼1.6 °C/modification. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA duplex bearing the fdG adduct revealed that though the overall B-DNA structure is maintained, this lesion can disrupt W-C H-bonding, stacking interactions, and minor groove hydrations to some extent at the modified site, and these effects lead to slight variations in the local base pair parameters. Overall, our studies show that fdG is tolerated at the minor groove of the DNA to a better extent compared with other bulky DNA damages, and this property will make it difficult for the DNA repair pathways to detect this adduct.

  7. Detection and characterization of DNA adducts formed from metabolites of the fungicide ortho-phenylphenol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shouxun; Narang, Amarjit; Gierthy, John; Eadon, George

    2002-05-22

    The significance of DNA adduction in ortho-phenylphenol-induced carcinogenesis remains unclear. Establishing adduct structures may contribute to resolving this issue. The chemical structures of the DNA adduction products resulting from the in vitro reaction of phenylbenzoquinone, the putative ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the fungicide/disinfectant ortho-phenylphenol, are reported here. Three isomeric adducts that resulted from reaction of deoxyguanosine were characterized by UV, LC-ESI-MS, and MS/MS, and 1D and 2D COSY-NMR spectroscopy. The proposed mechanism of product formation is nucleophilic attack by the deoxyguanosine exocyclic amine nitrogen on an electrophilic quinone carbon, followed by stabilization through enolization. Another nucleophilic attack forms a five-membered ring, which aromatizes by dehydration to form the final product. Adducts were also characterized from deoxyadenosine and deoxycytidine, although conversions were at least 10 times lower. Structures are also proposed for these products. Cell culture studies confirmed that HepG2 cells incubated with phenylbenzoquinone at concentrations associated with cytotoxicity form the same DNA adducts.

  8. 32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen--DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

    1982-01-01

    A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the liver of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions, but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 10(7)-10(8) normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen--DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies.

  9. Screening of hydrophobic DNA adducts in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Malmström, C; Konn, M; Bogovski, S; Lang, T; Lönnström, L-G; Bylund, G

    2009-12-01

    Neoplasia and other histopathological lesions in flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver have been investigated in several European sea areas, including the Baltic Sea. Several studies have been able to link neoplasm epizootics in fish with the exposure to genotoxins such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The level of hydrophobic DNA adducts in tissue DNA reflects the exposure of the organism to PAHs. Using hydrophobic DNA adduct levels as biomarkers, possible PAH exposure was assessed in flounder from 10 different sites in the Baltic Sea, collected during the years 1995-1997. The results show that the overall levels of hepatic DNA adducts were low and, in general, the chromatograms appeared clean. The highest levels of DNA adducts were found at two sites in the southern Baltic Sea. There were no statistically significant differences in adduct levels between the sites. Our results indicate that flounder from studied off shore sites of the Baltic Sea had not been exposed to a greater extent to large polycyclic hydrophobic hydrocarbons in their environment.

  10. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of DNA adducts of a platinum containing anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangir, Deepak K.; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2014-09-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the interaction of drugs with their target molecules is important for better understanding of their mode of action and to improve their efficacy. Carboplatin is a platinum containing anticancer drug, used to treat different type of tumors. In the present work, we applied Raman spectroscopy to study the interaction of carboplatin with DNA at molecular level using different carboplatin-DNA molar ratios. These Raman spectroscopic results provide comprehensive understanding on the carboplatin-DNA interactions and indicate that DNA cross-linked adducts formed by carboplatin are similar to cisplatin adducts. The results indicate that guanine N7 and adenine N7 are the putative sites for carboplatin interaction. It is observed that carboplatin has some affinity toward cytosine in DNA. Phosphate sugar backbone of DNA showed conformation perturbation in DNA which were easily sensible at higher concentrations of carboplatin. Most importantly, carboplatin interaction induces intermediate A- and B-DNA conformations at the cross-linking sites.

  11. Molecular mechanics and antibody binding in the structural analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-diol-epoxide--DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Weston, A; Newman, M J; Mann, D L; Brooks, B R

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts using monoclonal antibodies raised against DNA that had been modified with (+-)-r-7-,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, as well as analysis using human serum antibodies and antibodies raised in laboratory animals, have suggested the presence on these adducts of both common and unique immunological epitopes. The molecular mechanics studies reported here establish a model for the analysis of PAH-DNA adducts through the identification of energetically favored binding conformations and they further reveal structural alterations in DNA due to the presence of carcinogen adducts. The data explain the antibody reactivity patterns by defining different molecular presenting surfaces that are available for antibody binding. The preferred orientation of the aromatic portions of the adducts, which align either 3' or 5' in the minor groove, were found to be correlated with antibody reactivity patterns. Examination of the topographical characteristics of the adducts facilitated correlation of adduct-antibody recognition and adduct presenting surface. Significant differences were found between benzo[a]pyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts, which align 5' in the minor groove, and benz[a]anthracene-diol-epoxide (BADE)-DNA and dibenz[a,c]anthracene-diol-epoxide-DNA adducts, which align 3' within the minor groove. Chrysene-diol-epoxide-DNA adducts were found to have only a weak preference for 5' alignment and therefore share topographical characteristics with both BPDE-DNA and BADE-DNA adducts.

  12. Oxidation and glycolytic cleavage of etheno and propano DNA base adducts.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Charles G; Rubinson, Emily H; Akingbade, Dapo; Anderson, Carolyn S; Stec, Donald F; Petrova, Katya V; Kozekov, Ivan D; Guengerich, F Peter; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2009-02-03

    Non-invasive strategies for the analysis of endogenous DNA damage are of interest for the purpose of monitoring genomic exposure to biologically produced chemicals. We have focused our research on the biological processing of DNA adducts and how this may impact the observed products in biological matrixes. Preliminary research has revealed that pyrimidopurinone DNA adducts are subject to enzymatic oxidation in vitro and in vivo and that base adducts are better substrates for oxidation than the corresponding 2'-deoxynucleosides. We tested the possibility that structurally similar exocyclic base adducts may be good candidates for enzymatic oxidation in vitro. We investigated the in vitro oxidation of several endogenously occurring etheno adducts [1,N(2)-epsilon-guanine (1,N(2)-epsilon-Gua), N(2),3-epsilon-Gua, heptanone-1,N(2)-epsilon-Gua, 1,N(6)-epsilon-adenine (1,N(6)-epsilon-Ade), and 3,N(4)-epsilon-cytosine (3,N(4)-epsilon-Cyt)] and their corresponding 2'-deoxynucleosides. Both 1,N(2)-epsilon-Gua and heptanone-1,N(2)-epsilon-Gua were substrates for enzymatic oxidation in rat liver cytosol; heteronuclear NMR experiments revealed that oxidation occurred on the imidazole ring of each substrate. In contrast, the partially or fully saturated pyrimidopurinone analogues [i.e., 5,6-dihydro-M(1)G and 1,N(2)-propanoguanine (PGua)] and their 2'-deoxynucleoside derivatives were not oxidized. The 2'-deoxynucleoside adducts, 1,N(2)-epsilon-dG and 1,N(6)-epsilon-dA, underwent glycolytic cleavage in rat liver cytosol. Together, these data suggest that multiple exocyclic adducts undergo oxidation and glycolytic cleavage in vitro in rat liver cytosol, in some instances in succession. These multiple pathways of biotransformation produce an array of products. Thus, the biotransformation of exocyclic adducts may lead to an additional class of biomarkers suitable for use in animal and human studies.

  13. Conformations of DNA adducts with polycyclic aromatic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.

    1984-01-01

    Minimized semi-empirical potential energy calculations for a number of carcinogen adducts with dCpdG have yielded molecular views of the adduct conformations. The base displaced and Z type conformations of acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts to guanine C-8 have been detailed. Model building shows that base displacement causes kinking and denaturation in the B helix, while the Z helix is largely unperturbed by modification with AAF, in agreement with experimental findings. The minor AAF adduct linked to quanine N/sup 2/ can reside at a B-Z junction, with the carcinogen buried in a groove in the Z direction, without causing denaturation. The syn guanine in these modified Z forms could be mutagenic, the lesion escaping repair because the helix is undeformed, while the distorted base-displaced conformers are repaired. Aminofluorene (AF) and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) linked to guanine N/sup 2/ are currently believed to be critical lesions. They all have a pair of A or B type low energy states, one of which has base-base stacking with carcinogen at the helix exterior, and a second with carcinogen-base stacking. The two states are easily interconvertible. It is possible that the carcinogen may reside primarily at the unperturbed helix exterior where it escapes repair, but that carcinogen-base stacking may occur at a critical time during replication, leading to a mutation. 49 references, 8 figures.

  14. Kinetics of DNA adduct formation in the oral cavity after drinking alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Balbo, Silvia; Meng, Lei; Bliss, Robin L.; Jensen, Joni A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is one of the top-10 risks for the worldwide burden of disease and an established cause of head and neck cancer as well as cancer at other sites. Acetaldehyde, the major metabolite of ethanol, reacts with DNA to produce adducts, which are critical in the carcinogenic process and can serve as biomarkers of exposure and possibly of disease risk. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is considered “carcinogenic to humans”. We have previously developed the technology to quantify acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in human tissues, but there are no studies in the literature defining the formation and removal of acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in people who consumed alcohol. Methods We investigated levels of N2-ethylidene-dGuo, the major DNA adduct of acetaldehyde, in DNA from human oral cells at several time points after consumption of increasing alcohol doses. Ten healthy non-smokers were dosed once a week for three weeks. Mouthwash samples were collected before and at several time points after the dose. N2-Ethylidene-dGuo was measured as its NaBH3CN reduction product N2-ethyl-dGuo by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results N2-ethylidene-dGuo levels increased as much as 100-fold from baseline within 4h after each dose for all subjects and in a dose responsive manner (p = 0.001). Conclusion These results demonstrate an effect of alcohol on oral cell DNA adduct formation, strongly supporting the key role of acetaldehyde in head and neck cancer caused by alcohol drinking. Impact Our results provide some of the first conclusive evidence linking exposure to a lifestyle carcinogen and kinetics of DNA adduct formation in humans. PMID:22301829

  15. Antisera specific for carcinogen-DNA adducts and carcinogen-modified DNA: applications for detection of xenobiotics in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Poirier, M C

    1993-07-01

    The development of immunoassays and immunoaffinity chromatography methods for determination of carcinogen-DNA adducts and carcinogen-modified DNA samples rests upon eliciting and characterizing polyclonal and monoclonal antisera against these haptens. The use of such antisera has widespread application in investigating chronic carcinogen administration in animal models and in monitoring human tissues for evidence of carcinogen exposure. Radioimmunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed with carcinogen-DNA adduct antisera are exceedingly sensitive, measuring 1 adduct in 10(8) nucleotides. Not only can DNA damage be quantified directly by immunoassay, but the antisera have also been used to isolate DNA adducts of a particular chemical class by immunoaffinity chromatography before application of more chemically-specific end-points. Both of these methodological approaches have made seminal contributions to the newly-emerging field of molecular epidemiology. This chapter will focus on methods for preparing immunogens, the establishment of immunoassays, characterization of antisera and specific problems encountered with biological samples in addition, the use of immunoaffinity chromatography for preparative concentration of DNA adducts of a particular class will be included.

  16. Both physiological and pharmacological levels of melatonin reduce DNA adduct formation induced by the carcinogen safrole.

    PubMed

    Tan, D; Reiter, R J; Chen, L D; Poeggeler, B; Manchester, L C; Barlow-Walden, L R

    1994-02-01

    Hepatic DNA adduct formation induced by the chemical carcinogen, safrole, was suppressed by both endogenous pineal melatonin release and by the exogenous administration of melatonin to rats. DNA damage after administration of of melatonin to rats. DNA damage after administration of 100 mg/kg safrole (i.p.) was measured by the P1 enhanced 32P-postlabeling analysis method. The RAL (relative adduct labeling) x 10(7) of carcinogen modified DNA in the liver of untreated controls and in safrole treated animals killed during the day, at night, after pinealectomy and pinealectomy plus melatonin injection (0.15 mg/kg x 4 or a total of 0.6 mg/kg) was 0, 12.6 +/- 0.75, 10.9 +/- 0.72, 13.6 +/- 1.12 and 5.7 +/- 0.53 respectively. For the same groups of animals, circulating melatonin levels at the termination of the study were 31 +/- 3, 29 +/- 2, 276 +/- 31, 24 +/- 1 and 13,950 +/- 1016 pg/ml serum respectively. The higher the melatonin concentration in the serum the lower was DNA adduct formation in the rat liver. Thus, high nocturnal levels of melatonin were protective against safrole-induced DNA damage. These findings indicate that the functional pineal gland plays an important role in oncostatic actions of carcinogens such as safrole. At physiological levels, melatonin seemed to prevent especially the formation of what was referred to as the N1 DNA adduct. Melatonin's ability to suppress DNA adduct formation may relate to its inhibitory effect on a mixed function oxidase, cytochrome p-450, and on the recently identified hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the indole. The oncostatic action of melatonin is also suggested by its nuclear accumulation and DNA stabilization characteristics. At pharmacological levels melatonin is extremely potent in preventing DNA modification induced by the chemical carcinogen, safrole.

  17. Quantitation of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-DNA-intrastrand adducts in testicular and ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Yuspa, S H; Zwelling, L A; Ozols, R F; Poirier, M C

    1986-02-01

    The antitumor activity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin) is believed to be related to its covalent interaction with DNA where a major DNA binding product is an intrastrand N7-bidentate adduct on adjacent deoxyguanosines. A novel immunoassay was used to quantitate this adduct in buffy coat DNA from testicular and ovarian cancer patients undergoing cisplatin therapy. 44 out of 120 samples taken from 45 cisplatin patients had detectable cisplatin-DNA adducts. No adducts were detected in 18 samples of DNA taken from normal controls, patients on other chemotherapy, or patients before treatment. The quantity of measurable adducts increased as a function of cumulative dose of cisplatin. This was observed both during repeated daily infusion of the drug and over long-term, repeated 21-28 d cycles of administration. These results suggested that adduct removal is slow even though the tissue has a relatively rapid turnover. Patients receiving cisplatin for the first time on 56-d cycles, and those given high doses of cisplatin as a "salvage" regimen, did not accumulate adducts as rapidly as patients on first time chemotherapy on 21- or 28-d cycles. Disease response data, evaluated for 33 cisplatin-treated patients, showed a positive correlation between the formation of DNA adducts and response to drug therapy. However, more data will be required to confirm this relationship. These data show that specific immunological probes can readily be applied to quantitate DNA adducts in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  18. DNA adduct formation in precision-cut rat liver and lung slices exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Jeanine A; Vezina, Chad M; McGarrigle, Barbara P; Ersing, Noreen; Box, Harold C; Maccubbin, Alexander E; Olson, James R

    2004-02-01

    Chemical-DNA adducts provide an integrated measure of exposure, absorption, bioactivation, detoxification, and DNA repair following exposure to a genotoxic agent. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), can be bioactivated by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) and epoxide hydrolase to genotoxic metabolites which form covalent adducts with DNA. In this study, we utilized precision-cut rat liver and lung slices exposed to BaP to investigate tissue-specific differences in chemical absorption and formation of DNA adducts. To investigate the contribution of bioactivating CYPs (such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) on the formation of BaP-DNA adducts, animals were also pretreated in vivo with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) prior to in vitro incubation of tissue slices with BaP. Furthermore, the tissue distribution of BaP and BaP-DNA adduct levels from in vivo studies were compared with those from the in vitro tissue slice experiments. The results indicate a time- and concentration-dependent increase in tissue-associated BaP following exposure of rat liver and lung tissue slices to BaP in vitro, with generally higher levels of BaP retained in lung tissue. Furthermore, rat liver and lung slices metabolized BaP to reactive intermediates that formed covalent adducts with DNA. Total BaP-DNA adducts increased with concentration and incubation time. Adduct levels (fmol adduct/microg DNA) in lung slices were greater than liver at all doses. Liver slices contained one major and two minor adducts, while lung slices contained two major and 3 minor adducts. The tissue-specific qualitative profile of these adducts in tissue slices was similar to that observed from in vivo studies, further validating the use of this model. Pretreatment of animals with TCDD prior to in vitro incubation with BaP potentiated the levels of DNA adduct formation. TCDD pretreatment altered the adduct distribution in lung but not in liver slices. Together, the results

  19. Fluorescence of tetrols, tetrols complexed with DNA, and benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts in methanol/water solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, Paul B.; Hurtubise, Robert J.

    2000-02-01

    Several solution fluorescence parameters were acquired for the four tetrol hydrolysis products of benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts, tetrols complexed with DNA, and BPDE-DNA adducts in several methanol/water solvents. The relative polarity of the environment for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts was determined by using a modified definition of the R value that is commonly employed for pyrene. The R values for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts were calculated by obtaining the ratios of the intensities of the two major fluorescence emission bands at 380 and 400 nm (I{sub 380}/I{sub 400}). The positions of the hydroxyl groups on the hydroaromatic ring of the tetrols were compared in reference to the R values and the changes in the R values as a function of methanol/water composition. This approach resulted in a method for determining whether the hydroxyl groups in the 9 and 10 positions were on the same side or opposite sides of a hydroaromatic ring. The tetrols intercalated between the DNA bases showed quite different fluorescence spectra compared to tetrols not complexed with DNA. Also, the quasi-intercalated BPDE-DNA adducts gave significant changes in the R values with an increase in methanol in the solvent, and excitation spectra showed large shifts and changes in shape with an increase in methanol. The approaches developed provide unique structural and polarity information on tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  20. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of specific carcinogen-DNA adducts in diploid human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.; Maher, V.M.

    1985-10-01

    A comparison of the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of a series of carcinogens in normal diploid human fibroblasts and in cells deficient in one or more DNA repair processes has provided insight into the specific DNA adduct(s) responsible for these biological effects. The carcinogens tested include ultraviolet radiation; reactive derivatives of structurally related aromatic amides; metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene; the simple alkylating agents N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea; and aflatoxin B/sub 1/ dichloride, a model for the reactive 2,3-epoxide of aflatoxin B/sub 1/. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to agents and assayed for mutations and cell killing. Cells deficient in repair of particular DNA adducts or lesions proved more sensitive to the agent causing those lesions than did normally repairing cells. Many of the carcinogens were compared for their mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effect, not only as a function of dose administered, but also as a function of the initial number of adducts or photoproducts induced in DNA and the number remaining at critical times posttreatment. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the number of DNA lesions remaining unexcised at the time the DNA was replicated and frequency of mutations induced. Comparative studies of the frequency of UV-induced transformation of normal and repair-deficient cells showed this also to be true for transformation.

  1. DNA Adducts from Anticancer Drugs as Candidate Predictive Markers for Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biomarker-driven drug selection plays a central role in cancer drug discovery and development, and in diagnostic strategies to improve the use of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. DNA-modifying anticancer drugs are still used as first line medication, but drawbacks such as resistance and side effects remain an issue. Monitoring the formation and level of DNA modifications induced by anticancer drugs is a potential strategy for stratifying patients and predicting drug efficacy. In this perspective, preclinical and clinical data concerning the relationship between drug-induced DNA adducts and biological response for platinum drugs and combination therapies, nitrogen mustards and half-mustards, hypoxia-activated drugs, reductase-activated drugs, and minor groove binding agents are presented and discussed. Aspects including measurement strategies, identification of adducts, and biological factors that influence the predictive relationship between DNA modification and biological response are addressed. A positive correlation between DNA adduct levels and response was observed for the majority of the studies, demonstrating the high potential of using DNA adducts from anticancer drugs as mechanism-based biomarkers of susceptibility, especially as bioanalysis approaches with higher sensitivity and throughput emerge. PMID:27936622

  2. Use of LC-MS/MS and stable isotopes to differentiate hydroxymethyl and methyl DNA adducts from formaldehyde and nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Craft, Sessaly; Nakamura, Jun; Moeller, Benjamin C; Swenberg, James A

    2012-03-19

    Formaldehyde is a known human and animal carcinogen that forms DNA adducts, and causes mutations. While there is widespread exposure to formaldehyde in the environment, formaldehyde is also an essential biochemical in all living cells. The presence of both endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde makes it difficult to develop exposure-specific DNA biomarkers. Furthermore, chemicals such as nitrosodimethylamine form one mole of formaldehyde for every mole of methylating agent, raising questions about potential cocarcinogenesis. Formaldehyde-induced hydroxymethyl DNA adducts are not stable and need to be reduced to stable methyl adducts for detection, which adds another layer of complexity to identifying the origins of these adducts. In this study, highly sensitive mass spectrometry methods and isotope labeled compounds were used to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous hydroxymethyl and methyl DNA adducts. We demonstrate that N(2)-hydroxymethyl-dG is the primary DNA adduct formed in cells following formaldehyde exposure. In addition, we show that alkylating agents induce methyl adducts at N(2)-dG and N(6)-dA positions, which are identical to the reduced forms of hydroxymethyl adducts arising from formaldehyde. The use of highly sensitive LC-MS/MS and isotope labeled compounds for exposure solves these challenges and provides mechanistic insights on the formation and role of these DNA adducts.

  3. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2'-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct.

    PubMed

    Politica, Dustin A; Malik, Chanchal K; Basu, Ashis K; Stone, Michael P

    2015-12-21

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N(2)-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, in which it is oriented in the minor groove toward the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-d

  4. DNA adduct formation by o-phenylphenol metabolite in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, K; Nagai, F; Nakagawa, A; Kano, I

    1992-08-01

    [U-14C]o-Phenylphenol (OPP) was found to bind covalently to calf thymus DNA during a 60 min incubation in the presence of microsomes, but not in their absence, indicating that metabolic conversion of the parent compound, OPP, to an activated form is essential. Postlabeling analysis with bladder DNA of rats fed a diet containing 2% OPP for 13 weeks revealed one major adduct on TLC. In an in vitro postlabeling experiment with calf thymus DNA, both of the major metabolites of OPP, phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) and phenylbenzoquinone (PBQ), formed adducts, but no adducts were observed with OPP. The chemical structure responsible for adduct formation is thought to be the PHQ semiquinone radical intermediate formed during interconversion between PHQ and PBQ. When the oligonucleotides, pd(A)12-18, pd(C)12-18, pd(G)12-18 and pd(T)12-18, were used in vitro, only pd(G)12-18 gave TLC-detectable adducts on treatment with PHQ and PBQ. The covalent binding appears to be rather specific to guanine residues. These results suggest that covalent binding of the OPP metabolite is one of the underlying events in OPP-induced carcinogenesis in rats.

  5. Thymine photodimer formation in DNA hairpins. Unusual conformations favor (6 - 4) vs. (2 + 2) adducts.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Mahesh; Siegmund, Karsten; Saurel, Clifton; McCullagh, Martin; Schatz, George C; Lewis, Frederick D

    2014-02-01

    The photochemical reactions of eleven synthetic DNA hairpins possessing a single TT step either in a base-paired stem or in a hexanucleotide linker have been investigated. The major reaction products have been identified as the cis-syn (2 + 2) adduct and the (6 - 4) adduct on the basis of their spectroscopic properties including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, UV spectra and stability or instability to photochemical cleavage. Product quantum yields and ratios determined by HPLC analysis allow the behaviour of the eleven hairpins to be placed into three groups: Group I in which the (2 + 2) adduct is the major product, as is usually the case for DNA, Group II in which comparable amounts of (2 + 2) and (6 - 4) adducts are formed, and Group III in which the major product is the (6 - 4) adduct. The latter behaviour is without precedent in natural or synthetic DNA and appears to be related to the highly fluxional structures of the hairpin reactants. Molecular dynamics simulation of ground state conformations provides quantum yields and product ratios calculated using a single parameter model that are in reasonable agreement with most of the experimental results. Factors which may influence the observed product ratios are discussed.

  6. Identification of DNA adducts using HPLC/MS/MS following in vitro and in vivo experiments with arylamines and nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Sabbioni, Gabriele

    2003-10-01

    Arylamines and nitroarenes are suspected of playing a key role in chemical carcinogenesis. Therefore, the study of DNA adduct formation is an important step to determine the genotoxic potential of these compounds. Calf thymus DNA was modified in vitro by reaction with activated N-hydroxyarylamines: 2-chloroaniline (2CA), 4-chloroaniline (4CA), 2-methylaniline (2MA), 4-methylaniline (4MA), 2,4-dimethylaniline (24DMA), 2,6-dimethylaniline (26DMA), 2-aminobiphenyl (2ABP), 3-aminobiphenyl (3ABP), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4ABP). Female Wistar rats (n = 2) were given a single dose of the above arylamines and their analogous nitro derivatives by oral gavage and sacrificed after 24 h. Hepatic DNA and in vitro modified DNA were hydrolyzed enzymatically to individual 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. Adducts were determined using HPLC/MS/MS by comparison to synthesized standards. The hydrolysis efficiency was monitored by HPLC with UV detection. Each arylamine described above formed adducts to 2'-deoxyguanosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine after in vitro reaction with DNA. DNA adducts were found in rats dosed with 4ABP or with 4-nitrobiphenyl. DNA adducts were not detected in rats dosed with 2CA, 4CA, 2MA, 4MA, 24DMA, 26DMA, 2ABP, 3ABP, 2-chloronitrobenzene, 4-chloronitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, and 4-nitrotoluene. All compounds formed hydrolyzable hemoglobin adducts. Therefore, biologically available N-hydroxyarylamines yielded hemoglobin adducts but not hepatic DNA adducts, except for 4ABP.

  7. Reaction of epichlorohydrin with adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and calf thymus DNA: identification of adducts.

    PubMed

    Sund, Pernilla; Kronberg, Leif

    2006-06-01

    Epichlorohydrin (a probable human carcinogen) was allowed to react with adenosine and the adducts were characterized by NMR and UV spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The adduct initially formed was 1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-adenosine, which subsequently ring closures to 1,N(6)-(2-hydroxypropyl)-adenosine at neutral and basic conditions. At acid conditions, the N-1 adduct undergoes a slow deamination to yield 1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-inosine. Minor adducts identified were 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-adenosine and 3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-adenosine which are easily deglycosylated, and an adduct where the epichlorohydrin residue was attached to the sugar moiety of adenosine. A diadduct, 1,N(6)-(2-hydroxypropyl)-N(6)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-adenosine was also identified. The reaction of epichlorohydrin with calf thymus DNA gave 1,N(6)-(2-hydroxypropyl)-deoxyadenosine and 3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-adenine (major adduct).

  8. Noni juice reduces lipid peroxidation-derived DNA adducts in heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Jensen, Claude J; Deng, Shixin; West, Brett J

    2013-03-01

    Food plants provide important phytochemicals which help improve or maintain health through various biological activities, including antioxidant effects. Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and their decomposition product malondialdehyde (MDA), both of which cause oxidative damage to DNA. Two hundred forty-five heavy cigarette smokers completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on LOOH- and MDA-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo every day for 1 month. DNA adducts were measured by (32)P postlabeling analysis. Drinking 29.5-118 mL of noni juice significantly reduced adducts by 44.6-57.4%. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence LOOH- and MDA-DNA adduct levels in current smokers. Noni juice was able to mitigate oxidative damage of DNA in current heavy smokers, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids.

  9. Incorporation and/or adduction of formic acid with DNA in vivo studied by HPLC-AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiadan; Cheng, Yan; Sun, Hongfang; Wang, Haifang; Li, Yuankai; Liu, Yuanfang; Ding, Xingfang; Fu, Dongpo; Liu, Kexin; Wang, Deqing; Deng, Xiaoyong

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of incorporation and/or adduction of formic acid with liver DNA in mouse was investigated using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four kinds of 5'-formylated adducts, which were prepared by the reaction of formic acid and deoxyribonucleosides in vitro, were used as references for the HPLC-AMS analysis of in vivo adduction. After the administration of sodium 14C-formate to mice, the liver DNA pellets were isolated and enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleosides. A precise analysis of the hydrolysate by HPLC-AMS indicates that a majority of formic acid incorporates directly into DNA, whereas less than 1.5% might form instable formylated DNA adducts in vivo. The results greatly support the important perspective that formic acid is not carcinogenic. Moreover, this study demonstrates that a combination of HPLC with AMS is an essential means for the evaluation of DNA adduction.

  10. Cisplatin intrastrand adducts sensitize DNA to base damage by hydrated electrons.

    PubMed

    Behmand, B; Wagner, J R; Sanche, L; Hunting, D J

    2014-05-08

    The oligonucleotide TTTTTGTGTTT with or without a cisplatin adduct was reacted with hydrated electrons generated by ionizing radiation. Hydroxyl radicals were quenched with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the solutions were bubbled with wet nitrogen to eliminate oxygen, a scavenger of hydrated electrons. Prior to irradiation, the structure of the initial cisplatin adduct was identified by mass spectrometry as G-cisplatin-G. Radiation damage to DNA bases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after enzymatic digestion of the TTTTTGTGTTT-cisplatin complex to deoxyribonucleosides. The masses of the platinum adducts following digestion and separation by HPLC were measured by mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that hydrated electrons induce damage to thymines as well as detachment of the cisplatin moiety from both guanines in the oligonucleotide. This detachment regenerates both unmodified guanine and damaged guanine, in equimolar amounts. At 1000 Gy, a net average of 2.5 thymines and 1 guanine are damaged for each platinum lost from the oligonucleotide. Given the extensive base damage that occurs for each cisplatin adduct lost, it is clear that, prior to undergoing detachment, these adducts must catalyze several cycles of reactions of hydrated electrons with DNA bases. It is likely that a single reaction leads to the loss of the cisplatin adduct and the damage observed on the guanine base; however, the damage to the thymine bases must require the continued presence of the cisplatin adduct, acting as a catalyst. To our knowledge, this is the first time that platinum-DNA adducts have been shown to have catalytic activity. We propose two pathways for the interaction of hydrated electrons with TTTTTGTGTTT-cisplatin: (1) the hydrated electron is initially captured by a thymine base and transferred by base to base electron hopping to the guanine site, where the cisplatin moiety detaches from the oligonucleotide via dissociative

  11. Lack of bioavailability of dichlorobenzidine form diarylide azo pigments: molecular dosimetry for hemoglobin and DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Sagelsdorff, P; Haenggi, R; Heuberger, B; Joppich-Kuhn, R; Jung, R; Weideli, H J; Joppich, M

    1996-03-01

    The hypothetical release of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB) from two insoluble azo pigments and from a soluble azo dye was investigated in female Wistar rats for a 4 week treatment with 0.2% (w/w) Colour Index Pigment 13 (PY13) or 0.2% (w/w) Colour Index Pigment Yellow 17 (PY17) in the diet or 0.06% (w/v) Colour Index Direct Red 46 (DR46) in the drinking water. Steady-state DCB-hemoglobin adduct levels were determined by GC/MS with negative chemical ionization as well as DCB-DNA adduct levels in the liver by (32)P-postlabelling and compared with the respective adduct levels obtained in animals after treatment for 4 weeks with 0.00024, 0.0012 or 0.006% (w/v) DCB in the drinking water. A dose-proportional increase in adduct levels from 8.1 ng/g hemoglobin and 2.6 ng/g DNA (relative adduct level, RAL, 3.3x10(-9)) to 160 ng/g hemoglobin and 45.4 ng/g DNA (RAL 56.1x10(-9)) was observed in the DCB-treated rats. In rats treated with DR46 total adduct levels of 17.7 ng/g hemoglobin and 5.2 ng/g DNA (RAL 6.4x10(-9))were determined. No hemoglobin of DNA adducts were found in rats treated with PY17 in the diet, at a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/g hemoglobin and 0.08 ng/g DNA (RAL 0.1x10(-9)). In animals treated with PY13 in the diet no adducts or only minimal amounts slightly above the limit of detection could be identified. Taking into consideration that PY13 was contaminated with 0.02% of the respective soluble monoazo compound, it is concluded that the small amounts of DCB detected have been released from the contaminating soluble monoazo compound and not from insoluble PY13. The results of the present study demonstrate the lack of bioavailability of DCB from the diarylide azo pigments PY17 and PY13.

  12. Evaluation of serum estrogen-DNA adducts as potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Yang, Li; Sandhu, Nicole P; Ingle, James N; Beseler, Cheryl L; Suman, Vera J; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the ratio of estrogen-DNA adducts to their respective metabolites and conjugates in serum differed between women with early-onset breast cancer and those with average or high risk of developing breast cancer. Serum samples from women at average risk (n=63) or high risk (n=80) for breast cancer (using Gail model) and women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer (n=79) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Adduct ratios were statistically compared among the three groups, and the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) was used to identify a diagnostic cut-off point. The median adduct ratio in the average-risk group was significantly lower than that of both the high-risk group and the breast cancer group (p values<0.0001), and provided good discrimination between those at average versus high risk of breast cancer (AUC=0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90). Sensitivity and specificity were maximized at an adduct ratio of 77. For women in the same age and BMI group, the odds of being at high risk for breast cancer was 8.03 (95% CI 3.46-18.7) times higher for those with a ratio of at least 77 compared to those with a ratio less than 77. The likelihood of being at high risk for breast cancer was significantly increased for those with a high adduct ratio relative to those with a low adduct ratio. These findings suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts deserve further study as potential biomarkers for risk of developing breast cancer.

  13. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adducts formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Ravoori, Srivani; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Pereg, Daria; Robertson, Larry W; Ayotte, Pierre; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously is a realistic scenario where a meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22–70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2,069 µg/L and 1.7 to 143 µg/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified 32P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7,400 adducts/109 nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800–fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB. In the high ratio group, the coefficient of selenium is significantly negatively correlated with 8-oxodG (r = −0.38, p = 0.014) and total adducts (r = −0.41, p = 0.009) while there was no correlation within the low selenium/PCB group. This study suggests increasing selenium has mitigating effect in reducing DNA adducts and therefore, possible negative effects of PCB were not rendered. A protective effect of selenium is highlighted. PMID:19735942

  14. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Quantification of acylfulvene- and illudin S-DNA adducts in cells with variable bioactivation capacities

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Kathryn E.; van Midwoud, Paul M.; Villalta, Peter W.; Sturla, Shana J.

    2013-01-01

    Illudin S and its semi-synthetic analogue acylfulvene are structurally similar but elicit different biological responses. AF is a bioreductive alkylating anti-cancer agent with a favorable therapeutic index, while illudin S is in general highly toxic. AF toxicity is dependent on the reductase enzyme prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) for activation to a cytotoxic reactive intermediate. While illudin S can be metabolized by PTGR1, available data suggest that its toxicity does not correspond with PTGR1 function. The goal of this study was to understand how drug cytotoxicity relates to cellular bioactivation capacity, and the identity and quantity of AF- or illudin S-DNA adducts. The strategy involved identification of novel illudin S-DNA adducts and their quantitation in a newly engineered SW-480 colon cancer cell line that stably overexpresses PTGR1 (PTGR1-480). These data were compared with cytotoxicity data for both compounds in PTGR1-480 vs. normal SW-480 cells, demonstrating that AF forms more DNA adducts and is more cytotoxic in cells with higher levels of PTGR1, whereas illudin S cytotoxicity and adduct formation is not influenced by PTGR1 levels. Results are discussed in the context of an overall model for how changes in relative propensities of these compounds to undergo cellular processes, such as bioactivation, contribute to DNA damage and cytotoxicity. PMID:23227857

  16. Creating Context for the Use of DNA Adduct Data in Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of human cancer risk require the integration of diverse types of data. Advancing technologies for quantitative measurements at the sub-cellular domain raise the critical issue of interpretation and use of DNA adduct data in context with current understanding of cancer...

  17. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  18. Conformational evaluation of DNA-carcinogen adducts using semi-empirical potential energy calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Verna, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    The covalent attachment of an aromatic amine to guanine C8 can produce a conformational change within the DNA molecule. This conformational change is likely to influence the altered DNA's biological capacity. The author used semi-empirical potential energy calculations to evaluate conformational patterns of DNA-aromatic amine adducts using the series: aniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-aminofluorene and 1-aminopyrene. An exhaustive search was made of the conformational space for carcinogen modified two-base sequences. Information was incorporated into single stranded modified trimers. Modified strands were incorporated in duplex trimers. Nine-base modified duplexes were constructed and evaluated. This procedure produced distinctly different patterns for each aromatic amine investigated. It was apparent that the base sequence in which the carcinogen modification was found was crucial to the conformational change produced. At the dimer level, aniline allows both syn and anti guanine orientations at the carcinogen modification site. There were base-base and base-carcinogen stacked states, suggesting a flexible adduct easily able to assume many conformations. 4-Aminobiphenyl attachment resulted in low energy base-carcinogen stacked states, and a guanine torsion predominantly in a low syn orientation. The flexibility of this adduct was greatly reduced from that of the aniline adduct. 2-Aminofluorene adducts assumed more of a conformational mix. The major portion was base-base stacked with modified guanine anti, with a portion with base-carcinogen stacking and guanine syn or low syn. 1-Aminopyrene adducts were inflexible. The majority assumed a base-carcinogen stack with guanine syn. The conformational profiles of large modified pieces provided details of a unique low energy wedge conformation, in which aminofluorene, particularly, was able to fit into the minor groove with very little helix distortion.

  19. Formation and persistence of novel benzo(a)pyrene adducts in rat lung, liver, and peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.; Nelson, G.; Kligerman, A.; Erexson, G.; Bryant, M.; Earley, K.; Gupta, R.; Nesnow, S. )

    1990-08-15

    Male CD rats were injected with single i.p. doses of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), livers, and lungs were removed at various times after administration. DNA adducts were analyzed in each tissue by 32P postlabeling with nuclease P1 enhancement. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were concomitantly measured in cultured whole blood. B(a)P-DNA adducts were observed in all three tissues from animals sacrificed between 1 and 56 days after injection. Maximal adduction levels occurred at about 4 days after administration, followed by a gradual loss of adducts over the period examined. The apparent half-lives of total DNA adducts were 15 days in liver, 17 days in PBLs, and 22 days in lung. Induced sister chromatid exchanges were linearly related to the amount of DNA adducts remaining in the PBLs at the time of harvest up to 56 days and were significantly elevated above concurrent controls up to 14 days. One of the major adducts found in each tissue was N2-(10 beta-(7 beta,8 alpha,9 alpha-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a) pyrene)yl)deoxyguanosine. An additional novel major adduct was found in the liver DNA and is derived from the further metabolism of B(a)P-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol. A second major novel B(a)P adduct was found in the DNA of lung tissues and accounts for about 40% of the total adducts present. Experimental evidence suggests that this adduct is derived from a metabolic pathway that includes the formation of 9-hydroxy-B(a)P.

  20. Leptin influences estrogen metabolism and increases DNA adduct formation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shouman, Samia; Wagih, Mohamed; Kamel, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The elevated incidence of obesity has been paralleled with higher risks of breast cancer. High adiposity increases leptin secretion from adipose tissue, which in turn increases cancer cell proliferation. The interplay between leptin and estrogen is one of the mechanisms through which leptin influences breast carcinogenesis. An unbalanced estrogen metabolism increases the formations of catechol estrogen quinones, DNA adducts, and cancer mutations. This study aims to investigate the effect of leptin on some estrogen metabolic enzymes and DNA adduction in breast cancer cells. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to analyze the DNA adducts 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N3 adenine and 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N7 guanine. Reporter gene assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR), and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes: Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1), and Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). Results: Leptin significantly increased the DNA adducts 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N3 adenine and 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N7 guanine. Furthermore, leptin significantly upregulated CYP1B1 promoter activity and protein expression. The luciferase promoter activities of NQO1 and mRNA levels were significantly reduced. Moreover, leptin greatly reduced the reporter activities of the COMT-P1 and COMT-P2 promoters and diminished the protein expression of COMT. Conclusions: Leptin increases DNA adduct levels in breast cancer cells partly by affecting key genes and enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism. Thus, increased focus should be directed toward leptin and its effects on the estrogen metabolic pathway as an effective approach against breast cancer. PMID:28154783

  1. MALDI-TOF analysis of steroid/PAH-modified DNA adducts at the femtomole level

    SciTech Connect

    Gooden, J.K.; Gross, M.L.; Stack, D.

    1995-12-31

    Covalent binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) and steroids to DNA to form adducts is one of the first events in the process of tumor initiation in carcinogenesis. Structure elucidation and characterization of these adducts provide important information that leads to further understanding of their biological metabolic pathways. In in vivo and in vitro steroid/PAH-DNA binding studies, the reaction products (adducts) are often of low amount (low picomole to femtomole). Previous results from this laboratory have shown that the sensitivity of MALDI-TOF can be improved by proper matrix selection. An increase in sensitivity can also be obtained with the use of d-fucose as a co-matrix. In this study 4-phenyl-{alpha}-cyanocinnamic acid, PCC, 4-benzyloxy-{alpha}-cyanocinnamic acid, BCC, ferulic acid, FA, {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 4HCCA, and 3-(2-naphthyl)-2-cyanoacrylic NCA, were used in the determination of the limit of detection for two different DNA adducts dibenzocarbazole-5-N7Ade, and 4-hydroxyestrone-N7Gua.

  2. Protein Recognition in Drug-Induced DNA Alkylation: When the Moonlight Protein GAPDH Meets S23906-1/DNA Minor Groove Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Savreux-Lenglet, Gaëlle; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    DNA alkylating drugs have been used in clinics for more than seventy years. The diversity of their mechanism of action (major/minor groove; mono-/bis-alkylation; intra-/inter-strand crosslinks; DNA stabilization/destabilization, etc.) has undoubtedly major consequences on the cellular response to treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the variety of established protein recognition of DNA adducts to then particularly focus on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) function in DNA adduct interaction with illustration using original experiments performed with S23906-1/DNA adduct. The introduction of this review is a state of the art of protein/DNA adducts recognition, depending on the major or minor groove orientation of the DNA bonding as well as on the molecular consequences in terms of double-stranded DNA maintenance. It reviews the implication of proteins from both DNA repair, transcription, replication and chromatin maintenance in selective DNA adduct recognition. The main section of the manuscript is focusing on the implication of the moonlighting protein GAPDH in DNA adduct recognition with the model of the peculiar DNA minor groove alkylating and destabilizing drug S23906-1. The mechanism of action of S23906-1 alkylating drug and the large variety of GAPDH cellular functions are presented prior to focus on GAPDH direct binding to S23906-1 adducts. PMID:26556350

  3. Bulky DNA adducts in human sperm associated with semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA adducts are widely used marker of DNA damage induced by environmental pollutants. The present study was designed to explore whether sperm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts were associated with sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. Methods A total of 433 Han Chinese men were recruited from an infertility clinic. Immunofluorescence was applied to analyze sperm PAH-DNA adducts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Results After adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression, sperm PAH-DNA adducts were negatively associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, and curvilinear velocity (VCL). In addition, a positive relationship between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and sperm DNA fragmentation was found. Conclusions Our findings suggested an inverse association between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and semen quality, and provided the first epidemiologic evidence of an adverse effect of PAH-DNA adducts on sperm DNA integrity. PMID:24073787

  4. Protein Recognition in Drug-Induced DNA Alkylation: When the Moonlight Protein GAPDH Meets S23906-1/DNA Minor Groove Adducts.

    PubMed

    Savreux-Lenglet, Gaëlle; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène

    2015-11-05

    DNA alkylating drugs have been used in clinics for more than seventy years. The diversity of their mechanism of action (major/minor groove; mono-/bis-alkylation; intra-/inter-strand crosslinks; DNA stabilization/destabilization, etc.) has undoubtedly major consequences on the cellular response to treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the variety of established protein recognition of DNA adducts to then particularly focus on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) function in DNA adduct interaction with illustration using original experiments performed with S23906-1/DNA adduct. The introduction of this review is a state of the art of protein/DNA adducts recognition, depending on the major or minor groove orientation of the DNA bonding as well as on the molecular consequences in terms of double-stranded DNA maintenance. It reviews the implication of proteins from both DNA repair, transcription, replication and chromatin maintenance in selective DNA adduct recognition. The main section of the manuscript is focusing on the implication of the moonlighting protein GAPDH in DNA adduct recognition with the model of the peculiar DNA minor groove alkylating and destabilizing drug S23906-1. The mechanism of action of S23906-1 alkylating drug and the large variety of GAPDH cellular functions are presented prior to focus on GAPDH direct binding to S23906-1 adducts.

  5. sup 14 C-sulfur mustard adducts of calf thymus DNA. Final report, Aug-Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Yaverbaum, S.

    1991-02-01

    A grant was awarded to TNO-PML to develop immunochemical monitoring systems for the detection of DNA-HD and Protein-HD adducts in humans following exposure to HD. TNO-PML has been using 35S-HD to prepare adducts for their assays, which have inherent shortcomings that limit detection sensitivity. An experimental batch of 14C-HD-DNA adducts was prepared in an attempt to increase the assay sensitivity. Double - and single-stranded purified calf thymus DNA preparations were reacted with 142, 14.2 and 1.42 uM of 14C-HD under aqueousfree conditions. The 14C-HD-DNA adducts were isolated at -20C in 75% ethanol solution and freed of HD agent and organic solvents (i.e., acetone and alcohol). The 14C-HD-DNA adducts in aqueous buffer were analyzed for specific activity and purity. The ds-DNA-HD adducts were uncontaminated, but the ss-DNA-HD adducts were initially slightly contaminated with alcohol.

  6. Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zdżalik, Daria; Domańska, Anna; Prorok, Paulina; Kosicki, Konrad; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Tudek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno (ε)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ε-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ε-adducts, 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA), 3,N4-ethenocytosine (εC) and 1,N2-ethenoguanine (1,N2-εG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ε-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed εA and εC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N2-εG. SC-1A repaired only εA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ε-adducts in dsDNA, while only εA and εC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only εC in ssDNA Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N2-εG and that ALKBH3 removes only εC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins. PMID:25797601

  7. DNA Adduct Profiles Predict in Vitro Cell Viability after Treatment with the Experimental Anticancer Prodrug PR104A

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PR104A is an experimental DNA-alkylating hypoxia-activated prodrug that can also be activated in an oxygen-independent manner by the two-electron aldo-keto reductase 1C3. Nitroreduction leads to the formation of cytotoxic hydroxylamine (PR104H) and amine (PR104M) metabolites, which induce DNA mono and cross-linked adducts in cells. PR104A-derived DNA adducts can be utilized as drug-specific biomarkers of efficacy and as a mechanistic tool to elucidate the cellular and molecular effects of PR104A. Toward this goal, a mass spectrometric bioanalysis approach based on a stable isotope-labeled adduct mixture (SILAM) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) data acquisition for relative quantitation of PR104A-derived DNA adducts in cells was developed. Use of this SILAM-based approach supported simultaneous relative quantitation of 33 PR104A-derived DNA adducts in the same sample, which allowed testing of the hypothesis that the enhanced cytotoxicity, observed by preconditioning cells with the transcription-activating isothiocyanate sulforaphane, is induced by an increased level of DNA adducts induced by PR104H and PR104M, but not PR104A. By applying the new SILAM-SRM approach, we found a 2.4-fold increase in the level of DNA adducts induced by PR104H and PR104M in HT-29 cells preconditioned with sulforaphane and a corresponding 2.6-fold increase in cytotoxicity. These results suggest that DNA adduct levels correlate with drug potency and underly the possibility of monitoring PR104A-derived DNA adducts as biomarkers of efficacy. PMID:28140568

  8. DNA adducts in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis living in polluted and unpolluted environments. Chapter 12. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Garg, A.; Krca, S.; Gupta, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A generally applicable (32)P-postlabeling assay was used to examine the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-aminofluorene showed exclusively one adduct which was identified to be dG-C8-2-aminofluorene. Under the same experimental conditions, Diesel-2 oil did not induce any detectable adducts. When mussel digestive gland DNA was collected and analyzed from one unpolluted site, two moderately impacted sites, and one site heavily impacted by cannery wastewaters, mussel DNA from the unpolluted and only one moderately polluted site showed the presence of 6 to 10 adducts. This indicates they were not related to the pollution. This was further supported by the absence of dose-related adducts. Clear evidence for the presence of pollution-related DNA adducts was, however, found in juvenile mussels collected from an oil refinery site. One major and three minor adducts were detected in these mussels with no adducts detected in juvenile mussels from an unpolluted site.

  9. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1990-11-01

    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals.

  10. Site-specific excision repair of 1-nitrosopyrene-induced DNA adducts at the nucleotide level in the HPRT gene of human fibroblasts: effect of adduct conformation on the pattern of site-specific repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, D; Maher, V M; McCormick, J J

    1996-01-01

    Studies showing that different types of DNA adducts are repaired in human cells at different rates suggest that DNA adduct conformation is the major determinant of the rate of nucleotide excision repair. However, recent studies of repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-induced adducts at the nucleotide level in DNA of normal human fibroblasts indicate that the rate of repair of the same adduct at different nucleotide positions can vary up to 10-fold, suggesting an important role for local DNA conformation. To see if site-specific DNA repair is a common phenomenon for bulky DNA adducts, we determined the rate of repair of 1-nitrosopyrene (1-NOP)-induced adducts in exon 3 of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene at the nucleotide level using ligation-mediated PCR. To distinguish between the contributions of adduct conformation and local DNA conformation to the rate of repair, we compared the results obtained with 1-NOP with those we obtained previously using BPDE. The principal DNA adduct formed by either agent involves guanine. We found that rates of repair of 1-NOP-induced adducts also varied significantly at the nucleotide level, but the pattern of site-specific repair differed from that of BPDE-induced adducts at the same guanine positions in the same region of DNA. The average rate of excision repair of 1-NOP adducts in exon 3 was two to three times faster than that of BPDE adducts, but at particular nucleotides the rate was slower or faster than that of BPDE adducts or, in some cases, equal to that of BPDE adducts. These results indicate that the contribution of the local DNA conformation to the rate of repair at a particular nucleotide position depends upon the specific DNA adduct involved. However, the data also indicate that the conformation of the DNA adduct is not the only factor contributing to the rate of repair at different nucleotide positions. Instead, the rate of repair at a particular nucleotide

  11. Formation of DNA adducts in vitro and in Salmonella typhimurium upon metabolic reduction of the environmental mutagen 1-nitropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.C.; Heflich, R.H.; Evans, F.E.; Beland, F.A.

    1983-05-01

    The polycyclic nitroaromatic hydrocarbon 1-nitropyrene is an environmental pollutant, a potent bacterial mutagen, and a carcinogen. Xanthine oxidase, a mammalian nitroreductase, catalyzed the in vitro metabolic activation of this compound to DNA-bound adducts. Maximum adduct formation occurred at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and was increased by the addition of catalase to the incubation medium. DNA binding from 1-nitropyrene was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, L-ascorbate, and glutathione. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the modified DNA and subsequent analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated the presence of one major and two minor adducts. The major adduct was characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene. The minor adducts appear to be decomposition products of the major adduct. When Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 was incubated with 1-nitropyrene, a strong correlation was found between the extent of DNA binding and the frequency of induced histidine reversions. Analysis of the bacterial DNA indicated one major adduct which had chromatographic properties and pKaS identical to those of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene. These data indicate that N-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene is probably the mutagenic and DNA-binding species formed during the metabolic reduction of 1-nitropyrene.

  12. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  13. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and fetal and child development in a Chinese cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Perera, F.

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of toxic pollutants released by fossil fuel combustion. Other pollutants include metals and particulate matter. PAH-DNA adducts, or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) adducts as their proxy, provide a chemical-specific measure of individual biologically effective doses that have been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse birth outcomes. In the present study we examined the relationship between prenatal PAH exposure and fetal and child growth and development in Tongliang, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source. In a cohort of 150 nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between 4 March 2002 and 19 June 2002, BaP-DNA adducts were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery. High PAH-DNA adduct levels (above the median of detectable adduct level) were associated with decreased birth head circumference (p = 0.057) and reduced children's weight at 18 months, 24 months, and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.05), after controlling for potential confounders. In addition, in separate models, longer duration of prenatal exposure was associated with reduced birth length (p = 0.033) and reduced children's height at 18 (p = 0.001), 24 (p {lt} 0.001), and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.001). The findings suggest that exposure to elevated levels of PAHS, with the Tongliang power plant being a significant source, is associated with reduced fetal and child growth in this population.

  14. Bypass of Aflatoxin B[subscript 1] Adducts by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P.

    2012-07-18

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG). The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG can rearrange to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative. Both AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and the {beta}-anomer of the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct yield G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the latter is more mutagenic. We show that the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) bypasses AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG in an error-free manner but conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including misinsertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations observed in E. coli. Three ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) structures with AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adducted template:primers have been solved. These demonstrate insertion of dCTP opposite the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, and correct vs incorrect insertion of dATP vs dTTP opposite the 5'-template neighbor dT from a primed AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG:dC pair. The insertion of dTTP reveals hydrogen bonding between the template N3 imino proton and the O{sup 2} oxygen of dTTP, and between the template T O{sup 4} oxygen and the N3 imino proton of dTTP, perhaps explaining why this polymerase does not efficiently catalyze phosphodiester bond formation from this mispair. The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG maintains the 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety observed in DNA. The bond between N7-dG and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety remains in plane with the alkylated guanine, creating a 16{sup o} inclination of the AFB{sub 1} moiety with respect to the guanine. A binary (Dpo4-DNA) structure with an AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adducted template:primer also maintains 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety. The {beta}-deoxyribose anomer is observed. Rotation about the FAPY C5-N{sup 5} bond orients the bond between N{sup 5} and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety out of plane in the 5'-direction, with respect to the FAPY base. The formamide group extends in the 3'-direction. This improves stacking of the AFB{sub 1

  15. Deficient repair of chemical adducts in alpha DNA of monkey cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zolan, M.E.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-03-01

    Researchers have examined excision repair of DNA damage in the highly repeated alpha DNA sequence of cultured African green monkey cells. Irradiation of cells with 254 nm ultraviolet light resulted in the same frequency of pyrimidine dimers in alpha DNA and the bulk of the DNA. The rate and extent of pyrimidine dimer removal, as judged by measurement of repair synthesis, was also similar for alpha DNA and bulk DNA. In cells treated with furocoumarins and long-wave-length ultraviolet light, however, repair synthesis in alpha DNA was only 30% of that in bulk DNA, although it followed the same time course. Researchers found that this reduced repair was not caused by different initial amounts of furocoumarin damage or by different sizes of repair patches, as researchers found these to be similar in the two DNA species. Direct quantification demonstrated that fewer furocoumarin adducts were removed from alpha DNA than from bulk DNA. In cells treated with another chemical DNA-damaging agent, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, repair synthesis in alpha DNA was 60% of that in bulk DNA. These results show that the repair of different kinds of DNA damage can be affected to different extents by some property of this tandemly repeated heterochromatic DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in primate cells of differential repair of cellular DNA sequences.

  16. Mapping DNA adducts of mitomycin C and decarbamoyl mitomycin C in cell lines using liquid chromatography/ electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paz, Manuel M; Ladwa, Sweta; Champeil, Elise; Liu, Yanfeng; Rockwell, Sara; Boamah, Ernest K; Bargonetti, Jill; Callahan, John; Roach, John; Tomasz, Maria

    2008-12-01

    The antitumor antibiotic and cancer chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MC) alkylates and crosslinks DNA, forming six major MC-deoxyguanosine adducts of known structures in vitro and in vivo. Two of these adducts are derived from 2,7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), a nontoxic reductive metabolite of MC formed in cells in situ. Several methods have been used for the analysis of MC-DNA adducts in the past; however, a need exists for a safer, more comprehensive and direct assay of the six-adduct complex. Development of an assay, based on mass spectrometry, is described. DNA from EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells, Fanconi Anemia-A fibroblasts, normal human fibroblasts, and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was isolated after MC or 10-decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DMC) treatment of the cells, digested to nucleosides, and submitted to liquid chromatography electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Two fragments of each parent ion were monitored ("multiple reaction monitoring"). Identification and quantitative analysis were based on a standard mixture of six adducts, the preparation of which is described here in detail. The lower limit of detection of adducts is estimated as 0.25 pmol. Three initial applications of this method are reported as follows: (i) differential kinetics of adduct repair in EMT6 cells, (ii) analysis of adducts in MC- or DMC-treated Fanconi Anemia cells, and (iii) comparison of the adducts generated by treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with MC and DMC. Notable results are the following: Repair removal of the DNA interstrand cross-link and of the two adducts of 2,7-DAM is relatively slow; both MC and DMC generate DNA interstrand cross-links in human fibroblasts, Fanconi Anemia-A fibroblasts, and MCF-7 cells as well as EMT6 cells; and DMC shows a stereochemical preference of linkage to the guanine-2-amino group opposite from that of MC.

  17. Detection and evaluation of estrogen DNA-adducts and their carcinogenic effects in cultured human cells using biotinylated estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Mani, Chinnadurai; Somasagara, Ranganatha R; Clark, David W; Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Vinaya, Kambappa; Palle, Komaraiah

    2017-03-01

    The normal female reproductive hormone estrogen has been linked with increased risk of breast and many other forms of cancer. This is largely due to metabolic conversion of estrogens into highly reactive catechol estrogen quinones which can interact with DNA and cause a variety of DNA adducts and lesions. Detection and analysis of these adducts and their associated cellular responses involve complex chemical, enzymatic, and LC-MS based methods, which are both laborious and require specialized expertise and instrumentation. Herein, we show that using a biotin-labeled estradiol allows immunodetection of estrogen-induced DNA adducts by slot blot and single-cell molecular combing and proximity ligation assays. The biotinylated and unlabeled estradiols induced similar levels of DNA single and double strand breaks as measured by comet assays. Using biotinylated estrogen, we further show that estrogens are able to activate the Fanconi anemia-BRCA tumor suppressor pathway and cause DNA strand breaks and oxidatively modified DNA bases as well as gross chromosomal aberrations. Utilization of biotin-labeled estrogens could be a powerful tool to detect estrogen adducts and associated DNA damage, and to track estrogen adduct-induced cellular responses and carcinogenic mechanisms in cultured cells. The techniques presented here allow simple and rapid detection and quantitation of estrogen adducts by slot blot as well as direct visualization on the DNA strand and could pave the way for developing new treatments to protect the genome from the effects of reactive estrogen metabolites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. DNA adducts as a dosimeter for risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; White, C.M.; Devereux, T.R.; Anderson, M.W.

    1987-12-01

    The dose response for O/sup 6/-methylguanine (O/sup 6/MG) formation and cytotoxicity was determined in lung and nasal mucosa from Fischer 344 rats during multiple dose administration of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). O/sup 6/MG accumulated in the lung following treatment for 12 days with doses of NNK from 0.3 to 100 mgkgday. The dose response for NNK was nonlinear; the O/sup 6/MG-to-dose ratio, an index of alkylation efficiency, increased dramatically as the dose of carcinogen decreased. These data suggest that low- and high-K/sub m/ pathways may exist for activation to NNK to a methylating agent. Marked differences in O/sup 6/MG concentration were observed in specific lung cell populations. The presence of a high-affinity pathway in the Clara cell for activation of NNK may contribute to the potent carcinogenicity observed following low-dose exposure to this tobacco-specific carcinogen. The dose response for O/sup 6/MG formation differed considerably between the respiratory and olfactory mucosa from the nasal passages of the rat. These studies suggest that a low K/sub m/ pathway for NNK activation is also present in the nose and that this pathway is localized predominantly in the respiratory region. These data suggest that both the formation of promutagenic adducts and cell proliferation secondary to toxicity are required for the induction of neoplasia by NNK within the nose.

  19. Mechanism of repair of 5'-topoisomerase II-DNA adducts by mammalian tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Matthew J; Appel, C Denise; Adhikari, Sanjay; Robertson, Patrick D; Ramsden, Dale A; Williams, R Scott

    2012-12-01

    The topoisomerase II (topo II) DNA incision-and-ligation cycle can be poisoned (for example following treatment with cancer chemotherapeutics) to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with topo II covalently conjugated to DNA. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) protects genomic integrity by reversing 5'-phosphotyrosyl-linked topo II-DNA adducts. Here, X-ray structures of mouse Tdp2-DNA complexes reveal that Tdp2 β-2-helix-β DNA damage-binding 'grasp', helical 'cap' and DNA lesion-binding elements fuse to form an elongated protein-DNA conjugate substrate-interaction groove. The Tdp2 DNA-binding surface is highly tailored for engagement of 5'-adducted single-stranded DNA ends and restricts nonspecific endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic processing. Structural, mutational and functional analyses support a single-metal ion catalytic mechanism for the exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase (EEP) nuclease superfamily and establish a molecular framework for targeted small-molecule blockade of Tdp2-mediated resistance to anticancer topoisomerase drugs.

  20. Mechanism of repair of 5'-topoisomerase II-DNA adducts by mammalian tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberg, Matthew J; Appel, C Denise; Adhikari, Sanjay; Robertson, Patrick D; Ramsden, Dale A; Williams, R Scott

    2012-10-28

    The topoisomerase II (topo II) DNA incision-and-ligation cycle can be poisoned (for example following treatment with cancer chemotherapeutics) to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with topo II covalently conjugated to DNA. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) protects genomic integrity by reversing 5'-phosphotyrosyl–linked topo II–DNA adducts. Here, X-ray structures of mouse Tdp2–DNA complexes reveal that Tdp2 β–2-helix–β DNA damage–binding 'grasp', helical 'cap' and DNA lesion–binding elements fuse to form an elongated protein-DNA conjugate substrate-interaction groove. The Tdp2 DNA-binding surface is highly tailored for engagement of 5'-adducted single-stranded DNA ends and restricts nonspecific endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic processing. Structural, mutational and functional analyses support a single–metal ion catalytic mechanism for the exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase (EEP) nuclease superfamily and establish a molecular framework for targeted small-molecule blockade of Tdp2-mediated resistance to anticancer topoisomerase drugs.

  1. Base sequence effects in bending induced by bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts: experimental and computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Q; Zhuang, P; Li, S; Perlow, R; Srinivasan, A R; Lu, X J; Broyde, S; Olson, W K; Geacintov, N E

    2001-09-04

    The covalent binding of bulky mutagenic or carcinogenic compounds to DNA can lead to bending, which could significantly alter the interactions of DNA with critical replication and transcription proteins. The impact of adducts derived from the highly reactive bay region enantiomeric (+)- and (-)-anti-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide derivatives of benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) are of interest because the (+)-7R,8S,9S,10R-anti-BPDE enantiomer is highly tumorigenic in rodents, while the (-)-7S,8R,9R,10S-anti-BPDE enantiomer is not. Both (+)- and (-)-anti-BPDE bind covalently with DNA predominantly by trans addition at the exocyclic amino group of guanine to yield 10S (+)- and 10R (-)-trans-anti-[BP]-N(2)-dG adducts. We have synthesized a number of different oligonucleotides with single (+)- and (-)-trans-anti-[BP]-N(2)-dG adducts (G) in the base sequence context XG*Y, where X and Y are different DNA bases. The G* residues were positioned at or close to the center of 11 base pair ( approximately 1 helical turn) or 16 base pair ( approximately 1.5 turns) duplexes. All bases, except for X and Y and their partners, were identical. These sequences were self-ligated with T4 ligase to form multimers that yield a ladder of bands upon electrophoresis in native polyacrylamide gels. The extent of bending in each oligonucleotide was assessed by monitoring the decrease in gel mobilities of these linear, self-ligated oligomers, relative to unmodified oligonucleotides of the same base sequence. The extent of global bending was then estimated using a sequence-specific three-dimensional model from which the values of the base-pair step parameter roll adjacent to the lesion site could be extracted. We find that (+)-trans-anti-[BP]-N(2)-dG adducts are considerably more bent than the (-) isomers regardless of sequence and that A-T base pairs flanking the [BP]-N(2)-dG lesion site allow for local flexibility consistent with adduct conformational heterogeneity. Interestingly, the fit of computed versus

  2. Modified immunoslotblot assay to detect hemi and sulfur mustard DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Kehe, Kai; Schrettl, Verena; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an old chemical warfare agent causing blisters (vesicant). Skin toxicity is thought to be partly caused by SM induced DNA damage. SM and the hemi mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) are bi- and monofunctional DNA alkylating agents, respectively. Both chemicals react especially with N7 guanine. The most abundant adducts are 7-hydroxyethylthioethylguanine for SM (61%) and 7-ethyl thioethylguanine for CEES. Thus, DNA alkylation should serve as a biomarker of SM exposure. A specific monoclonal antibody (2F8) was previously developed to detect SM and CEES adducts at N7 position by means of immunoslotblot (ISB) technique (van der Schans et al. (2004) [16]). Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2, HN-3) are alkylating agents with structural similarities, which can form DNA adducts with N7 guanine. The aim of the presented work was to modify the van der Schans protocol for use in a field laboratory and to test the cross reactivity of the 2F8 antibody against nitrogen mustards. Briefly, human keratinocytes were exposed to SM and CEES (0-300μM, 60min) or HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 (120min). After exposure, cells were scraped and DNA was isolated and normalized. 1μg DNA was transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane using a slotblot technique. After incubation with 2F8 antibody, the DNA adducts were visualized with chromogen staining (3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), SeramunGrün). Blots were photographed and signal intensity was quantified. In general, DAB was superior to SeramunGrün stain. A staining was seen from 30nM to 300μM of SM or CEES, respectively. However, statistically significant DNA adducts were detected after CEES and SM exposure above 30μM which is below the vesicant threshold. No signal was observed after HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 exposure. The total hands-on time to complete the assay was about 36h. Further studies are necessary to validate SM or CEES exposure in blister roofs of exposed patients.

  3. Determination of DNA adducts by combining acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis of the carcinogen-modified nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Deng, Kailin; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The commonly used method of analyzing carcinogen-induced DNA adducts involves the hydrolysis of carcinogen-modified DNA samples by using a mixture of enzymes, followed by (32)P-postlabeling or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses of carcinogen-modified mononucleotides/nucleosides. In the present study, we report the development and application of a new approach to DNA adduct analysis by combining the H(+)/heat-catalyzed release of carcinogen-modified nucleobases and the use of LC-based methods to analyze DNA adducts. Results showed that heating the carcinogen-modified DNA samples at 70 °C for an extended period of 4 to 6 h in the presence of 0.05% HCl can efficiently induce DNA depurination, releasing the intact carcinogen-modified nucleobases for LC analyses. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, DNA samples with C8- and N (2) -modified 2'-deoxyguanosine, as well as N (6) -modified 2'-deoxyadenosine, were synthesized by reacting DNA with 1-nitropyrene, acetaldehyde, and aristolochic acids, respectively. These samples were then hydrolyzed, and the released nucleobase adducts were analyzed using LC-based analytical methods. Analysis results demonstrated a dose-dependent release of target DNA adducts from carcinogen-modified DNA samples, indicating that the developed H(+)/heat-catalyzed hydrolysis method was quantitative. Comparative studies with enzymatic digestion method on carcinogen-modified DNA samples revealed that the two hydrolysis methods did not yield systematically different results.

  4. Adducts with haemoglobin and with DNA in epichlorohydrin-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Landin, H H; Segerbäck, D; Damberg, C; Osterman-Golkar, S

    1999-01-01

    Epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane; ECH) is an important industrial chemical and a carcinogen in experimental animals. The main aims of the present study were to characterize the adduct formation in female Wistar rats and to identify adducts that could potentially be used in human biomonitoring studies. The total binding of radioactivity to haemoglobin in rats administered 0, 0. 11, 0.22, 0.43, or 0.97 mmol [3H]ECH/kg body weight by i.p. injection, and sacrificed 24 h after treatment, was linearly related to a dose up to 0.43 mmol/kg body weight. The binding at the highest dose was higher than predicted by extrapolation from lower doses, indicating saturation of a metabolic process for elimination of ECH. Ion-exchange chromatography of a globin hydrolysate showed one major radioactivity peak corresponding to S-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)cysteine. The half-life of this adduct was estimated as about 4 days by analysis of globin from rats administered 0.43 mmol/kg body weight and sacrificed after 1, 2 and 9 days. Crosslinking of the adduct, presumably with glutathione, appeared to be the predominant secondary reaction. Hydrolysis of N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine, the primary reaction product of ECH with N-terminal valine, would give N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine. A sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the dihydroxypropyl adduct was used to follow its formation and removal after administration of nonlabelled ECH (0.11 mmol/kg body weight). The level of this adduct reached a maximum of about 20 pmol/g globin after a few weeks, corresponding to about 0.1% of the initial binding of ECH to globin. N-7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine was detected in rats administered 0.97 mmol [3H]ECH/kg body weight and sacrificed 6 h after treatment. The adduct levels in haemoglobin and DNA were compared with previously reported adduct levels in male Fischer 344 rats exposed to propylene oxide. Despite its higher chemical reactivity, the capacity of ECH

  5. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(®) bioassay, (32)P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  6. Estrogen-DNA Adducts as Novel Biomarkers For Ovarian Cancer Risk and for Use in Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    amplification and genotyping of the four single nucleotide polymorphisms , CYP1A1 (I462V), CYP1B1 (V432L), COMT (V158M) and NQO1 (P609S). Task 6. Order...genetic polymorphisms in selected enzymes that metabolize estrogens. The first year of the grant has been spent collecting urine and saliva samples...DNA adducts, estrogen metabolism, genetic polymorphisms , cancer etiology, tool for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  7. DNA adducts and mutagenic specificity of the ubiquitous environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in Muta Mouse.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Zhan, Li; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto; Phillips, David H; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2004-01-01

    3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen in the Salmonella reversion assay and a suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and in ambient airborne particulate matter. To evaluate the in vivo mutagenicity of 3-NBA, we analyzed the mutant frequency (MF) in the cII gene of various organs (lung, liver, kidney, bladder, colon, spleen, and testis) in lambda/lacZ transgenic mice (Muta Mouse) after intraperitoneal treatment with 3-NBA (25 mg/kg body weight injected once a week for 4 weeks). Increases in MF were found in colon, liver, and bladder, with 7.0-, 4.8-, and 4.1-fold increases above the control value, respectively, whereas no increase in MF was found in lung, kidney, spleen, and testis. Simultaneously, induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood reticulocytes was observed. The sequence alterations in the cII gene recovered from 41 liver mutants from 3-NBA-treated mice were compared with 32 spontaneous mutants from untreated mice. Base substitution mutations predominated for both the 3-NBA-treated (80%) and the untreated (81%) groups. However, the proportion of G:C-->T:A transversions in the mutants from 3-NBA-treated mice was higher (49% vs. 6%) and the proportion of G:C-->A:T transitions was lower than those from untreated mice (10% vs. 66%). The increase in MF in the liver was associated with strong DNA binding by 3-NBA, whereas in lung, in which there was no increase in MF, a low level of DNA binding was observed (268.0-282.7 vs. 8.8-15.9 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides). DNA adduct patterns with multiple adduct spots, qualitatively similar to those formed in vitro after activation of 3-NBA with nitroreductases and in vivo in rats, were observed in all tissues examined. Using high-pressure liquid cochromatographic analysis, we confirmed that all major 3-NBA-DNA adducts produced in vivo in mice are derived from reductive metabolites bound to purine bases (70-80% with deoxyguanosine and 20-30% with deoxyadenosine in liver). These

  8. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Covalent Adducts of DNA with Anti-cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Catherine; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic activities of many anticancer and antibacterial drugs arise from their interactions with nucleic acid substrates. Some of these ligands interact with DNA in a way that causes conformational changes or damage to the nucleic acid targets, ultimately altering recognition by key DNA-specific enzymes, interfering with DNA transcription or prohibiting replication, and terminating cell growth and proliferation. The design and synthesis of ligands that bind to nucleic acids remains a dynamic field in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research. The quest for more selective and efficacious DNA-interactive anti-cancer chemotherapeutics has likewise catalyzed the need for sensitive analytical methods that can provide structural information about the nature of the resulting DNA adducts and provide insight into the mechanistic pathways of the DNA/drug interactions and the impact on the cellular processes in biological systems. This review focuses on the array of tandem mass spectrometric strategies developed and applied for characterization of covalent adducts formed between DNA and anti-cancer ligands. PMID:23150278

  9. Detection of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adducts in human cells by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jishen; Awoyemi, Bisola; Xuan, Zhuoli; Vohra, Priya; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Dyba, Marcin; Greenspan, Emily; Fu, Ying; Creswell, Karen; Zhang, Lihua; Berry, Deborah; Tang, Moon-Shong; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2012-12-17

    Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. It can also be produced endogenously by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Acr-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine (Acr-dG) adducts in DNA are mutagenic lesions that are potentially involved in human cancers. In this study, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Acr-dG adducts and characterized using ELISA. They showed strong reactivity and specificity toward Acr-dG, weaker reactivity toward crotonaldehyde- and trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosines, and weak or no reactivity toward 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Using these antibodies, we developed assays to detect Acr-dG in vivo: first, a simple and quick FACS-based assay for detecting these adducts directly in cells; second, a highly sensitive direct ELISA assay for measuring Acr-dG in cells and tissues using only 1 μg of DNA without DNA digestion and sample enrichment; and third, a competitive ELISA for better quantitative measurement of Acr-dG levels in DNA samples. The assays were validated using Acr-treated HT29 cell DNA samples or calf thymus DNA, and the results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS-MRM. An immunohistochemical assay was also developed to detect and visualize Acr-dG in HT29 cells as well as in human oral cells. These antibody-based methods provide useful tools for the studies of Acr-dG as a cancer biomarker and of the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to Acr-dG as a ubiquitous DNA lesion.

  10. Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Strategies for Assessing the Biological Consequences and Repair of DNA Adducts.

    PubMed

    You, Changjun; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-02-16

    The genetic integrity of living organisms is constantly threatened by environmental and endogenous sources of DNA damaging agents that can induce a plethora of chemically modified DNA lesions. Unrepaired DNA lesions may elicit cytotoxic and mutagenic effects and contribute to the development of human diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. Understanding the deleterious outcomes of DNA damage necessitates the investigation about the effects of DNA adducts on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication and transcription. Conventional methods for measuring lesion-induced replicative or transcriptional alterations often require time-consuming colony screening and DNA sequencing procedures. Recently, a series of mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies have been developed in our laboratory as an efficient platform for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the changes in genetic information induced by DNA adducts during DNA replication and transcription. During the past few years, we have successfully used these MS-based methods for assessing the replicative or transcriptional blocking and miscoding properties of more than 30 distinct DNA adducts. When combined with genetic manipulation, these methods have also been successfully employed for revealing the roles of various DNA repair proteins or translesion synthesis DNA polymerases (Pols) in modulating the adverse effects of DNA lesions on transcription or replication in mammalian and bacterial cells. For instance, we found that Escherichia coli Pol IV and its mammalian ortholog (i.e., Pol κ) are required for error-free bypass of N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-CEdG) in cells. We also found that the N(2)-CEdG lesions strongly inhibit DNA transcription and they are repaired by transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells. In this Account, we focus on the development of MS-based approaches for determining the effects of DNA adducts on DNA replication and transcription

  11. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA Adduct Formation and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    xenobiotic metabolism, CYP1B1 , gene expression, genetic polymorphism , DNA adducts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...Task 2: Characterize the breast tissue samples in respect to CYP1B1 expression and CYP1B1 polymorphism – in progress a. Isolate DNA and RNA from...19.78) 0.06 – 73.7 d. Perform CYP1B1 genotype analysis The CYP1B1 genotype at two polymorphic sites located in the catalytic side of the enzyme

  12. GenoMass - a computer software for automated identification of oligonucleotide DNA adducts from LC-MS analysis of DNA digests

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Qing; Shen, Chang; Vouros, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation of oligonucleotides, DNA and their adducts by LC-MS, a myriad of data are generated that make manual data processing quite difficult. This paper describes a ‘reversed pseudo-combinatorial’ approach for fragment identification and the software implementation of this approach. Combinatorial isomer libraries are generated in silico to represent the digestion products of oligonucleotides, DNA or DNA adducts of various sizes. The software automatically calculates ion masses of each isomeric segment of the library, searches for them in complicated LC-MS data, lists their intensities and plots extracted ion chromatograms (EIC). This customized new data analysis tool has enabled a study of the enzymatic behavior of a nuclease system in the digestion of normal and adducted DNA, and in the recognition of oligomers containing a carcinogen bound to a nucleobase. The software program potentially can be further expanded to postulate unknown DNA sequences and recognize the adduction sites. PMID:19053159

  13. Induction of ovarian cancer and DNA adducts by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Aliaga, Cesar; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Cooper, Timothy; Gowdahalli, Krishnegowda; Zhu, Junjia; Amin, Shantu; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is an etiological factor of ovarian cacner; however, the mechanisms remain largely undefined. Therefore, as an initial investigation we examined the carcinogenicity and DNA adducts formation in the ovary of mice treated with DB[a,l]P, a tobacco smoke constituent and environmental pollutant. Ovarian tumors in B6C3F1 mice were induced by direct application of DB[a,l]P (24, 12, 6, and 3 nmol/mouse, 3 times a week for 38 weeks) into the oral cavity of mice. At 6 nmol, DB[a,l]P induced the highest total ovarian tumor incidence (79%), but the incidence of malignancy was only 15%. However, at the dose of 12 nmol, the total ovarian tumor incidence was 75%, and the incidence of malignancy was 65%. In addition to ovarian tumors, at the dose of 24 nmol, DB[a,l]P induced lesions in sites distal from the ovaries including the skin, mammary, lung, and oral tissues which were rare at doses lower than 24 nmol. Another bioassay was conducted to detect and quantify DNA-adducts induced by DB[a,l]P (24 nmol, 3 times a week for 5 weeks) in the ovary at 48 h, 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the last administration of DB[a,l]P. DNA was isolated, and the dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-11,12-dihydrodiol-13,14-epoxide (DB[a,l]PDE)-DNA adducts were analyzed by a LC-MS/MS method. DB[a,l]P resulted in the formation of (−)-anti-cis-DB[a,l]PDE-dA and (−)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-dA adducts, which were 0.8 and 1.6 fmol/106 dA respectively in ovaries of mice within 48 h, and the level of adducts decreased over a week. Our results indicated that DB[a,l]P can be metabolized to form (−)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE; the latter may, in part, account for DB[a,l]P-induced ovarian cancer. This animal model should assist to better understand the mechanisms, account for the induction of ovarian cancer by tobacco carcinogens, and facilitate the development of chemopreventive agents against ovarian cancer. PMID:22107356

  14. Enzymology of repair of DNA adducts produced by N-nitroso compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.; Cao, E.H.; Delihas, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of DNA adducts depend on their nature, and on their half-lives relative to the rates of DNA replication and transcription. Their half-lives are determined by the rates of spontaneous decay, such as depurination, and the rates of enzymatic repair of the adducts or their decay products. The principle modes of repair of methylating and ethylating agents are by glycosylase catalyzed depurination of 7-alkylguanine and 3-alkyladenine and by the dealkalation of O/sup 6/-alkylguanine. Repair by dealkylation cannot be detected by the standard methods used to measure DNA repair, but it is easy to estimate the acceptor activity in cell extracts by measuring the transfer of radioactive O/sup 6/-alkyl groups in an exogenous DNA to protein. In extracts of cells treated with alkylating agents the activity is depressed because the endogenous DNA is rapidly dealkylated, using up the acceptor activity. In many cell types the decrease in activity is followed by an increase to the normal constitutive level. In other cells there is no such adaptive response. Differences in constitutive levels of methyl accepting activity in extracts of human lymphocytes and on the acceptor activity in lung macrophages from smokers (low activity) and non-smokers (high activity) have been observed. 46 references.

  15. Mitomycin C-DNA adducts generated by DT-diaphorase. Revised mechanism of the enzymatic reductive activation of mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, G; Lipman, R; Cummings, J; Tomasz, M

    1997-11-18

    Mitomycin C (MC) was reductively activated by DT-diaphorase [DTD; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase] from rat liver carcinoma cells in the presence of Micrococcus lysodeicticus DNA at pH 5.8 and 7.4. The resulting alkylated MC-DNA complexes were digested to the nucleoside level and the covalent MC-nucleoside adducts were separated, identified, and quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. In analogous experiments, two other flavoreductases, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, as well as two chemical reductive activating agents Na2S2O4 and H2/PtO2 were employed as activators for the alkylation of DNA by MC. DTD as well as all the other activators generated the four known major guanine-N2-MC adducts at both pHs. In addition, at the lower pH, the guanine-N7-linked adducts of 2,7-diaminomitosene were detectable in the adduct patterns. At a given pH all the enzymatic and chemical reducing agents generated very similar adduct patterns which, however, differed dramatically at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. Overall yield of MC adducts was 3-4-fold greater at pH 7.4 than at 5. 8 except in the case of DTD when it was 4-fold lower. Without exception, however, cross-link adduct yields were greater at the acidic pH (2-10-fold within the series). The ratio of adducts of bifunctional activation to those of monofunctional activation was 6-20-fold higher at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. A comprehensive mechanism of the alkylation of DNA by activated MC was derived from the DNA adduct analysis which complements earlier model studies of the activation of MC. The mechanism consists of three competing activation pathways yielding three different DNA-reactive electrophiles 11, 12, and 17 which generate three unique sets of DNA adducts as endproducts. The relative amounts of these adducts are diagnostic of the relative rates of the competing pathways in vitro, and most likely, in vivo. Factors that influence the relative rates of individual pathways

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  17. Identification of two N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosinyl DNA adducts upon nitroreduction of the environmental mutagen 1-nitropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Herreno-Saenz, D.; Evans, F.E.; Beland, F.A.

    1995-03-01

    1-Nitropyrene, the most abundant nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the environment, is a known mammalian and bacterial mutagen and a tumorigen in animals. Early studies on DNA adduct characterization for 1-nitropyrene identified N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene as the major product from the modification of calf thymus DNA with N-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene, the activated metabolite from nitroreduction of 1-nitropyrene. In this paper, we report the identification of two N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosinyl adducts, in addition to N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene, formed from the reaction of N-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene, prepared in situ, with calf thymus DNA. These DNA adducts were identified as 6-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-1-aminopyrene and 8-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-1-aminopyrene. The two N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosinyl adducts were also identified in an ascorbic acid-catalyzed activation of 1-nitropyrene and in the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats administered 1-nitropyrene. The DNA adducts were also formed when 1-nitropyrene was metabolized by xanthine oxidase in the presence of calf thymus DNA, and when 1-nitropyrene was activated by rat liver microsomes and cytosols, as well as from DNA isolated from Salmonella typhimurium suspension cultures incubated with 1-nitropyrene. 45 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Kirsten-Berit; Glassen, Katharina; Peccerella, Teresa; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Linhart, Heinz; Bartsch, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in particular its more aggressive form nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasingly observed as a cause of end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important factor in the pathogenesis of HCC. ROS can react with polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from membrane phospholipids resulting in the production of reactive aldehydes as lipid oxidation (LPO) byproducts, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4 HNE). 4 HNE can react with DNA to form mutagenic exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts. ROS is induced by inflammatory processes, but also by induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), as seen with chronic alcohol consumption. Methods Immunohistochemical detection of CYP2E1, 4 HNE and hepatic exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts was performed on liver sections from 39 patients with NFLD. Spearman rank correlation was calculated to examine possible correlations. Results Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts were detected and correlated significantly with 4 HNE, but not with CYP2E1. Conclusions This is the first description of highly carcinogenic exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts in NAFLD patients. We could show that exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts significantly correlated with lipid peroxidation product 4 HNE, but not with CYP2E1, implying that in NAFLD ROS generation with consecutive DNA damage is rather inflammation driven through various cytokines than by induction of CYP2E1. PMID:26005678

  19. Context Matters: Contribution of Specific DNA Adducts to the Genotoxic Properties of the Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine NNK.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa A

    2017-01-17

    The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent pulmonary carcinogen in laboratory animals. It is classified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. NNK is bioactivated upon cytochrome P450 catalyzed hydroxylation of the carbon atoms adjacent to the nitrosamino group to both methylating and pyridyloxobutylating agents. Both pathways generate a spectrum of DNA damage that contributes to the overall mutagenic and toxic properties of this compound. NNK is also reduced to form 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), which is also carcinogenic. Like NNK, NNAL requires metabolic activation to DNA alkylating agents. Methyl hydroxylation of NNAL generates pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA adducts, and methylene hydroxylation leads to DNA methyl adducts. The consequence of this complex metabolism is that NNK generates a vast spectrum of DNA damage, any form of which can contribute to the overall carcinogenic properties of this potent pulmonary carcinogen. This Perspective reviews the chemistry and genotoxic properties of the collection of DNA adducts formed from NNK. In addition, it provides evidence that multiple adducts contribute to the overall carcinogenic properties of this chemical. The adduct that contributes to the genotoxic effects of NNK depends on the context, such as the relative amounts of each DNA alkylating pathway occurring in the model system, the levels and genetic variants of key repair enzymes, and the gene targeted for mutation.

  20. Characterization of Nitrogen Mustard Formamidopyrimidine Adduct Formation of bis-(2-Chloroethyl)ethylamine with Calf Thymus DNA and a Human Mammary Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Gruppi, Francesca; Hejazi, Leila; Christov, Plamen P.; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Turesky, Robert J.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.

    2015-01-01

    A robust, quantitative ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion trap multistage scanning mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS3) method was established to characterize and measure five deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts formed by reaction of the chemotherapeutic nitrogen mustard (NM) bis-(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine with calf thymus (CT) DNA. In addition to the known N7-guanine (NM-G) adduct and its crosslink (G-NM-G), the ring-opened formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) mono-adduct (NM-FapyG) and cross-links in which one (FapyG-NM-G) or both (FapyG-NM-FapyG) guanines underwent ring-opening to FapyG units were identified. Authentic standards of all adducts were synthesized and characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These adducts were quantified in CT DNA treated with NM (1 μM) as their deglycosylated bases. A two-stage neutral thermal hydrolysis was developed to mitigate the artifactual formation of ring-opened FapyG adducts involving hydrolysis of the cationic adduct at 37 °C, followed by hydrolysis of the FapyG adducts at 95 °C. The limit of quantification values ranged between 0.3 and 1.6 adducts per 107 DNA bases, when the equivalent of 5 μg DNA hydrolysate was assayed on column. The principal adduct formed was the G-NM-G cross-link, followed by the NM-G mono-adduct; the FapyG-NM-FapyG adduct was at the limit of detection. The NM-FapyG adducts formed in CT DNA at a level of ~20% that of the NM-G adduct. NM-FapyG has not been previously quanitified and the FapyG-NM-G and FapyG-NM-FapyG adducts have not be previously characterized. Our validated analytical method was then applied to measure DNA adduct formation in the MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cell line exposed to NM (100 μM) for 24 h. The major adduct formed was NM-G (970 adducts per 107 bases), followed by G-NM-G (240 adducts per 107 bases) and NM-FapyG (180 adducts per 107 bases), and lastly the FapyG-NM-G cross-link adduct (6.0 adducts per 107 bases). These lesions are expected to contribute to the NM-mediated toxicity and

  1. Tumors and DNA adducts in mice exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and coal tars: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L S; Weyand, E H; Safe, S; Steinberg, M; Culp, S J; Gaylor, D W; Beland, F A; Rodriguez, L V

    1998-01-01

    Current methods to estimate the quantitative cancer risk of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as coal tar assume that overall potency can be derived from knowledge of the concentration of a few carcinogenic components such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Genotoxic damage, such as DNA adducts, is thought to be an essential aspect of PAH-induced tumorigenesis and could be a biomarker for exposure useful for estimating risk. However, the role of B[a]P and the relationship of adduct formation in tumorigenesis have not been tested rigorously in models appropriate for human health risk assessment. Therefore, we directly compared tumor induction and adduct formation by B[a]P and coal tars in several experimental protocols, including one broadly accepted and used by regulators. We found that B[a]P content did not account for tumor incidences after exposure to coal tars. DNA adducts were found in both tumors and tumor-free tissue and tumor outcomes were not predicted by either quantitation of total DNA adducts or by the DNA adduct formed by B[a]P. These data suggest that risk assessments based on B[a]P content may not predict accurately risk to human health posed by environmental PAH. PMID:9860888

  2. DNA adduct analysis and histopathological biomarkers in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) sampled from UK estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B P; Stentiford, G D; Green, M; Bignell, J; Bateman, K; Feist, S W; Goodsir, F; Reynolds, W J; Thain, J E

    2004-08-18

    The presence of genotoxic and potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants in the estuarine and coastal marine environment is well documented. In this study, European flounder (Platichthys flesus) sampled from eight UK estuaries were analysed for hepatic DNA adducts, using the 32P-postlabelling assay and liver histopathology as part of an on going survey to establish the health status of UK estuaries. Fish were collected from the estuaries Tyne, Mersey, Thames, Alde (reference site), Belfast, Forth, Clyde and Southampton. At the majority of contaminated sites (Southampton, Thames, Clyde, Tyne and Mersey) the predominant DNA adduct profile consisted of diagonal radioactive zones (DRZs). In contrast, flounder collected from the Forth, Alde and Belfast lacked DRZs with only background levels of DNA damage being observed. Statistically significant differences were observed between several of the sites sampled with the hepatic DNA adduct levels detected in flounder from Southampton, Thames and Clyde statistically elevated (P < 0.05) over those levels detected at the Tyne (Southampton and Thames only), Forth, Alde and Belfast. Histological analysis of these samples revealed a range of lesions including foci of cellular alteration, hepatocellular fibrillar inclusions, nuclear pleomorphisms along with non-toxicopathic changes/alterations, such as those associated with cell turnover (apoptosis, necrosis, regeneration) and immune-related functions (melanomacrophage aggregates, inflammation). Although it is difficult to associate higher prevalence of these lesion types with specific sites, generally, the lowest prevalence was seen in flounder captured from the Alde estuary, with higher prevalence (particularly of melanomacrophage aggregates, inflammation and necrotic foci) seen in fish from the contaminated sites.

  3. Tracking Matrix Effects in the Analysis of DNA Adducts of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Klaene, Joshua J.; Flarakos, Caroline; Glick, James; Barret, Jennifer T.; Zarbl, Helmut; Vouros, Paul

    2015-01-01

    LC-MS using electrospray ionization is currently the method of choice in bio-organic analysis covering a wide range of applications in a broad spectrum of biological media. The technique is noted for its high sensitivity but one major limitation which hinders achievement of its optimal sensitivity is the signal suppression due to matrix inferences introduced by the presence of co-extracted compounds during the sample preparation procedure. The analysis of DNA adducts of common environmental carcinogens is particularly sensitive to such matrix effects as sample preparation is a multistep process which involves “contamination” of the sample due to the addition of enzymes and other reagents for digestion of the DNA in order to isolate the analyte(s). This problem is further exacerbated by the need to reach low levels of quantitation (LOQ in the ppb level) while also working with limited (2-5 μg) quantities of sample. We report here on the systematic investigation of ion signal suppression contributed by each individual step involved in the sample preparation associated with the analysis of DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) using as model analyte dG-BaP, the deoxyguanosine adduct of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The individual matrix contribution of each one of these sources to analyte signal was systematically addressed as were any interactive effects. The information was used to develop a validated analytical protocol for the target biomarker at levels typically encountered in vivo using as little as 2 μg of DNA and applied to a dose response study using a metabolically competent cell line. PMID:26607319

  4. Contributions of aryl hydrocarbon receptor genetic variants to the risk of glioma and PAH-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Gu, Aihua; Ji, Guixiang; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Ailin; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Luo, Chengzhang; Yan, Wei; Zhao, Peng

    2012-08-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene is involved in the response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. To investigate the hypothesis that the genetic variants in the AHR gene might be a causal genetic susceptibility to PAH-DNA adduct formation and glioma risk, we conducted a case-control study of 384 glioma cases and 384 cancer-free controls to explore the association between six common single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the AHR gene and glioma risk. Using PAH-DNA adducts as biomarkers, we then evaluated the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and glioma risk based on a tissue microarray including 11 controls and 77 glioma patients. We further explored the contributions of the glioma risk-associated AHR polymorphisms to the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in glioma tissues based on 77 glioma patients. We found that PAH-DNA adduct staining existed in normal brain tissues and grades I-IV gliomas, and the staining intensity was significantly associated with the glioma grade. Two AHR polymorphisms (rs2066853 and rs2158041) demonstrated significant association with glioma risk. Intriguingly, we also found statistically significant associations between these two variants and PAH-DNA adduct levels in glioma tissue. These data suggest the contributions of AHR rs2066853 and rs2158041 to glioma risk and the PAH-DNA adduct levels, which shed new light on gene-environment interactions in the etiology of glioma. Further studies with a larger sample size and ethnically diverse populations are required to elucidate the potential biological mechanism for, as well as the impact of, the susceptibility to glioma due to genetic variants of AHR.

  5. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashim, S; Aboobaker, V S; Madhubala, R; Bhattacharya, R K; Rao, A R

    1994-01-01

    Essential oils from common spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cardamom, celery, xanthoxylum, black pepper, cumin, and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress the formation of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B1 in vitro in a microsomal enzyme-mediated reaction. All oils were found to inhibit adduct formation very significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The adduct formation appeared to be modulated through the action on microsomal enzymes, because an effective inhibition on the formation of activated metabolite was observed with each oil. The enzymatic modulation is perhaps due to the chemical constituents of the oils, and this could form a basis for their potential anticarcinogenic roles.

  6. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue as a source for quantitation of carcinogen DNA adducts: aristolochic acid as a prototype carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Yun, Byeong Hwa; Yao, Lihua; Jelaković, Bojan; Nikolić, Jovan; Dickman, Kathleen G; Grollman, Arthur P; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Turesky, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    DNA adducts are a measure of internal exposure to genotoxicants. However, the measurement of DNA adducts in molecular epidemiology studies often is precluded by the lack of fresh tissue. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues frequently are accessible, although technical challenges remain in retrieval of high quality DNA suitable for biomonitoring of adducts. Aristolochic acids (AA) are human carcinogens found in Aristolochia plants, some of which have been used in the preparation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines. We previously established a method to measure DNA adducts of AA in FFPE tissue. In this study, we examine additional features of formalin fixation that could impact the quantity and quality of DNA and report on the recovery of AA-DNA adducts in mice exposed to AA. The yield of DNA isolated from tissues fixed with formalin decreased over 1 week; however, the levels of AA-DNA adducts were similar to those in fresh frozen tissue. Moreover, DNA from FFPE tissue served as a template for PCR amplification, yielding sequence data of comparable quality to DNA obtained from fresh frozen tissue. The estimates of AA-DNA adducts measured in freshly frozen tissue and matching FFPE tissue blocks of human kidney stored for 9 years showed good concordance. Thus, DNA isolated from FFPE tissues may be used to biomonitor DNA adducts and to amplify genes used for mutational analysis, providing clues regarding the origin of human cancers for which an environmental cause is suspected.

  7. Detection of Benzo[a]pyrene-Guanine Adducts in Single-Stranded DNA using the α-Hemolysin Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Rukshan T.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Johnson, Robert P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; White, Henry S.

    2017-01-01

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2′-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5′ or 3′ directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples. PMID:25629967

  8. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adducts in single-stranded DNA using the α-hemolysin nanopore.

    PubMed

    Perera, Rukshan T; Fleming, Aaron M; Johnson, Robert P; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2015-02-20

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2'-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5' or 3' directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples.

  9. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adducts in single-stranded DNA using the α-hemolysin nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Rukshan T.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Johnson, Robert P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; White, Henry S.

    2015-02-01

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2‧-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5‧ or 3‧ directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples.

  10. Chiral Differentiation of DNA Adducts Formed by Enantiomeric Analogues of Antitumor Cisplatin Is Sequence-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Delalande, Olivier; Malina, Jaroslav; Brabec, Viktor; Kozelka, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    1,2-GG intrastrand cross-links formed in DNA by the enantiomeric complexes [PtCl2(R,R-2,3-diaminobutane (DAB))] and [PtCl2(S,S-DAB)] were studied by biophysical methods. Molecular modeling revealed that structure of the cross-links formed at the TGGT sequence was affected by repulsion between the 5′-directed methyl group of the DAB ligand and the methyl group of the 5′-thymine of the TGGT fragment. Molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated platinated duplexes and our recent structural data indicated that the adduct of [PtCl2(R,R-DAB)] alleviated this repulsion by unwinding the TpG step, whereas the adduct of [PtCl2(S,S-DAB)] avoided the unfavorable methyl-methyl interaction by decreasing the kink angle. Electrophoretic retardation measurements on DNA duplexes containing 1,2-GG intrastrand cross-links of Pt(R,R-DAB)2+ or Pt(S,S-DAB)2+ at a CGGA site showed that in this sequence both enantiomers distorted the double helix to the identical extent similar to that found previously for the same sequence containing the cross-links of the parent antitumor \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}cis-{\\mathrm{Pt}}({\\mathrm{NH}}_{3})_{2}^{2+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} (cisplatin). In addition, the adducts showed similar affinities toward the high-mobility-group box 1 proteins. Hence, whereas the structural perturbation induced in DNA by 1,2-GG intrastrand cross-links of cisplatin does not depend largely on the bases flanking the cross-links, the perturbation related to GG cross-linking by bulkier platinum diamine derivatives does. PMID:15805172

  11. Quantification of 3-nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts using online column-switching HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M; Mirza, Amin; Richards, Meirion; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Farmer, Peter B; Phillips, David H

    2009-11-01

    The aromatic nitroketone 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one; 3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen detected in the exhaust of diesel engines and in airborne particulate matter. 3-NBA is metabolically activated via reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamine (N-OH-3-ABA) to form covalent DNA adducts. Thus far, the detection and quantification of covalent 3-NBA-DNA adducts has relied solely on (32)P-postlabeling methodologies. In order to expand the range of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of 3-NBA-DNA adducts, we have developed a method based upon online column-switching HPLC coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, with isotopic dilution of (15)N-labeled internal standards. This methodology was applied to the determination of three 3-NBA-derived adducts: 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-3-ABA), N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-3-ABA) and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-3-ABA). Dose-dependent increases were observed for all three adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-AcO-3-ABA). dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was detected at much lower levels (overall 1%) than the other two adducts. DNA samples isolated from tissues of rats treated either intratracheally with 3-NBA or intraperitoneally with N-OH-3-ABA were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the results compared to those obtained by (32)P-postlabeling. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection was 2.0 fmol for each adduct. dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was not observed in any of the samples providing confirmation that it is not formed in vivo. Linear regression analysis of the levels of dG-N(2)-3-ABA and dG-C8-N-3-ABA in the rat DNA showed a reasonable correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.88 and 0.93, respectively). In summary, the mass spectrometric method is a faster, more

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by benzo(a)pyrene ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Schults, Marten A; Chiu, Roland K; Nagle, Peter W; Wilms, Lonneke C; Kleinjans, Jos C; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W

    2013-03-01

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification attenuates underlying relationships. Conversely, ex vivo studies offer the advantage of controlled exposure settings, allowing the possibility to better elucidate genotype-phenotype relationships and gene-gene interactions. Therefore, we exposed lymphocytes of 168 non-smoking volunteers ex vivo to the environmental pollutant benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and BaP-related DNA adducts were quantified. Thirty-four genetic polymorphisms were assessed in genes involved in carcinogen metabolism, oxidative stress and DNA repair. Polymorphisms in catalase (CAT, rs1001179) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1, rs1800440) were significantly associated with DNA adduct levels, especially when combined. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in a subset of 30 subjects revealed that expression of catalase correlated strongly with expression of CYP1B1 (R = 0.92, P < 0.001). To further investigate the mechanism by which catalase influences CYP1B1 and how they simultaneously affect BaP-related DNA adduct levels, catalase expression was transiently knocked down in the human lung epithelial cell line A549. Although catalase knockdown did not immediately change CYP1B1 gene expression, recovery of catalase expression 8 h after the knockdown coincided with a 2.2-fold increased expression of CYP1B1 (P < 0.05). We conclude that the genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of CAT may determine the amount and activity of catalase, which may subsequently regulate the expression of CYP1B1. As a result, both genetic polymorphisms modulate DNA adduct levels in lymphocytes by BaP ex vivo.

  13. Aromatic DNA adducts and polymorphisms in metabolic genes in healthy adults: findings from the EPIC-Spain cohort.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Peluso, Marco; Sala, Núria; Capellá, Gabriel; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Marín, Fátima; Ibáñez, Raquel; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, M José; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, M José; González, Carlos A

    2009-06-01

    Aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and heterocyclic amines require metabolic activation to form metabolites able to bind to DNA, a process mediated by polymorphic enzymes. We measured aromatic DNA adducts in white blood cells by the (32)P-post-labelling assay in a sample of 296 healthy adults (147 men and 149 women) from five regions of Spain. We also analyzed functional polymorphisms in the metabolic genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1. A significant increased level of DNA aromatic adducts was found related to the fast oxidation-hydrolysis phenotype defined by the polymorphism I462V in CYP1A1, the allele A in IVS1-154C>A of CYP1A2 and the combination Tyrosine-Arginine for Y113H and H139R of EPHX1. Geometric means (adducts per 10(-9) normal nucleotides) were 2.17, 4.04 and 6.30 for slow, normal and fast phenotypes, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Slow acetylation by NAT2 was associated with a significant decrease in adduct level; subjects with slow alleles *5A and *7A/B had in average 1.56 x 10(-9)adducts, as compared with 5.60 for those with normal NAT2 activity (P-value = 0.01). No association was seen with polymorphisms of other metabolic genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1 or SULT1A1. We concluded that the metabolic pathways of oxidation, hydrolysis and acetylation are relevant to the formation of bulky DNA adducts. This could suggest a potential involvement of aromatic compounds in the formation of such adducts; however, given lack of specificity of the post-labeling assay, a firm conclusion cannot be drawn.

  14. Cigarette side-stream smoke lung and bladder carcinogenesis: inducing mutagenic acrolein-DNA adducts, inhibiting DNA repair and enhancing anchorage-independent-growth cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Chin, Chiu; Huang, William; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Rom, William N; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2015-10-20

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with 20-30% of cigarette-smoke related diseases, including cancer. Majority of SHS (>80%) originates from side-stream smoke (SSS). Compared to mainstream smoke, SSS contains more tumorigenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and acrolein (Acr). We assessed SSS-induced benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)- and cyclic propano-deoxyguanosine (PdG) adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung, heart, liver, and bladder-mucosa from mice exposed to SSS for 16 weeks. In SSS exposed mice, Acr-dG adducts were the major type of PdG adducts formed in BAL (p < 0.001), lung (p < 0.05), and bladder mucosa (p < 0.001), with no significant accumulation of Acr-dG adducts in heart or liver. SSS exposure did not enhance BPDE-DNA adduct formation in any of these tissues. SSS exposure reduced nucleotide excision repair (p < 0.01) and base excision repair (p < 0.001) in lung tissue. The levels of DNA repair proteins, XPC and hOGG1, in lung tissues of exposed mice were significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) lower than the levels in lung tissues of control mice. We found that Acr can transform human bronchial epithelial and urothelial cells in vitro. We propose that induction of mutagenic Acr-DNA adducts, inhibition of DNA repair, and induction of cell transformation are three mechanisms by which SHS induces lung and bladder cancers.

  15. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2′-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct

    PubMed Central

    Politica, Dustin A.; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Stone, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N2-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, which oriented in the minor groove towards the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-dG-ABA and

  16. A physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model for estragole DNA binding in rat liver based on in vitro kinetic data and estragole DNA adduct formation in primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Paini, Alicia; Punt, Ans; Viton, Florian; Scholz, Gabriele; Delatour, Thierry; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Schilter, Benoit; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2010-05-15

    Estragole has been shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species at high-dose levels. Translation of these results into the likelihood of formation of DNA adducts, mutation, and ultimately cancer upon more realistic low-dose exposures remains a challenge. Recently we have developed physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) models for rat and human predicting bioactivation of estragole. These PBBK models, however, predict only kinetic characteristics. The present study describes the extension of the PBBK model to a so-called physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model predicting in vivo DNA adduct formation of estragole in rat liver. This PBBD model was developed using in vitro data on DNA adduct formation in rat primary hepatocytes exposed to 1'-hydroxyestragole. The model was extended by linking the area under the curve for 1'-hydroxyestragole formation predicted by the PBBK model to the area under the curve for 1'-hydroxyestragole in the in vitro experiments. The outcome of the PBBD model revealed a linear increase in DNA adduct formation with increasing estragole doses up to 100 mg/kg bw. Although DNA adduct formation of genotoxic carcinogens is generally seen as a biomarker of exposure rather than a biomarker of response, the PBBD model now developed is one step closer to the ultimate toxic effect of estragole than the PBBK model described previously. Comparison of the PBBD model outcome to available data showed that the model adequately predicts the dose-dependent level of DNA adduct formation. The PBBD model predicts DNA adduct formation at low levels of exposure up to a dose level showing to cause cancer in rodent bioassays, providing a proof of principle for modeling a toxicodynamic in vivo endpoint on the basis of solely in vitro experimental data.

  17. DNA adduct formation by the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in V79 cells expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Christian A; Arlt, Volker M; Wiessler, Manfred; Schmeiser, Heinz H

    2003-10-08

    Diesel exhaust is known to induce tumours in animals. Of the compounds found in diesel exhaust 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is particularly a powerful mutagen. Recently we showed that 3-NBA is genotoxic in vivo in rats by forming specific DNA adducts derived from nitroreduction. In this study a panel of genetically engineered V79 Chinese hamster cell lines expressing various human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP3A4) and/or human NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase (CYPOR) was used to identify CYP enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of 3-NBA. We analyzed the formation of specific DNA adducts by 32P-postlabelling after exposing cells to 1 microM 3-NBA. A similar pattern with a total of four distinct 3-NBA-DNA adducts was found in all cells, identical to those detected previously in DNA from rats treated with 3-NBA in vivo. Total adduct levels ranged from 75 to 132 using nuclease P1 and from 103 to 220 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, using butanol enrichment. Comparison of DNA binding between different V79MZ derived cells revealed that human CYPOR and CYP3A4 were involved in the metabolic activation of 3-NBA. Furthermore, dose-dependent high adduct levels were detected after exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 microM 3-NBA in the subclone V79NH which exhibits high activities of nitroreductase and N,O-acetyltransferase. Our results suggest that nitroreduction is the major pathway in the human bioactivation of 3-NBA. Moreover, acetylation of the initially formed N-hydroxy arylamine intermediates may contribute to the high genotoxic potential of 3-NBA.

  18. Identification of carcinogen DNA adducts in human saliva by linear quadrupole ion trap/multistage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Erin E; Spivack, Simon D; Goodenough, Angela K; Wang, Tao; Pinto, Shailesh; Kadlubar, Fred F; Turesky, Robert J

    2010-07-19

    DNA adducts of carcinogens derived from tobacco smoke and cooked meat were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multistage tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) in saliva samples from 37 human volunteers on unrestricted diets. The N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts of the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), were characterized and quantified by LC-ESI/MS/MS(n), employing consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS(3) scan stage mode with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer (MS). DNA adducts of PhIP were found most frequently: dG-C8-PhIP was detected in saliva samples from 13 of 29 ever-smokers and in saliva samples from 2 of 8 never-smokers. dG-C8-AalphaC and dG-C8-MeIQx were identified solely in saliva samples of three current smokers, and dG-C8-4-ABP was detected in saliva from two current smokers. The levels of these different adducts ranged from 1 to 9 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases. These findings demonstrate that PhIP is a significant DNA-damaging agent in humans. Saliva appears to be a promising biological fluid in which to assay DNA adducts of tobacco and dietary carcinogens by selective LIT MS techniques.

  19. Identification of Carcinogen DNA Adducts in Human Saliva by Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap/Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Spivack, Simon D.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Wang, Tao; Pinto, Shailesh; Kadlubar, Fred F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts of carcinogens derived from tobacco smoke and cooked meat were identified, by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MSn), in saliva samples from 37 human volunteers on unrestricted diets. The N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts of the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC); 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx); and the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were characterized and quantified, by LC-ESI/MS/MSn, employing consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS3 scan stage mode with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer (MS). DNA adducts of PhIP were found most frequently: dG-C8-PhIP was detected in saliva samples from 13 of 29 ever-smokers and in saliva samples from 2 of 8 never-smokers. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-MeIQx were identified solely in saliva samples of 3 current smokers, and dG-C8-4-ABP was detected in saliva from 2 current-smokers. The levels of these different adducts ranged from 1 to 9 adducts per 108 DNA bases. These findings demonstrate that PhIP is a significant DNA-damaging agent in humans. Saliva appears to be a promising biological fluid in which to assay DNA adducts of tobacco and dietary carcinogens, by selective LIT MS techniques. PMID:20443584

  20. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed

    2010-06-14

    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  1. Covalent Adduct Formation between the Antihypertensive Drug Hydralazine and Abasic Sites in Double- and Single-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydralazine (4) is an antihypertensive agent that displays both mutagenic and epigenetic properties. Here, gel electrophoretic, mass spectroscopic, and chemical kinetics methods were used to provide evidence that medicinally relevant concentrations of 4 rapidly form covalent adducts with abasic sites in double- and single-stranded DNA under physiological conditions. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that the genotoxic properties of this clinically used drug arise via reactions with an endogenous DNA lesion rather than with the canonical structure of DNA. PMID:25405892

  2. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: bulky DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Milcova, A; Libalova, H; Novakova, Z; Rossner, P; Balascak, I; Sram, R J

    2009-10-02

    (32)P-postlabelling and PAH-ELISA using the antiserum #29 were employed to analyze DNA adducts in venous and umbilical cord blood and the placenta of 79 mothers giving birth to 80 living babies in Prague (Czech Republic). Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary measurements of basic air pollutants (PM2.5, c-PAHs) during the entire pregnancy. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire data and by plasma cotinine levels. The total DNA adduct levels in the lymphocytes of mothers and newborns were elevated by 30-40% (p<0.001) compared with the placenta. B[a]P-like DNA adduct (adduct with the identical chromatographic mobility on TLC as major BPDE derived DNA adduct) levels were elevated in the blood of mothers compared with the placenta and the blood of newborns (p<0.05 and p<0.01). In tobacco smoke-exposed mothers, higher DNA adduct levels in the blood of mothers and newborns compared with the placenta were found (p<0.001), whereas the total and B[a]P-like adduct levels were comparable in the blood of mothers and newborns. B[a]P-like adducts were elevated in the blood of mothers unexposed to tobacco smoke compared with that of corresponding newborns and the placenta (p<0.01). Total and B[a]P-like DNA adducts were increased in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed compared with unexposed mothers (p<0.001 and p<0.01). In lymphocytes of tobacco smoke-exposed mothers, the comparison of total adduct levels (1.18+/-0.67 vs. 0.92+/-0.28) and B[a]P-like DNA adducts (0.22+/-0.12 adducts/10(8) nucleotides vs. 0.15+/-0.06 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) with newborns indicated a 30-40% increase of adducts in mothers. Almost equal PAH-DNA adduct levels were detected by anti-BPDE-DNA ELISA in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed and -unexposed mothers. Our results suggest a protective effect of the placental barrier against the genotoxic effect of some tobacco smoke components between the circulation of mother and child. We found a correlation between adduct levels

  3. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population.

  4. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P. |; El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G.; Viel, G.

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. DNA Polymerases η and ζ Combine to Bypass O(2)-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl]thymine, a DNA Adduct Formed from Tobacco Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Gowda, A S Prakasha; Spratt, Thomas E

    2016-03-21

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are important human carcinogens in tobacco products. They are metabolized to produce a variety 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB) DNA adducts including O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-POB-dT), the most abundant POB adduct in NNK- and NNN-treated rodents. To evaluate the mutagenic properties of O(2)-POB-dT, we measured the rate of insertion of dNTPs opposite and extension past O(2)-POB-dT and O(2)-Me-dT by purified human DNA polymerases η, κ, ι, and yeast polymerase ζ in vitro. Under conditions of polymerase in excess, polymerase η was most effective at the insertion of dNTPs opposite O(2)-alkyl-dTs. The time courses were biphasic suggesting the formation of inactive DNA-polymerase complexes. The kpol parameter was reduced approximately 100-fold in the presence of the adduct for pol η, κ, and ι. Pol η was the most reactive polymerase for the adducts due to a higher burst amplitude. For all three polymerases, the nucleotide preference was dATP > dTTP ≫ dGTP and dCTP. Yeast pol ζ was most effective in bypassing the adducts; the kcat/Km values were reduced only 3-fold in the presence of the adducts. The identity of the nucleotide opposite the O(2)-alkyl-dT did not significantly affect the ability of pol ζ to bypass the adducts. The data support a model in which pol η inserts ATP or dTTP opposite O(2)-POB-dT, and then, pol ζ extends past the adduct.

  6. Quantification of phase I / II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Pratt, M. Margaret; Singh, Paras B.; Al-Buheissi, Salah; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Martin, Francis L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the aetiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ) and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ. METHODS To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n=26) or cystoprostatectomy (n=1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). RESULTS CYP1B1, NAT1 and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Tissue sections from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets were analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumour formation in the human prostate. PMID:19143007

  7. Creating context for the use of DNA adduct data in cancer risk assessment: I. Proposed framework for data organization *

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment of human cancer risk from chemical exposure requires the integration of diverse types of data. Such data involve effects at the cell and tissue levels. This report focuses on the specific utility of one type of data, namely DNA adducts. Emphasis is placed on the ap...

  8. Noninvasive measurement of aristolochic acid-DNA adducts in urine samples from aristolochic acid-treated rats by liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry: evidence for DNA repair by nucleotide-excision repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Chan, Wan

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxic aristolochic acids (AAs) form covalently bonded DNA adducts upon metabolic activation. In this work, a non-invasive approach to detect AAs exposure by quantifying urinary excreted DNA-AA adducts is presented. The developed method entails solid-phase extraction (SPE) enrichment of the urine-excreted DNA-AAs adducts, addition of internal standard, and quantification by liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed 7-(deoxyadenosine-N(6)-yl)-aristolactam II and 7-(deoxyguanosine-N(2)-yl)-aristolactam I that were previously detected as major DNA-AA adducts in different organs of AA-dosed rats, were detected as the major urine excreted adducts. Lower levels of 7-(deoxyadenosine-N(6)-yl)-aristolactam I and 7-(deoxyguanosine-N(2)-yl)-aristolactam II were also detected in the collected urine samples. The identities of the detected urinary DNA-AA adducts were confirmed by comparing chromatographic retention time with synthetic standards, by high-accuracy MS, and MS/MS analyses. LC-MS/MS analysis of the urine samples collected from the AAs-dosed rats demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in the urinary adduct levels, indicating the urinary DNA-AA adduct levels were reflective of the tissue adduct levels. It is expected that the developed approach of detecting urinary DNA-AA adducts will facilitate further carcinogenesis investigations of AAs.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in Beluga whales from the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, A.; Payne, J.F.; Fancey, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Arctic is still relatively pristine in nature, but it is also vulnerable to pollution because contaminants originating from midlatitudes are transported to the Arctic by atmospheric processes, ocean currents, and river. Recognition of this fact of Arctic vulnerability has resulted in a Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment by eight Arctic countries. A manifest aim of this declaration is to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. We report here on the presence of measurable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, including relatively high levels in Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). These results lend support to the value of developing biological assessment programs for Arctic wildlife. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Isolation and identification of the adducts of mitomycin C and porfiromycin with DNA formed in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdary, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The antitumor antibiotics, mitomycin C (MC) and porfiromycin (PM), are shown to form covalent complexes with DNA in vitro, under reductive activation conditions (both chemical and enzymatic). Three major covalent adducts have been isolated and identified as (1) N{sup 2}-guanine adduct with MC (structure 4a), (2) N{sup 2}-guanine adduct with 10-decarbamoyl mitomycin ((10-DMC); structure 16a), and a bisadduct of MC linked to two Gs at their N{sup 2}-positions (structure 6). The adducts of PM with DNA formed in vitro are analogous (structures 19, 20, and 21). Formation of adducts 6 and 16a in CHO mammalian cells has been shown after exposing them to MC or 10-DMC, whereas formation of crosslink 6 in vivo has been demonstrated after injecting rats with MC. The experiments done in tissue cultures with (1a-{sup 3}H)-polyfiromycin show ({sup 3}H)-label in the unmodified A, G, and T thus suggesting the demethylation of PM to MC in cells. The methyl group containing ({sup 3}H) label was incorporated into nucleosides via de novo purine and thymidylate biosynthesis. A consolidated enzymatic scheme for the hydrolysis of MC-modified DNA has been established and the resistance of such DNA to cleavage by several nucleases has been shown. Thus, only DNase I/SVD/alkaline phosphatase or nuclease P{sub 1}/SVD/alkaline phosphatase combinations can degrade MC-modified DNA into nucleosides. A modified version of {sup 32}P-postlabeling has been developed with in vitro authentic standards and this can be conveniently used in the future to detect MC-modified lesions obtained in vivo. By utilizing the alkaline ethidium bromide fluorescence assay, the crosslinking effect of MC, PM, and 10-DMC has been shown to occur in cells.

  11. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  12. Quantitation of the DNA Adduct of Semicarbazide in Organs of Semicarbazide-Treated Rats by Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Comparative Study with the RNA Adduct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-09-19

    Semicarbazide is a widespread food contaminant that is produced by multiple pathways. However, the toxicity of semicarbazide to human health remains unclear. Using a highly accurate and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time the DNA and RNA adduct of semicarbazide in DNA/RNA isolated from the internal organs of semicarbazide-exposed rats. The analysis revealed a dose-dependent formation of the adducts in the internal organs of the semicarbazide-dosed rats and with the highest adduct levels identified in the stomach and small intestine. Furthermore, results showed significantly higher levels of the RNA adduct (4.1-7.0 times) than that of the DNA adducts. By analyzing DNA/RNA samples isolated from rat organs in semicarbazide-dosed rats at different time points postdosing, the adduct stability in vivo was also investigated. These findings suggest that semicarbazide could have exerted its toxicity by affecting both the transcription and translation processes of the cell.

  13. Modulation of the Effect of Prenatal PAH Exposure on PAH-DNA Adducts in Cord Blood by Plasma Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.

    2011-01-01

    The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne PAH exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of PAH-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal PAH exposure and cord blood concentration of α-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of PAH adducts in cord blood. The association between PAH exposure and PAH adducts was much stronger among those with low α-tocopherol (β = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (β = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high α-tocopherol: β = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: β = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal PAH exposure. PMID:19661084

  14. 32P-post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed in the upper gastrointestinal tissue of mice fed bracken extract or bracken spores.

    PubMed Central

    Povey, A. C.; Potter, D.; O'Connor, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Bracken toxicity to both domestic and laboratory animals is well established and tumours are formed when rodents are treated with either bracken extracts or bracken spores. In this study we have administered bracken spores and extract to mice in order to investigate whether such exposure leads to the formation of DNA adducts. DNA, isolated from the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver, was digested to 3'-nucleotides. Adducts were extracted with butanol, 32P-post-labelled, separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and visualised and quantified using storage-phosphor technology. A cluster of adducts was clearly seen in the DNA of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but not liver, 5 and 24 h after treatment with bracken extract or bracken spores. These adducts were not observed in DNA extracted from vehicle-treated animals. Whereas, after 5 h adduct levels in extract and spore-treated animals were similar, after 24 h adduct levels in the extract-treated animals had diminished by > 75%, but levels in spore-treated animals remained similar to those found after 5 h. This suggests that the DNA-reactive compounds were being released slowly from the spores, even though the spores had been sonicated before administration. Adducts were also quantified after the addition of an internal standard (deoxyinosine 3'-monophosphate) by comparing the amount of label incorporated into the adducts with that found in a known amount of the internal standard. Adduct levels using this internal standard approach were similar to those found by direct measurement of radioactivity incorporated into the adduct, indicating that the labelling of adducts was quantitative. We have tried, unsuccessfully, to synthesise ptaquiloside, the principal carcinogenic component present within bracken. However, similar patterns of adducts were observed when two other compounds, (1-(4-chlorophenyl sulphonyl)-l-cyclopropane carbonitrile and 3-cyclopropylindeno [1,2-c] pyrazol-4-(O-methyl)oxime), which both

  15. Screening for DNA Adducts by Data-Dependent Constant Neutral Loss - Triple Stage (MS3) Mass Spectrometry with a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Spivack, Simon D.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A 2-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M+H-116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2+]. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal-cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AαC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 μg of DNA are employed for the assay. PMID:19086795

  16. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J

    2009-01-15

    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.

  17. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Egner, P A; Wang, J B; Zhu, Y R; Zhang, B C; Wu, Y; Zhang, Q N; Qian, G S; Kuang, S Y; Gange, S J; Jacobson, L P; Helzlsouer, K J; Bailey, G S; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W

    2001-12-04

    Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial, we tested whether chlorophyllin could alter the disposition of aflatoxin. One hundred and eighty healthy adults from Qidong were randomly assigned to ingest 100 mg of chlorophyllin or a placebo three times a day for 4 months. The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Adherence to the study protocol was outstanding, and no adverse events were reported. Aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine could be detected in 105 of 169 available samples. Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction (P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. Thus, prophylactic interventions with chlorophyllin or supplementation of diets with foods rich in chlorophylls may represent practical means to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or other environmentally induced cancers.

  18. Seasonal variations in the levels of PAH–DNA adducts in young adults living in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    García-Suástegui, W. A.; Huerta-Chagoya, A.; Carrasco-Colín, K. L.; Pratt, M. M.; John, K.; Petrosyan, P.; Rubio, J.; Poirier, M. C.; Gonsebatt, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous components of polluted air. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), one of the most densely populated areas in the world, is 2240 m above sea level. At this altitude, less oxygen is available, making combustion less efficient and therefore producing more PAH pollutants. According to the Automatic Monitoring Network in Mexico City (RAMA, for its Spanish initials; http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/informaciontecnica/index.php?opcion=5&opciondifusion_bd=90), which performs environmental monitoring, the critical air pollutants in Mexico City are ozone and particulate matter (PM). PM emissions increase during the dry season (winter to spring) and decrease during the rainy season (summer to autumn). The bioactivation of some PAHs produces reactive metabolites that bind to DNA, and the presence of elevated levels of PAH–DNA adducts in tissues such as blood lymphocytes represents an elevated risk for the development of cancer. We have compared the levels of PAH–DNA adducts and the percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations (CWAs) using a matched set of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained on two separate occasions from young non-smoking inhabitants of the MCMA (n = 92) during the 2006 dry season and the following rainy season. PAH–DNA adducts were analysed using the r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)–DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The percentages of CWA were determined in cultured lymphocytes from the same individuals. Both DNA adduct levels and chromosomal aberrations were tested for correlation with lifestyle and the polymorphisms of cytochromes P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as glutathione-S-transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1. The levels of PAH–DNA adducts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the dry season (10.66 ± 3.05 per 109 nt, n = 92) than during the rainy season (9.50 ± 2.85 per 109 nt, n = 92) and correlated with the seasonal levels of particulate

  19. On the origins and development of the (32)P-postlabelling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David H

    2013-06-28

    The (32)P-postlabelling method for the analysis of carcinogen-DNA adducts originated 30years ago from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and was the work of a team comprised of Kurt and Erica Randerath, Ramesh Gupta and Vijay Reddy. With subsequent modifications and developments, it has become a highly sensitive and versatile method for the detection of DNA adducts that has been applied in a wide range of human, animal and in vitro studies. These include monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens, investigating genotoxicity of chemicals, elucidating pathways of metabolic activation of carcinogens, mechanistic studies of DNA repair, analysing the genotoxicity of complex mixtures and in ecotoxicology studies. Its use has been instrumental in providing new clues to the aetiology of some cancers and in identifying a new human carcinogen.

  20. Stereoselective release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-deoxyadenosine adducts from DNA by the 32P postlabeling and deoxyribonuclease I/snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cheh, A.M.; Yagi, H.; Jerina, D.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The restricted ability of deoxyribonuclease I/snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion to liberate deoxyadenosine (dA) nucleotide adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from DNA, first observed by Dipple and Pigott with the bay-region diol epoxide adducts of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, has been observed with the dA adducts of benz(a)anthracene and benzo(c)phenanthrene diol epoxides. The micrococcal nuclease/spleen phosphodiesterase digestion used in the original 32P postlabeling procedure developed by Randerath to determine DNA adducts also failed to liberate dA nucleotide adducts quantitatively. Thus either method can potentially lead to an underestimation of the extent to which dA has been modified in DNA. The two digestion procedures exhibit systematic and mostly opposite stereoselectivity in the pattern of which dA adducts are resistant to digestion, which suggest that these adducts may have preferred orientations within modified DNA that are determined by whether they have the R or S configuration at C-1, the point of attachment between the exocyclic amino group of dA and the hydrocarbon; this in turn is dictated by the configuration about the precursor benzylic epoxide carbon and the cis versus trans nature of epoxide opening during adduct formation.

  1. Bending and circularization of site-specific and stereoisomeric carcinogen-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Mao, B; Amin, S; Geacintov, N E

    1998-01-13

    The potent tumorigen and mutagen (+)-7(R),8(S)-dihydroxy-9(S), 10(R)-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene ((+)-anti-BPDE) is a metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene that binds predominantly to the exocyclic amino group of guanine residues in DNA in vivo and in vitro. While the (-)-7S,8R,9R,10Senantiomer, (-)-anti-BPDE, also reacts with DNA to form similar covalent N2-deoxyguanosyl adducts, this diol epoxide is nontumorigenic and its mutagenic activities are different from those of (+)-anti-BPDE. In this work, T4 ligase-induced cyclization methods have been employed to demonstrate that the (+)-anti-[BP]-N2-dG lesions (G*) cause significantly greater amounts of bending and circularization of the one-base overhang undecamer duplex 5'-d(CACAT[G*]TACAC).d(TGTACATGTGG) than the stereoisomeric oligonucleotide duplex with G* = (-)-anti-[BP]-N2-dG. In the case of the (+)-anti-BPDE-modified oligonucleotides, the ratio of circular to linear DNA multimers reaches values of 8-9 for circle contour sizes of 99-121 base pairs, while for the (-)-anti-[BP]-N2-dG-modified DNA this ratio reaches a maximum value of only approximately 1 at 154-176 base pairs. Assuming a planar circle DNA model, the inferred bending angles for 90-92% of the observed circular ligation products range from 30 to 51 degrees per (+)-trans-anti-[BP]-N2-dG lesion and from 20 to 40 degrees per (-)-trans-anti-[BP]-N2-dG lesion. In the case of unmodified DNA, the probability of circular product formation is at least 1 order of magnitude less efficient than in the BPDE-modified sequences and about 90% of the circular products exhibit bending angles in the range of 14 -19 degrees . In the most abundant circular products observed experimentally, the bending angles are 40 degrees and 26 +/- 2 degrees per (+)-anti-[BP]- or (-)-anti-[BP]-modified 11-mer; these values correspond to a net contribution of 21-26 degrees and 5-19 degrees , respectively, to the observed overall bending per lesion. The coexistence of circular DNA

  2. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in placental tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Zhou, Guodong; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-06-01

    We examined the relationship between PAH-DNA adduct levels in the placental tissue, measured by a highly sensitive (32)P-postlabeling assay, and the risk of fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). We further explored the interaction between PAH-DNA adducts and placental PAHs with respect to NTD risk. Placental tissues from 80 NTD-affected pregnancies and 50 uncomplicated normal pregnancies were included in this case-control study. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts were lower in the NTD group (8.12 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared to controls (9.92 per 10(8) nucleotides). PAH-DNA adduct concentrations below the median was associated with a 3-fold increased NTD risk. Women with a low PAH-DNA adduct level in concert with a high placental PAH level resulted in a 10-fold elevated risk of having an NTD-complicated pregnancy. A low level of placental PAH-DNA adducts was associated with an increased risk of NTDs; this risk increased dramatically when a low adduct level was coupled with a high placental PAH concentration.

  3. DNA adduct formation in mice following dermal application of smoke condensates from cigarettes that burn or heat tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Reed, E.A.; Mosberg, A.T.; Doolittle, D.J.; Hayes, A.W. ); Hejtmancik, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype cigarette that heats tobacco (test cigarette), developed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, has yielded consistently negative results in several in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology tests. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from the test cigarette to induce DNA adducts in mouse tissues and compare the results with those obtained with CSC from a reference tobacco-burning cigarette (1R4F). CD-1 mice were skin-painted with CSF from reference and test cigarettes three times a week for 4 weeks. The highest mass of CSC applied was 180 mg tar per week per animal for both reference and test cigarette. DNA adducts were analyzed in skin and lung tissues using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling method with the P[sub 1] nuclease modification. Distinct diagonal radioactive zones (DRZ) were observed in the DNA from both skin and lung tissues of animals dosed with reference CSC, whereas no corresponding DRZ were observed from the DNA of animals dosed with either test CSC or acetone (solvent control). The relative adduct labeling (RAL) values of skin and lung DNA from reference CSC-treated animals were significantly greater than those of the test CSC-treated animals. The RAL values of the test CSC-treated animals were no greater than those of solvent controls. The negative results in DNA adduct assays with test CSC are consistent with all previous results of in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology testing on this cigarette and provide additional evidence that smoke condensate from the test cigarette is not genotoxic. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fragmentation patterns of DNA-benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide adducts characterized by nanoflow LC/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin J.; Marshall, William D.; Law, Brandon; Lewis, Daniel M.

    2003-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a pervasive and abundant class of environmental and workplace pollutants. Formation of covalent DNA adducts has been considered to be a useful dosimeter or molecular biomarker for assessing the exposure to such pollutants. The establishment of prospective models for the formation of DNA adducts may help to understand the mechanisms of the effects. To identify the DNA adducts in this study, the fragmentation patterns of DNA-benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide adducts were characterized by nanoflow liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). In the experiment, the DNA adducts were synthesized by reaction of calf thymus DNA with anti-benzo(a)pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide(+/-) (anti-BPDE). The major adducts of N2-deoxyguanosine-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (N2-dG-BPDE), N6-deoxyadenosine-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (N6-dA-BPDE), N4-deoxycytidine-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-epoxide (N4-dC-BPDE), and N3-deoxythymidine-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide adduct (N3-dT-BPDE) were identified by electrospray positive ionization with TOF-MS/MS scan mode. The results of this study demonstrated that the approach that utilizes collision-induced dissociation leading to a characteristic fragmentation pattern offers a distinct advantage for identification and elucidation of molecular structural features of the DNA adducts. The fragmentation patterns established in this study may be applied to identify DNA adducts in biological systems.

  5. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1989-08-01

    Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct.

  6. Formation of a major DNA adduct of the mitomycin metabolite 2,7-diaminomitosene in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells treated with mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Palom, Y; Belcourt, M F; Kumar, G S; Arai, H; Kasai, M; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S; Tomasz, M

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells with [3H]mitomycin C (MC) results in the formation of six major DNA adducts, as described earlier using an HPLC assay of 3H-labeled products of enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA isolated from MC-treated cells. Four of these adducts were identified as monofunctional and bifunctional guanine-N2 adducts in the minor groove of DNA. In order to establish relationships between individual types of MC-DNA adducts and biological responses it is necessary to identify all of the adducts formed in cells. To this end we have now identified a predominant, previously unknown adduct formed in MC-treated EMT6 cells as a derivative not of MC, but of 2,7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), the major bioreductive metabolite of MC. Rigorous proof demonstrates that it is a DNA major groove, guanine-N7 adduct of 2,7-DAM, linked at C-10 to DNA. The adduct is relatively stable at ambient temperature, but is readily depurinated upon heating. Its isolation from MC-treated cells indicates that MC is reductively metabolized to 2,7-DAM, which then undergoes further reductive activation to alkylate DNA, along with the parent MC. Low MC:DNA ratios were identified as a critical factor promoting 2,7-DAM adduct formation in an in vitro model calf thymus DNA/ MC/reductase model system, as well as in MC-treated EMT6 cells. The 2,7-DAM-guanine-N7 DNA adduct appears to be relatively noncytotoxic, as indicated by the dramatically lower cytotoxicity of 2,7-DAM in comparison with MC in EMT6 cells. Like MC, 2,7-DAM exhibited slightly greater cytotoxicity to cells treated under hypoxic as compared to aerobic conditions. However, 2,7-DAM was markedly less cytotoxic than MC under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Thus, metabolic reduction of MC to 2,7-DAM represents a detoxification process. The differential effects of MC-DNA and 2,7-DAM-DNA adducts support the concept that specific structural features of the DNA damage may play a critical role in the cytotoxic response to a DNA

  7. DNA adducts, benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity, and lysosomal membrane stability in Mytilus galloprovincialis from different areas in Taranto coastal waters (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pisoni, M; Cogotzi, L; Frigeri, A; Corsi, I; Bonacci, S; Iacocca, A; Lancini, L; Mastrototaro, F; Focardi, S; Svelto, M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental pollution at different stations along the Taranto coastline (Ionian Sea, Puglia, Italy) using several biomarkers of exposure and the effect on mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in October 2001 and October 2002. Five sampling sites were compared with a "cleaner" reference site in the Aeronautics Area. In this study we also investigated the differences between adduct levels in gills and digestive gland. This Taranto area is the most significant industrial settlement on the Ionian Sea known to be contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, heavy metals, etc. Exposure to PAHs was evaluated by measuring DNA adduct levels and benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity (B(a)PMO); DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling with nuclease P1 enhancement in both gills and digestive glands to evaluate differences between DNA adduct levels in the two tissues. B(a)PMO was assayed in the microsomal fraction of the digestive glands as a result of the high expression of P450-metabolizing enzymes in this tissue. Lysosomal membrane stability, a potential biomarker of anthropogenic stress, was also evaluated in the digestive glands of mussels, by measuring the latent activity of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Induction of DNA adducts was evident in both tissues, although the results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. In fact, gills showed higher DNA adduct levels than did digestive gland. No significant differences were found in DNA adduct levels over time, with both tissues providing similar results in both years. DNA adduct levels were correlated with B(a)PMO activity in digestive gland in both years (r = 0.60 in 2001; r = 0.73 in 2002). Increases were observed in B(a)PMO activity and DNA adduct levels at different stations; no statistical difference was observed in B(a)PMO activity over the two monitoring campaigns. The membrane labilization

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF STEROCHEMICAL CONFIGERATION OF CYCLOPENTA[CD]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG AND C3H10T1/2CL8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The definitive identification of stereochemical configurations of DNA adducts detected by 32P-postlabeling requires co-chromatography of adducts with synthetic chromatographic standards. Four major and several minor DNA adducts are formed by cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) in strain A...

  9. Sustained systemic delivery of green tea polyphenols by polymeric implants significantly diminishes benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Pengxiao; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Spencer, Wendy A.; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenolics in green tea are believed to be the bioactive components. However, poor bioavailability following ingestion limits their efficacy in vivo. In this study, polyphenon E (poly E), a standardized green tea extract, was administered by sustained-release polycaprolactone implants (two, 2-cm implants; 20% drug load) grafted subcutaneously or via drinking water (0.8% w/v) to female S/D rats. Animals were treated with continuous low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) via subcutaneous polymeric implants (2 cm; 10% load) and euthanized after 1 and 4 weeks. Analysis of lung DNA by 32P-postlabeling resulted in a statistically significant reduction (50%; p=0.023) of BP-induced DNA adducts in the implant group; however, only a modest (34%) but statistically insignificant reduction occurred in the drinking water group at 1 week. The implant delivery system also showed significant reduction (35%; p=0.044) of the known BP diolepoxide-derived DNA adduct after 4 weeks. Notably, the total dose of poly E administered was >100-fold lower in the implant group than the drinking water group (15.7 versus 1,632 mg, respectively). Analysis of selected phase I, phase II, and nucleotide excision repair enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels showed no significant modulation by poly E, suggesting that the reduction in the BP-induced DNA adducts occurred presumably due to known scavenging of the anti-diolepoxide of BP by the poly E catechins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sustained systemic delivery of poly E significantly reduced BP-induced DNA adducts in spite of its poor bioavailability following oral administration. PMID:21574630

  10. DNA bulky adducts in a Mediterranean population correlate with environmental ozone concentration, an indicator of photochemical smog.

    PubMed

    Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Grechi, Daniele; Masala, Giovanna; Zanna, Ines; Barbaro, Antongiulio; Decarli, Adriano; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco

    2004-03-01

    Ozone (O(3)), the major oxidant component in photochemical smog, mostly derives from photolysis of nitrogen dioxide. O(3) may have biologic effects directly and/or via free radicals reacting with other primary pollutants and has been reported to influence daily mortality and to increase lung cancer risk. Although DNA damage may be caused by ozone itself, only other photochemical reaction products (as oxidised polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) may form bulky DNA adducts, a reliable biomarker of genotoxic damage and cancer risk, showing a seasonal trend. In a large series consisting of 320 residents in the metropolitan area of Florence, Italy, enrolled in a prospective study for the period 1993-1998 (206 randomly sampled volunteers, 114 traffic-exposed workers), we investigated the correlation between individual levels of DNA bulky adducts and a cumulative O(3) exposure score. The average O(3) concentrations were calculated for different time windows (0-5 to 0-90 days) prior to blood drawing for each participant, based on daily measurements provided by the local monitoring system. Significant correlations between DNA adduct levels and O3 cumulative exposure scores in the last 2-8 weeks before enrollment emerged in never smokers. Correlations were highest in the subgroup of never smokers residing in the urban area and not occupationally exposed to vehicle traffic pollution, with peak values for average concentrations 4-6 weeks before enrollment (r = 0.34). Our current findings indicate that DNA adduct formation may be modulated by individual characteristics and by the cumulative exposure to environmental levels of ozone in the last 4-6 weeks, possibly through ozone-associated reactive pollutants.

  11. Sustained systemic delivery of green tea polyphenols by polymeric implants significantly diminishes benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengxiao; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Spencer, Wendy A; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-06-20

    The polyphenolics in green tea are believed to be the bioactive components. However, poor bioavailability following ingestion limits their efficacy in vivo. In this study, polyphenon E (poly E), a standardized green tea extract, was administered by sustained-release polycaprolactone implants (two, 2-cm implants; 20% drug load) grafted subcutaneously or via drinking water (0.8% w/v) to female S/D rats. Animals were treated with continuous low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) via subcutaneous polymeric implants (2 cm; 10% load) and euthanized after 1 and 4 weeks. Analysis of lung DNA by (32)P-postlabeling resulted in a statistically significant reduction (50%; p = 0.023) of BP-induced DNA adducts in the implant group; however, only a modest (34%) but statistically insignificant reduction occurred in the drinking water group at 1 week. The implant delivery system also showed significant reduction (35%; p = 0.044) of the known BP diolepoxide-derived DNA adduct after 4 weeks. Notably, the total dose of poly E administered was >100-fold lower in the implant group than the drinking water group (15.7 versus 1,632 mg, respectively). Analysis of selected phase I, phase II, and nucleotide excision repair enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels showed no significant modulation by poly E, suggesting that the reduction in the BP-induced DNA adducts occurred presumably due to known scavenging of the antidiolepoxide of BP by the poly E catechins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sustained systemic delivery of poly E significantly reduced BP-induced DNA adducts in spite of its poor bioavailability following oral administration.

  12. Influence of selenium, age and dosage of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) on the in vivo formation of DNA adducts in mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jinzhou Liu; Milner, J.A. )

    1991-03-15

    Diets formulated to contain selenium, as sodium selenite, 0.1 or 2 {mu}g/g were fed for 2 weeks prior to DMBA treatment. Food intake and weight gain were not influenced by Se intake. Anti- and syn-dihydrodiol epoxide adducts reached maximum binding by 24 h. Se supplementation inhibited by about 50% the appearance of both anti-and syn- DMBA-DNA adducts. Dietary selenium increased the rate of removal of the anti-dihydrodiol epoxide adduct bound to guanine, but delayed the removal of the other adducts. The occurrence of DMBA-DNA adducts correlated positively with the dosage of DMBA administered. Binding increased about 40% as the rat's age increased from 36 to 125 d. Se supplementation inhibited binding in 36, 54 and 125 d old rats. These data confirmed that dietary selenium is effective in inhibiting in vivo metabolism of DMBA.

  13. Aberrant repair of etheno-DNA adducts in leukocytes and colon tissue of colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Obtułowicz, Tomasz; Winczura, Alicja; Speina, Elzbieta; Swoboda, Maja; Janik, Justyna; Janowska, Beata; Cieśla, Jarosław M; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Jawien, Arkadiusz; Gackowski, Daniel; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Krasnodebski, Ireneusz; Chaber, Andrzej; Olinski, Ryszard; Nair, Jagadesaan; Bartsch, Helmut; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Tudek, Barbara

    2010-09-15

    To assess the role of lipid peroxidation-induced DNA damage and repair in colon carcinogenesis, the excision rates and levels of 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilondA), 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilondC), and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) were analyzed in polymorphic blood leukocytes (PBL) and resected colon tissues of 54 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and PBL of 56 healthy individuals. In PBL the excision rates of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonAde) and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonCyt), measured by the nicking of oligodeoxynucleotide duplexes with single lesions, and unexpectedly also the levels of epsilondA and 1,N(2)-epsilondG, measured by LC/MS/MS, were lower in CRC patients than in controls. In contrast the mRNA levels of repair enzymes, alkylpurine- and thymine-DNA glycosylases and abasic site endonuclease (APE1), were higher in PBL of CRC patients than in those of controls, as measured by QPCR. In the target colon tissues epsilonAde and epsilonCyt excision rates were higher, whereas the epsilondA and epsilondC levels in DNA, measured by (32)P-postlabeling, were lower in tumor than in adjacent colon tissue, although a higher mRNA level was observed only for APE1. This suggests that during the onset of carcinogenesis, etheno adduct repair in the colon seems to be under a complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, whereby deregulation may act as a driving force for malignancy.

  14. Role of retinoic acid in the modulation of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in human hepatoma cells: Implications for cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guodong; Richardson, Molly; Fazili, Inayat S.; Wang, Jianbo; Donnelly, Kirby C.; Wang Fen; Amendt, Brad; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2010-12-15

    Carcinogen-DNA adducts could lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually resulting in cancer. Many studies have shown that retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in inducing cell apoptosis. Here we have tested the hypothesis that levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts can be diminished by DNA repair and/or by eliminating damaged cells through apoptosis. Our results showed that the levels of total DNA adducts in HepG2 cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BP, 2 {mu}M) + RA (1 {mu}M) were significantly reduced compared to those treated with BP only (P = 0.038). In order to understand the mechanism of attenuation of DNA adducts, further experiments were performed. Cells were treated with BP (4 {mu}M) for 24 h to initiate DNA adduct formation, following which the medium containing BP was removed, and fresh medium containing 1 {mu}M RA was added. The cells were harvested 24 h after RA treatment. Interestingly, the levels of total DNA adducts were lower in the BP/RA group (390 {+-} 34) than those in the BP/DMSO group (544 {+-} 33), P = 0.032. Analysis of cell apoptosis showed an increase in BP + RA group, compared to BP or RA only groups. Our results also indicated that attenuation of BP-DNA adducts by RA was not primarily due to its effects on CYP1A1 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest a mechanistic link between cellular apoptosis and DNA adduct formation, phenomena that play important roles in BP-mediated carcinogenesis. Furthermore, these results help understand the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, especially in relation to the chemopreventive properties of nutritional apoptosis inducers.

  15. Comprehensive High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Analysis of DNA Phosphate Adducts Formed by the Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Villalta, Peter W; Zarth, Adam T; Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-11-16

    The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1) is a potent lung carcinogen in laboratory animals and is believed to play a key role in the development of lung cancer in smokers. Metabolic activation of NNK leads to the formation of pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts, a critical step in its mechanism of carcinogenesis. In addition to DNA nucleobase adducts, DNA phosphate adducts can be formed by pyridyloxobutylation of the oxygen atoms of the internucleotidic phosphodiester linkages. We report the use of a liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry technique to characterize 30 novel pyridyloxobutyl DNA phosphate adducts in calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) treated with 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 2), a regiochemically activated form of NNK. A (15)N3-labeled internal standard was synthesized for one of the most abundant phosphate adducts, dCp[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyl]dC (CpopC), and this standard was used to quantify CpopC and to estimate the levels of other adducts in the NNKOAc-treated CT-DNA. Formation of DNA phosphate adducts by NNK in vivo was further investigated in rats treated with NNK acutely (0.1 mmol/kg once daily for 4 days by subcutaneous injection) and chronically (5 ppm in drinking water for 10, 30, 50, and 70 weeks). This study provides the first comprehensive structural identification and quantitation of a panel of DNA phosphate adducts of a structurally complex carcinogen and chemical support for future mechanistic studies of tobacco carcinogenesis in humans.

  16. Formation and persistence of DNA adducts formed by the carcinogenic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in target and non-target organs after intratracheal instillation in rats.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Christian A; Cornelius, Michael G; Stiborova, Marie; Arlt, Volker M; Wiessler, Manfred; Phillips, David H; Schmeiser, Heinz H

    2007-05-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation with a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg body wt of 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), and whole blood, lungs, pancreases, kidneys, urinary bladders, hearts, small intestines and livers were removed at various times after administration. At five posttreatment times (2 days, 2, 10, 20 and 36 weeks), DNA adducts were analysed in each tissue by (32)P-postlabelling to study their long-term persistence. 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts consisting of the same adduct pattern were observed in all tissues from animals killed between 2 days and 36 weeks and between 2 days and 20 weeks in blood. DNA isolated from whole blood contained the same 3-NBA-specific adduct pattern as that found in tissues. Although total adduct levels in the blood were much lower than those found in the lung, the target organ of 3-NBA tumourigenicity, they were related (20-25%, R(2) = 0.98) to the levels found in lung. In all organs, total adduct levels decreased over time to 20-30% of the initial levels till the latest time point (36 weeks) and showed a biphasic profile, with a rapid loss during the first 2 weeks followed by a much slower decline that reached a stable plateau at 20 weeks after treatment. These results show that uptake of 3-NBA by the lung induces high levels of specific DNA adducts in target and non-target organs of the rat. The correlation between DNA adducts in lung and blood suggests that persistent 3-NBA-DNA adducts in the blood may be useful biomarkers for human respiratory exposure to 3-NBA.

  17. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of etheno-DNA adducts in human white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Cui, S; Wang, S; Jiang, X; Zhang, S; Zhang, R; Fu, P P; Sun, X

    2015-01-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are generated by interaction of cellular DNA with exogenous environmental carcinogens and end products of lipid peroxidation. It has been determined that 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (εdC) adducts formed in human white blood cells can be used to serve as biomarkers of genetic damage mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method used to detect and quantify εdA and dC adducts in human white blood cells. The percent recoveries of εdA and dC adducts were found to be 88.9% ± 2.8 and 95.7% ± 3.7, respectively. The detection limits were ∼ 1.45 fmol for εdA and ∼ 1.27 fmol for εdC in 20 μg of human white blood cell DNA samples, both εdA and εdC adducts could be detected using only ∼ 5 μg of DNA per sample. For validation of the method, 34 human blood cell DNA samples were assayed and the results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between levels (fmol/μg DNA) of 0.82 ± 0.83 (standard deviation [SD]) (range: 0.15-3.11) for εdA, 3.28 ± 3.15 (SD) (range: 0.05-9.6) for εdC in benzene-exposed workers; and 0.04 ± 0.08 (SD) (range: 0.0-0.27) for εdA and 0.77 ± 1.02 (SD) (range: 0.10-4.11) for εdC in non-benzene-exposed workers. Our method shows a high sensitivity and specificity when applied to small amounts of human white blood cell DNA samples; background levels of εdA and εdC could be reproducibly detected. The ultrasensitive and simple detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  18. Mechanisms of the different DNA adduct forming potentials of the urban air pollutants 2-nitrobenzanthrone and carcinogenic 3-nitrobenzanthrone.

    PubMed

    Stiborová, Marie; Martínek, Václav; Svobodová, Martina; Sístková, Jana; Dvorák, Zdenek; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2010-07-19

    2-Nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) has recently been detected in ambient air particulate matter. Its isomer 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. We compared the efficiencies of human enzymatic systems [hepatic microsomes and cytosols, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), xanthine oxidase, NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase, N,O-acetyltransferases, and sulfotransferases] and human primary hepatocytes to activate 2-NBA and its isomer 3-NBA to species forming DNA adducts. In contrast to 3-NBA, 2-NBA was not metabolized at detectable levels by the tested human enzymatic systems and enzymes expressed in human hepatocytes, and no DNA adducts detectable by (32)P-postlabeling were generated by 2-NBA. Even NQO1, the most efficient human enzyme to bioactive 3-NBA, did not activate 2-NBA. Molecular docking of 2-NBA and 3-NBA to the active site of NQO1 showed similar binding affinities; however, the binding orientation of 2-NBA does not favor the reduction of the nitro group. This was in line with the inhibition of 3-NBA-DNA adduct formation by 2-NBA, indicating that 2-NBA can compete with 3-NBA for binding to NQO1, thereby decreasing the metabolic activation of 3-NBA. In addition, the predicted equilibrium conditions favor a 3 orders of magnitude higher dissociation of N-OH-3-ABA in comparison to N-OH-2-ABA. These findings explain the very different genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and DNA adduct forming potential of the two compounds. Collectively, our results suggest that 2-NBA possesses a relatively lower risk to humans than 3-NBA.

  19. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    of supernatants of hybridomas fox specific antibody activity . Mono- and di-adducts at the N7-position of guanosine-5-phosphate were svthesized for use...antibody activity could be developed and optimized, in which single-stranded calf-thymus DNA exposed to 10 pM mustard gas was used as coating...Figure 11: Chemical shift isuignments and coupling constants for the hydrogen (400 MHz:. a) and carbon atoms (100.6 MHz; b) of t4-(2

  20. Screening for DNA adducts in ovarian follicles exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and cigarette smoke condensate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunhe; Foster, Warren G; Sadeu, Jean C; Siddique, Shabana; Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2017-01-01

    A rapid mass spectrometric method was applied to non-targeted screening of DNA adducts in follicular cells (granulosa cells and theca cells) from isolated ovarian follicles that were exposed in-vitro to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 13days of culture. The method employed a constant neutral loss (CNL) scan to identify chromatographic peaks associated to a neutral loss of deoxyribose moiety of DNA nucleosides. These peaks were subsequently analyzed by a product ion scan in tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate structures of DNA adducts. The identification was further confirmed through synthesis of proposed DNA adducts where possible. Three DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-dG (BPDE-dG), phenanthrene 1,2-quinone-dG (PheQ-dG) and B[a]P-7,8-quinone-dG (BPQ-dG) were identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to B[a]P. Along with these three, an additional DNA adduct, 4-aminobiphenyl-dG, was identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to CSC. The amounts of the identified DNA adducts in follicular cells increased in a dose-dependent manner for both B[a]P (0, 1.5, 5, 15 and 45ng/mL) and CSC (0, 30, 60, 90 and 130μg/mL). The results revealed that B[a]P-related DNA adducts were the major adducts in the ovarian follicular cells exposed to CSC. The results also revealed that two oxidative biomarkers, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OH-dG) and 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP), in both B[a]P-exposed and CSC-exposed ovarian follicles had strong correlations with the three DNA adducts, BPDE-dG, BPQ-dG and PheQ-dG. A pathway to describe formation of DNA adducts was proposed based on the DNA adducts observed.

  1. Solid-matrix fluorescence quenching of benzo[e]pyrene and (+/-)-anti-dibenzo[a, l]pyrene diolepoxide-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Allison L; Hurtubise, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    The solid-matrix fluorescence (SMF) quenching of benzo[e]pyrene and (+/-)-anti-dibenzo[a, l]pyrene-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide ((+/-)-antiDB[a, l]PDE)-DNA adducts with thallium nitrate (TlNO(3)) and sodium iodide (NaI) was examined and several SMF quenching models were developed. The SMF quenching data for B[e]P with either TlNO(3) or NaI fit a two-independent-binding-site model. However, the SMF quenching of (+/-)-anti-DB[a, l]PDE-DNA adducts with TlNO(3) fits a sphere of action model, but quenching with NaI was modeled with the two-independent-binding-site model. The data were compared with earlier SMF quenching data for 7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxytetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (tetrol I-1) and (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide ((+/-)-anti-BPDE)DNA adducts. The interpretation of the SMF quenching data for the (+/-)-anti-DB[a, l]PDE-DNA adducts was distinctively different than the interpretation of the SMF quenching data for the (+/-)-antiBPDE-DNA adducts. This initial study shows that SMF quenching has the potential to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonDNA adducts with different numbers of aromatic rings. In addition, the data indicated that external and intercalated DNA adducts interacted with heavy-atom salts in dissimilar fashions. The new SMF methodology developed is useful for the characterization of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and metabolites from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Thermodynamics of translesion synthesis across a major DNA adduct of antitumor oxaliplatin: differential scanning calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Florian, Jakub; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-02-06

    factors play an important role in the processing of the cross-links of antitumor platinum drugs. The impact of the two effects in overall processing DNA adducts by a particular DNA polymerase will depend on its nature.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF THE FULLY PROTECTED PHOSPHORAMIDITE OF THE BENZENE-DNA ADDUCT, N2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE AND INCORPORATION OF THE LATER INTO DNA OLIGOMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo

    2008-06-09

    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  4. Apoptosis and age-dependant induction of nuclear and mitochondrial etheno-DNA adducts in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats: enhanced DNA damage by dietary curcumin upon copper accumulation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jagadeesan; Strand, Susanne; Frank, Norbert; Knauft, Jutta; Wesch, Horst; Galle, Peter R; Bartsch, Helmut

    2005-07-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a model for human Wilson's disease, develop chronic hepatitis and liver tumors owing to accumulation of copper and induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO)-induced etheno-DNA adducts in nuclear- and mitochondrial-DNA along with apoptosis was measured in LEC rat liver. Levels of etheno-DNA adducts (1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine) increased with age reaching a peak at 8 and 12 weeks in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first demonstration that etheno-DNA adducts are also formed in mitochondrial DNA. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL+ cells in liver sections. CD95L RNA expression was also measured by in situ hybridization in the same sections. The highest nuclear DNA adduct levels coincided with a reduced apoptotic rate at 8 weeks. Mitochondrial-DNA adducts peaked at 12 weeks that coincided with the highest apoptotic rate, suggesting a link of etheno-DNA adducts in mitochondrial DNA to apoptosis. The DNA damage in liver was further enhanced and sustained by 0.5% curcumin in the diet. Treatment for 2 weeks elevated etheno-DNA adducts 9- to 25-fold in nuclear DNA and 3- to 4-fold in mitochondrial-DNA, providing a plausible explanation as to why in our earlier study [Frank et al. (2003) Mutat. Res., 523-524, 127-135], curcumin failed to prevent liver tumors in LEC rats. Our results also confirm the reported in vitro DNA damaging potential of curcumin in the presence of copper ions by reactive oxygen species. LPO-induced adduct formation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA appear as early lesions in LEC rat liver carcinogenesis and are discussed in relation to apoptotic events in the progression of malignant disease.

  5. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  6. Analysis of biomarkers in a Czech population exposed to heavy air pollution. Part I: bulky DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Tabashidze, Nana; Topinka, Jan; Pastorkova, Anna; Sram, Radim J

    2013-01-01

    The health of human populations living in industrial regions is negatively affected by exposure to environmental air pollutants. In this study, we investigated the impact of air pollution on a cohort of subjects living in Ostrava, a heavily polluted industrial region and compared it with a cohort of individuals from the relatively clean capital city of Prague. This study consisted of three sampling periods differing in the concentrations of major air pollutants (winter 2009, summer 2009 and winter 2010). During all sampling periods, the study subjects from Ostrava region were exposed to significantly higher concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzene than the subjects in Prague as measured by personal monitors. Pollution by B[a]P, particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and benzene in the Ostrava region measured by stationary monitors was also higher than in Prague, with the exception of PM2.5 in summer 2009 when concentration of the pollutant was significantly elevated in Prague. To evaluate DNA damage in subjects from both locations we determined the levels of bulky DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the (32)P-postlabeling method. Despite higher B[a]P air pollution in the Ostrava region during all sampling periods, the levels of B[a]P-like DNA adducts per 10(8) nucleotides were significantly higher in the Ostrava subjects only in winter 2009 (mean ± SD: 0.21 ± 0.06 versus 0.28 ± 0.08 adducts/10(8) nucleotides, P < 0.001 for Prague and Ostrava subjects, respectively; P < 0.001). During the other two sampling periods, the levels of B[a]P-like DNA adducts were significantly higher in the Prague subjects (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses conducted among subjects from Ostrava and Prague separately during all sampling periods revealed that exposure to B[a]P and PM2.5 significantly increased levels of B[a]P-like DNA adducts in the Ostrava subjects, but not in subjects from Prague.

  7. Adenine versus guanine DNA adducts of aristolochic acids: role of the carcinogen-purine linkage in the differential global genomic repair propensity.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-09-03

    Computational modeling is employed to provide a plausible structural explanation for the experimentally-observed differential global genome repair (GGR) propensity of the ALII-N(2)-dG and ALII-N(6)-dA DNA adducts of aristolochic acid II. Our modeling studies suggest that an intrinsic twist at the carcinogen-purine linkage of ALII-N(2)-dG induces lesion site structural perturbations and conformational heterogeneity of damaged DNA. These structural characteristics correlate with the relative repair propensities of AA-adducts, where GGR recognition occurs for ALII-N(2)-dG, but is evaded for intrinsically planar ALII-N(6)-dA that minimally distorts DNA and restricts the conformational flexibility of the damaged duplex. The present analysis on the ALII adduct model systems will inspire future experimental studies on these adducts, and thereby may extend the list of structural factors that directly correlate with the propensity for GGR recognition.

  8. Evaluation of the DNA damaging potential of cannabis cigarette smoke by the determination of acetaldehyde derived N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sandhu, Jatinderpal; Kaur, Balvinder; Juren, Tina; Steward, William P; Segerbäck, Dan; Farmer, Peter B

    2009-06-01

    Acetaldehyde is an ubiquitous genotoxic compound that has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. It can react with DNA to form primarily a Schiff base N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) adduct. An online column-switching valve liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method was developed for the determination of N(2)-ethylidene-dG adducts in DNA following reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride (NaBH(3)CN) to the chemically stable N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) adduct. Accurate quantitation of the adduct was obtained by the addition of the [(15)N(5)]N(2)-ethyl-dG stable isotope-labeled internal standard prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA samples to 2'-deoxynucleosides with the incorporation of NaBH(3)CN in the DNA hydrolysis buffer. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed DNA on column for the analysis, and the limit of detection for N(2)-ethyl-dG was 2.0 fmol. The analysis of calf thymus DNA treated in vitro with acetaldehyde (ranging from 0.5 to 100 mM) or with the smoke generated from 1, 5, and 10 cannabis cigarettes showed linear dose-dependent increases in the level of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts (r = 0.954 and r = 0.999, respectively). Similar levels (332.8 +/- 21.9 vs 348.4 +/- 19.1 adducts per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides) of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts were detected following the exposure of calf thymus DNA to 10 tobacco or 10 cannabis cigarettes. No significant difference was found in the levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts in human lung DNA obtained from nonsmokers (n = 4) and smokers (n = 4) with the average level observed as 13.3 +/- 0.7 adducts per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides. No N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts were detected in any of the DNA samples following analysis with the omission of NaBH(3)CN from the DNA hydrolysis buffer. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for the DNA damaging potential of cannabis smoke, implying that the consumption of cannabis

  9. Lack of contribution of covalent benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone-DNA adducts in benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, Stephen; Nelson, Garret; Padgett, William T; George, Michael H; Moore, Tanya; King, Leon C; Adams, Linda D; Ross, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-30

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent human and rodent lung carcinogen. This activity has been ascribed in part to the formation of anti-trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroB[a]P-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts. Other carcinogenic mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the induction of apurinic sites from radical cation processes, and (2) the metabolic formation of B[a]P-7,8-quinone (BPQ) that can form covalent DNA adducts or reactive oxygen species which can damage DNA. The studies presented here sought to examine the role of stable BPQ-DNA adducts in B[a]P-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis. Male strain A/J mice were injected intraperitoneally once with BPQ or trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroB[a]P (BP-7,8-diol) at 30, 10, 3, or 0mg/kg. Lungs and livers were harvested after 24h, the DNA extracted and subjected to (32)P-postlabeling analysis. Additional groups of mice were dosed once with BPQ or BP-7,8-diol each at 30 mg/kg and tissues harvested 48 and 72 h later, or with B[a]P (50mg/kg, a tumorigenic dose) and tissues harvested 72 h later. No BPQ or any other DNA adducts were observed in lung or liver tissues 24, 48, or 72 h after the treatment with 30 mg/kg BPQ. BP-7,8-diol gave BPDE-DNA adducts at all time points in both tissues and B[a]P treatment gave BPDE-DNA adducts in the lung. In each case, no BPQ-DNA adducts were detected. Mouse body weights significantly decreased over time after BPQ or BP-7,8-diol treatments suggesting that systemic toxicity was induced by both agents. Model studies with BPQ and N-acetylcysteine suggested that BPQ is rapidly inactivated by sulfhydryl-containing compounds and not available for DNA adduction. We conclude that under these treatment conditions BPQ does not form stable covalent DNA adducts in the lungs or livers of strain A/J mice, suggesting that stable BPQ-covalent adducts are not a part of the complex of mechanisms involved in B[a]P-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis.

  10. Investigation of NQO1 genetic polymorphism, NQO1 gene expression and PAH-DNA adducts in ESCC. A case-control study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Marjani, H A; Biramijamal, F; Rakhshani, N; Hossein-Nezhad, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2010-02-09

    We evaluated the effect of NQO1 genetic variation on PAH-DNA adducts in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in northeast Iran. Golestan Province in northeast of Iran has one of the highest esophageal cancer incidences in the world. The study included 93 ESCC cases and 50 control individuals who were seen at the clinical cancer center in Golestan province. NQO1 C609T genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. NQO1 gene expression in tissue samples was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect PAH-DNA adducts in ESCC and normal esophageal tissues. The distributions of NQO1 genetic polymorphism between cases and the control group were not significantly different. NQO1 gene expression was not higher in tumor tissues than in normal esophageal tissues adjacent to the ESCC; expression was higher in tumor tissues that had the NQO1 T allele. NQO1 gene expression was high in normal esophageal tissues. The level of PAH-DNA adducts was significantly higher in ESCC tissues of cases than in normal tissues adjacent to tumor tissues and in normal esophageal tissues of healthy controls. There were no significant differences between the adduct levels of normal esophageal tissues of patients and controls. There was also no significant relationship between cigarette smoking and PAH-DNA adducts. We concluded that PAHs are a risk factor for ESCC and that PAH-DNA adducts have potential as a biomarker for risk of ESCC.

  11. A physiologically based in silico model for trans-2-hexenal detoxification and DNA adduct formation in human including interindividual variation indicates efficient detoxification and a negligible genotoxicity risk.

    PubMed

    Kiwamoto, R; Spenkelink, A; Rietjens, I M C M; Punt, A

    2013-09-01

    A number of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in food both as natural constituents and as flavouring agents. Their reaction with DNA due to their electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety may result in genotoxicity as observed in some in vitro models, thereby raising a safety concern. A question that remains is whether in vivo detoxification would be efficient enough to prevent DNA adduct formation and genotoxicity. In this study, a human physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) model of trans-2-hexenal (2-hexenal), a selected model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, was developed to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation in humans upon dietary exposure. The kinetic model parameters for detoxification were quantified using relevant pooled human tissue fractions as well as tissue fractions from 11 different individual subjects. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed so that the impact of interindividual variation in 2-hexenal detoxification on the DNA adduct formation in the population as a whole could be examined. The PBK/D model revealed that DNA adduct formation due to 2-hexenal exposure was 0.039 adducts/10⁸ nucleotides (nt) at the estimated average 2-hexenal dietary intake (0.04 mg 2-hexenal/kg bw) and 0.18 adducts/10⁸ nt at the 95th percentile of the dietary intake (0.178 mg 2-hexenal/kg bw) in the most sensitive people. These levels are three orders of magnitude lower than natural background DNA adduct levels that have been reported in disease-free humans (6.8-110 adducts/10⁸ nt), suggesting that the genotoxicity risk for the human population at realistic dietary daily intakes of 2-hexenal may be negligible.

  12. Chicken fetal liver DNA damage and adduct formation by activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and related compounds of several structural classes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9-11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the (32)P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens.

  13. Nucleotides with altered hydrogen bonding capacities impede human DNA polymerase η by reducing synthesis in the presence of the major cisplatin DNA adduct.

    PubMed

    Nilforoushan, Arman; Furrer, Antonia; Wyss, Laura A; van Loon, Barbara; Sturla, Shana J

    2015-04-15

    Human DNA polymerase η (hPol η) contributes to anticancer drug resistance by catalyzing the replicative bypass of DNA adducts formed by the widely used chemotherapeutic agent cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin). A chemical basis for overcoming bypass-associated resistance requires greater knowledge of how small molecules influence the hPol η-catalyzed bypass of DNA adducts. In this study, we demonstrated how synthetic nucleoside triphosphates act as hPol η substrates and characterized their influence on hPol η-mediated DNA synthesis over unmodified and platinated DNA. The single nucleotide incorporation efficiency of the altered nucleotides varied by more than 10-fold and the higher incorporation rates appeared to be attributable to the presence of an additional hydrogen bond between incoming dNTP and templating base. Finally, full-length DNA synthesis in the presence of increasing concentrations of synthetic nucleotides reduced the amount of DNA product independent of the template, representing the first example of hPol η inhibition in the presence of a platinated DNA template.

  14. Effects of selenium on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis and DNA adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, C.; Daniel, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary neoplasia in rats and to delineate whether selenium-mediated modification of mammary carcinogenesis was associated with changes in carcinogen:DNA adduct formation and activities of liver microsomal enzymes that are involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups from weaning and were maintained on one of three synthetic diets designated as follows: selenium deficient (less than 0.02 ppm); selenium adequate (0.2 ppm); or selenium excess (2.5 ppm). For the DMBA binding and DNA adduct studies, rats were given a dose of (/sup 3/H)DMBA p.o. after 1 month on their respective diets. Results from the liver and the mammary gland indicated that neither selenium deficiency nor excess had any significant effect on the binding levels, which were calculated on the basis of total radioactivity isolated with the purified DNA. Furthermore, it was found that dietary selenium intake did not seem to affect quantitatively or qualitatively the formation of DMBA:DNA adducts in the liver. Similarly, in a parallel group of rats that did not receive DMBA, the activities of aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine N-demethylase, and cytochrome c reductase were not significantly altered by dietary selenium levels. Concurrent with the above experiments, the effect of dietary selenium intake on carcinogenesis was also monitored. Results of this experiment indicated that selenium deficiency enhanced mammary carcinogenesis only when this nutritional condition was maintained in the postinitiation phase. Likewise, an excess of selenium intake inhibited neoplastic development only when this regimen was continued after DMBA administration.

  15. Tamoxifen Forms DNA Adducts In Human Colon After Administration Of A Single [14C]-Labeled Therapeutic Dose.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K; Tompkins, E M; Boocock, D J; Martin, E A; Farmer, P B; Turteltaub, K W; Ubick, E; Hemingway, D; Horner-Glister, E; White, I H

    2007-05-23

    Tamoxifen is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer and is also licensed in the U.S. for the prevention of this disease. However, tamoxifen therapy is associated with an increased occurrence of endometrial cancer in women and there is also evidence that it may elevate the risk of colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanisms responsible for tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis in women have not yet been elucidated but much interest has focussed on the role of DNA adduct formation. We investigated the propensity of tamoxifen to bind irreversibly to colorectal DNA when given to ten women as a single [{sup 14}C]-labeled therapeutic (20 mg) dose, {approx}18 h prior to undergoing colon resections. Using the sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, coupled with HPLC separation of enzymatically digested DNA, a peak corresponding to authentic dG-N{sup 2}-tamoxifen adduct was detected in samples from three patients, at levels ranging from 1-7 adducts/10{sup 9} nucleotides. No [{sup 14}C]-radiolabel associated with tamoxifen or its major metabolites was detected. The presence of detectable CYP3A4 protein in all colon samples suggests this tissue has the potential to activate tamoxifen to {alpha}-hydroxytamoxifen, in addition to that occurring in the systemic circulation, and direct interaction of this metabolite with DNA could account for the binding observed. Although the level of tamoxifeninduced damage displayed a degree of inter-individual variability, when present it was {approx}10-100 times higher than that reported for other suspect human colon carcinogens such as PhIP. These findings provide a mechanistic basis through which tamoxifen could increase the incidence of colon cancers in women.

  16. Xenobiotic metabolism induction and bulky DNA adducts generated by particulate matter pollution in BEAS-2B cell line: geographical and seasonal influence.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Capucine; André, Véronique; Dergham, Mona; Billet, Sylvain; Verdin, Anthony; Garçon, Guillaume; Dewaele, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Sichel, François; Shirali, Pirouz

    2014-06-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) toxicity is of growing interest as diesel exhaust particles have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, PM is a mixture of chemicals, and respective contribution of organic and inorganic fractions to PM toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we analysed the link between chemical composition of PM samples and bulky DNA adduct formation supported by CYP1A1 and 1B1 genes induction and catalytic activities. We used six native PM samples, collected in industrial, rural or urban areas, either during the summer or winter, and carried out our experiments on the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Cell exposure to PM resulted in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes induction. This was followed by an increase in EROD activity, leading to bulky DNA adduct formation in exposed cells. Bulky DNA adduct intensity was associated to global EROD activity, but this activity was poorly correlated with CYPs mRNA levels. However, EROD activity was correlated with both metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Finally, principal components analysis revealed three clusters for PM chemicals, and suggested synergistic effects of metals and PAHs on bulky DNA adduct levels. This study showed the ability of PM samples from various origins to generate bulky DNA adducts in BEAS-2B cells. This formation was promoted by increased expression and activity of CYPs involved in PAHs activation into reactive metabolites. However, our data highlight that bulky DNA adduct formation is only partly explained by PM content in PAHs, and suggest that inorganic compounds, such as iron, may promote bulky DNA adduct formation by supporting CYP activity.

  17. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites.

  18. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiwamoto, R. Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  19. Quantification of DNA adducts in lungs, liver and brain of rats exposed to acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Camila C M; Batista, Guilherme L; Freitas, Florêncio P; Lopes, Fernando S; Sanchez, Angélica B; Gutz, Ivano G R; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution is a major risk for human health. Acetaldehyde is an environmental pollutant present in tobacco smoke, vehicle exhaust and several food products. Formation of DNA adducts has been regarded as a critical factor in the mechanisms of acetaldehyde mutagenicity and carcinogenesis. Acetaldehyde reacts with 2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA to primarily form N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo). The subsequent reaction of N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo with another molecule of acetaldehyde gives rise to 1,N(2)-propano-2´-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-propanodGuo). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-edGuo) in tissues of rats exposed to 12 ppb, 33 ppb and 96 ppb acetaldehyde in atmospheric air for 50 days. A significant increase in the levels of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo was observed in lung tissues of rats exposed to 12 ppb (7.8/10(8) dGuo); 33 ppb (8.9/10(8) dGuo) and 96 ppb (11.6/10(8) dGuo) compared to controls (4.2/10(8) dGuo). For comparative purposes, the levels of 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-edGuo), which is produced from a,b-unsaturated aldehydes formed during the lipid peroxidation process were also measured. Elevated levels of 1,N(2)-edGuo were observed only in lung tissues of animals exposed to 96 ppb acetaldehyde. 1,N(2)-propanodGuo also differed quantitatively in liver but not in brain. The monitoring of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo levels in tissues provides important information on acetaldehyde genotoxicity and may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms associated with acetaldehyde exposure and cancer risk. Supported byFAPESP:2011/10048-5, CAPES, INCT Redoxoma:573530/2008-4,NAP Redoxoma: 2011.1.9352.1.8, CEPID Redoxoma:2013/07937-8.

  20. Oligonucleotide probes containing pyrimidine analogs reveal diminished hydrogen bonding capacity of the DNA adduct O⁶-methyl-G in DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Todor; Dahlmann, Heidi A; Sturla, Shana J

    2013-10-15

    Oligonucleotide hybridization probes containing nucleoside analogs offer a potential strategy for binding specific DNA sequences that bear pro-mutagenic O(6)-G alkylation adducts. To optimize O(6)-Me-G-targeting probes, an understanding of how base pairs with O(6)-Me-G are stabilized is needed. In this study, we compared the ability of O(6)-Me-G and G to hydrogen bond with three pyrimidine-like nucleobases (Z, 4-thio-U, and 3-deaza-C) bearing varied hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups. We found that duplexes containing the pyrimidine analog nucleoside:G pairs were more thermodynamically stable than those containing pyrimidine analog nucleoside:O(6)-alkyl-G pairs. Thus, hydrogen bonding alone was not sufficient to impart selectivity to probes that target O(6)-G alkylation adducts in DNA.

  1. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  2. Acrylamide exposure induces a delayed unscheduled DNA synthesis in germ cells of male mice that is correlated with the temporal pattern of adduct formation in testis DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.; Generoso, E.E.; Brimer, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A study of meiotic and postmeiotic germ-cell-stage sensitivity of male mice to induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) by acrylamide showed that DNA repair could be detected in early spermatocytes (after the last scheduled DNA synthesis) through about mid-spermatid stages. No DNA repair could be detected in later stages. The maximum UDS response was observed 6 hr after i.p. exposure and was about 5 times greater than the response measured immediately after treatment. This is the longest delay between chemical treatment and maximum UDS response yet observed in mouse germ cells. There was a linear relationship between the UDS response and acrylamide exposure from 7.8 to 125 mg/kg. By using 14C-labeled acrylamide it was determined that the temporal pattern of adduct formation in testes DNA paralleled that of the UDS response, with maximum binding occurring 4 to 6 hr after exposure. In contrast, the temporal pattern of adduct formation in liver DNA showed maximum binding within 1 to 2 hr after exposure and was an order of magnitude greater than that found for the testis DNA.

  3. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H.; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly-selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in 8 DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by 32P-postlabelling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 108 nucleotides (mean: 5.8±3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r=0.4, p<0.001). Compared with the environmental model, adding phase I SNPs and NER capacity provided the best fit, and could explain 17% more of the variation in adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels 3-4 times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of phase I genes and NER capacity. PMID:23175176

  4. Simultaneous determination of four sulfur mustard-DNA adducts in rabbit urine after dermal exposure by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajiao; Yue, Lijun; Nie, Zhiyong; Chen, Jia; Guo, Lei; Wu, Bidong; Feng, Jianlin; Liu, Qin; Xie, Jianwei

    2014-06-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a classic vesicant agent, which has been greatly employed in several wars or military conflicts. The most lesion mechanism is its strong alkylation of DNAs in vivo. Until now there are four specific DNA adducts of SM identified for further retrospective detection, i.e., N(7)-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-2'-guanine (N(7)-HETEG), bis(2-ethyl-N(7)-guanine)thioether (Bis-G), N(3)-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-2'-adenine (N(3)-HETEA) and O(6)-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-2'-guanine (O(6)-HETEG), respectively. Here, a novel and sensitive method of isotope-dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) combining with solid phase extraction was reported for the simultaneous determination of four SM-DNA adducts. A lower limit of detection of 2-5ngL(-1), and a lower limit of quantitation of 5-10ngL(-1) were achieved, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 87% to 116%. We applied this method in the determination of four SM-DNA adducts in rabbit urine after dermal exposure by SM in three dose levels (2, 5, 15mgkg(-1)), so as to investigate the related metabolic behavior in vivo. For the first time, in SM exposed rabbit urine, our results revealed the relative accumulation abundance of four SM-DNA adducts, i.e., 67.4% for N(7)-HETEG, 22.7% for Bis-G, 9.8% for N(3)-HETEA, 0.1% for O(6)-HETEG, and significant dose and time dependent responses of these SM-DNA adducts. The four adducts were detectable after 8h, afterwards, their contents continuously increased, achieved maximum in the first two or three days and then gradually decreased till the end of one month. Meanwhile, the amounts of SM-DNA adducts were positively correlated with the exposure doses.

  5. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Porru, Stefano; Pavanello, Sofia; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Simeone, Claudio; Izzotti, Alberto; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006) was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001), coffee (p<0.001), cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041) and MnSOD (p = 0.009) and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008) were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life

  6. Detection and quantitation of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in brain and liver tissues of Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence and Mackenzie Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    It should be noted that there are few analytical techniques available for the detection and quantitation of chemical adducts in the DNA of living organisms. The reasons for this are: the analytical technique often has to accommodate the unique chemical and/or physical properties of the individual chemical or its metabolite; the percentage of total chemical that becomes most of the parent compound is usually detoxified and excreted; not all adducts that form between the genotoxic agent and DNA are stable or are involved in the development of subsequent deleterious events in the organism; and the amount of DNA available for analysis is often quite limited. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Verification, Dosimetry, and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    specificity 4- for DNA adducts of mustard gas. With this serum a method for the screening of supernatants of hybridomas for specific antibody activity ...11: Chemical shift assignments and coupling constants for tl-e 1’tdrogen (400 MHz; a) and carbon atoms (100.6 MHz; b) of N7-(2’-hydroxyethylthioethyl...subsequent hydrolysis. 113 Figure 14: Chemical shift assignments and coupling constants for the hydrogen (400 MHz; a) and carbon atoms (100.6 Miz; b) of di-(2

  8. DNA adducts in human and mouse skin maintained in short-term culture and treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Ni Shé, M; Phillips, D H

    1991-05-24

    Human and mouse skin samples maintained in short-term organ culture were treated topically with used engine oils from petrol- and diesel-powered vehicles. Mice were also treated topically in vivo for comparison. DNA was isolated and analysed by 32P-postlabelling and the labeled DNA digests were resolved on polyethyleneimine-cellulose tlc sheets. A large number of radioactive adduct spots were observed in DNA from skin treated with the used petrol-engine oil, indicating the formation of adducts by many components of the complex oil mixture. Total adduct levels were similar in mouse skin (both in vivo and in vitro) and in human skin, although qualitative differences in the adduct maps were apparent between the human and mouse skin DNA. Treatment with the used diesel engine oil produced adduct levels no greater than that of control samples in mouse skin (in vivo and in vitro), although significant levels were found in human skin DNA from one donor. The results correlate well with the carcinogenic activity of these oils in experimental animals, helping to substantiate the conclusion that petrol engine oils (but not diesel engine oils) may present a carcinogenic risk to man if appropriate measures to minimise skin contact are not observed.

  9. /sup 32/P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P/sub 1/-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.V.; Randerath, K.

    1987-12-01

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A /sup 32/P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are /sup 32/P-labeled at their 5'-hydroxyl groups by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed (/sup 32/P) phosphate transfer from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. /sup 32/P-labeled derivatives are resolved by TLC, detected by autoradiography, and quantitated by counting. This assay has been recently utilized for the determination and partial characterization of DNA adducts formed in somatic and reproductive tissues of rats given the clinically used anticancer drug, mitomycin C. The drug exhibits similar levels of covalent binding to DNA in most tissues. Further studies have revealed that adducted nucleotides are primarily guanine derivatives that are resistant to 3'-dephosphorylation by Penicillium citrinum nuclease P/sub 1/. The latter observation has been utilized to enhance the /sup 32/P-assay's sensitivity to 1 adduct in 10/sup 10/ nucleotides for a 10-..mu..g DNA sample by postincubation of DNA digests with nuclease P/sup 1/ before /sup 32/P-labeling. The new assay has also shown utility in the analysis of very low levels of age- and tissue-related DNA modifications, which might arise from dietary or endogenous compounds, in untreated rats and humans.

  10. The carcinogen 1-methylpyrene forms benzylic DNA adducts in mouse and rat tissues in vivo via a reactive sulphuric acid ester.

    PubMed

    Bendadani, Carolin; Meinl, Walter; Monien, Bernhard H; Dobbernack, Gisela; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2014-03-01

    The common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in the newborn mouse assay. In vitro studies showed that it is metabolically activated via benzylic hydroxylation and sulphation to a reactive ester, which forms benzylic DNA adducts, N(2)-(1-methylpyrenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (MPdG) and N(6)-(1-methylpyrenyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (MPdA). Formation of these adducts was also observed in animals treated with the metabolites, 1-hydroxymethylpyrene and 1-sulphooxymethylpyrene (1-SMP), whereas corresponding data are missing for 1-methylpyrene. In the present study, we treated mice with 1-methylpyrene and subsequently analysed blood serum for the presence of the reactive metabolite 1-SMP and tissue DNA for the presence of MPdG and MPdA adducts. We used wild-type mice and a mouse line transgenic for human sulphotransferases (SULT) 1A1 and 1A2, males and females. All analyses were conducted using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, for the adducts with isotope-labelled internal standards. 1-SMP was detected in all treated animals. Its serum level was higher in transgenic mice than in the wild-type (p < 0.001). Likewise, both adducts were detected in liver, kidney and lung DNA of all exposed animals. The transgene significantly enhanced the level of each adduct in each tissue of both sexes (p < 0.01-0.001). Adduct levels were highest in the liver, the target tissue of carcinogenesis, in each animal model used. MPdG and MPdA adducts were also observed in rats treated with 1-methylpyrene. Our findings corroborate the hypothesis that 1-SMP is indeed the ultimate carcinogen of 1-methylpyrene and that human SULT are able to mediate the terminal activation in vivo.

  11. ACCUMULATION OF M1DG DNA ADDUCTS AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO PCBS, BUT NOT FROM ACUTE EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Oxidative DNA damage is one of the key events leading to mutation and cancer. The present study examined the accumulation of M1dG DNA adducts, 3-(2’-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-a]-purin-10(3H)-one, after single or yearly exposur...

  12. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Autrup, H; Daneshvar, B; Dragsted, L O; Gamborg, M; Hansen, M; Loft, S; Okkels, H; Nielsen, F; Nielsen, P S; Raffn, E; Wallin, H; Knudsen, L E

    1999-03-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.

  13. Quantification of DNA adducts formed in liver, lungs, and isolated lung cells of rats and mice exposed to (14)C-styrene by nose-only inhalation.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; de Kloe, K P; Wong, B A; Sumner, S C; Watson, W P; van Sittert, N J

    2000-10-01

    Bronchiolo-alveolar tumors were observed in mice exposed chronically to 160 ppm styrene, whereas no tumors were seen in rats up to concentrations of 1000 ppm. Clara cells, which are predominant in the bronchiolo-alveolar region in mouse lungs but less numerous in rat and human lung, contain various cytochrome P450s, which may oxidize styrene to the rodent carcinogen styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) and other reactive metabolites. Reactive metabolites may form specific DNA adducts and induce the tumors observed in mice. To determine DNA adducts in specific tissues and cell types, rats and mice were exposed to 160 ppm [ring-U-(14)C]styrene by nose-only inhalation for 6 h in a recirculating exposure system. Liver and lungs were isolated 0 and 42 h after exposure. Fractions enriched in Type II cells and Clara cells were isolated from rat and mouse lung, respectively. DNA adduct profiles differed quantitatively and qualitatively in liver, total lung, and enriched lung cell fractions. At 0 and 42 h after exposure, the two isomeric N:7-guanine adducts of SO (measured together, HPEG) were present in liver at 3.0 +/- 0.2 and 1.9 +/- 0.3 (rat) and 1.2 +/- 0.2 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mouse) per 10(8) bases. Several other, unidentified adducts were present at two to three times higher concentrations in mouse, but not in rat liver. In both rat and mouse lung, HPEG was the major adduct at approximately 1 per 10(8) bases at 0 h, and these levels halved at 42 h. In both rat Type II and non-Type II cells, HPEG was the major adduct and was about three times higher in Type II cells than in total lung. For mice, DNA adduct levels in Clara cells and non-Clara cells were similar to total lung. The hepatic covalent binding index (CBI) at 0 and 42 h was 0.19 +/- 0.06 and 0.14 +/- 0.03 (rat) and 0. 25 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.23 (mouse), respectively. The pulmonary CBIs, based on tissues combined for 0 and 42 h, were 0.17 +/- 0.04 (rat) and 0.24 +/- 0.04 (mouse). Compared with CBIs for other genotoxicants

  14. DNA adduct formation and oxidative stress from the carcinogenic urban air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its isomer 2-nitrobenzanthrone, in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Eszter; Adachi, Shuichi; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Zeisig, Magnus; Möller, Lennart

    2007-03-01

    The carcinogenic vehicle emission product 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is known to rearrange in the atmosphere to the isomer 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which exists in 70-fold higher concentration in ambient air. The genotoxicity of 2-NBA and 3-NBA was studied both in vitro (human cell lines A549 and HepG2) and in vivo (F344 female rats intra-tracheally administered 5 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA) models, using the (32)P-HPLC and the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) methods. In vitro, also the parent compound benzanthrone (BA) and the metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) were evaluated. 3-NBA gave highest levels of DNA adducts in the two cell lines, but significantly higher in HepG2 (relative adduct level approximately 500 adducts/10(8) normal nucleotides), whereas 2-NBA formed about one-third and one-twentieth of the DNA adduct amount in A549 and HepG2 cells, respectively. 3-ABA formed only minute amounts of DNA adducts and only in the A549 cells, whereas BA did not give rise to any detectable levels. The DNA adduct patterns from 3-NBA were similar between the two model systems, but differed somewhat for 2-NBA. The oxidative stress induced by BA was almost as high as what was observed for 3-NBA and 3-ABA in both cell lines, and 2-NBA induced lowest level of oxidative stress. The oxidative stress and DNA adduct level, in whole blood, was significantly increased by 3-NBA but not by 2-NBA. However, 2-NBA showed similar toxicity to 3-NBA, with respect to DNA adduct formation in vivo, hence it is important to further study 2-NBA as a potential contributor to health risk. While DNA adduct level in the 3-NBA-exposed animals reached a peak around 1 and 2 days after instillation, 2-NBA-treated animals showed a tendency towards a continuing increase at the end of the study.

  15. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs.

    PubMed

    Arab, K; Pedersen, M; Nair, J; Meerang, M; Knudsen, L E; Bartsch, H

    2009-02-01

    The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage in mother and newborn shows a similar pattern. Two adducts 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and 3,N(4)-ethenodeoxycytidine (epsilondC) were measured by our ultrasensitive immunoaffinity (32)P-post-labeling method. These miscoding etheno-DNA adducts are generated by the reaction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) end products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with DNA bases. Mean epsilondA and epsilondC levels when expressed per 10(9) parent nucleotides in WBC-DNA from cord blood were 138 and 354, respectively; in maternal WBC-DNA, the respective values were 317 and 916. Thus, the DNA-etheno adduct levels were reliably detectable and about two times lower in child cord blood, the difference being significant at P < 0.0004. Analysis of epsilondA and epsilondC levels in cord versus maternal blood WBC showed strong positive correlations (R(2) approximately 0.9, P < 0.00001). In conclusion, LPO-induced DNA damage arising from endogenous reactive aldehydes in WBC of both mother and newborn can be reliably assessed by epsilondA and epsilondC as biomarkers. The high correlation of etheno adduct levels in mother and child WBC suggests that a typical signature of DNA damage is induced similarly in fetus and mother. Prospective cohort studies have to reveal whether these two WBC-DNA adducts could serve as risk indicator for developing hematopoietic cancers and other disorders later in life.

  16. High-throughput, quantitative analysis of acrolein-derived DNA adducts in human oral cells by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Emily J; Lee, Hanjoo; Dyba, Marcin; Pan, Jishen; Mekambi, Kepher; Johnson, Tierra; Blancato, Jan; Mueller, Susette; Berry, Deborah L; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2012-11-01

    Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant as well as an endogenous compound. Acrolein-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosines (Acr-dG) are exocyclic DNA adducts formed following exposure to cigarette smoke or from lipid peroxidation. Acr-dG is mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic and may represent a useful biomarker for the early detection of cancers related to smoking or other oxidative conditions, such as chronic inflammation. In this study, we have developed a high-throughput, automated method using a HistoRx PM-2000 imaging system combined with MetaMorph software for quantifying Acr-dG adducts in human oral cells by immunohistochemical detection using a monoclonal antibody recently developed by our laboratory. This method was validated in a cell culture system using BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells treated with known concentrations of Acr. The results were further verified by quantitative analysis of Acr-dG in DNA of BEAS-2B cells using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry/multiple-reaction monitoring method. The automated method is a quicker, more accurate method than manual evaluation of counting cells expressing Acr-dG and quantifying fluorescence intensity. It may be applied to other antibodies that are used for immunohistochemical detection in tissues as well as cell lines, primary cultures, and other cell types.

  17. Removal of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and in vitro transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T1 1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Amstad, P.A.; Wang, T.V.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of in vitro transformation of the mouse embryo fibroblast C3H/10T 1/2 clone 8 by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was studied in confluent holding (CH) experiments. Confluent cultures of C3H/10T 1/2 cells were treated with AFB1 for 16 hours, and the DNA adduct composition and concentration were determined by chromatographic procedures after 0, 8, 16, and 40 hours of CH when the cells were replated at low density for the expression of their colony-forming ability and the formation of transformed foci. Total adduct concentration and the concentration of the major primary adduct 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua) decreased continuously during CH due to spontaneous decomposition and probably also due to enzymatic repair processes. In contrast, the more chemically stable secondary product 2,3-dihydro-2-(N5-formyl-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-oxo-N5-pyrimidyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB1-triamino-Py) accumulated in the DNA and reached its maximum concentration after 16 hours of CH. While the loss of total AFB1-DNA adducts during CH was reflected in recovery of viability, the potential to form transformed foci reached a maximum after 16 hours of CH and then decreased with continued CH below the initial value. Therefore, no simple relationship exists between the concentration of the total adducts AFB1-N7-Gua and AFB1-triamino-Py at the time of release from CH and the potential to form transformed foci. However, DNA lesions or abnormal DNA configurations formed during CH as a consequence of the cellular processing of AFB1-DNA adducts may play a role in the transformation process.

  18. Towards biomarker-dependent individualized chemotherapy: exploring cell-specific differences in oxaliplatin-DNA adduct distribution using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hah, Sang Soo; Henderson, Paul T; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2010-04-15

    Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-based anticancer drug that is currently used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin, like other platinum-based anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and carboplatin, is known to induce apoptosis in tumor cells by binding to nuclear DNA, forming monoadducts, and intra- and interstrand diadducts. Previously, we reported an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) assay to measure the kinetics of oxaliplatin-induced DNA damage and repair [Hah, S. S.; Sumbad, R. A.; de Vere White, R. W.; Turteltaub, K. W.; Henderson, P. T. Chem. Res. Toxicol.2007, 20, 1745]. Here, we describe another application of AMS to the measurement of oxaliplatin-DNA adduct distribution in cultured platinum-sensitive testicular (833K) and platinum-resistant breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells, which resulted in elucidation of cell-dependent differentiation of oxaliplatin-DNA adduct formation, implying that differential adduction and/or accumulation of the drug in cellular DNA may be responsible for the sensitivity of cancer cells to platinum treatment. Ultimately, we hope to use this method to measure the intrinsic platinated DNA adduct repair capacity in cancer patients for use as a biomarker for diagnostics or a predictor of patient outcome.

  19. No effects of chlorophyllin on IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline)-genotoxicity and -DNA adduct formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Tomoe; Shinoda, Aki; Ishizaki, Nao; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Sugiyama, Chitose

    2004-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated that chlorophyllin suppressed the genotoxicities of many carcinogens. However, the genotoxicity of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), a carcinogenic heterocyclic amine, was not suppressed in Drosophila. On the contrary, it has been reported that chrolophyllin suppressed the genotoxicity of IQ in rodents, rainbow trout and Salmonella. We demonstrated that the chlorophyllin-induced suppression of MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline)-genotoxicity was associated with a decrease in MeIQx-DNA adduct formation in Drosophila larval DNA. MeIQx represents another type of heterocyclic amine and is similar to IQ in structure. In this study we utilized (32)P-postlabeling to examine whether chlorophyllin reduced IQ-DNA adduct formation in Drosophila DNA in the same way as MeIQx. The results revealed that the formation of IQ-DNA adducts was unaffected by treatment with chlorophyllin. This was consistent with the absence of any inhibitory effect on genotoxicity as observed in the Drosophila repair test. These results suggest that IQ-behavior in Drosophila is not affected by chlorophyllin, indicating that the process of IQ-DNA adduct formation followed by expression of genotoxicity in Drosophila may be different from that in other organisms.

  20. Formation and repair kinetics of Pt-(GpG) DNA adducts in extracted circulating tumour cells and response to platinum treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nel, I; Gauler, T C; Eberhardt, W E; Nickel, A-C; Schuler, M; Thomale, J; Hoffmann, A-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslinks are the major DNA adducts induced by platinum-based anticancer drugs. In the cell lines and mouse models, the persistence of these lesions correlates significantly with cell damage. Here we studied Pt-(GpG) DNA adducts in circulating tumour cells (CTC) treated with cisplatin in medium upfront to systemic therapy from patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Blood was drawn before systemic treatment and the CD45/CD15-depleted fraction of mononuclear cells was exposed to cisplatin, verified for the presence of CTC by pan-cytokeratin (pCK) staining and immunoanalysed for the level of Pt-(GpG) in DNA. Results: Immunostaining for pCK, CD45 and subsequently for Pt-(GpG) adducts in the cisplatin-exposed cells (ex vivo) at different time points depicted distinct differences for adduct persistence in CTC between responders vs non-responders. Conclusion: Pt-(GpG) adducts can be detected in CTC from NSCLC patients and assessing their kinetics may constitute a clinically feasible biomarker for response prediction and dose individualisation of platinum-based chemotherapy. This functional pre-therapeutic test might represent a more biological approach than measuring protein factors or other molecular markers. PMID:23942068

  1. Use of shuttle vectors to study the molecular processing of defined carcinogen-induced DNA damage: mutagenicity of single O4-ethylthymine adducts in HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, J C; Bleeker, M J; Lutgerink, J T; van Dijk, W J; Brugghe, H F; van den Elst, H; van der Marel, G A; van Boom, J H; Westra, J G; Berns, A J

    1990-01-01

    We developed a simian virus 40 based shuttle vector system to study the molecular consequences of distinct carcinogen-induced DNA lesions in human cells. To establish the mutagenicity of O4-ethylthymine adducts, oligonucleotides carrying a single O4-ethylthymine adduct at a unique position were ligated into the vector molecules. Following replication in HeLa cells on average 23% of the progeny molecules carried a mutation in the region of modification. The vast majority of these mutations represented single T----C transitions at the position of the modified base, most probably as a consequence of mispairing of the O4-ethylthymine residues during replication. To a minor extent the O4-ethylthymine adduct may also induce T----A transversions or double point mutations. The in vivo mutation frequency of the adduct was found to be comparable to that of a C-A mismatch at the same position, but was lower than that expected from in vitro experiments with adducted DNA templates and purified DNA polymerases. Images PMID:2377457

  2. Quantitation of pyridyloxobutyl-DNA adducts in tissues of rats treated chronically with (R)- or (S)-N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in a carcinogenicity study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijiao; Balbo, Silvia; Wang, Mingyao; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Khariwala, Samir S.; Villalta, Peter W.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified DNA adducts resulting from 2’-hydroxylation of enantiomers of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in tissues of male F-344 rats after 10, 30, 50, and 70 weeks of treatment with 14 ppm in the drinking water. These rats were in subgroups of a carcinogenicity study in which (S)-NNN was highly tumorigenic in the oral cavity and esophagus while (R)-NNN was relatively weakly active. DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in six tissues – oral mucosa, esophageal mucosa, nasal respiratory mucosa, nasal olfactory mucosa, liver, and lung. O2-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 7) and 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine (7-POB-dGuo, 8), the latter as 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua, 11), were detected at each time point in each tissue. In the target tissues for carcinogenicity, oral mucosa and esophageal mucosa, levels of 7-POB-Gua (11) and O2-POB-dThd (7) were similar, or 11 predominated, while in all other tissues at all time points for both enantiomers, 7 was clearly present in greater amounts than 11. Total measured DNA adduct levels in esophageal mucosa and oral mucosa were higher in rats treated with (S)-NNN than (R)-NNN. The highest adduct levels were found in the nasal respiratory mucosa. DNA adducts generally persisted in all tissues without any sign of substantial decreases throughout the 70 week time course. The results of this study suggest that inefficient repair of 7-POB-dGuo (8) in the rat oral cavity and esophagus may be important in carcinogenesis by NNN and support the development of these DNA adducts as potential biomarkers of NNN metabolic activation in people who use tobacco products. PMID:24001146

  3. Structural insights by molecular dynamics simulations into specificity of the major human AP endonuclease toward the benzene-derived DNA adduct, pBQ-C

    PubMed Central

    Guliaev, Anton B.; Hang, Bo; Singer, B.

    2004-01-01

    The benzetheno exocyclic adduct of the cytosine (C) base (pBQ-C) is a product of reaction between DNA and a stable metabolite of the human carcinogen benzene, p-benzoquinone (pBQ). We reported previously that the pBQ-C-containing duplex is a substrate for the human AP endonuclease (APE1), an enzyme that cleaves an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site from double stranded DNA. In this work, using molecular dynamics simulation (MD), we provided a structural explanation for the recognition of the pBQ-C adduct by APE1. Molecular modeling of the DNA duplex containing pBQ-C revealed significant displacement of this adduct toward the major groove with pronounced kinking of the DNA at the lesion site, which could serve as a structural element recognized by the APE1 enzyme. Using 3 ns MD it was shown that the position of the pBQ-C adduct is stabilized by two hydrogen bonds formed between the adduct and the active site amino acids Asp 189 and Ala 175. The pBQ-C/APE1 complex, generated by MD, has a similar hydrogen bond network between target phosphodiester bond at the pBQ-C site and key amino acids at the active site, as in the crystallographically determined APE1 complexed with an AP site-containing DNA duplex. The position of the adduct at the enzyme active site, together with the hydrogen bond network, suggests a similar reaction mechanism for phosphodiester bond cleavage of oligonucleotide containing pBQ-C as reported for the AP site. PMID:15155853

  4. Quantification of adducts formed in DNA treated with N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene or N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene: comparison of trifluoroacetic acid and enzymatic degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.; Lieberman, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    We have examined two methods of preparation of DNA adducts from phi X174 RF DNA modified by (/sup 3/H)N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene ((/sup 3/H)NA-AAF) or N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene ((/sup 3/H)N-OH-AF). Hydrolysis by enzymes (DNase I, snake venom phosphodiesterase and alkaline or acid phosphatase) and subsequent reverse phase h.p.l.c. of phi X174 RF DNA treated with (/sup 3/H)NA-AAF yielded 73% N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF), 7% 3-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), and a peak of unidentified radioactivity (13%). When (/sup 3/H)N-OH-AF modified phi X174 DNA was analyzed, both N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and a large percentage of the imidazole ring-opened derivative and unidentified products were found. In contrast, when anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was used to degrade these DNAs, we found for the (/sup 3/H)NA-AAF modified DNA 86% N-(guanin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (G-C8-AAF) and 6% 3-(guanin-N2-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (G-N2-AAF), while for (/sup 3/H)N-OH-AF modified DNA only the N-(guanin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (G-C8-AF) was found. When DNA was prepared from human fibroblasts treated with (/sup 3/H)NA-AAF, only the G-C8-AF product was obtained. Thus, anhydrous TFA solvolysis followed by reverse phase h.p.l.c. is a rapid and convenient method to obtain quantitative yields of DNA adducts formed with acetylaminofluorene and related compounds: quantification by this method prevents loss of G-N2-AAF adducts, the conversion of AAF adducts to AF adducts, and the production of ring opened products in guanine residue.

  5. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  6. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  7. Hepatic DNA adducts and production of mutagenic urine in 2,6-dinitrotoluene-treated B6C3F1 male mice.

    PubMed

    George, S E; Kohan, M J; Warren, S H

    1996-04-19

    The hepatocarcinogen 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) is an intermediate in the chemical synthesis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and polyurethane products and can contaminate the waste stream emitted by these industries. In this study, the production of mutagenic urine metabolites and the formation of hepatic DNA adducts is examined in the B6C3F1 male mouse. Animals were administered 50 mg/kg 2,6-DNT by gavage for 3 consecutive days. No body or liver weight effects were observed in treated animals. Following sacrifice, the livers were excised and DNA isolated for examination of 2,6-DNT-derived DNA adducts. During 2,6-DNT treatment, urine was collected, concentrated, and tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella reversion bioassay. Mutagenic urine metabolites (469+/-53 revertants/ml urine) were excreted from B6C3F1 mice treated with 2,6-DNT and were comparable to results obtained for CD-1 mice and Fischer 344 rats. Two distinct hepatic DNA adducts (0.8+/-0.1 and 0.6+/-0.1 RAL/10(8) nucleotides) were detected in B6C3F1 mice by (32)P-postlabeling and thin layer chromatography which differed from the four adducts observed in hepatic DNA from 2,6-DNT-treated Fischer 344 rats.

  8. Accumulation of DNA adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ) in tissues and white blood cells of the Fischer-344 rat after multiple oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Schut, H A; Herzog, C R; Cummings, D A

    1994-07-01

    The genotoxic effect of an environmental chemical may be estimated from the concentration of its DNA adducts in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs). The food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is carcinogenic in the Fischer-344 rat, affecting principally the liver, small intestine and large intestine. In the present study we have determined whether DNA adducts of IQ are present in circulating WBCs of rats after single or multiple oral doses of IQ and how these adducts are related to those in internal organs. Male Fischer-344 rats received IQ as an oral dose (5 or 50 mg/kg, starting on day 0) by daily gavage (1, 8 or 15 days of treatment). Using 32P-postlabeling assays, IQ-DNA adducts were isolated and quantitated in organs and WBCs on days 1, 8 and 15. Adduct patterns in WBCs were qualitatively similar to those in the organs and adduct formation was highest in the liver, followed by the lungs, kidneys, stomach, large intestine, WBC and small intestine. Accumulation of adducts occurred in all organs and in WBCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. For all organs, IQ-DNA adduct formation was strongly correlated with those in WBCs. It is concluded that IQ-DNA adducts in WBCs are qualitatively and quantitatively directly related to those in internal organs, independent of the target organ specificity of the carcinogenic effect of IQ.

  9. Identification of the major lesion from the reaction of an acridine-targeted aniline mustard with DNA as an adenine N1 adduct.

    PubMed

    Boritzki, T J; Palmer, B D; Coddington, J M; Denny, W A

    1994-01-01

    DNA adducts of two acridine-linked aniline half-mustards have been isolated and identified. The compound where the half-mustard is attached to the DNA-targeting acridine moiety by a short linker chain alkylates both double- and single-stranded DNA exclusively at guanine N7, as do the majority of known aromatic and aliphatic nitrogen mustards. The longer-chain analogue, also containing a more reactive half-mustard, shows a strikingly different pattern, alkylating double-stranded DNA to yield primarily (> 90%) the adenine N1 adduct, together with < 10% of the adenine N3 adduct and only trace amounts of the guanine N7 adduct. In the presence of MgCl2 (which is known not to inhibit the interaction of drugs at minor groove sites), the adenine N3 adduct is the major product. The latter compound is the first known aniline mustard (and apparently the first known alkylating agent of any type) to preferentially alkylate adenine at the N1 position in duplex DNA. These results are consistent with previous work [Prakash et al. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 9799-9807], which showed that the preferred site of DNA alkylation by the corresponding long-chain acridine-linked aniline bis-mustards in general was at major groove sites of adenines and identifies the major site of alkylation as adenine N1 and not N7. This selectivity for adenine N1 alkylation is suggested to result from a preference for the acridine mustard side chain of these compounds to project into the major groove following intercalation of the acridine, coupled with structural distortion of the DNA helix to make the N1 positions of adenines adjacent to the intercalation sites more accessible.

  10. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  11. Non-specificity and synergy at the binding site of the carboplatin-induced DNA adduct via molecular dynamics simulations of the MutSα-DNA recognition complex

    PubMed Central

    Negureanu, Lacramioara; Salsbury, Freddie R

    2013-01-01

    MutSα is the most abundant mismatch binding factor of human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. MMR maintain genetic stability by recognizing and repairing DNA defects. Failure to accomplish their function may lead to cancer. In addition, MutSα recognizes at least some types of DNA damage making it a target for anticancer agents. Here, complementing scarce experimental data, we report unique hydrogen bonding motifs associated with the recognition of the carboplatin induced DNA damage by MutSα. These data predict that carboplatin and cisplatin induced damaging DNA adducts are recognized by MutSα in a similar manner. Our simulations also indicate that loss of base pairing at the damage site results in (1) non-specific binding and (2) changes in the atomic flexibility at the lesion site and beyond. To further quantify alterations at MutSα-DNA interface in response to damage recognition non-bonding interactions and salt bridges were investigated. These data indicate (1) possible different packing and (2) disruption of the salt bridges at the MutSα-DNA interface in the damaged complex. These findings (1) underscore the general observation of disruptions at the MutSα-DNA interface and (2) highlight the nature of the anticancer effect of the carboplatin agent. The analysis was carried out from atomistic simulations. PMID:23799640

  12. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides increased transcript abundance of CSA and MUTL. In addition, mRNA abundance of HSP70 and GADD45α were increased by endosulfan and mRNA abundance of XPG was increased by α-cypermethrin. XPC, HR23B, XPG, and GADD45α exhibited elevated mRNA concentrations whereas there was a reduction in MUTL transcript concentrations in UVB-alone treatments. It appeared that even

  13. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of sister chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting sister chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than

  14. Genetic variations of CYP2B6 gene were associated with plasma BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxiang; Guo, Huan; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-06-20

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the main components of coke oven emissions, can induce activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which metabolize PAHs and result in DNA damage by forming adducts. This study was designed to know whether genetic variants of CYP genes are associated with plasma benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage in coke oven workers. In this study, 298 workers were divided into four groups according to the environmental PAHs exposure levels. The concentrations of plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were detected by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and the DNA damage levels were measured using comet assay. Twelve tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) of 4 CYP genes were selected and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In the top group, workers with CYP2B6 rs3760657GA genotype have lower BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels than those with rs3760657GG genotype (P<0.05). In the control group, the DNA damage levels of subjects with CYP1A1 rs4646421AA or GA+AA genotypes were lower than those with GG genotype (P<0.05). However, no such effects were shown for the other tagSNPs. These results suggested that genetic variations of CYP2B6 might be associated with low BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels in worker with high exposure to PAHs.

  15. Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D; Lang, N; Felton, J; Turteltaub, K

    2006-04-28

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.

  16. Effects of dietary fish oil on the depletion of carcinogenic PAH-DNA adduct levels in the liver of B6C3F1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Dong; Zhu, Huiping; Phillips, Tracie D; Wang, Jianbo; Wang, Shi-Zhou; Wang, Fen; Amendt, Brad A; Couroucli, Xanthi I; Donnelly, Kirby C; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-01-01

    Many carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites can bind covalently to DNA. Carcinogen-DNA adducts may lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually leading to cancer. In this study we report that fish oil (FO) blocks the formation of DNA adducts by detoxification of PAHs. B6C3F1 male mice were fed a FO or corn oil (CO) diet for 30 days. The animals were then treated with seven carcinogenic PAHs including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with one of two doses via a single intraperitoneal injection. Animals were terminated at 1, 3, or 7 d after treatment. The levels of DNA adducts were analyzed by the (32)P-postlabeling assay. Our results showed that the levels of total hepatic DNA adducts were significantly decreased in FO groups compared to CO groups with an exception of low PAH dose at 3 d (P = 0.067). Total adduct levels in the high dose PAH groups were 41.36±6.48 (Mean±SEM) and 78.72±8.03 in 10(9) nucleotides (P = 0.011), respectively, for the FO and CO groups at 7 d. Animals treated with the low dose (2.5 fold lower) PAHs displayed similar trends. Total adduct levels were 12.21±2.33 in the FO group and 24.07±1.99 in the CO group, P = 0.008. BPDE-dG adduct values at 7 d after treatment of high dose PAHs were 32.34±1.94 (CO group) and 21.82±3.37 (FO group) in 10(9) nucleotides with P value being 0.035. Low dose groups showed similar trends for BPDE-dG adduct in the two diet groups. FO significantly enhanced gene expression of Cyp1a1 in both the high and low dose PAH groups. Gstt1 at low dose of PAHs showed high levels in FO compared to CO groups with P values being 0.014. Histological observations indicated that FO played a hepatoprotective role during the early stages. Our results suggest that FO has a potential to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  17. PENTACHLOROPHENOL POTENTIATES BENZO[A]PYRENE DNA ADDUCT FORMATION IN ADULT BUT NOT INFANT B6C3F1 MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The objective of this study is to determine whether pentachlorophenol (PCP) alters benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induced DNA adduct formation in infant and adult B6C3Fl mice. Mice were exposed to 55 ug B[a]P/g body weight (BW) alone and in combination with several dose...

  18. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of route of administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on DNA adduction and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice and rats

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic
    aromatic hydrocarbons (PA...

  19. SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TETROL METABOLITES OF BENZO[A]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS USING HPLC AND SOLID-MATRIX ROOM TEMPERATURE LUMINESCENCE. (R824100)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Four tetrols of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts were separated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic fractions containing a given tetrol were readily characterized with solid-matrix room temperature luminescence techniques. So...

  20. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  1. AN EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY, METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF 5-NITROBENZO[B]NAPHTHO[2,1-D]THIOPHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Evaluation of the Mutagenicity, Metabolism and DNA Adduct Formation of 5-Nitrobenzo[b ]naphtho[2, I-d]thiophene

    Thioarenes, sulfur containing polycyclic aromatic compounds, are environmental contaminants suspected of posing human health risks. In this study, 5-nitroben...

  2. Lack of contribution of covalent benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone-DNA adducts in benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent human and rodent lung carcinogen. This activity has been ascribed in part to the formation of anti-trans-B[a]P-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts. Other carcinogenic mechanisms have been proposed: 1.] The induction of apurinic sites from r...

  3. Association between Mutation Spectra and Stable and Unstable DNA Adduct Profiles in Salmonella for Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a.l]pyrene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments ha...

  4. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  5. MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BENZO[ A ]PYRENE AND DIBENZO[ A,L ]PYRENE IN LACI TRANSGENIC B6C3F1 MOUSE LUNG RESULT FROM STABLE DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA, some of which spontaneously depurinate, producing apurinic (AP) si...

  6. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic endpoints and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fl...

  7. STUDIES ON THE METABOLISM OF 6-NITROCHRYSENE AND THE FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN THE LIVER, LUNG AND BLADDER OF A/J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    /
    Studies On The Metabolism of 6-Nitrochrysene and The Formation of DNA Adducts in the Liver, Lung and Bladder ofAJJ Mice
    Moses McDaniel*, Linda Adamst, Joycelyn Allisont, Michael George"l", Dhimant Desai+, 5hantu Amin+, Guy Lambertt, William Padgettt, Stephen Nesnowt and...

  8. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material (DNA). Initial assessment of plant DNA adducts as biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Genetic damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has long been suspected of being a fundamental event leading to cancer. A variety of causal factors can result in DNA damage including photodimerization of base pairs, ionizing radiation, specific reaction of DNA with environmental pollutants, and nonspecific oxidative damage caused by the action of highly reactive oxidizing agents produced by metabolism. Because organisms depend on an unadulterated DNA template for reproduction, DNA repair mechanisms are an important defense for maintaining genomic integrity. The objective of this exploratory project was to evaluate the potential for TNT to form DNA adducts in plants. These adducts, if they exist in sufficient quantities, could be potential biomarkers of munitions exposure. The ultimate goal is to develop a simple analytical assay for the determination of blomarkers that is indicative of munitions contamination. DNA repair exists in dynamic equilibrium with DNA damage. Repair mechanisms are capable of keeping DNA damage at remarkably low concentrations provided that the repair capacity is not overwhelmed.

  9. Replication Bypass of the trans-4-Hydroxynonenal-Derived (6S,8R,11S)-1,N2-Deoxyguanosine DNA Adduct by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the major peroxidation product of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. Michael addition of the N2-amino group of dGuo to HNE followed by ring closure of N1 onto the aldehyde results in four diastereomeric 1,N2-dGuo (1,N2-HNE-dGuo) adducts. The (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct was incorporated into the 18-mer templates 5′-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3′ and d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3′, where X = (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct. These differed in the identity of the template 5′-neighbor base, which was either Thy or Cyt, respectively. Each of these templates was annealed with either a 13-mer primer 5′-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3′ or a 14-mer primer 5′-d(GGGGGAAGGATTCC)-3′. The addition of dNTPs to the 13-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP insertion opposite to the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct, whereas the 14-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP extension past a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo:dCyd pair. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) belongs to the Y-family of error-prone polymerases. Replication bypass studies in vitro reveal that this polymerase inserted dNTPs opposite the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct in a sequence-specific manner. If the template 5′-neighbor base was dCyt, the polymerase inserted primarily dGTP, whereas if the template 5′-neighbor base was dThy, the polymerase inserted primarily dATP. The latter event would predict low levels of Gua → Thy mutations during replication bypass when the template 5′-neighbor base is dThy. When presented with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo:dCyd pair, the polymerase conducted full-length primer extension. Structures for ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) complexes with all four template-primers were obtained. For the 18-mer:13-mer template-primers in which the polymerase was confronted with the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct, the (6S,8R,11S)-1,N2-dGuo lesion remained in the ring-closed conformation at the active site. The incoming dNTP, either d

  10. Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. )

    1994-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. THE K-REGION DIHYDRODIOL OF BENZO[A]PYRENE INDUCES DNA DAMAGE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION IN C3H10T1/2CL8 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS WITHOUT THE FORMATION OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The K -region dihydrodiol ofbenzo[ a ]pyrene induces DNA damage and morphological cell transformation in C3HlOTY2CL8 mouse embryo cells without the formation of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts

    Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is the most thoroughly studied polycyclic aro...

  12. Benzo[b]fluoranthene: tumorigenicity in strain A/J mouse lungs, DNA adducts and mutations in the Ki-ras oncogene.

    PubMed

    Mass, M J; Abu-Shakra, A; Roop, B C; Nelson, G; Galati, A J; Stoner, G D; Nesnow, S; Ross, J A

    1996-08-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) is a pervasive constituent of environmental combustion products. We sought to examine the lung tumorigenic activity of B[b]F in strain A/J mice, to study the relationship between formation and decay of B[b]F-DNA adducts and to examine mutations in the Ki-ras proto-oncogene in DNA from B[b]F-induced tumors. Mice were given i.p. injections of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt and lung adenomas were scored after 8 months. B[b]F induced significant numbers of mouse lung adenomas in a dose-related fashion, with the highest dose (200 mg/kg) yielding 6.95 adenomas/ mouse, with 100% of the mice exhibiting an adenoma. In mice given tricaprylin, the vehicle control, there were 0.60 adenomas/mouse, with 55% of the mice exhibiting an adenoma. Based on dose, B[b]F was less active than benzo[a]pyrene. DNA adducts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by 32P-post-labeling in lungs of strain A/J mice 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after i.p. injection. Maximal levels of adduction occurred 5 days after treatment with the 200 mg/kg dose group, producing 1230 amol B[b]F-DNA adducts/microgram DNA. The major B[b]F-DNA adduct was identified by co-chromatography as trans-9, 10-dihydroxy-anti-11, 12-epoxy-5-hydroxy-9, 10, 11, 12-tetra-hydro-B[b]F-deoxyguanosine. Approximately 86% of the tumors had a mutation in codon 12 of the Ki-ras oncogene, as determined by direct DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified exon 1 and single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Analysis of the Ki-ras mutation spectrum in 25 of 29 B[b]F-induced tumors revealed the predominant mutation to be a G-->T transversion in the first or second base of codon 12, congruous with the DNA adduct data. Our data are consistent with previous reports in mouse skin implicating a phenolic diol epoxide as the proximate carcinogenic form of B[b]F that binds to guanine.

  13. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene induction on the distribution and DNA adduction of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Snyderwine, E G; Nouso, K; Schut, H A

    1993-06-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) is a potent inducer of the cytochrome P450IA family of enzymes that catalyses the metabolic activation of the food mutagen/carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). We have examined the effect of pretreatment with 3MC on the distribution and DNA adduct formation of IQ in male Fischer F344 rats. 3 hr after a single dose of [14C]IQ (10 mg/kg body weight, by gavage), the level of radioactivity in extrahepatic tissues was 30-70% less in 3MC-pretreated rats than in vehicle control rats. Although the level of radioactivity in the liver did not change after 3MC pretreatment, IQ-DNA adduct levels, measured by the 32P-postlabelling method, were 60% lower in the livers of 3MC-pretreated rats than those of control rats, and 83-97% lower in extrahepatic tissues such as the kidneys, colon, small intestine, bladder, heart and lung. IQ-DNA adducts in the testes and brain were found in control rats but were not detected in 3MC-pretreated rats. The rate of removal of IQ-DNA adducts from the livers of control and 3MC-pretreated animals was the same from 3 to 48 hr. At 48 hr, the adduct level in 3MC-pretreated rats remained lower than that seen in the control rats. The data suggest that 3MC induction of the P450IA family of cytochromes in vivo results in an increased rate of IQ detoxification.

  14. Base sequence effects on DNA replication influenced by bulky adducts. Final report, March 1, 1995--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.

    1997-05-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental pollutants that are present in air, food, and water. While PAH compounds are chemically inert and are sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions, in living cells they are metabolized to a variety of oxygenated derivatives, including the high mutagenic and tumorigenic diol epoxide derivatives. The diol epoxides of the sterically hindered fjord region compound benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]PhDE) are among the most powerful tumorigenic compounds in animal model test systems. In this project, site-specifically modified oligonucleotides containing single B[c]PhDE-N{sup 6}-dA lesions derived from the reactions of the 1S,2R,3R,4S and 1R,2S,3S,4R diol epoxides of B[c]PhDE with dA residues were synthesized. The replication of DNA catalyzed by a prokaryotic DNA polymerase (the exonuclease-free Klenow fragment E. Coli Po1 I) in the vicinity of the lesion at base-specific sites on B[c]PhDE-modified template strands was investigated in detail. The Michaelis-Menten parameters for the insertion of single deoxynucleotide triphosphates into growing DNA (primer) strands using the modified dA* and the bases just before and after the dA* residue as templates, depend markedly on the stereochemistry of the B[c]PhDE-modified dA residues. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which bulky PAH-DNA adducts affect normal DNA replication.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF STEREOCHEMICAL CONFIGURATIONS OF CYCLOPENTA[CD]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG AND C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of Sterochemical Configurations of Cyclopent A[cd]Pyrene DNA Adducts in Strain A/J Mouse Lung and C3H10T1/2CL8 Cells.

    Four major and several minor DNA adducts were resolved by 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA from strain A/J mouse lung and C3H10T1/2CL8 (C3H...

  16. Relating aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA adducts and c-H-ras mutations in mouse skin papillomas: the role of apurinic sites.

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, D; Pelling, J C; Cavalieri, E L; Rogan, E G

    1995-01-01

    Mouse skin tumors contain activated c-H-ras oncogenes, often caused by point mutations at codons 12 and 13 in exon 1 and codons 59 and 61 in exon 2. Mutagenesis by the noncoding apurinic sites can produce G-->T and A-->T transversions by DNA misreplication with more frequent insertion of deoxyadenosine opposite the apurinic site. Papillomas were induced in mouse skin by several aromatic hydrocarbons, and mutations in the c-H-ras gene were determined to elucidate the relationship among DNA adducts, apurinic sites, and ras oncogene mutations. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), DB[a,l]P-11,12-dihydrodiol, anti-DB[a,l]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide, DB[a,l]P-8,9-dihydrodiol, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-DMBA consistently induced a CAA-->CTA mutation in codon 61 of the c-H-ras oncogene. Benzo[a]pyrene induced a GGC-->GTC mutation in codon 13 in 54% of tumors and a CAA-->CTA mutation in codon 61 in 15%. The pattern of mutations induced by each hydrocarbon correlated with its profile of DNA adducts. For example, both DB[a,l]P and DMBA primarily form DNA adducts at the N-3 and/or N-7 of deoxyadenosine that are lost from the DNA by depurination, generating apurinic sites. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that misreplication of unrepaired apurinic sites generated by loss of hydrocarbon-DNA adducts is responsible for transforming mutations leading to papillomas in mouse skin. PMID:7479797

  17. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) DNA adduct formation in DNA repair–deficient p53 haploinsufficient [Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−)] and wild-type mice fed BP and BP plus chlorophyllin for 28 days

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Miriam C.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated DNA damage (DNA adduct formation) after feeding benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to wild-type (WT) and cancer-susceptible Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice deficient in nucleotide excision repair and haploinsufficient for the tumor suppressor p53. DNA damage was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS/MS), which measures r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG), and a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), using anti-r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)–DNA antiserum, which measures both BPdG and the other stable BP-DNA adducts. When mice were fed 100 ppm BP for 28 days, BP-induced DNA damage measured in esophagus, liver and lung was typically higher in Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice, compared with WT mice. This result is consistent with the previously observed tumor susceptibility of Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice. BPdG, the major DNA adduct associated with tumorigenicity, was the primary DNA adduct formed in esophagus (a target tissue in the mouse), whereas total BP-DNA adducts predominated in higher levels in the liver (a non-target tissue in the mouse). In an attempt to lower BP-induced DNA damage, we fed the WT and Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice 0.3% chlorophyllin (CHL) in the BP-containing diet for 28 days. The addition of CHL resulted in an increase of BP–DNA adducts in esophagus, liver and lung of WT mice, a lowering of BPdG in esophagi of WT mice and livers of Xpa(−/−)p53(+/−) mice and an increase of BPdG in livers of WT mice. Therefore, the addition of CHL to a BP-containing diet showed a lack of consistent chemoprotective effect, indicating that oral CHL administration may not reduce PAH–DNA adduct levels consistently in human organs. PMID:22828138

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) DNA adduct formation in DNA repair-deficient p53 haploinsufficient [Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-)] and wild-type mice fed BP and BP plus chlorophyllin for 28 days.

    PubMed

    John, Kaarthik; Pratt, M Margaret; Beland, Frederick A; Churchwell, Mona I; McMullen, Gail; Olivero, Ofelia A; Pogribny, Igor P; Poirier, Miriam C

    2012-11-01

    We have evaluated DNA damage (DNA adduct formation) after feeding benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to wild-type (WT) and cancer-susceptible Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice deficient in nucleotide excision repair and haploinsufficient for the tumor suppressor p53. DNA damage was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS/MS), which measures r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N (2)-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG), and a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), using anti-r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA antiserum, which measures both BPdG and the other stable BP-DNA adducts. When mice were fed 100 ppm BP for 28 days, BP-induced DNA damage measured in esophagus, liver and lung was typically higher in Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice, compared with WT mice. This result is consistent with the previously observed tumor susceptibility of Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice. BPdG, the major DNA adduct associated with tumorigenicity, was the primary DNA adduct formed in esophagus (a target tissue in the mouse), whereas total BP-DNA adducts predominated in higher levels in the liver (a non-target tissue in the mouse). In an attempt to lower BP-induced DNA damage, we fed the WT and Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice 0.3% chlorophyllin (CHL) in the BP-containing diet for 28 days. The addition of CHL resulted in an increase of BP-DNA adducts in esophagus, liver and lung of WT mice, a lowering of BPdG in esophagi of WT mice and livers of Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice and an increase of BPdG in livers of WT mice. Therefore, the addition of CHL to a BP-containing diet showed a lack of consistent chemoprotective effect, indicating that oral CHL administration may not reduce PAH-DNA adduct levels consistently in human organs.

  19. DNA damage from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured by benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts in mothers and newborns from Northern Manhattan, the World Trade Center Area, Poland, and China.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica; Tang, Deliang; Whyatt, Robin; Lederman, Sally Ann; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw

    2005-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), of which benzo[a]pyrene is a representative member, are combustion-related environmental pollutants and include known carcinogens. Laboratory animal studies indicate that the dose of PAHs to the fetus is on the order of a 10th that to the mother and that there is heightened susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis during the fetal and infancy periods. Carcinogen-DNA adducts, a measure of procarcinogenic genetic damage, are considered a biomarker of increased cancer risk. Here we compare the levels of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts as a proxy for PAH-DNA damage measured in maternal blood and newborn cord blood obtained at delivery in four different populations of mothers (total of 867) and newborns (total of 822), representing a 30-fold range of exposure to ambient PAHs. The populations include residents in Northern Manhattan, participants in a study of the effects of the World Trade Center disaster, residents in Krakow, Poland, and residents in Tongliang, China. Mean adduct concentrations in both maternal and cord blood and the proportion of samples with detectable adducts, increased across the populations [Northern Manhattan < World Trade Center (WTC) < Krakow < Tongliang], consistent with the trend in estimated ambient exposure to PAHs (P < 0.001). For mothers, the means in the respective populations were Northern Manhattan (0.21 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides), WTC (0.23 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides), Krakow (0.28 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides), Tongliang (0.31 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides); the corresponding means in the newborns were Northern Manhattan (0.23), WTC (0.24), Krakow (0.29), Tongliang (0.31). The percentage of mothers with detectable levels of adducts in the respective populations were Northern Manhattan (36.8%), WTC (57.5%), Krakow (72.9%), Tongliang (73.4%); the corresponding percentages among the newborns were Northern Manhattan (42.4%), WTC (60.6%), Krakow (71.1%), Tongliang (79.5%). Despite the

  20. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L.; Jiang, Yanlin; Kelley, Mark R.; Vasko, Michael R.; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 hours. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ~80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Reduction in APE1 expression also altered the expression of the NER proteins RPA70 and XPA in sensory neuronal cultures. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226+177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons. PMID:26164266

  1. Accommodation of an N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene adduct in the active site of human DNA polymerase iota: Hoogsteen or Watson-Crick base pairing?

    PubMed

    Donny-Clark, Kerry; Shapiro, Robert; Broyde, Suse

    2009-01-13

    Bypass across DNA lesions by specialized polymerases is essential for maintenance of genomic stability. Human DNA polymerase iota (poliota) is a bypass polymerase of the Y family. Crystal structures of poliota suggest that Hoogsteen base pairing is employed to bypass minor groove DNA lesions, placing them on the spacious major groove side of the enzyme. Primer extension studies have shown that poliota is also capable of error-free nucleotide incorporation opposite the bulky major groove adduct N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-AAF). We present molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations suggesting that Watson-Crick base pairing could be employed in poliota for bypass of dG-AAF. In poliota with Hoogsteen-paired dG-AAF the bulky AAF moiety would reside on the cramped minor groove side of the template. The Hoogsteen-capable conformation distorts the active site, disrupting interactions necessary for error-free incorporation of dC opposite the lesion. Watson-Crick pairing places the AAF rings on the spacious major groove side, similar to the position of minor groove adducts observed with Hoogsteen pairing. Watson-Crick-paired structures show a well-ordered active site, with a near reaction-ready ternary complex. Thus our results suggest that poliota would utilize the same spacious region for lesion bypass of both major and minor groove adducts. Therefore, purine adducts with bulk on the minor groove side would use Hoogsteen pairing, while adducts with the bulky lesion on the major groove side would utilize Watson-Crick base pairing as indicated by our MD simulations for dG-AAF. This suggests the possibility of an expanded role for poliota in lesion bypass.

  2. Dual function of Ixr1 in transcriptional regulation and recognition of cisplatin-DNA adducts is caused by differential binding through its two HMG-boxes.

    PubMed

    Vizoso-Vázquez, A; Lamas-Maceiras, M; Fernández-Leiro, R; Rico-Díaz, A; Becerra, M; Cerdán, M E

    2017-02-01

    Ixr1 is a transcriptional factor involved in the response to hypoxia, which is also related to DNA repair. It binds to DNA through its two in-tandem high mobility group box (HMG-box) domains. Each function depends on recognition of different DNA structures, B-form DNA at specific consensus sequences for transcriptional regulation, or distorted DNA, like cisplatin-DNA adducts, for DNA repair. However, the contribution of the HMG-box domains in the Ixr1 protein to the formation of different protein-DNA complexes is poorly understood. We have biophysically and biochemically characterized these interactions with specific DNA sequences from the promoters regulated by Ixr1, or with cisplatin-DNA adducts. Both HMG-boxes are necessary for transcriptional regulation, and they are not functionally interchangeable. The in-tandem arrangement of their HMG-boxes is necessary for functional folding and causes sequential cooperative binding to specific DNA sequences, with HMG-box A showing a higher contribution to DNA binding and bending than the HMG-box B. Binding of Ixr1 HMG boxes to specific DNA sequences is entropy driven, whereas binding to platinated DNA is enthalpy driven for HMG-box A and entropy driven for HMG-box B. This is the first proof that HMG-box binding to different DNA structures is associated with predictable thermodynamic differences. Based on our study, we present a model to explain the dual function of Ixr1 in the regulation of gene expression and recognition of distorted DNA structures caused by cisplatin treatment.

  3. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Xin; Thompson, Patricia A; Teitel, Candee; Chen, Jun-Shi; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.

  4. Associations between Smoking, Polymorphisms in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Metabolism and Conjugation Genes and PAH-DNA Adducts in Prostate Tumors Differ by Race

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Nora L.; Tang, Deliang; Rundle, Andrew; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Savera, Adnan T.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Koprowski, Allison; Mitrache, Nicoleta; Yang, James J.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts may induce mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. We evaluated potential associations between smoking and polymorphisms in PAH metabolism [CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Ala119Ser and Leu432Val, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) Tyr113His and His139Arg, CYP3A4 A(−392)G] and conjugation [glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 null deletion, GSTP1 Ile105Val] genes and PAH-DNA adduct levels (measured by immunohistochemistry) in tumor and nontumor prostate cells in 400 prostate cancer cases. Although no statistically significant associations were observed in the total sample, stratification by ethnicity revealed that Caucasian ever smokers compared with nonsmokers had higher adduct levels in tumor cells (mean staining intensity in absorbance units ± SE, 0.1748 ± 0.0052 versus 0.1507 ± 0.0070; P = 0.006), and Caucasians carrying two mEH 139Arg compared with two 139His alleles had lower adducts in tumor (0.1320 ± 0.0129 versus 0.1714 ± 0.0059; P = 0.006) and nontumor (0.1856 ± 0.0184 versus 0.2291 ± 0.0085; P = 0.03) cells. African Americans with two CYP1B1 432Val compared with two 432Ile alleles had lower adducts in tumor cells (0.1600 ± 0.0060 versus 0.1970 ± 0.0153; P = 0.03). After adjusting for smoking status, carrying the putative “high-risk” genotype combination, the faster metabolism of PAH-epoxides to PAH-diol-epoxides (CYP1B1 432Val/Val and mEH 139Arg/Arg) with lower PAH-diol-epoxide conjugation (GSTP1 105Ile/Ile), was associated with increased adducts only in Caucasian nontumor cells (0.2363 ± 0.0132 versus 0.1920 ± 0.0157; P = 0.05). We present evidence, for the first time in human prostate that the association between smoking and PAH-DNA adducts differs by race and is modified by common genetic variants. PMID:17548691

  5. Effects of ethylene oxide and ethylene inhalation on DNA adducts, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and expression of base excision DNA repair genes in rat brain, spleen, and liver.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Asakura, Shoji; Li, Yutai; Kosyk, Oksana; Koc, Hasan; Nakamura, Jun; Upton, Patricia B; Swenberg, James A

    2005-09-28

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a known human carcinogen (IARC, Group 1). It is also a metabolite of ethylene (ET), a compound that is ubiquitous in the environment and is the most used petrochemical. ET has not produced evidence of cancer in laboratory animals and is "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans" (IARC, Group 3). The mechanism of carcinogenicity of EO is not well characterized, but is thought to involve the formation of DNA adducts. EO is mutagenic in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems, whereas ET is not. Apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP) that result from chemical or glycosylase-mediated depurination of EO-induced DNA adducts could be an additional mechanism leading to mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This study tested the hypothesis that EO exposure results in the accumulation of AP sites and induces changes in expression of genes for base excision DNA repair (BER). Male Fisher 344 rats were exposed to EO (100 ppm) or ET (40 or 3000 ppm) by inhalation for 1, 3 or 20 days (6h/day, 5 days a week). Animals were sacrificed 2h after exposure for 1, 3 or 20 days as well as 6, 24 and 72 h after a single-day exposure. Experiments were performed with tissues from brain and spleen, target sites for EO-induced carcinogenesis, and liver, a non-target organ. Exposure to EO resulted in time-dependent increases in N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7-HEG) in brain, spleen, and liver and N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (7-HEVal) in globin. Ethylene exposure also induced 7-HEG and 7-HEVal, but the numbers of adducts were much lower. No increase in the number of aldehydic DNA lesions, an indicator of AP sites, was detected in any of the tissues between controls and EO-, or ET-exposed animals, regardless of the duration or strength of exposure. EO exposure led to a 3-7-fold decrease in expression of 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase (Mpg) in brain and spleen in rats exposed to EO for 1 day. Expression of 8

  6. In vitro replication by prokaryotic and eukaryotic polymerases on DNA templates containing site-specific and stereospecific benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Chary, P; Lloyd, R S

    1995-01-01

    DNA adducts of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) interact stereospecifically with prokaryotic and eukaryotic polymerases in vitro. Toward understanding the capacity to replicate past different diastereomers of BPDE at specific sites in DNA, six deoxyoligonucleotides, each 33 bases long, were constructed with stereochemically defined BPDE adducts on adenine N6 at position two of the human N-ras codon 61. Four polymerases that were studied under single encounters with the template-primer complex terminated synthesis one base 3' to the lesion with all the adducted templates. When multiple encounters between polymerase and substrate were permitted, each of the polymerases analyzed revealed a unique pattern for a given adducted template. The general replication pattern was encompassed under two categories, reflecting the significance of the R and S configurations of C10 of the pyrenyl ring attached to the single-stranded DNA template. Furthermore, within each of these categories, every polymerase demonstrated distinct quantitative differences in product accumulation at a given site, for the various adducted templates. Among the polymerases utilized in this study, exonuclease-deficient Klenow fragment of polymerase I (exo- KF) exhibited the most efficient translesion synthesis resulting in approximately 16% full-length products with the modified templates bearing adducts with C10-S configuration. In contrast, chain elongation with bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase bearing an active 3'-->5' exonucleolytic activity was most strongly inhibited by all six BPDE-adducted templates. Misincorporation of A opposite the adduct occurred in all the templates when polymerized with Sequenase, whereas exo- KF preferentially incorporated C opposite the C10-R BPDE adducts and A opposite the C10-S BPDE adducts. Images PMID:7753632

  7. Biological Properties of Single Chemical–DNA Adducts: A Twenty Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, James C.; Essigmann, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The genome and its nucleotide precursor pool are under sustained attack by radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemical carcinogens, hydrolytic reactions, and certain drugs. As a result, a large and heterogeneous population of damaged nucleotides forms in all cells. Some of the lesions are repaired, but for those that remain, there can be serious biological consequences. For example, lesions that form in DNA can lead to altered gene expression, mutation, and death. This perspective examines systems developed over the past 20 years to study the biological properties of single DNA lesions. PMID:18072751

  8. ANALYSIS OF BENZO(A)PYRENE-INDUCED DNA ADDUCTS IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HSP70 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with
    different levels of HSP7O expression.
    L.C. King1, L.D. Adams1, E.Winkfield1, J.A. Barnes2, S.D. Hester1 and J.W. Allen1. 1US
    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

  9. Sustained expression of CYPs and DNA adduct accumulation with continuous exposure to PCB126 and PCB153 through a new delivery method: Polymeric implants

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, Farrukh; Xin, Xing; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    A new delivery method via polymeric implants was used for continuous exposure to PCBs. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous polymeric implants containing PCB126 (0.15% load), PCB153 (5% load), or both, for up to 45 days and release kinetics and tissue distribution were measured. PCB153 tissue levels on day 15 were readily detected in lung, liver, mammary and serum, with highest levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 was detected only in liver and mammary tissues. However, a completely different pharmacokinetics was observed on co-exposure of PCB153 and PCB126, with a 1.8-fold higher levels of PCB153 in the liver whereas a 1.7-fold lower levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 and PCB153 caused an increase in expression of key PCB-inducible enzymes, CYP 1A1/2 and 2B1/2, respectively. Serum and liver activities of the antioxidant enzymes, PON1 and PON3, and AhR transcription were also significantly increased by PCB126. 32P-Postlabeling for polar and lipophilic DNA-adducts showed significant quantitative differences: PCB126 increased 8-oxodG, an oxidative DNA lesion, in liver and lung tissues. Adduct levels in the liver remained upregulated up to 45 days, while some lung DNA adducts declined. This is the first demonstration that continuous low-dose exposure to PCBs via implants can produce sustained tissue levels leading to the accumulation of DNA-adducts in target tissue and induction of indicator enzymes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that this exposure model is a promising tool for long-term exposure studies. PMID:25530946

  10. DNA Adduct Formation from Metabolic 5'-Hydroxylation of the Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen N'-Nitrosonornicotine in Human Enzyme Systems and in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zarth, Adam T; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Yang, Jing; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-03-21

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is carcinogenic in multiple animal models and has been evaluated as a human carcinogen. NNN can be metabolized by cytochrome P450s through two activation pathways: 2'-hydroxylation and 5'-hydroxylation. While most previous studies have focused on 2'-hydroxylation in target tissues of rats, available evidence suggests that 5'-hydroxylation is a major activation pathway in human enzyme systems, in nonhuman primates, and in target tissues of some other rodent carcinogenicity models. In the study reported here, we investigated DNA damage resulting from NNN 5'-hydroxylation by quantifying the adduct 2-(2-(3-pyridyl)-N-pyrrolidinyl)-2'-deoxyinosine (py-py-dI). In rats treated with NNN in the drinking water (7-500 ppm), py-py-dI was the major DNA adduct resulting from 5'-hydroxylation of NNN in vivo. Levels of py-py-dI in the lung and nasal cavity were the highest, consistent with the tissue distribution of CYP2A3. In rats treated with (S)-NNN or (R)-NNN, the ratios of formation of (R)-py-py-dI to (S)-py-py-dI were not the expected mirror image, suggesting that there may be a carrier for one of the unstable intermediates formed upon 5'-hydroxylation of NNN. Rat hepatocytes treated with (S)- or (R)-NNN or (2'S)- or (2'R)-5'-acetoxyNNN exhibited a pattern of adduct formation similar to that of live rats. In vitro studies with human liver S9 fraction or human hepatocytes incubated with NNN (2-500 μM) demonstrated that py-py-dI formation was greater than the formation of pyridyloxobutyl-DNA adducts resulting from 2'-hydroxylation of NNN. (S)-NNN formed more total py-py-dI adducts than (R)-NNN in human liver enzyme systems, which is consistent with the critical role of CYP2A6 in the 5'-hydroxylation of NNN in human liver. The results of this study demonstrate that the major DNA adduct resulting from NNN metabolism by human enzymes is py-py-dI and provide potentially important new insights into the metabolic activation of NNN in rodents and humans.

  11. Molecular modeling and spectroscopic studies of semustine binding with DNA and its comparison with lomustine-DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shweta; Chadha, Deepti; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Chloroethyl nitrosoureas constitute an important family of cancer chemotherapeutic agents, used in the treatment of various types of cancer. They exert antitumor activity by inducing DNA interstrand cross-links. Semustine, a chloroethyl nitrosourea, is a 4-methyl derivative of lomustine. There exist some interesting reports dealing with DNA-binding properties of chloroethyl nitrosoureas; however, underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by semustine has not been precisely and completely delineated. The present work focuses on understanding semustine-DNA interaction to comprehend its anti-proliferative action at molecular level using various spectroscopic techniques. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is used to determine the binding site of semustine on DNA. Conformational transition in DNA after semustine complexation is investigated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Stability of semustine-DNA complexes is determined using absorption spectroscopy. Results of the present study demonstrate that semustine performs major-groove-directed DNA alkylation at guanine residues in an incubation-time-drug-concentration-dependent manner. CD spectral outcomes suggest partial transition of DNA from native B-conformation to C-form. Calculated binding constants (Ka) for semustine and lomustine interactions with DNA are 1.53 × 10(3) M(-1) and 8.12 × 10(3) M(-1), respectively. Moreover, molecular modeling simulation is performed to predict preferential binding orientation of semustine with DNA that corroborates well with spectral outcomes. Results based on comparative study of DNA-binding properties of semustine and lomustine, presented here, may establish a correlation between molecular structure and cytotoxicity of chloroethyl nitrosoureas that may be instrumental in the designing and synthesis of new nitrosourea therapeutics possessing better efficacy and fewer side effects.

  12. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of diesel and biodiesel exhaust extracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract reports the results of studies assessing the relative DNA damage potential of extracts of exhaust particles resulting from the combustion of petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and petroleum diesel-biodiesel blends. Results indicate that the commercially available B20 petr...

  13. EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN NASAL LAVAGE CELLS AND DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall aim of this study is to determine (using a nasal challenge model) the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on nasal responses including induction of inflammation, immune changes and DNA damage. We are also examining how treatment of DEP with ozone (oz-DEP)modify ...

  14. Inhibition of the formation of benzo[a]pyrene adducts to DNA in A549 lung cells exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Genies, Camille; Jullien, Amandine; Lefebvre, Emmanuel; Revol, Morgane; Maitre, Anne; Douki, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants, which exhibit carcinogenic properties especially in lungs. In the present work, we studied the effect of mixtures of 12 PAHs on the A549 alveolar cells. We first assess the ability of each PAH at inducing gene expression of phase I metabolization enzymes and at generating DNA adducts. A good correlation was found between these two endpoints. We then exposed cells to either binary mixtures of the highly genotoxic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) with each PAH or complex mixtures of all studied PAHs mimicking by real emissions including combustion of wood, cigarette smoke, and atmospheres of garage, silicon factory and urban environments. Compared to pure B[a]P, both types of mixtures led to reduced CYP450 activity measured by the EROD test. A similar trend was observed for the formation of DNA adducts. Surprisingly, the complex mixtures were more potent than B[a]P used at the same concentration for the induction of genes coding for CYP. Our results stress the lack of additivity of the genotoxic properties of PAH in mixtures. Interestingly, an opposite synergy in the formation of B[a]P adducts were observed previously in hepatocytes. Our data also show that measurement of the metabolic activity rather than quantification of gene expression reflects the actual bioactivation of PAHs into DNA damaging species.

  15. RecA stimulates AlkB-mediated direct repair of DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Shivange, Gururaj; Monisha, Mohan; Nigam, Richa; Kodipelli, Naveena; Anindya, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is a 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent demethylase that repairs alkylated single stranded and double stranded DNA. Immunoaffinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry identified RecA, a key factor in homologous recombination, as an AlkB-associated protein. The interaction between AlkB and RecA was validated by yeast two-hybrid assay; size-exclusion chromatography and standard pull down experiment and was shown to be direct and mediated by the N-terminal domain of RecA. RecA binding results AlkB–RecA heterodimer formation and RecA–AlkB repairs alkylated DNA with higher efficiency than AlkB alone. PMID:27378775

  16. Unraveling the Aflatoxin–FAPY Conundrum: Structural Basis for Differential Replicative Processing of Isomeric Forms of the Formamidopyrimidine-Type DNA Adduct of Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyle L.; Deng, James Z.; Iyer, Rajkumar S.; Iyer, Lalitha G.; Voehler, Markus W.; Stone, Michael P.; Harris, Constance M.; Harris, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB) epoxide forms an unstable N7 guanine adduct in DNA. The adduct undergoes base-catalyzed ring opening to give a highly persistent formamidopyrimidine (FAPY) adduct which exists as a mixture of forms. Acid hydrolysis of the FAPY adduct gives the FAPY base which exists in two separable but interconvertible forms that have been assigned by various workers as functional, positional, or conformational isomers. Recently, this structural question became important when one of the two major FAPY species in DNA was found to be potently mutagenic and the other a block to replication [Smela, M. E.; Hamm, M. L.; Henderson, P. T.; Harris, C. M.; Harris, T. M.; Essigmann, J. M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002, 99, 6655−6660]. NMR studies carried out on the AFB–FAPY bases and deoxynucleoside 3′,5′-dibutyrates now establish that the separable FAPY bases and nucleosides are diastereomeric N5 formyl derivatives involving axial asymmetry around the congested pyrimidine C5–N5 bond. Anomerization of the protected β-deoxyriboside was not observed, but in the absence of acyl protection, both anomerization and furanosyl → pyranosyl ring expansion occurred. In oligodeoxynucleotides, two equilibrating FAPY species, separable by HPLC, are assigned as anomers. The form normally present in duplex DNA is the mutagenic species. It has previously been assigned as the β anomer by NMR (Mao, H.; Deng, Z. W.; Wang, F.; Harris, T. M.; Stone, M. P. Biochemistry 1998, 37, 4374−4387). In single-stranded environments the dominant species is the α anomer; it is a block to replication. PMID:17117870

  17. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor transactivation and DNA adduct formation by CYP1 isoform-selective metabolic deactivation of benzo[a]pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Kaori; Uno, Shigeyuki; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Mitsumata, Masako; Yamada, Sachiko; Makishima, Makoto

    2008-07-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon produced by the combustion of cigarettes and coke ovens, is a known procarcinogen. BaP activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces the expression of a battery of genes, including CYP1A1, which metabolize BaP to toxic compounds. The possible role of CYP1 enzymes in mediating BaP detoxification or metabolic activation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of CYP1 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1) on BaP-induced AhR transactivation and DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells and HepG2 cells. Transfection of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but not CYP1A2, suppressed BaP-induced activation of AhR. Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, but not CYP1B1, inhibited DNA adduct formation in BaP-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 play a role in deactivation of BaP on AhR and that CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are involved in BaP detoxification by suppressing DNA adduct formation. BaP treatment did not induce DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells, even after transfection of CYP1 enzymes, suggesting that expression of CYP1 enzymes is not sufficient for DNA adduct formation. Lower expression of epoxide hydrolase and higher expression of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and GSTM1/M2 were observed in HEK293 cells compared with HepG2 cells. Dynamic expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 along with expression of other enzymes such as epoxide hydrolase and phase II enzymes may determine the detoxification or metabolic activation of BaP.

  18. Modulation of Estrogen-Depurinating DNA Adducts by Sulforaphane for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    GSTs) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) can decrease steady- state levels of CE- 3,4-Q and, thus, the resultant depurinating estrogen-DNA...vehicle or SFN for 24 h. After discarding the media, all plates were fed with fresh cell culture media containing 10 μM E2 or 4-OHE2 for 24 h and then...experiments were conducted in accordance with the standards established by the United States Animal Welfare Acts, set forth in NIH guidelines and the

  19. Assessment of interactions between PAH exposure and genetic polymorphisms on PAH-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study.

  20. Metabolic activation of furfuryl alcohol: formation of 2-methylfuranyl DNA adducts in Salmonella typhimurium strains expressing human sulfotransferase 1A1 and in FVB/N mice.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Herrmann, Kristin; Florian, Simone; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2011-10-01

    Furfuryl alcohol, formed by acid- and heat-induced dehydration from pentoses, is found in many foodstuffs. It induced renal tubule neoplasms in male B6C3F1 mice and nasal neoplasms in male F344/N rats in a study of the National Toxicology Program (NTP). However, furfuryl alcohol was negative in the standard Ames test and in a battery of in vivo mutagenicity tests. Here, we show that furfuryl alcohol is mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 engineered for expression of human sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1. This finding suggests that furfuryl alcohol is converted by intracellular sulfo conjugation to 2-sulfo-oxymethylfuran, an electrophile reacting with DNA. We detected nucleoside adducts of 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine and 2'-deoxycytidine in porcine liver DNA incubated with freshly prepared 2-sulfo-oxymethylfuran. The main adducts, N(2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-MFdG) and N(6)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (N(6)-MFdA) were synthesized. Their structures were verified by NMR and mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the quantification of both adducts were devised. N(2)-MFdG and N(6)-MFdA were detected in DNA of furfuryl alcohol-exposed S.typhimurium TA100 expressing SULT1A1 and in DNA of liver, lung and kidney of FVB/N mice that had received ∼390 mg furfuryl alcohol/kg body wt/day via the drinking water for 28 days. In summary, furfuryl alcohol is converted by sulfo conjugation to a mutagen. The detection of N(2)-MFdG and N(6)-MFdA in renal DNA of furfuryl alcohol-treated mice suggests that the neoplasms observed in this tissue in the study of the NTP may have been induced by 2-sulfo-oxymethylfuran.

  1. Assessment of Interactions between PAH Exposure and Genetic Polymorphisms on PAH-DNA Adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study. PMID:18268125

  2. Effect of green tea catechins and hydrolyzable tannins on benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts and structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengxiao; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-04-19

    Green tea catechins and hydrolyzable tannins are gaining increasing attention as chemopreventive agents. However, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of four green tea catechins and two hydrolyzable tannins on microsome-induced benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-DNA adducts and the possible structure-activity relationship. BP (1 microM) was incubated with rat liver microsomes and DNA in the presence of the test compound (1-200 microM) or vehicle. The purified DNA was analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling. The inhibitory activity of the catechins was in the following descending order: epigallocatechin gallate (IC(50) = 16 microM) > epicatechin gallate (24 microM) > epigallocatechin (146 microM) > epicatechin (462 microM), suggesting a correlation between the number of adjacent aromatic hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure and their potencies. Tannic acid (IC(50) = 4 microM) and pentagalloglucose (IC(50) = 26 microM) elicited as much DNA adduct inhibitory activity as the catechins or higher presumably due to the presence of more functional hydroxyl groups. To determine if the activity of these compounds was due to direct interaction of phenolic groups with electrophilic metabolite(s) of BP, DNA was incubated with anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) (0.5 microM) in the presence of test compounds (200 microM) or vehicle. Significant inhibition of DNA adduct formation was found (tannic acid > pentagalloglucose > epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate). This notion was confirmed by analysis of the reaction products of anti-BPDE with the catechins and pentagalloglucose by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that green tea catechins and the hydrolyzable tannins are highly effective in inhibiting BP-DNA adduct formation at least, in part, due to direct interaction of adjacent hydroxyl groups in their structures and that the activity is

  3. Complete protection against aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature, and genotoxicity threshold.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Natalie M; Egner, Patricia A; Baxter, Victoria K; Sporn, Michael B; Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Thomas R; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2014-07-01

    In experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), a powerful activator of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling, protects against AFB1-induced toxicity and preneoplastic lesion formation (GST-P-positive foci). This study assessed and mechanistically characterized the chemoprotective efficacy of CDDO-Im against AFB1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A lifetime cancer bioassay was undertaken in F344 rats dosed with AFB1 (200 μg/kg rat/day) for four weeks and receiving either vehicle or CDDO-Im (three times weekly), one week before and throughout the exposure period. Weekly, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of AFB1 metabolites. In a subset of rats, livers were analyzed for GST-P foci. The comparative response of a toxicogenomic RNA expression signature for AFB1 was examined. CDDO-Im completely protected (0/20) against AFB1-induced liver cancer compared with a 96% incidence (22/23) observed in the AFB1 group. With CDDO-Im treatment, integrated level of urinary AFB1-N(7)-guanine was significantly reduced (66%) and aflatoxin-N-acetylcysteine, a detoxication product, was consistently elevated (300%) after the first AFB1 dose. In AFB1-treated rats, the hepatic burden of GST-P-positive foci increased substantially (0%-13.8%) over the four weeks, but was largely absent with CDDO-Im intervention. The toxicogenomic RNA expression signature characteristic of AFB1 was absent in the AFB1 + CDDO-Im-treated rats. The remarkable efficacy of CDDO-Im as an anticarcinogen is established even in the face of a significant aflatoxin adduct burden. Consequently, the absence of cancer requires a concept of a threshold for DNA damage for cancer development.

  4. Circadian Regulation of Benzo[a]Pyrene Metabolism and DNA Adduct Formation in Breast Cells and the Mouse Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Emily E; Barhoumi, Rola; Metz, Richard P; Porter, Weston W

    2017-03-01

    The circadian clock plays a role in many biologic processes, yet very little is known about its role in metabolism of drugs and carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of circadian rhythms on benzo-a-pyrene (BaP) metabolism in the mouse mammary gland and develop a circadian in vitro model for investigating changes in BaP metabolism resulting from cross-talk between the molecular clock and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Female 129sv mice (12 weeks old) received a single gavage dose of 50 mg/kg BaP at either noon or midnight, and mammary tissues were isolated 4 or 24 hours later. BaP-induced Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 mRNA levels were higher 4 hours after dosing at noon than at 4 hours after dosing at midnight, and this corresponded with parallel changes in Per gene expression. In our in vitro model, we dosed MCF10A mammary cells at different times after serum shock to study how time of day shifts drug metabolism in cells. Analysis of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression showed the maximum enzyme-induced metabolism response 12 and 20 hours after shock, as determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, metabolism of BaP, and formation of DNA-BaP adducts. The pattern of PER-, BMAL-, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced P450 gene expression and BaP metabolism was similar to BaP-induced Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1 and molecular clock gene expression in mouse mammary glands. These studies indicate time-of-day exposure influences BaP metabolism in mouse mammary glands and describe an in vitro model that can be used to investigate the circadian influence on the metabolism of carcinogens.

  5. Biological significance of DNA adducts: comparison of increments over background for various biomarkers of genotoxicity in L5178Y tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Brink, Andreas; Richter, Ingrid; Lutz, Ursula; Wanek, Paul; Stopper, Helga; Lutz, Werner K

    2009-08-01

    DNA is affected by background damage of the order of one lesion per one hundred thousand nucleotides, with depurination and oxidative damage accounting for a major part. This damage contributes to spontaneous mutation and cancer. DNA adducts can be measured with high sensitivity, with limits of detection lower than one adduct per one billion nucleotides. Minute exposures to an exogenous DNA-reactive agent may therefore result in measurable adduct formation, although, as an increment over total DNA damage, a small increment in mutation cannot be measured and would be considered negligible. Here, we investigated whether this discrepancy also holds for adducts that are present as background induced by oxidative stress. L5178Y tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells were incubated for 4h with hydrogen peroxide (0, 0.8, 4, 20, 100, 500muM) or cumene hydroperoxide (0, 0.37, 1.1, 3.3, 10muM). Five endpoints of genotoxicity were measured in parallel from aliquots of three replicates of large batches of cells: Two DNA adducts, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (varepsilondAdo) measured by LC-MS/MS, as well as strand breaks assessed with the comet assay and in vitro micronucleus test, and gene mutation as assessed using the thymidine kinase gene mutation assay. Background measures of 8-oxodGuo and varepsilondAdo were 500-1000 and 50-90 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides. Upon treatment, neither hydrogen peroxide nor cumene hydroperoxide significantly increased the DNA adduct levels above control. In contrast, dose-related increases above background were observed with both oxidants in the comet assay, the micronucleus test and the gene mutation assay. Differences in sensitivity of the assays were quantified by estimating the concentration of oxidant that resulted in a doubling of the background measure. We conclude that the increase in DNA breakage and mutation induced by hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide observed in our in vitro

  6. Identification of 4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl-2'-deoxycytidine Adducts Formed in the Reaction of DNA with 4-(Acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone: A Chemically Activated Form of Tobacco-Specific Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anna K; Zarth, Adam T; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-03-31

    Metabolic activation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 2) results in the formation of 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts, several of which have been previously identified both in vitro and in tissues of laboratory animals treated with NNK or NNN. However, 2'-deoxycytidine adducts formed in this process have been incompletely examined in previous studies. Therefore, in this study we prepared characterized standards for the identification of previously unknown 2'-deoxycytidine and 2'-deoxyuridine adducts that could be produced in these reactions. The formation of these products in reactions of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 3), a model 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylating agent, with DNA was investigated. The major 2'-deoxycytidine adduct, identified as its stable cytosine analogue O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-cytosine (12), was O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxycytidine (13), whereas lesser amounts of 3-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxycytidine (14) and N(4)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxycytidine (15) were also observed. The potential conversion of relatively unstable 2'-deoxycytidine adducts to stable 2'-deoxyuridine adducts by treatment of the adducted DNA with bisulfite was also investigated, but the harsh conditions associated with this approach prevented quantitation. The results of this study provide new validated standards for the study of 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylation of DNA, a critical reaction in the carcinogenesis by 1 and 2, and demonstrate the presence of previously unidentified 2'-deoxycytidine adducts in this DNA.

  7. Identification of 4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl-2′-deoxycytidine Adducts Formed in the Reaction of DNA with 4-(Acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone: A Chemically Activated Form of Tobacco-Specific Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic activation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1) and N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 2) results in the formation of 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts, several of which have been previously identified both in vitro and in tissues of laboratory animals treated with NNK or NNN. However, 2′-deoxycytidine adducts formed in this process have been incompletely examined in previous studies. Therefore, in this study we prepared characterized standards for the identification of previously unknown 2′-deoxycytidine and 2′-deoxyuridine adducts that could be produced in these reactions. The formation of these products in reactions of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 3), a model 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylating agent, with DNA was investigated. The major 2′-deoxycytidine adduct, identified as its stable cytosine analogue O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-cytosine (12), was O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxycytidine (13), whereas lesser amounts of 3-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxycytidine (14) and N4-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxycytidine (15) were also observed. The potential conversion of relatively unstable 2′-deoxycytidine adducts to stable 2′-deoxyuridine adducts by treatment of the adducted DNA with bisulfite was also investigated, but the harsh conditions associated with this approach prevented quantitation. The results of this study provide new validated standards for the study of 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylation of DNA, a critical reaction in the carcinogenesis by 1 and 2, and demonstrate the presence of previously unidentified 2′-deoxycytidine adducts in this DNA. PMID:28393135

  8. The importance of carcinogen dose in chemoprevention studies: quantitative interrelationships between, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene dose, chlorophyllin dose, target organ DNA adduct biomarkers and final tumor outcome.

    PubMed

    Pratt, M Margaret; Reddy, Ashok P; Hendricks, Jerry D; Pereira, Cliff; Kensler, Thomas W; Bailey, George S

    2007-03-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a potent antimutagen in vitro, an effective anti-carcinogen in several animal models, and significantly reduced urinary biomarkers of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) exposure in a human population. Here we report an expanded analysis of CHL chemoprevention using the potent environmental hydrocarbon dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP). A dose-dose matrix design employed over 12 000 rainbow trout to evaluate the interrelationships among dietary carcinogen dose, anti-carcinogen dose, carcinogen-DNA adduct levels at exposure and eventual tumor outcome in two target organs. Included was an evaluation of the pharmaceutical CHL preparation (Derifil), used previously in a study of individuals chronically exposed to AFB(1). CHL was pre-, co- and post-fed at doses of 0-6000 p.p.m. and co-fed with DBP at doses of 0-371.5 p.p.m. for 4 weeks. This protocol generated a total of 21 dose-dose treatment groups, each evaluated with three or more replicates of 100 animals. The DBP-only treatment produced dose-responsive increases in liver and stomach DBP-DNA adducts, whereas increasing CHL co-treatment doses produced successive inhibition in liver (49-83%) and stomach (47-75%) adduct levels at each DBP dose examined. The remaining 8711 trout were necropsied, 10 months later. DBP treatment alone produced a logit incidence versus log [DBP] dose-response curve in stomach that was linear; CHL co-treatment provided dose-dependent tumor inhibition which ranged from 30 to 68% and was predictable from the adduct response. The Derifil CHL preparation was also found to effectively reduce DNA adduction and final tumor incidence in stomach (as well as liver), with a potency compatible with its total chlorin content. Liver tumor incidence in the DBP-only groups appeared to plateau near 60%. At DBP doses of DNA adducts as biomarkers. At 225 p.p.m. DBP, however, very high CHL doses were

  9. Urinary physiologic and chemical metabolic effects on the urothelial cytotoxicity and potential DNA adducts of o-phenylphenol in male rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Christenson, W R; Bartels, M J; Arnold, L L; St John, M K; Cano, M; Garland, E M; Lake, S G; Wahle, B S; McNett, D A; Cohen, S M

    1998-06-01

    ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP), a fungicide and antibacterial agent with food residues, is carcinogenic to rat bladder. The present studies provide information on changes in urinary composition and urinary metabolites, urothelial cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia, and DNA adducts in male F344 rats fed OPP. An initial experiment evaluated dietary doses of 0, 1,000, 4,000, and 12,500 ppm OPP fed for 13 weeks. There was no evidence of urinary calculi, microcrystalluria, or calcium phosphate-containing precipitate, but urothelial cytotoxicity and hyperplasia occurred at the highest dose only. In a second experiment, rats were fed dietary OPP levels of 0, 800, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,500 ppm. Urinary pH was > 7 in all groups. Urinary volume was increased at the 2 highest doses with consequent decreases in osmolality, creatinine, and other solutes. Total urinary OPP metabolite excretions were increased, mostly excreted as conjugates of OPP and of phenylhydroquinone. Free OPP or free metabolites accounted for less than 2% excreted in the urine without a dose response. Urothelial toxicity and hyperplasia occurred only at doses of 8,000 and 12,500 ppm. OPP-DNA adducts were not detected in the urothelium at any dose. In summary, OPP produces cytotoxicity and proliferation of the urothelium at dietary doses > or = 8,000 ppm without formation of urinary solids. The paucity of unconjugated metabolites and the lack of OPP-DNA adducts suggests that OPP is acting as a bladder carcinogen in male rats by inducing cytotoxicity and hyperplasia without it or its metabolites directly binding to DNA.

  10. Aloe-emodin inhibited N-acetylation and DNA adduct of 2-aminofluorene and arylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression in mouse leukemia L 1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jing-Gung; Li, Yu-Ching; Lee, Yi-Min; Lin, Jing-Pin; Cheng, Kwork-Chui; Chang, Weng-Cheng

    2003-09-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NATs) plays an important role in the first step of arylamine compounds metabolism. Polymorphic NAT is coded for rapid or slow acetylatoion phenotypes, which are recognized to affect cancer risk related to environmental exposure. Aloe-emodin has been shown to exit anticancer activity. The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not aloe-emodin could affect arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and gene expression (NAT mRNA) and DNA-2-aminofluorene (DNA-AF) adduct formation in mouse leukemia cells (L 1210). By using high performance liquid chromatography, N-acetylation and non-N-acetylation of AF were determined and quantitated. By using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR, NAT mRNA was determined and quantitated. Aloe-emodin displayed a dose-dependent inhibition to cytosolic NAT activity and intact mice leukemia cells. Time-course experiments indicated that N-acetylation of AF measured from intact mice leukemia cells were inhibited by aloe-emodin for up to 24h. Using standard steady-state kinetic analysis, it was demonstrated that aloe-emodin was a possible uncompetitive inhibitor to NAT activity in cytosols. The DNA-AF adduct formation in mouse leukemia cells were inhibited by aloe-emodin. The NAT1 mRNA in mouse leukemia cells were also inhibited by aloe-emodin. This report is the first demonstration which showed aloe-emodin affect mice leukemia cells NAT activity, gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) and DNA-AF on adduct formation.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes for benzo[a]pyrene and related levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts in Goeckerman therapy.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Martin; Fiala, Zdenek; Kremlacek, Jan; Andrys, Ctirad; Hamakova, Kvetoslava; Chmelarova, Marcela; Palicka, Vladimir; Borska, Lenka

    2016-07-25

    Goeckerman therapy (GT) for psoriasis combines the therapeutic effect of crude coal tar (CCT) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). CCT contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which can form DNA adducts that may induce mutations and contribute to carcinogenesis. The aim of our work was to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA adducts) and rs4646903 (CYP1A1 gene), rs1048943 (CYP1A1), rs1056836 (CYP1B1), rs1051740 (EPHX1), rs2234922 (EPHX1) and rs8175347 (UGT1A1) polymorphic sites, and GSTM1 null polymorphism in 46 patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis who underwent GT. The level of BPDE-DNA adducts was determined using the OxiSelect BPDE-DNA Adduct ELISA Kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (rs4646903, rs1048943, rs1051740, and rs2234922), fragment analysis (rs8175347), real-time PCR (rs1056836), and digital droplet PCR polymorphism (GSTM1) were used. CYP1B1*1/*1 wild-type subjects and CYP1B1*3/*1 heterozygotes for rs1056836 formed significantly higher amounts of BPDE-DNA adducts than CYP1B1*3/*3 homozygotes (p=0.031 and p=0.005, respectively). Regarding rs1051740, individuals with EPHX1*3/*1 heterozygosity revealed fewer adducts than EPHX1*1/*1 wild-type subjects (p=0.026). Our data suggest that CYP1B1/EPHX1 genotyping could help to predict the risk of DNA damage and to optimize doses of coal tar and UVR exposure in psoriatic patients in whom GT was applied.

  12. DNA Adducts of the Tobacco Carcinogens 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-Aminobiphenyl are Formed at Environmental Exposure levels and Persist in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J.; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25–100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ~5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a ten thousand-fold concentration range (1 nM – 10 µM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes, suggests that AαC can contribute to

  13. DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogens 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-aminobiphenyl are formed at environmental exposure levels and persist in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-09-16

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25-100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ∼5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a 10,000-fold concentration range (1 nM-10 μM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes suggest that AαC can contribute to DNA damage

  14. Resistance to Nucleotide Excision Repair of Bulky Guanine Adducts Opposite Abasic Sites in DNA Duplexes and Relationships between Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Kropachev, Konstantin; Jia, Lei; Lei, Jia; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    The nucleotide excision repair of certain bulky DNA lesions is abrogated in some specific non-canonical DNA base sequence contexts, while the removal of the same lesions by the nucleotide excision repair mechanism is efficient in duplexes in which all base pairs are complementary. Here we show that the nucleotide excision repair activity in human cell extracts is moderate-to-high in the case of two stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from the pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (cis- and trans-B[a]P-N2-dG adducts) in a normal DNA duplex. By contrast, the nucleotide excision repair activity is completely abrogated when the canonical cytosine base opposite the B[a]P-dG adducts is replaced by an abasic site in duplex DNA. However, base excision repair of the abasic site persists. In order to understand the structural origins of these striking phenomena, we used NMR and molecular spectroscopy techniques to evaluate the conformational features of 11mer DNA duplexes containing these B[a]P-dG lesions opposite abasic sites. Our results show that in these duplexes containing the clustered lesions, both B[a]P-dG adducts adopt base-displaced intercalated conformations, with the B[a]P aromatic rings intercalated into the DNA helix. To explain the persistence of base excision repair in the face of the opposed bulky B[a]P ring system, molecular modeling results suggest how the APE1 base excision repair endonuclease, that excises abasic lesions, can bind productively even with the trans-B[a]P-dG positioned opposite the abasic site. We hypothesize that the nucleotide excision repair resistance is fostered by local B[a]P residue-DNA base stacking interactions at the abasic sites, that are facilitated by the absence of the cytosine partner base in the complementary strand. More broadly, this study sets the stage for elucidating the interplay between base excision and nucleotide excision repair in processing different types of clustered DNA lesions that are substrates of nucleotide excision

  15. Resistance to Nucleotide Excision Repair of Bulky Guanine Adducts Opposite Abasic Sites in DNA Duplexes and Relationships between Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Kropachev, Konstantin; Lei, Jia; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleotide excision repair of certain bulky DNA lesions is abrogated in some specific non-canonical DNA base sequence contexts, while the removal of the same lesions by the nucleotide excision repair mechanism is efficient in duplexes in which all base pairs are complementary. Here we show that the nucleotide excision repair activity in human cell extracts is moderate-to-high in the case of two stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from the pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (cis- and trans-B[a]P-N2-dG adducts) in a normal DNA duplex. By contrast, the nucleotide excision repair activity is completely abrogated when the canonical cytosine base opposite the B[a]P-dG adducts is replaced by an abasic site in duplex DNA. However, base excision repair of the abasic site persists. In order to understand the structural origins of these striking phenomena, we used NMR and molecular spectroscopy techniques to evaluate the conformational features of 11mer DNA duplexes containing these B[a]P-dG lesions opposite abasic sites. Our results show that in these duplexes containing the clustered lesions, both B[a]P-dG adducts adopt base-displaced intercalated conformations, with the B[a]P aromatic rings intercalated into the DNA helix. To explain the persistence of base excision repair in the face of the opposed bulky B[a]P ring system, molecular modeling results suggest how the APE1 base excision repair endonuclease, that excises abasic lesions, can bind productively even with the trans-B[a]P-dG positioned opposite the abasic site. We hypothesize that the nucleotide excision repair resistance is fostered by local B[a]P residue—DNA base stacking interactions at the abasic sites, that are facilitated by the absence of the cytosine partner base in the complementary strand. More broadly, this study sets the stage for elucidating the interplay between base excision and nucleotide excision repair in processing different types of clustered DNA lesions that are substrates of nucleotide

  16. Mechanism of Error-Free Bypass of the Environmental Carcinogen N-(2'-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone Adduct by Human DNA Polymerase η.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amritraj; Politica, Dustin A; Chatterjee, Arindom; Tokarsky, E John; Suo, Zucai; Basu, Ashis K; Stone, Michael P; Egli, Martin

    2016-11-03

    The environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone produces bulky aminobenzanthrone (ABA) DNA adducts with both guanine and adenine nucleobases. A major product occurs at the C8 position of guanine (C8-dG-ABA). These adducts present a strong block to replicative polymerases but, remarkably, can be bypassed in a largely error-free manner by the human Y-family polymerase η (hPol η). Here, we report the crystal structure of a ternary Pol⋅DNA⋅dCTP complex between a C8-dG-ABA-containing template:primer duplex and hPol η. The complex was captured at the insertion stage and provides crucial insight into the mechanism of error-free bypass of this bulky lesion. Specifically, bypass involves accommodation of the ABA moiety inside a hydrophobic cleft to the side of the enzyme active site and formation of an intra-nucleotide hydrogen bond between the phosphate and ABA amino moiety, allowing the adducted guanine to form a standard Watson-Crick pair with the incoming dCTP.

  17. Formation of DNA adducts in the skin of psoriasis patients, in human skin in organ culture, and in mouse skin and lung following topical application of coal-tar and juniper tar.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Horkay, I; Kósa, A; Páldeák, L; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1990-02-01

    Preparations of coal-tar and juniper tar (cade oil) that are used in the treatment of psoriasis are known to contain numerous potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Evidence of covalent binding to DNA by components of these mixtures was sought in a) human skin biopsy samples from 12 psoriasis patients receiving therapy with these agents, b) human skin explants maintained in organ culture and treated topically with the tars, and c) the skin and lungs of mice treated with repeated doses of the formulations following the regimen used in the clinic. DNA was isolated from the human and mouse tissues and digested enzymically to mononucleotides. 32P-Post-labeling analysis revealed the presence of aromatic DNA adducts in the biopsy samples at levels of up to 0.4 fmol total adducts/microgram DNA. Treatment of human skin in organ culture produced similar levels of adducts, while treatment with dithranol, a non-mutagenic therapeutic agent, resulted in chromatograms indistinguishable from those from untreated controls. In mouse skin, coal-tar ointment and juniper tar gave similar DNA adduct levels, with a similar time-course of removal: maximum levels (0.5 fmol/microgram DNA) at 24 h after the final treatment declined rapidly to 0.05 fmol/microgram at 7 d, thereafter declining slowly over the succeeding 25 d. However, while coal-tar ointment produced only very low levels of adducts in mouse lung (less than 0.03 fmol/microgram DNA), juniper tar produced adducts at a high level (0.7 fmol/microgram DNA) that were persistent in this tissue. These results provide direct evidence for the formation of potentially carcinogenic DNA damage in human and mouse tissue by components of these therapeutic tar preparations.

  18. Carcinogenicity and DNA adduct formation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Johnson, Charles S; Kovi, Ramesh C; James-Yi, Sandra A; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Wang, Mingyao; Le, Chap T; Khariwala, Samir S; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-12-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolized to enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), found in the urine of virtually all people exposed to tobacco products. We assessed the carcinogenicity in male F-344 rats of (R)-NNAL (5 ppm in drinking water), (S)-NNAL (5 ppm), NNK (5 ppm) and racemic NNAL (10 ppm) and analyzed DNA adduct formation in lung and pancreas of these rats after 10, 30, 50 and 70 weeks of treatment. All test compounds induced a high incidence of lung tumors, both adenomas and carcinomas. NNK and racemic NNAL were most potent; (R)-NNAL and (S)-NNAL had equivalent activity. Metastasis was observed from primary pulmonary carcinomas to the pancreas, particularly in the racemic NNAL group. DNA adducts analyzed were O (2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O (2)-POB-dThd), 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine(7-POB-Gua),O (6)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]deoxyguanosine(O (6)-POB-dGuo),the 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl(PHB)adductsO (2)-PHB-dThd and 7-PHB-Gua, O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-Me-Gua) and 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing adducts. Adduct levels significantly decreased with time in the lungs of rats treated with NNK. Pulmonary POB-DNA adducts and O (6)-Me-Gua were similar in rats treated with NNK and (S)-NNAL; both were significantly greater than in the (R)-NNAL rats. In contrast, pulmonary PHB-DNA adduct levels were greatest in the rats treated with (R)-NNAL. Total pulmonary DNA adduct levels were similar in (S)-NNAL and (R)-NNAL rats. Similar trends were observed for DNA adducts in the pancreas, but adduct levels were significantly lower than in the lung. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the potent pulmonary carcinogenicity of both enantiomers of NNAL in rats and provide important new information regarding DNA damage by these compounds in lung and pancreas.

  19. Determination of in vitro- and in vivo-formed DNA adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline by capillary liquid chromatography/microelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gangl, E T; Turesky, R J; Vouros, P

    1999-10-01

    Capillary liquid chromatography/microelectrospray mass spectrometry has been applied to the detection of deoxyribonucleoside adducts of the food-derived mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) from in vitro and in vivo sources. Constant neutral loss (CNL) and selective reaction monitoring (SRM) techniques with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer enabled sensitive and specific detection of IQ adducts in vitro and in animals. Detection of 1 adduct in 10(4) unmodified bases is achieved using CNL scanning detection, while the lower detection limits using SRM approach 1 adduct in 10(7) unmodified bases using 300 microg of DNA. The DNA adducts N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (dG-C8-IQ) and 5-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (dG-N(2)-IQ) were detected in kidney tissues of chronically treated cynomolgus monkeys at levels and in proportions consistent with previously published (32)P-postlabeling data [Turesky, R. J., et al. (1996) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9, 403-408]. Thus, capillary tandem LC/MS is a highly sensitive technique, which can be used to screen for DNA adducts in vivo.

  20. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p < 0.01) after 4 days of exposure in 100 μg/L BaP. These results indicate that the only use of mRNA expression level of CYP system as a biomarker make us underestimate prolonged toxicity (4-14 days) of BaP and the only use of protein expression level of CYP system make us underestimate acute toxicity (1-2 days) of BaP. Therefore, we suggests that a combinational use of the mRNA expression level and protein expression level of CYP system, hepatosomatic index is a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure. In addition, DNA adduct formation was a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure at 4 days. CYP1A was a more sensitive biomarker than CYP reductase for BaP exposure when considering both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, our results show that Z. platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure.

  1. RNA polymerases react differently at d(ApG) and d(GpG) adducts in DNA modified by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Corda, Y.; Job, D. ); Anin, M.F.; Leng, M. )

    1992-02-25

    Two duplexes (20-mers) were constructed containing either a single cis-(Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(d(GpG))) or cis-(Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(d(ApG))) intrastrand cross-link, the major DNA adducts of the antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). These synthetic duplexes were multimerized and the resultant polymers used as templates in single-step addition reactions of condensation of a single nucleoside triphosphate substrate to a dinucleotide primer (abortive elongation reaction) catalyzed by prokaryotic or eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Primer-substrate combinations were selected so as to direct trinucleotide product formation within the platinated bases of the templates. Transcription experiments established that cis-DDP-DNA adducts formed at d(ApG) or d(GpG) sites are not an absolute block to formation of a single phosphodiester bond by either Escherichia coli RNA polymerase or wheat germ RNA polymerase II. Furthermore, the kinetic data indicate that single-step addition reactions are much more impeded at the platinated d(GpG) than at the platinated d(ApG) site and that the mechanisms of inhibition of RNA polymerase activity are different at the two platinated sites. In particular, binding affinity between E. coli RNA polymerase and the d(GpG)-containing platinated template is lowered, as the apparent K{sub m} of enzyme for the platinated polymer is increased by a factor of 4-5. These results are discussed in reaction to the distortions induced in DNA by the two adducts.

  2. Oral administration of the citrus coumarin, isopimpinellin, blocks DNA adduct formation and skin tumor initiation by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Heather E; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V; Starost, Matthew F; Reed, Melissa J; DiGiovanni, John

    2002-10-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of the citrus coumarin, isopimpinellin, on skin tumor initiation by topically applied benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). To evaluate the effects of orally administered isopimpinellin on skin tumor initiation by B[a]P and DMBA, its effects on DNA adduct formation were first evaluated. Female SENCAR mice were pre-treated twice with corn oil, or isopimpinellin (70 mg/kg body wt per os) at 24 h and 2 h prior to topical treatment with B[a]P or DMBA. Another citrus coumarin, imperatorin, was also included in these experiments for comparison. Orally administered isopimpinellin and imperatorin significantly inhibited B[a]P-DNA adduct formation by 37 and 26%, respectively. Imperatorin also blocked DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 43%. In a second dose-response study, orally administered isopimpinellin (35, 70 and 150 mg/kg) blocked DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 23, 56 and 69%, respectively. For the tumor study, mice were pretreated orally with corn oil or isopimpinellin at 24 and 2 h prior to initiation with DMBA, and 2 weeks later promotion began with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Isopimpinellin significantly reduced the mean number of papillomas per mouse by 49, 73 and 78% compared to corn oil controls at 30, 70 and 150 mg/kg body wt, respectively. Orally administered isopimpinellin also significantly reduced the percentage of mice with papillomas at the highest dose tested (150 mg/kg). The effectiveness of isopimpinellin given topically over a broad dose range against DMBA tumor initiation was also evaluated for comparison. As part of this study, several parameters of systemic toxicity were evaluated following oral dosing with isopimpinellin and imperatorin. Mice were treated orally with corn oil, isopimpinellin or imperatorin (35, 70 and 150 mg/kg body wt per os) once daily for four consecutive days, killed at 24 h after the last dose, and livers, lungs

  3. Tea as a potential chemopreventive agent in PhIP carcinogenesis: effects of green tea and black tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in female F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Schut, H A; Yao, R

    2000-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed during the cooking of proteinaceous animal foods (meat, chicken, and fish). PhIP is a carcinogen in the Fischer 344 (F-344) rat; it induces mammary tumors in female rats and lymphomas and colon and prostate tumors in male rats. In F-344 rats, PhIP forms DNA adducts in various organs, including the target organs. Inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation is likely to lead to inhibition of PhIP tumorigenicity. We have examined the chemopreventive properties of green tea and black tea in PhIP carcinogenesis by evaluating their effects on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in the female F-344 rat. Young adult animals were maintained on powdered AIN-76A diet while receiving regular drinking water or 2% (wt/vol) infusions of green tea or black tea for a total of six weeks. During Weeks 3, 4, and 5, all animals received PhIP by gavage (1 mg/kg/day). Three rats per group were euthanized on Days 1 and 8 after termination of PhIP exposure. DNA was isolated from a number of organs and analyzed for PhIP-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling assays. Compared with animals on regular drinking water, PhIP-DNA adduct formation was inhibited in small intestine, colon, liver, and mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of animals receiving green tea or black tea as the sole source of drinking fluid. Green tea inhibited adduct formation in colon, liver, and MECs (33.3-80.0%) on both days, but only on Day 8 (54.4%) in small intestine. Black tea inhibited adduct formation on both days in liver (71.4-80.0%), on Day 1 in colon (40.0%), and on Day 8 in small intestine (81.8%); it had no effect on MEC adducts. Neither green tea nor black tea had an effect on adduct levels in pancreas, lungs, white blood cells, heart, kidneys, spleen, cecum, or stomach. Similarly, these teas did not affect the rate of adduct removal (percent change from Day 1 to Day 8) in any organ. It is concluded that green tea and black tea are potential

  4. Analysis of DNA adducts formed in vivo in rats and mice from 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromomethane, and dichloromethane using HPLC/accelerator mass spectrometry and relevance to risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kengo; Liberman, Rosa G; Skipper, Paul L; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Guengerich, F Peter

    2007-11-01

    Dihaloalkanes are of toxicological interest because of their high-volume use in industry and their abilities to cause tumors in rodents, particularly dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. The brominated analogues are not used as extensively but are known to produce more toxicity in some systems. Rats and mice were treated i.p. with (14)C-dichloromethane, -dibromomethane, -1,2-dichloroethane, or -1,2-dibromoethane [5 mg (kg body weight)(-1)], and livers and kidneys were collected to rapidly isolate DNA. The DNA was digested using a procedure designed to minimize processing time, because some of the potential dihalomethane-derived DNA-glutathione (GSH) adducts are known to be unstable, and the HPLC fractions corresponding to major adduct standards were separated and analyzed for (14)C using accelerator mass spectrometry. The level of liver or kidney S-[2-(N(7)-guanyl)ethyl]GSH in rats treated with 1,2-dibromoethane was approximately 1 adduct/10(5) DNA bases; in male or female mice, the level was approximately one-half of this. The levels of 1,2-dichloroethane adducts were 10-50-fold lower. None of four known (in vitro) GSH-DNA adducts was detected at a level of >2/10(8) DNA bases from dibromomethane or dichloromethane. These results provide parameters for risk assessment of these compounds: DNA binding occurs with 1,2-dichloroethane but is considerably less than from 1,2-dibromoethane in vivo, and low exposure to dihalomethanes does not produce appreciable DNA adduct levels in rat or mouse liver and kidney of the doses used. The results may be used to address issues in human risk assessment.

  5. Detection of 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in genomic DNA by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuanyuan; Wu, Danni; Xu, Tian; Lu, Meiling; Zhang, Weibing; Wang, Hailin

    2016-06-10

    Crotonaldehyde (Cro) is one of widespread and genotoxic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and can react with the exocyclic amino group of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) in genomic DNA to form 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (ProdG) adducts. In this study, two diastereomers of high purity were prepared, including non-isotope and stable isotope labeled ProdG adducts, and exploited stable isotope dilution-based calibration method. By taking advantage of synthesized ProdG standards, we developed a sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of two diastereomers of ProdG adducts. In addition to optimization of the UHPLC separation, ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) was used as additive in the mobile phase for enhancing the ionization efficiency to ProdG adducts and facilitating MS detection. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) are estimated about 50 amol and 150 amol, respectively. By the use of the developed method, both diastereomers of ProdG adducts can be detected in untreated human MRC5 cells with a frequency of 2.4-3.5 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides. Crotonaldehyde treatment dramatically increases the levels of ProdG adducts in human MRC5 in a concentration-dependent manner.

  6. Influence of Na+ on DNA reactions with aromatic epoxides and diol epoxides: evidence that DNA catalyzes the formation of benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene adducts at intercalation sites.

    PubMed

    Fernando, H; Huang, C R; Milliman, A; Shu, L; LeBreton, P R

    1996-12-01

    Reactions of the benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and benz[a]anthracene (BA) metabolites, (+/-)-trans-7 8-dihydroxy-anti-9, 10-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydro-BP (BPDE), (+/-)-trans-3, 4-dihydroxy-anti- 1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-BA (BADE), (+/-)-BP-4,5-oxide (BPO), and (+/-)-BA-5, 6-oxide (BAO), were examined under pseudo-first-order conditions at varying Na+ (2.0-100 Mm) and native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) concentrations. In 0.2 mM ctDNA and 2.0 mM Na+, at a pH of 7.3 most BPDE, BADE, BPO, and BAO (87-95%) undergo DNA catalyzed hydrolysis or rearrangement. For BPDE and BPO, overall, pseudo-first-order rate constants, k, in 2.0 mM Na+ and 0.2 mM ctDNA are 21-72 times larger than values obtained without DNA. For BADE and BAO, the rate constants are less strongly influenced by DNA; k values in 0.2 mM ctDNA are only 9-12 times larger than values obtained without DNA. Kinetic data for BPDE, BPO, BADE, and BAO and DNA intercalation association constants (KA) for BP and BA diols which are model compounds indicate that KA values for BPDE and BPO in 2.0 mM Na+ are 6.6-59 times larger than those of BADE and BAO. The greater DNA enhancement of rate constants for BPDE and BPO, versus BADE and BAO, correlates with the larger KA values of the BP metabolites. DNA adducts, which account for less than 10% of the yields, also form. For BPDE in 0.20 mM ctDNA, k decreases 5.1 times as the Na+ concentration increases from 2.0 to 100 mM. Nevertheless, the DNA adduct level remains constant over the range of Na+ concentrations examined. These results provide evidence that, for BPDE in 0.20 mM DNA and 2.0 mM Na+, ctDNA adduct formation follows a mechanism which is similar to that for DNA catalyzed hydrolysis. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for adduct formation, kAd, given approximately by kAd approximately equal to (kcat,AdKA[DNA])/(1 + KA[DNA]), where kcat,Ad is a catalytic rate constant. for BADE, BPO, and BAO, the influence of varying DNA and Na+ concentrations on k values is similar to that

  7. Detection in vivo of a Novel Endogenous Etheno DNA Adduct Derived from Arachidonic Acid and the Effects of Antioxidants on Its Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Idalia M.; Pondicherry, Sharanya R.; Fernandez, Aileen; Schultz, Casey L.; Yang, Peiying; Pan, Jishen; Desai, Dhimant; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Christov, Plamen P.; Hara, Yukihiko; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the 7-(1′,2′-dihydroxyheptyl) substituted etheno DNA adducts are products from reactions with epoxide of (E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), an oxidation product of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this work, we report the detection of 7-(1′,2′-dihydroxyheptyl)-1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (DHHedA) in rodent and human tissues by two independent methods: a 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method and an isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (ID-LC-ESI-MS/MS), demonstrating for the first time that DHHedA is a background DNA lesion in vivo. We showed that DHHedA can be formed upon incubation of arachidonic acid (AA) with deoxyadenosine (dA), supporting the notion that ω-6 PUFAs are the endogenous source of DHHedA formation. Because cyclic adducts are derived from the oxidation of PUFAs, we subsequently examined the effects of antioxidants, α-lipoic acid, Polyphenon E and vitamin E, on the formation of DHHedA and γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine (γ-OHPdG), a widely studied acrolein-derived adduct arising from oxidized PUFAs, in the livers of Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats. LEC rats are inflicted with elevated lipid peroxidation and prone to the development of hepatocellular carcinomas. The results showed that while the survival of LEC rats increased significantly by α-lipoic acid, none of the antioxidants inhibited the formation of DHHedA and only Polyphenon E decreased the formation of γ-OHPdG. In contrast, vitamin E caused a significant increase in the formation of both γ-OHPdG and DHHedA in the livers of LEC rats. PMID:24816294

  8. Major and minor groove conformations of DNA trimers modified on guanine or adenine by 4-aminobiphenyl: Adenine adducts favor the minor groove

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, R.; Ellis, S.; Hingerty, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the conformational effects of 4-aminobiphenyl modification at C-8 of guanine or adenine on double-stranded DNA trimers. We used sequences with the modified purine at the central base pair and all 16 possible neighboring sequences at the outer pairs. Minimized potential energy calculations were carried out using the molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to survey the conformation space of these adducts, using a total of 1280 starting structures both in the modified guanine series and in the modified adenine series. Conformer families in which the bound 4-aminobiphenyl was located in the DNA major groove, and in the minor groove, were located for both adenine and guanine modification. In the modified guanine series, the major and minor groove families were roughly comparable in energy, and the sequence context determined which was more stable in a particular case. In the modified adenine series, however, the minor groove structure was more that 10 kcal/mol more stable than the major groove for all sequences. As a result, minor groove adducts provided most of the global minima in the adenine-modified series. This result may be relevant to a previous mutagenesis study [Lasko et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15429-15435] in which the hot spot of most frequent occurrence was located at an adenine, in the sequence GAT. 25 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Modulations of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adduct, cyclin D1 and PCNA in oral tissue by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kun-Ming; Sacks, Peter G.; Spratt, Thomas E.; Lin, Jyh-Ming; Boyiri, Telih; Schwartz, Joel; Richie, John P.; Calcagnotto, Ana; Das, Arunangshu; Bortner, James; Zhao, Zonglin; Amin, Shantu; Guttenplan, Joseph; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2009-05-22

    Tobacco smoking is an important cause of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco smoke contains multiple carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Surgery is the conventional treatment approach for SCC, but it remains imperfect. However, chemoprevention is a plausible strategy and we had previously demonstrated that 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) significantly inhibited tongue tumors-induced by the synthetic 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (not present in tobacco smoke). In this study, we demonstrated that p-XSC is capable of inhibiting B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression in human oral cells in vitro. In addition, we showed that dietary p-XSC inhibits B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, cell proliferation and cyclin D1 protein expression in the mouse tongue in vivo. The results of this study are encouraging to further evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of p-XSC initially against B[a]P-induced tongue tumors in mice and ultimately in the clinic.

  10. Formation of DNA adducts in wild-type and transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 after oral exposure to furfuryl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Monien, Bernhard Hans; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hjertholm, Hege; Husøy, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is present in many heat-treated foods as a result of its formation via dehydration of pentoses. It is also used legally as a flavouring agent. In an inhalation study conducted in the National Toxicology Program, FFA showed some evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats and mice. FFA was generally negative in conventional genotoxicity assays, which suggests that it may be a non-genotoxic carcinogen. However, it was recently found that FFA is mutagenic in Salmonella strains expressing appropriate sulfotransferases (SULTs), such as human or mouse SULT1A1. The same DNA adducts that were formed by FFA in these strains, mainly N 2-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine (N 2-MF-dG), were also detected in tissues of FFA-exposed mice and even in human lung specimens. In the present study, a single oral dose of FFA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline was administered to FVB/N mice and transgenic mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 on the FVB/N background. The transgenic mice were used, since human and mouse SULT1A1 substantially differ in substrate specificity and tissue distribution. DNA adducts were studied in liver, kidney, proximal and distal small intestine as well as colon, using isotope-dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC–MS/MS). Surprisingly, low levels of adducts that may represent N 2-MF-dG were detected even in tissues of untreated mice. FFA exposure enhanced the adduct levels in colon and liver, but not in the remaining investigated tissues of wild-type (wt) mice. The situation was similar in transgenic mice, except that N 2-MF-dG levels were also strongly enhanced in the proximal small intestine. These different results between wt and transgenic mice may be attributed to the fact that human SULT1A1, but not the orthologous mouse enzyme, is strongly expressed in the small intestine. PMID:25904584

  11. Formation of DNA adducts in wild-type and transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 after oral exposure to furfuryl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Monien, Bernhard Hans; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hjertholm, Hege; Husøy, Trine

    2015-09-01

    Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is present in many heat-treated foods as a result of its formation via dehydration of pentoses. It is also used legally as a flavouring agent. In an inhalation study conducted in the National Toxicology Program, FFA showed some evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats and mice. FFA was generally negative in conventional genotoxicity assays, which suggests that it may be a non-genotoxic carcinogen. However, it was recently found that FFA is mutagenic in Salmonella strains expressing appropriate sulfotransferases (SULTs), such as human or mouse SULT1A1. The same DNA adducts that were formed by FFA in these strains, mainly N (2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N (2)-MF-dG), were also detected in tissues of FFA-exposed mice and even in human lung specimens. In the present study, a single oral dose of FFA (250 mg/kg body weight) or saline was administered to FVB/N mice and transgenic mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 on the FVB/N background. The transgenic mice were used, since human and mouse SULT1A1 substantially differ in substrate specificity and tissue distribution. DNA adducts were studied in liver, kidney, proximal and distal small intestine as well as colon, using isotope-dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS). Surprisingly, low levels of adducts that may represent N (2)-MF-dG were detected even in tissues of untreated mice. FFA exposure enhanced the adduct levels in colon and liver, but not in the remaining investigated tissues of wild-type (wt) mice. The situation was similar in transgenic mice, except that N (2)-MF-dG levels were also strongly enhanced in the proximal small intestine. These different results between wt and transgenic mice may be attributed to the fact that human SULT1A1, but not the orthologous mouse enzyme, is strongly expressed in the small intestine.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer: Development and Validation of Acetylation Methods for Carcinogen-DNA Adduct Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    epidemiological studies, and determine adduct levels in relation to metabolizing gene polymorphisms . The originally proposed assay is novel because one uses a...carcinogenic mechanisms. Currently, many ongoing breast cancer studies are exploring risks related to genetic polymorphisms in these genes. Yet these...the surrogate tissue). Finally, in these subjects, we will perform assays for genetic polymorphisms , to assess the association of "at risk" genetic

  13. Analysis of the Benzene Oxide-DNA Adduct 7-Phenylguanine by Liquid Chromatography-Nanoelectrospray Ionization-High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Parallel Reaction Monitoring: Application to DNA from Exposed Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zarth, Adam; Cheng, Guang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Mingyao; Villalta, Peter W.; Balbo, Silvia; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene oxide, the initial metabolite of the human carcinogen benzene, reacts with DNA producing 7-phenylguanine (7-PhG) and other products. We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry-parallel reaction monitoring method for the analysis of 7-PhG in DNA. Accuracy and precision of the method were established and the detection limit was about 8 amol of 7-PhG injected on the column and less than 1 adduct per 109 nucleotides in DNA. 7-PhG was detected in calf thymus DNA reacted with 1 μM to 10 mM benzene oxide. The method was applied for the analysis of DNA isolated from bone marrow, lung, and liver of B6C3F1 mice treated by gavage with 50 mg/kg benzene in corn oil 5 times weekly for 4 weeks. 7-PhG was not detected in any of these DNA samples. The method was applied to DNA from mouse hepatocytes exposed to 100 μM benzene oxide and human TK-6 lymphoblasts exposed to 100 μM, 1 mM, and 10 mM benzene oxide. 7-PhG was only detected in TK-6 cell DNA from the 10 mM exposure. The method was also applied to leukocyte DNA from 10 smokers and 10 nonsmokers. 7-PhG was detected in only one DNA sample, from a nonsmoker. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the benzene oxide-DNA adduct 7-PhG is involved in carcinogenesis by benzene. PMID:24632417

  14. Kinetics of deoxy-CTP incorporation opposite a dG-C8-N-2-aminofluorene adduct by a high-fidelity DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Dominique Y; Wagner, Jérôme E

    2009-03-06

    The model carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene covalently binds to the C8 position of guanine to form two adducts, the N-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-aminofluorene (G-AF) and the N-2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-acetylaminofluorene (G-AAF). Although they are chemically closely related, their biological effects are strongly different and they are processed by different damage tolerance pathways. G-AF is bypassed by replicative and high-fidelity polymerases, while specialized polymerases ensure synthesis past of G-AAF. We used the DNA polymerase I fragment of a Bacillus stearothermophilus strain as a model for a high-fidelity polymerase to study the kinetics of incorporation of deoxy-CTP (dCTP) opposite a single G-AF. Pre-steady-state kinetic experiments revealed a drastic reduction in dCTP incorporation performed by the G-AF-modified ternary complex. Two populations of these ternary complexes were identified: (i) a minor productive fraction (20%) that readily incorporates dCTP opposite the G-AF adduct with a rate similar to that measured for the adduct-free ternary complexes and (ii) a major fraction of unproductive complexes (80%) that slowly evolve into productive ones. In the light of structural data, we suggest that this slow rate reflects the translocation of the modified base within the active site, from the pre-insertion site into the insertion site. By making this translocation rate limiting, the G-AF lesion reveals a novel kinetic step occurring after dNTP binding and before chemistry.

  15. Quantitation of DNA and hemoglobin adducts and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in tissues of F344 rats exposed to propylene oxide by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Blanco, M N; Faller, T H; Nakamura, J; Kessler, W; Kreuzer, P E; Ranasinghe, A; Filser, J G; Swenberg, J A

    2000-11-01

    Propylene oxide (PO) is a relatively weak mutagen that induces nasal tumor formation in rats during long-term inhalation studies at high exposures (> or =300 p.p.m.), concentrations that also cause cytotoxicity and increases in cell proliferation. Direct alkylation of DNA by PO leads mainly to the formation of N:7-(2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-HPG). In this study, the accumulation of 7-HPG in tissues of male F344 rats exposed to 500 p. p.m. PO (6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) by the inhalation route was measured by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). In animals killed up to 7 h following the end of the last exposure the levels of 7-HPG (pmol/micromol guanine) in nasal respiratory tissue, nasal olfactory tissue, lung, spleen, liver and testis DNA were 606.2 +/- 53.0, 297.5 +/- 56.5, 69.8 +/- 3.8, 43.0 +/- 3.8, 27.5 +/- 2.4 and 14.2 +/- 0.7, respectively. The amounts of 7-HPG in the same tissues of animals killed 3 days after cessation of exposure were 393.3 +/- 57.0, 222.7 +/- 29.5, 51.5 +/- 1.2, 26.7 +/- 1.0, 18.0 +/- 2.6 and 10.4 +/- 0.1. A comparable rate of disappearance of 7-HPG was found among all tissues. DNA from lymphocytes pooled from four rats killed at the end of the last exposure was found to have 39.6 pmol adduct/micromol guanine. Quantitation of DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, potentially formed after adduct loss by chemical depurination or DNA repair, showed no difference between tissues from control and exposed rats. The level of N:-(2-hydroxypropyl)valine in hemoglobin of exposed rats was also determined using a modified Edman degradation method followed by GC-HRMS analysis. The value obtained was 90.2 +/- 10.3 pmol/mg globin. These data demonstrate that nasal respiratory tissue, which is the target tissue for carcinogenesis, has a much greater level of alkylation of DNA than non-target tissues.

  16. BENZO[A]PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE FORMS COVALENT-DNA ADDUCTS IN VITRO BUT NONE WERE DETECTED IN THE LUNGS OR LIVERS OF STRAIN A/J MICE IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent human and rodent lung carcinogen. This activity has been ascribed in part to the formation of B[a]P-7,8-dio1-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts. Other carcinogenic mechanisms have been proposed: 1.] The induction of apurinic sites from radical cati...

  17. BENZO[ A ]PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE FORMS COVALENT-DNA ADDUCTS IN VITRO BUT NONE WERE DETECTED IN THE LUNGS OR LIVERS OF STRAIN A/J MICE IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent human and rodent lung carcinogen. This activity has been ascribed in part to the formation of B[a]P-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts. Other carcinogenic mechanisms have been proposed: 1.] The induction of apurinic si...

  18. Detection and quantitation of benzo(a)pyrene-derived DNA adducts in mouse liver by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry: comparison with P-32-postlabeling

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Gaskell, M.; Le Pla, R.C.; Kaur, B.; Azim-Araghi, A.; Roach, J.; Koukouves, G.; Souliotis, V.L.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Farmer, P.B.

    2006-06-19

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is a proven animal carcinogen that is potentially carcinogenic to humans. B( a)P is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant and is also present in tobacco smoke, coal tar, automobile exhaust emissions, and charred food. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has been developed for the detection of 10-(deoxyguanosin-N{sub 2}-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (B(a)PDE-N{sub 2}dG) adducts formed in DNA following the metabolic activation of B(a)P to benzo(a) pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (B(a)PDE).

  19. Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Mechanism Promoting Error-prone Synthesis by Human DNA Polymerase [kappa] Opposite the 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine Adduct

    SciTech Connect

    Irimia, Adriana; Eoff, Robert L.; Guengerich, F.Peter; Egli, Martin

    2009-09-25

    Human polymerase kappa (hPol {kappa}) is one of four eukaryotic Y-class DNA polymerases and may be an important element in the cellular response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene, which can lead to reactive oxygenated metabolite-mediated oxidative stress. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the activity and specificity of hPol {kappa} bypass opposite the major oxidative adduct 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2{prime}-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG). Unlike its archaeal homolog Dpo4, hPol {kappa} bypasses this lesion in an error-prone fashion by inserting mainly dATP. Analysis of transient-state kinetics shows diminished 'bursts' for dATP:8-oxoG and dCTP:8-oxoG incorporation, indicative of non-productive complex formation, but dATP:8-oxoG insertion events that do occur are 2-fold more efficient than dCTP:G insertion events. Crystal structures of ternary hPol {kappa} complexes with adducted template-primer DNA reveal non-productive (dGTP and dATP) alignments of incoming nucleotide and 8-oxoG. Structural limitations placed upon the hPol {kappa} by interactions between the N-clasp and finger domains combined with stabilization of the syn-oriented template 8-oxoG through the side chain of Met-135 both appear to contribute to error-prone bypass. Mutating Leu-508 in the little finger domain of hPol {kappa} to lysine modulates the insertion opposite 8-oxoG toward more accurate bypass, similar to previous findings with Dpo4. Our structural and activity data provide insight into important mechanistic aspects of error-prone bypass of 8-oxoG by hPol {kappa} compared with accurate and efficient bypass of the lesion by Dpo4 and polymerase {eta}.

  20. Environmental pollutant and potent mutagen 3-nitrobenzanthrone forms DNA adducts after reduction by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and conjugation by acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases in human hepatic cytosols.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Stiborova, Marie; Henderson, Colin J; Osborne, Martin R; Bieler, Christian A; Frei, Eva; Martinek, Vaclav; Sopko, Bruno; Wolf, C Roland; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H

    2005-04-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one, 3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and air pollution. We compared the ability of human hepatic cytosolic samples to catalyze DNA adduct formation by 3-NBA. Using the (32)P-postlabeling method, we found that 12/12 hepatic cytosols activated 3-NBA to form multiple DNA adducts similar to those formed in vivo in rodents. By comparing 3-NBA-DNA adduct formation in the presence of cofactors of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and xanthine oxidase, most of the reductive activation of 3-NBA in human hepatic cytosols was attributed to NQO1. Inhibition of adduct formation by dicoumarol, an NQO1 inhibitor, supported this finding and was confirmed with human recombinant NQO1. When cofactors of N,O-acetyltransferases (NAT) and sulfotransferases (SULT) were added to cytosolic samples, 3-NBA-DNA adduct formation increased 10- to 35-fold. Using human recombinant NQO1 and NATs or SULTs, we found that mainly NAT2, followed by SULT1A2, NAT1, and, to a lesser extent, SULT1A1 activate 3-NBA. We also evaluated the role of hepatic NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in the activation of 3-NBA in vivo by treating hepatic POR-null mice and wild-type littermates i.p. with 0.2 or 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA. No difference in DNA binding was found in any tissue examined (liver, lung, kidney, bladder, and colon) between null and wild-type mice, indicating that 3-NBA is predominantly activated by cytosolic nitroreductases rather than microsomal POR. Collectively, these results show the role of human hepatic NQO1 to reduce 3-NBA to species being further activated by NATs and SULTs.

  1. NADH:Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5 Can Act as Sole Electron Donors to Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-Mediated Oxidation and DNA Adduct Formation by Benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after activation by cytochrome P450 (P450). Here, we investigated whether NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) in the presence of cytochrome b5 can act as sole electron donor to human P450 1A1 during BaP oxidation and replace the canonical NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) system. We also studied the efficiencies of the coenzymes of these reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of CBR, to mediate BaP oxidation. Two systems containing human P450 1A1 were utilized: human recombinant P450 1A1 expressed with POR, CBR, epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome b5 in Supersomes and human recombinant P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR and/or with CBR and cytochrome b5 in liposomes. BaP-9,10-dihydrodiol, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-9-ol, BaP-3-ol, a metabolite of unknown structure, and two BaP-DNA adducts were generated by the P450 1A1-Supersomes system, both in the presence of NADPH and in the presence of NADH. The major BaP-DNA adduct detected by 32P-postlabeling was characterized as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP (assigned adduct 1), while the minor adduct is probably a guanine adduct derived from 9-hydroxy-BaP-4,5-epoxide (assigned adduct 2). BaP-3-ol as the major metabolite, BaP-9-ol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, an unknown metabolite, and adduct 2 were observed in the system using P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR plus NADPH. When P450 1A1 was reconstituted with CBR and cytochrome b5 plus NADH, BaP-3-ol was the predominant metabolite too, and an adduct 2 was also generated. Our results demonstrate that the NADH/cytochrome b5/CBR system can act as the sole electron donor both for the first and second reduction of P450 1A1 during the oxidation of BaP in vitro. They suggest that NADH-dependent CBR can replace NADPH-dependent POR in the P450 1A1-catalyzed metabolism of BaP. PMID:27404282

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an N(2)-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2012-12-04

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the nonplanar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14 position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R-(+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N(2)-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3'-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3'-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE-DNA adduct conformation differs from (1) the classical intercalation motif in which Watson-Crick base pairing is intact at the lesion site and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix. The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed.

  3. Structural and biochemical impact of C8-aryl-guanine adducts within the NarI recognition DNA sequence: influence of aryl ring size on targeted and semi-targeted mutagenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sproviero, Michael; Verwey, Anne M.R.; Rankin, Katherine M.; Witham, Aaron A.; Soldatov, Dmitriy V.; Manderville, Richard A.; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Sturla, Shana J.; Sharma, Purshotam; Wetmore, Stacey D.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical mutagens with an aromatic ring system may be enzymatically transformed to afford aryl radical species that preferentially react at the C8-site of 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG). The resulting carbon-linked C8-aryl-dG adduct possesses altered biophysical and genetic coding properties compared to the precursor nucleoside. Described herein are structural and in vitro mutagenicity studies of a series of fluorescent C8-aryl-dG analogues that differ in aryl ring size and are representative of authentic DNA adducts. These structural mimics have been inserted into a hotspot sequence for frameshift mutations, namely, the reiterated G3-position of the NarI sequence within 12mer (NarI(12)) and 22mer (NarI(22)) oligonucleotides. In the NarI(12) duplexes, the C8-aryl-dG adducts display a preference for adopting an anti-conformation opposite C, despite the strong syn preference of the free nucleoside. Using the NarI(22) sequence as a template for DNA synthesis in vitro, mutagenicity of the C8-aryl-dG adducts was assayed with representative high-fidelity replicative versus lesion bypass Y-family DNA polymerases, namely, Escherichia coli pol I Klenow fragment exo− (Kf−) and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4). Our experiments provide a basis for a model involving a two-base slippage and subsequent realignment process to relate the miscoding properties of C-linked C8-aryl-dG adducts with their chemical structures. PMID:25361967

  4. Replication Bypass of the trans-4-Hydroxynonenal-Derived (6S,8R,11S)-1,N[superscript 2]-Deoxyguanosine DNA Adduct by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Surajit; Christov, Plamen P.; Kozekova, Albena; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P.

    2014-10-02

    trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the major peroxidation product of {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. Michael addition of the N{sub 2}-amino group of dGuo to HNE followed by ring closure of N1 onto the aldehyde results in four diastereomeric 1,N{sub 2}-dGuo (1,N{sub 2}-HNE-dGuo) adducts. The (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct was incorporated into the 18-mer templates 5'-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3' and d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3', where X = (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct. These differed in the identity of the template 5'-neighbor base, which was either Thy or Cyt, respectively. Each of these templates was annealed with either a 13-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' or a 14-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTCC)-3'. The addition of dNTPs to the 13-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP insertion opposite to the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct, whereas the 14-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP extension past a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo:dCyd pair. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) belongs to the Y-family of error-prone polymerases. Replication bypass studies in vitro reveal that this polymerase inserted dNTPs opposite the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct in a sequence-specific manner. If the template 5'-neighbor base was dCyt, the polymerase inserted primarily dGTP, whereas if the template 5'-neighbor base was dThy, the polymerase inserted primarily dATP. The latter event would predict low levels of Gua {yields} Thy mutations during replication bypass when the template 5'-neighbor base is dThy. When presented with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo:dCyd pair, the polymerase conducted full-length primer extension. Structures for ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) complexes with all four template-primers were obtained. For the 18-mer:13-mer template-primers in which the polymerase was confronted with the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct, the (6S,8R,11S)-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo lesion remained in the ring

  5. Identification of three major DNA adducts formed by the carcinogenic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in rat lung at the C8 and N2 position of guanine and at the N6 position of adenine.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Osborne, Martin R; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Kanno, Takaharu; Yagi, Takashi; Phillips, David H; Takamura-Enya, Takeji

    2006-05-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and potential human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and ambient air particulate matter. Previously, we detected the formation of 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts in rodent tissues by 32P-postlabeling, all of which are derived from reductive metabolites of 3-NBA bound to purine bases, but structural identification of these adducts has not yet been reported. We have now prepared 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct standards for 32P-postlabeling by reacting N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Aco-ABA) with purine nucleotides. Three deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts have been characterised as N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dG3'p-C8-N-ABA), 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dG3'p-N2-ABA) and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dG3'p-C8-C2-ABA), and a deoxyadenosine (dA) adduct was characterised as 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dA3'p-N6-ABA). 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts formed experimentally in vivo and in vitro were compared with the chemically synthesised adducts. The major 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formed in rat lung cochromatographed with dG3'p-N2-ABA in two independent systems (thin layer and high-performance liquid chromatography). This is also the major adduct formed in tissue of rats or mice treated with 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), the major human metabolite of 3-NBA. Similarly, dG3'p-C8-N-ABA and dA3'p-N6-ABA cochromatographed with two other adducts formed in various organs of rats or mice treated either with 3-NBA or 3-ABA, whereas dG3'p-C8-C2-ABA did not cochromatograph with any of the adducts found in vivo. Utilizing different enzymatic systems in vitro, including human hepatic microsomes and cytosols, and purified and recombinant enzymes, we found that a variety of enzymes [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, xanthine oxidase, NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, cytochrome P450s 1A1 and 1A2, N,O-acetyltransferases 1 and 2

  6. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P; Millsap, Amy D; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2015-09-30

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5'-G1G2CG3CC-3') were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38-67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10-24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to <3%, whereas it was reduced from 24% to <1% in the G2 construct. In vitro TLS using yeast pol ζ showed that it can extend G3*:A pair more efficiently than G3*:C pair, but it is inefficient at nucleotide incorporation opposite dG-C8-IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass.

  7. Oxidative damage to nucleic acids and benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts and chromosomal aberration in children with psoriasis repeatedly exposed to crude coal tar ointment and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Borska, Lenka; Andrys, Ctirad; Krejsek, Jan; Palicka, Vladimir; Chmelarova, Marcela; Hamakova, Kvetoslava; Kremlacek, Jan; Fiala, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a prospective cohort study. Observed group was formed of children with plaque psoriasis (n=19) treated by Goeckerman therapy (GT). The study describes adverse (side) effects associated with application of GT (combined exposure of 3% crude coal tar ointment and UV radiation). After GT we found significantly increased markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine), significantly increased levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA), and significantly increased levels of total number of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. We found significant relationship between (1) time of UV exposure and total number of aberrated cells and (2) daily topical application of 3% crude coal tar ointment (% of body surface) and level of BPDE-DNA adducts. The findings indicated increased hazard of oxidative stress and genotoxic effects related to the treatment. However, it must be noted that the oxidized guanine species and BPDE-DNA adducts also reflect individual variations in metabolic enzyme activity (different extent of bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene to BPDE) and overall efficiency of DNA/RNA repair system. The study confirmed good effectiveness of the GT (significantly decreased PASI score).

  8. Tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomer analysis after hydrolysis of DNA-adducts isolated from rat and human white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Grova, Nathalie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Hardy, Emilie M; Schroeder, Henri; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-10-17

    Since exposure to benzo[a]pyrene is suspected to be associated with several health issues, significant efforts have been made to develop efficient strategies for the assessment of human exposure to this ubiquitous compound. In this context, a method was developed for the analysis of four tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomers resulting from the hydrolysis of their respective diol-epoxide precursors which are involved in DNA-adduct formation. The analytical sensitivity necessary to reach environmental levels of concentration was obtained by using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recovery determined at the four concentration levels were estimated in average at 83% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), 29% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,t-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), and 82% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,C-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The coefficient of determination of the calibration curve was above 0.997 for all the analytes investigated and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.5 to 2 adduct/10(8) nucleotides. The precision was between 5.3% and 22.3%. The suitability of the method was firstly evaluated by the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of rats submitted after controlled exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. The four targeted tetra-OH-benzo[a]pyrenes as well as two unknown isomers were detected in all the treated animals. Benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) appeared as the most abundant isomer in both treated and control animals followed by benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The method was afterwards applied to the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of human volunteers. The results confirmed that this method was sufficiently sensitive to monitor environmental levels of exposure since all the specimens analyzed were above the limit of quantification for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) and two of them were positive for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10

  9. Conformational preferences of DNA following damage by aristolochic acids: Structural and energetic insights into the different mutagenic potential of the ALI and ALII-N(6)-dA adducts.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Abendong, Minette N; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-04-21

    Aristolochic acids (AAI and AAII), produced by the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, are classified as group I (human) carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. These acids are metabolized in cells to yield aristolactams (ALI and ALII, respectively), which further form bulky adducts with the purine nucleobases. Specifically, the adenine lesions are more persistent in cells and have been associated with chronic renal diseases and related carcinogenesis. To understand the structural basis of the nephrotoxicity induced by AAs, the ALI-N(6)-dA and ALII-N(6)-dA lesions are systematically studied using computational methods. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the aristolactam moiety intrinsically prefers a planar conformation with respect to adenine. Nucleoside and nucleotide models suggest that the anti and syn orientations about the glycosidic bond are isoenergetic for both adducts. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation is the most stable conformer for both types of AL-N(6)-dA adducted DNA, which agrees with previous experimental work on the ALII-N(6)-dA adduct and thereby validates our approach. Interestingly, this conformer differs from the dominant conformations adopted by other N6-linked adenine lesions, including those derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the second most stable syn base-displaced intercalated conformation lies closer in energy to the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation for ALI-N(6)-dA compared to ALII-N(6)-dA. This indicates that a mixture of conformations may be detectable for ALI-N(6)-dA in DNA. If this enhanced conformational flexibility of double-stranded DNA persists when bound to a lesion-bypass polymerase, this provides a possible structural explanation for the previously observed greater nephrotoxic potential for the ALI versus ALII-N(6)-dA adduct. In addition, the structural

  10. Modulation of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and DNA adducts level by green and white tea in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Jain, Mridula; Sehgal, Amit; Sharma, V L

    2012-12-01

    In the current investigation the ameliorative effect of 2% extract of green tea (GT) and white tea (WT) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced toxicity and DNA damage has been studied in liver and lung of Balb/c mice (8 animals per group). The activities of phase I enzymes such as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD) were found to be increased (p<0.05) both in liver and lung of BaP treated (125 mg/kg b.w. orally) group. The enhanced activities of EROD and PROD were inhibited in group that received pretreatment with GT and WT for 35 days. Pretreatment with GT and WT also elevated (p<0.05) the level of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR) in both the tissues. The BaPDE-DNA adducts level reflected the decreasing pattern from BaP treated group to the groups that received pretreatment with GT and WT. BaP exposure induced drastic alterations in the morphology of erythrocytes, pretreatment of GT and WT to BaP administered groups showed reduced alteration in topography of erythrocytes. WT elucidate greater efficacy in ameliorating BaP toxicity, but further long term studies are required to validate white tea as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  11. Effects of the N terminus of mouse DNA polymerase κ on the bypass of a guanine-benzo[a]pyrenyl adduct

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Guo, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), one of the typical member of the Y-family DNA polymerases, has been demonstrated to bypass the 10S (+)-trans-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-N2-deoxyguanine adducts (BPDE-dG) efficiently and accurately. A large structural gap between the core and little finger as well as an N-clasp domain are essential to its unique translesion capability. However, whether the extreme N-terminus of Polκ is required for its activity is unclear. In this work, we constructed two mouse Polκ deletions, which have either a catalytic core (mPolκ1-516) or a core without the first 21-residues (mPolκ22-516), and tested their activities in the replication of normal and BPDE-DNA. These two Polκ deletions are nearly as efficient as the full length protein (Polκ1-852) in normal DNA synthesis. However, steady-state kinetics reveals a significant reduction in efficiency of dCTP incorporation opposite the lesion by Polκ22-516, along with increased frequencies for misinsertion compared with Polκ1-852. The next nucleotide insertion opposite the template C immediately following the BPDE-dG was also examined, and the bypass differences induced by deletions were highlighted in both insertion and extension step. We conclude that the extreme N-terminal part of Polκ is required for the processivity and fidelity of Polκ during translesion synthesis of BPDE-dG lesions. PMID:26634445

  12. Accommodation of an N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene adduct in the active site of human DNA polymerase ι: Hoogsteen or Watson-Crick base pairing?†

    PubMed Central

    Donny-Clark, Kerry; Shapiro, Robert; Broyde, Suse

    2009-01-01

    Bypass across DNA lesions by specialized polymerases is essential for maintenance of genomic stability. Human DNA polymerase ι (polι) is a bypass polymerase of the Y family. Crystal structures of polι suggest that Hoogsteen base pairing is employed to bypass minor groove DNA lesions, placing them on the spacious major groove side of the enzyme. Primer extension studies have shown that polι is also capable of error-free nucleotide incorporation opposite the bulky major groove adduct N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetyl-aminofluorene (dG-AAF). We present molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations suggesting that Watson-Crick base pairing could be employed in polι for bypass of dG-AAF. In polι with Hoogsteen paired dG-AAF the bulky AAF moiety would reside on the cramped minor groove side of the template. The Hoogsteen-capable conformation distorts the active site, disrupting interactions necessary for error-free incorporation of dC opposite the lesion. Watson-Crick pairing places the AAF rings on the spacious major groove side, similar to the position of minor groove adducts observed with Hoogsteen pairing. Watson-Crick paired structures show a well-ordered active site, with a near reaction-ready ternary complex. Thus our results suggest that polι would utilize the same spacious region for lesion bypass of both major and minor groove adducts. Therefore, purine adducts with bulk on the minor groove side would use Hoogsteen pairing, while adducts with the bulky lesion on the major groove side would utilize Watson-Crick base pairing as indicated by our MD simulations for dG-AAF. This suggests the possibility of an expanded role for polι in lesion bypass. PMID:19072536

  13. Histopathological lesions and DNA adducts in the liver of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) collected in the Seine estuary versus two reference estuarine systems on the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Cachot, Jérôme; Cherel, Yan; Larcher, Thibaut; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Laroche, Jean; Quiniou, Louis; Morin, Jocelyne; Schmitz, Julien; Burgeot, Thierry; Pottier, Didier

    2013-02-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in the Seine estuary and in two smaller and relatively preserved estuaries on the French Atlantic coast in order to estimate the occurrence of liver lesions in European flounder, Platichthys flesus, and also to seek putative risk factors for the recorded pathologies. Four hundred and seventy-eight fish of both sexes and of different size ranges were sampled in the three studied areas, 338 of which in the Seine estuary. All fish were examined for histopathological liver lesions, while DNA adducts and otoliths were analyzed on a subsample. Five categories of hepatic lesions were recorded with the following prevalence for the Seine estuary: 36.7 % inflammations, 8 % parasites (mainly encysted nematodes), 6.5 % foci of cellular alteration (FCA), 5.3 % foci of necrosis or regeneration (FNR), and 1.5 % tumors. Inflammation occurrence increased according to age, contrary to parasitic infestations and FCA which were more prevalent in young fish, notably those of <1 year old (group 0). Tumors were only observed in females of more than two winters. Females exhibited a higher prevalence of tumors (3.0 %) and FCA (6.5 %) than males (0 and 2.6 %, respectively). Parasitic and infectious lesions and FNR were equally distributed in males and females. The prevalence of FNR was also shown to vary according to sampling season, with significantly more occurrences of liver necrosis in the fish collected in summer than in spring. Spatial differences were observed with a higher occurrence of encysted parasites in flounders from the upper Seine estuary, while inflammations predominated in flounders living downstream. Temporal trends were also noted, with an increased prevalence of parasitic infestations, inflammations, and FCA in the 2002-2003 period in comparison to the 1996-1997 one. The three flounder populations from the Seine estuary (Normandy), Ster estuary (Brittany), and Bay of Veys (Normandy) showed different spectra of hepatic lesions

  14. Breaking the dogma: PCB-derived semiquinone free radicals do not form covalent adducts with DNA, GSH, and amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Wangpradit, Orarat; Rahaman, Asif; Mariappan, S. V. Santhana; Buettner, Garry R.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bond formations of free radical metabolites with biomolecules like DNA and proteins are thought to constitute a major mechanism of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Glutathione (GSH) is generally accepted as a radical scavenger protecting the cell. In the present study, we investigated a semiquinone radical (SQ•-) metabolite of the semivolatile 4-chlorobiphenyl, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were also employed to elucidate the radical interaction with DNA, amino acids, and GSH. We found that DNA and oligonucleotides stabilized SQ•- by electron delocalization in the π-stacking system, resulting in persistent radical intercalated, rather than forming a covalent bond with SQ•-. This finding was strongly supported by the semiempirical calculation of the semioccupied molecular orbital and the linear combination of the atomic orbitals, indicating 9.8 kcal mol−1 energy gain. The insertion of SQ•- into the DNA strand may result in DNA strand breaks and interruption of DNA replication process or even activate radical mediated secondary reactions. The presence of amino acids resulted in a decrease of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of SQ•- and correlated with their isoelectric points. The pH shifts the equilibrium of the dianions of hydroquinone and influenced indirectly the formation of SQ•-. Similar findings were observed with GSH and Cys. GSH and Cys functioned as indirect radical scavengers; their activities depend on their chemical equilibria with the corresponding quinones, and their further reaction via Michael addition. The generally accepted role of GSH as radical scavenger in biological systems should be reconsidered based upon these findings, questioning the generally accepted view of radical interaction of semiquinones with biologically active compounds, like DNA, amino acids, proteins

  15. Kava blocks 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis in association with reducing O6-methylguanine DNA adduct in A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Leitzman, Pablo; Narayanapillai, Sreekanth C; Balbo, Silvia; Zhou, Bo; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Shaik, Ahmad Ali; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Hecht, Stephen S; Lu, Junxuan; Xing, Chengguo

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the chemopreventive potential of kava against 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)- and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice during the initiation and postinitiation stages. In this study, we investigated the tumorigenesis-stage specificity of kava, the potential active compounds, and the underlying mechanisms in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. In the first experiment, NNK-treated mice were given diets containing kava at a dose of 5 mg/g of diet during different periods. Kava treatments covering the initiation stage reduced the multiplicity of lung adenomas by approximately 99%. A minimum effective dose is yet to be defined because kava at two lower dosages (2.5 and 1.25 mg/g of diet) were equally effective as 5 mg/g of diet in completely inhibiting lung adenoma formation. Daily gavage of kava (one before, during, and after NNK treatment) completely blocked lung adenoma formation as well. Kavalactone-enriched fraction B fully recapitulated kava's chemopreventive efficacy, whereas kavalactone-free fractions A and C were much less effective. Mechanistically, kava and fraction B reduced NNK-induced DNA damage in lung tissues with a unique and preferential reduction in O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-mG), the highly tumorigenic DNA damage by NNK, correlating and predictive of efficacy on blocking lung adenoma formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate the outstanding efficacy of kava in preventing NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice with high selectivity for the initiation stage in association with the reduction of O(6)-mG adduct in DNA. They also establish the knowledge basis for the identification of the active compound(s) in kava.

  16. Structural insight into dynamic bypass of the major cisplatin-DNA adduct by Y-family polymerase Dpo4

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jimson H.Y.; Brown, Jessica A.; Suo, Zucai; Blum, Paul; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ling, Hong

    2010-08-23

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass Pt-GG, the cisplatin-DNA double-base lesion, contributing to the cisplatin resistance in tumour cells. To reveal the mechanism, we determined three structures of the Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4, in complex with Pt-GG DNA. The crystallographic snapshots show three stages of lesion bypass: the nucleotide insertions opposite the 3{prime}G (first insertion) and 5{prime}G (second insertion) of Pt-GG, and the primer extension beyond the lesion site. We observed a dynamic process, in which the lesion was converted from an open and angular conformation at the first insertion to a depressed and nearly parallel conformation at the subsequent reaction stages to fit into the active site of Dpo4. The DNA translocation-coupled conformational change may account for additional inhibition on the second insertion reaction. The structures illustrate that Pt-GG disturbs the replicating base pair in the active site, which reduces the catalytic efficiency and fidelity. The in vivo relevance of Dpo4-mediated Pt-GG bypass was addressed by a dpo-4 knockout strain of Sulfolobus solfataricus, which exhibits enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and proteomic alterations consistent with genomic stress.

  17. Correlation between CYP1A1 transcript, protein level, enzyme activity and DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cell strains exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Divi, Rao L.; Einem Lindeman, Tracey L.; Shockley, Marie E.; Keshava, Channa; Weston, Ainsley; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2014-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is thought to bind covalently to DNA, through metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1, and other enzymes, to form r7, t8, t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]-pyrene (BPdG). Evaluation of RNA expression data, to understand the contribution of different metabolic enzymes to BPdG formation, is typically presented as fold-change observed upon BP exposure, leaving the actual number of RNA transcripts unknown. Here, we have quantified RNA copies/ng cDNA (RNA cpn) for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, as well as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which may reduce formation of BPdG adducts, using primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains, and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In unexposed NHMECs, basal RNA cpn values were 58–836 for CYP1A1, 336–5587 for CYP1B1 and 5943–40112 for NQO1. In cells exposed to 4.0 µM BP for 12h, RNA cpn values were 251–13234 for CYP1A1, 4133–57078 for CYP1B1 and 4456–55887 for NQO1. There were 3.5 (mean, range 0.2–15.8) BPdG adducts/108 nucleotides in the NHMECs (n = 16), and 790 in the MCF-7s. In the NHMECs, BP-induced CYP1A1 RNA cpn was highly associated with BPdG (P = 0.002), but CYP1B1 and NQO1 were not. Western blots of four NHMEC strains, chosen for different levels of BPdG adducts, showed a linear correlation between BPdG and CYP1A1, but not CYP1B1 or NQO1. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, which measures CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 together, correlated with BPdG, but NQO1 activity did not. Despite more numerous levels of CYP1B1 and NQO1 RNA cpn in unexposed and BP-exposed NHMECs and MCF-7cells, BPdG formation was only correlated with induction of CYP1A1 RNA cpn. The higher level of BPdG in MCF-7 cells, compared to NHMECs, may have been due to a much increased induction of CYP1A1 and EROD. Overall, BPdG correlation was observed with CYP1A1 protein and CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity, but not with CYP1B1 or NQO

  18. Diazido mixed-amine platinum(IV) anticancer complexes activatable by visible-light form novel DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Woods, Julie A; Farrer, Nicola J; Robinson, Kim S; Pracharova, Jitka; Kasparkova, Jana; Novakova, Olga; Li, Huilin; Salassa, Luca; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Song, Lijiang; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-07-15

    Platinum diam(m)ine complexes, such as cisplatin, are successful anticancer drugs, but suffer from problems of resistance and side-effects. Photoactivatable Pt(IV) prodrugs offer the potential of targeted drug release and new mechanisms of action. We report the synthesis, X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic properties of photoactivatable diazido complexes trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Py)] (1; MA=methylamine, Py=pyridine) and trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Tz)] (2; Tz=thiazole), and interpret their photophysical properties by TD-DFT modelling. The orientation of the azido groups is highly dependent on H bonding and crystal packing, as shown by polymorphs 1p and 1q. Complexes 1 and 2 are stable in the dark towards hydrolysis and glutathione reduction, but undergo rapid photoreduction with UVA or blue light with minimal amine photodissociation. They are over an order of magnitude more potent towards HaCaT keratinocytes, A2780 ovarian, and OE19 oesophageal carcinoma cells than cisplatin and show particular potency towards cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780cis). Analysis of binding to calf-thymus (CT), plasmids, oligonucleotide DNA and individual nucleotides reveals that photoactivated 1 and 2 form both mono- and bifunctional DNA lesions, with preference for G and C, similar to transplatin, but with significantly larger unwinding angles and a higher percentage of interstrand cross-links, with evidence for DNA strand cross-linking further supported by a comet assay. DNA lesions of 1 and 2 on a 50 bp duplex were not recognised by HMGB1 protein, in contrast to cisplatin-type lesions. The photo-induced platination reactions of DNA by 1 and 2 show similarities with the products of the dark reactions of the Pt(II) compounds trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Py)] (5) and trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Tz)] (6). Following photoactivation, complex 2 reacted most rapidly with CT DNA, followed by 1, whereas the dark reactions of 5 and 6 with DNA were comparatively slow

  19. SYNTHESIS, IN VITRO METABOLISM, MUTAGENICITY, AND DNA-ADDUCTION OF NAPHTHO[1,2-E]PYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SYNTHESIS, IN V1TRO METABOLISM, MUTAGENICITY , AND DNA-ADDUCnON OF NAPHTHO[l ,2-e ]PYRENE

    Literature data, although limited, underscore the contribution of C24HI4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the biological activity of the extracts of complex environmental samples....

  20. Experimental exposure of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to bleached kraft mill effluent: hepatic CYP1A induction is correlated with DNA adducts but not with organochlorine residues.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Y; Kruzynski, G M; Addison, R F

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed for 28 days to 0-16% treated effluent from an elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleached kraft pulp mill. Fresh effluent was diluted with river water drawn from upstream of the effluent diffuser. Fish were tested for biochemical responses to identify if the effluent would cause significant effects at concentrations spanning those present in the Fraser River, BC, Canada during winter conditions. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was increased significantly at all effluent concentrations and hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) protein was increased in all but 2% effluent. Hepatic DNA adduct concentrations were increased significantly at 8 and 16% effluent. These data indicate that there is a significant increase in all three responses at concentrations similar to those found in the receiving waters (4%) and that a dose-response relationship exists between BKME concentration and the responses measured. Carcasses contained low (< 0.2 pg g(-1)) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were at higher concentrations, accounting for 77% of the total contaminant burden, expressed as TEQ, but contaminants do not appear to have bioaccumulated in this study. It is likely that the PCB concentrations were due to contaminated commercial fish feed. Bile did not contain detectable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as measured by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry.

  1. Fat content and nitrite-curing influence the formation of oxidation products and NOC-specific DNA adducts during in vitro digestion of meat.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat.

  2. Fat Content and Nitrite-Curing Influence the Formation of Oxidation Products and NOC-Specific DNA Adducts during In Vitro Digestion of Meat

    PubMed Central

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat. PMID:24978825

  3. Nitrite curing of chicken, pork, and beef inhibits oxidation but does not affect N-nitroso compound (NOC)-specific DNA adduct formation during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Van Camp, John; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-02-26

    Uncured and nitrite-cured chicken, pork, and beef were used as low, medium, and high sources of heme-Fe, respectively, and exposed to an in vitro digestion model simulating the mouth, stomach, duodenum, and colon. With increasing content of iron compounds, up to 25-fold higher concentrations of the toxic lipid oxidation products malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and other volatile aldehydes were formed during digestion, together with increased protein carbonyl compounds as measurement of protein oxidation. Nitrite curing of all meats lowered lipid and protein oxidation to the level of oxidation in uncured chicken. Strongly depending on the individual fecal inoculum, colonic digestion of beef resulted in significantly higher concentrations of the NOC-specific DNA adduct O(6)-carboxymethyl-guanine compared to chicken and pork, whereas nitrite curing had no significant effect. This study confirms previously reported evidence that heme-Fe is involved in the epidemiological association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer, but questions the role of nitrite curing in this association.

  4. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-12-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and structural investigations of new adduct compound of carbazole with picric acid: DNA binding and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanabhavan, Munusamy; Sathya, Krishnan; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Sekar, Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Carbazole picrate (CP), a new organic compound has been synthesized, characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic technique such as FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. An orthorhombic geometry was proposed based on single crystal XRD study. The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses and found that it was stable up to 170 °C. Further, the newly synthesized title compound was tested for its in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against various bacterial and fungal species. Also, the compound was tested for its binding activity with Calf thymus (CT) DNA and the results show a considerable interaction between CP and CT-DNA.

  6. Translesion Synthesis of the N(2)-2'-Deoxyguanosine Adduct of the Dietary Mutagen IQ in Human Cells: Error-Free Replication by DNA Polymerase κ and Mutagenic Bypass by DNA Polymerases η, ζ, and Rev1.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arindam; Millsap, Amy D; DeLeon, Arnie; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2016-09-19

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) of the N(2)-2'-deoxyguanosine (dG-N(2)-IQ) adduct of the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was investigated in human embryonic kidney 293T cells by replicating plasmid constructs in which the adduct was individually placed at each guanine (G1, G2, or G3) of the NarI sequence (5'-CG1G2CG3CC-3'). TLS efficiency was 38%, 29%, and 25% for the dG-N(2)-IQ located at G1, G2, and G3, respectively, which suggests that dG-N(2)-IQ is bypassed more efficiently by one or more DNA polymerases at G1 than at either G2 or G3. TLS efficiency was decreased 8-35% in cells with knockdown of pol η, pol κ, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1. Up to 75% reduction in TLS occurred when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down, suggesting that these three polymerases play important roles in dG-N(2)-IQ bypass. Mutation frequencies (MFs) of dG-N(2)-IQ at G1, G2, and G3 were 23%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, exhibiting a completely reverse trend of the previously reported MF of the C8-dG adduct of IQ (dG-C8-IQ), which is most mutagenic at G3 ( ( 2015 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 43 , 8340 - 8351 ). The major type of mutation induced by dG-N(2)-IQ was targeted G → T, as was reported for dG-C8-IQ. In each site, knockdown of pol κ resulted in an increase in MF, whereas MF was reduced when pol η, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1 was knocked down. The reduction in MF was most pronounced when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down and especially when the adduct was located at G3, where MF was reduced by 90%. We conclude that pol κ predominantly performs error-free TLS of the dG-N(2)-IQ adduct, whereas pols η, pol ζ, and Rev1 cooperatively carry out the error-prone TLS. However, in vitro experiments using yeast pol ζ and κ showed that the former was inefficient in full-length primer extension on dG-N(2)-IQ templates, whereas the latter was efficient in both error-free and error-prone extensions. We believe that the observed differences

  7. DNA adducts formed from the probable proximate carcinogen, N-hydroxy-3,2' -dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl, by acid catalysis or S-acetyl coenzyme A-dependent enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Flammang, T J; Westra, J G; Kadlubar, F F; Beland, F A

    1985-02-01

    The arylamine carcinogen 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) has been proposed to be metabolically activated to DNA-binding derivatives through the formation of an N-hydroxy intermediate. In this study, the subsequent activation of N-hydroxy-DMABP through acid catalysis or enzymatic esterification was examined. [Ring-3H]N-hydroxy-DMABP was reacted with calf thymus DNA at pH 4.6 for 15 min to yield 370 arylamine residues per 10(6) nucleotides, while at pH 7.4 the binding was only two residues per 10(6) nucleotides. The DNA modified under acidic conditions was enzymatically hydrolyzed and analyzed by h.p.l.c. which indicated the presence of three major adducts. The products were identified by spectral and chemical properties as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-DMABP (60-70%), 5-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-DMABP (2-3%) and N-(deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-DMABP (1-3%). The same adducts have previously been detected in the liver and colon of rats administered DMABP or its hydroxamic acid. Incubation of rat hepatic or intestinal cytosol at pH 7.4 for 15 min with [ring-3H]N-hydroxy-DMABP in the presence of S-acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) and calf thymus DNA resulted in DNA binding at levels of 30-80 arylamine residues per 10(6) nucleotides. H.p.l.c. analysis of the DNA modified in the presence of AcCoA indicated the formation of the same adducts detected in the acid-catalyzed reactions. When arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase assays were conducted with rat liver cytosol and N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-DMABP as the substrate, binding to nucleic acids was not observed. Similarly, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate-dependent sulfotransferase-mediated DNA binding could not be demonstrated. These data indicate that in a suitable acidic environment, N-hydroxy-DMABP will react with DNA to yield the same adducts found in vivo. Under neutral conditions, however, N-hydroxy-DMABP appears to undergo AcCoA-dependent transacetylation to an electrophilic acetoxy ester which will spontaneously react with DNA.

  8. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotypes in candidate genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in a NYC cohort of non-smoking African-American and Dominican mothers and newborns

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Within our New York City-based cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn haplotypes (and in one case, a single-nucleotide polymorphism) in key B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking African-American (n = 132) and Dominican (n = 235) women with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts and genetic data who resided in the Washington Heights, Central Harlem and South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We selected seven maternal and newborn genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM3, GSTT2, NQO1 and XRCC1. We found significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotype on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1B1, XRCC1 and GSTM3, and newborn CYP1A2 and XRCC1 in African-Americans; and maternal XRCC1 and newborn NQO1 in Dominicans. These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, as well as ethnic differences in gene–environment interactions, and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P. PMID:24177223

  9. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in a cohort of non-smoking Polish mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shoba; Wang, Ya; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Deliang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Stigter, Laura; Mróz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica

    2016-08-26

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a known human carcinogen. Within our Polish cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in plausible B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking women (n = 368) with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts, and genetic data who resided in Krakow, Poland. We selected eight common variants in maternal and newborn candidate genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification, and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT2, NQO1, and XRCC1 We observed significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and SNPs on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1A1 and GSTT2, and newborn CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.

  10. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotypes in candidate genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in a NYC cohort of non-smoking African-American and Dominican mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shoba; Perera, Frederica; Zhang, Bingzhi; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Within our New York City-based cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn haplotypes (and in one case, a single-nucleotide polymorphism) in key B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking African-American (n = 132) and Dominican (n = 235) women with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts and genetic data who resided in the Washington Heights, Central Harlem and South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We selected seven maternal and newborn genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM3, GSTT2, NQO1 and XRCC1. We found significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotype on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1B1, XRCC1 and GSTM3, and newborn CYP1A2 and XRCC1 in African-Americans; and maternal XRCC1 and newborn NQO1 in Dominicans. These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, as well as ethnic differences in gene-environment interactions, and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.

  11. Efficient synthesis of supercoiled M13 DNA molecule containing a site specifically placed psoralen adduct and its use as a substrate for DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kodadek, T.; Gamper, H.

    1988-05-03

    The authors report a simple method for the in vitro synthesis of large quantities of site specifically modified DNA. The protocol involves extension of an oligonucleotide primer annealed to M13 single-stranded DNA using part of the T4 DNA polymerase holoenzyme. The resulting nicked double-stranded circles are ligated and supercoiled in the same tube, producing good yields of form I DNA. When the oligonucleotide primer is chemically modified, the resultant product contains a site-specific lesion. In this study, they report the synthesis of an M13 mp19 form I DNA which contains a psoralen monoadduct or cross-link at the KpnI site. They demonstrate the utility of these modified substrates by assessing the ability of the bacteriophage T4 DNA replication complex to bypass the damage and show that the psoralen monoadduct poses a severe block to the holoenzyme when attached to the template strand.

  12. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    thrombocytes and lipids was removed, and the lymphocytes forming a broad band half-way down and the granulocytes banding just above the erythrocytes...on ice. The amount of WBC was counted in a counting-chamber by light microscopy . The cells were irradiated with 0 or 4 Gy 60 Co gamma rays...antibodies against ss- ct-DNA treated with mustard gas were counted by light- microscopy and diluted in HAT-medium to a concentration of 50, 10 and 5

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MUTATION SPECTRUM AND PERSISTENT DNA ADDUCT PROFILE IN SALMONELLA FOR BENZO[A]PYRENE AND DIBENZO[A]PYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a1]P) is less prevalent in the environment but 100-200X more carcinogenic in rodents than benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) .B[a]P induces most of its adducts on G, whereas DB[a,1]P produces most its adducts on A. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we have exami...

  14. Versatility of Y-family Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase Dpo4 in Translesion Synthesis Past Bulky N[superscript 2]-Alkylguanine Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Huidong; Eoff, Robert L.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2009-09-25

    In contrast to replicative DNA polymerases, Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 showed a limited decrease in catalytic efficiency (k{sub cat}/K{sub m}) for insertion of dCTP opposite a series of N{sup 2}-alkylguanine templates of increasing size from (methyl (Me) to (9-anthracenyl)-Me (Anth)). Fidelity was maintained with increasing size up to (2-naphthyl)-Me (Naph). The catalytic efficiency increased slightly going from the N{sup 2}-NaphG to the N{sup 2}-AnthG substrate, at the cost of fidelity. Pre-steady-state kinetic bursts were observed for dCTP incorporation throughout the series (N{sup 2}-MeG to N{sup 2}-AnthG), with a decrease in the burst amplitude and k{sub pol}, the rate of single-turnover incorporation. The pre-steady-state kinetic courses with G and all of the six N{sup 2}-alkyl G adducts could be fit to a general DNA polymerase scheme to which was added an inactive complex in equilibrium with the active ternary Dpo4 {center_dot} DNA {center_dot} dNTP complex, and only the rates of equilibrium with the inactive complex and phosphodiester bond formation were altered. Two crystal structures of Dpo4 with a template N{sup 2}-NaphG (in a post-insertion register opposite a 3'-terminal C in the primer) were solved. One showed N{sup 2}-NaphG in a syn conformation, with the naphthyl group located between the template and the Dpo4 'little finger' domain. The Hoogsteen face was within hydrogen bonding distance of the N4 atoms of the cytosine opposite N{sup 2}-NaphG and the cytosine at the -2 position. The second structure showed N{sup 2}-Naph G in an anti conformation with the primer terminus largely disordered. Collectively these results explain the versatility of Dpo4 in bypassing bulky G lesions.

  15. Potentiation of DNA-adduct formation and cytotoxicity of platinum-containing drugs by low pH.

    PubMed

    Atema, A; Buurman, K J; Noteboom, E; Smets, L A

    1993-04-22

    The low interstitial pH of tumor tissue is an important modulator of various anti-tumor modalities. In order to explore the optimal conditions for the potentiating action of low pH on the cytotoxic activities of cis- and carboplatin, we have investigated the temporal aspects of drug activity and pH modulation in L1210 murine leukemia cells in comparison with various other drugs. Extra- and intra-cellular pH of L1210 cells was modulated before, during and after drug exposure and survival of L1210 cells was determined. During short exposures, cytotoxicity of cisplatin and alkylating drugs was potentiated by conditions of low pH in the ranking order of: cisplatin, mitomycin C, melphalan and chlorambucil. Low pH had no effect on the cytotoxic activity of carboplatin and cytosine arabinoside and it inhibited the action of doxorubicin. During prolonged incubation at low pH, potentiation of cisplatin was increased and a more than 3-fold potentiation was induced in the case of carboplatin. Part of the latter effect was also manifested by 20 hr post-incubation in drug-free medium at low pH after a 4-hr exposure to carboplatin. Post-incubation did not increase the stimulating effect of low pH on the cytotoxic activity of melphalan and cisplatin. Acidification affected neither the uptake nor the extracellular hydrolysis of platinum-containing drugs. Under all circumstances, potentiation of platinum-containing drugs was accompanied by an increase in platinum-induced DNA modification, as detected by immunocytochemistry.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of chlorambucil/DNA adducts. A structural basis for the 5'-GNC interstrand DNA crosslink formed by nitrogen mustards.

    PubMed

    Remias, M G; Lee, C S; Haworth, I S

    1995-02-01

    The alkylation of DNA by chlorambucil has been studied using a computational approach. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the fully solvated non-covalent complex, two monoadducts and a crosslinked diadduct of chlorambucil with the d(CGG3G2CGC).-d(GCG1CCCG) duplex, in which the N7 atoms of G1, G2 and G3 are potential alkylation sites. The results provide a structural basis for the preference of nitrogen mustards to crosslink DNA duplexes at a 5'-GNC site (a 1,3 crosslink, G1-G3) rather than at a 5'-GC sites (a 1,2 crosslink, G1-G2). In the non-covalent complex simulation the drug reoriented from a non-interstrand crosslinking location to a position favorable for G1-G3 diadduct formation. It proved possible to construct a G1-G3 diadduct from a structure from the non-covalent simulation, and continue the molecular dynamics calculation without further disruption of the DNA structure. A crosslinked diadduct developed with four BII conformations on the 3' side of each alkylated guanine and of their respective complementary cytosine. In the first monoadduct simulation the starting point was the same DNA conformation used in the crosslinked diadduct simulation with alkylation at G1. In this simulation the DNA deformation was reduced, with the helix returning to a more canonical form. A second monoadduct simulation was started from a canonical DNA conformation alkylated at G3. Here, no significant motion towards a potential crosslinking conformation occurred. Collectively, the results suggest that crosslink formation is dependent upon the drug orientation prior to alkylation and the required deformation of the DNA to permit 1,3 crosslinking can largely be achieved in the non-covalent complex.

  17. Comparative DNA adduct formation and induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice exposed to 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and azoxymethane

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangyub; Guo, Jingshu; O’Sullivan, M. Gerald; Gallaher, Daniel D.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that environmental factors, including diet and cigarette smoke, are involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Carcinogenic nitroso compounds (NOC), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), are present in tobacco and processed red meat, and NOC have been implicated in colon cancer. Azoxymethane (AOM), commonly used for experimental colon carcinogenesis, is an isomer of NDMA, and it produces the same DNA adducts as does NDMA. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed during the combustion of tobacco and high-temperature cooking of meats are also associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer. The most abundant carcinogenic HAA formed in tobacco smoke is 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), whereas 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) is the most potent carcinogenic HAA formed during the cooking of meat and fish. However, the comparative tumor-initiating potential of AαC, MeIQ, and AOM is unknown. In this report, we evaluate the formation of DNA adducts as a measure of genotoxicity, and the induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and dysplastic ACF, as an early measure of carcinogenic potency of these compounds in the colon of male A/J mice. Both AαC and AOM induced a greater number of DNA adducts than MeIQ in the liver and colon. AOM induced a greater number of ACF and dysplastic ACF than either AαC or MeIQ. Conversely, based on adduct levels, MeIQ-DNA adducts were more potent than AαC- and AOM-DNA adducts at inducing ACF. Long-term feeding studies are required to relate levels of DNA adducts, induction of ACF, and colon cancer by these colon genotoxicants. PMID:26734915

  18. Differential survival of Escherichia coli uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC mutants to psoralen plus UV-A (PUVA): Evidence for uncoupled action of nucleotide excision repair to process DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Lage, Claudia; Gonçalves, Silvia R F; Souza, Luciana L; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C

    2010-01-21

    The nucleotide excision repair mechanism (NER) of Escherichia coli is responsible for the recognition and elimination of more than twenty different DNA lesions. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo role of NER in the repair of DNA adducts generated by psoralens (mono- or bi-functional) and UV-A light (PUVA) in E. coli. Cultures of wild-type E. coli K12 and mutants for uvrA, uvrB, uvrC or uvrAC genes were treated with PUVA and cell survival was determined. In parallel, kinetics of DNA repair was also evaluated by the comparison of DNA sedimentation profiles in all the strains after PUVA treatment. The uvrB mutant was more sensitive to PUVA treatment than all the other uvr mutant strains. Wild-type strain, and uvrA and uvrC mutants were able to repair PUVA-induced lesions, as seen by DNA sedimentation profiles, while the uvrB mutant was unable to repair the lesions. In addition, a quadruple fpg nth xth nfo mutant was unable to nick PUVA-treated DNA when the crude cell-free extract was used to perform plasmid nicking. These data suggest that DNA repair of PUVA-induced lesions may require base excision repair functions, despite proficient UvrABC activity. These results point to a specific role for UvrB protein in the repair of psoralen adducts, which appear to be independent of UvrA or UvrC proteins, as described for the classical UvrABC endonuclease mechanism.

  19. Bulge Migration of the Malondialdehdye OPdG DNA Adduct When Placed Opposite a Two-Base Deletion in the (CpG)3 Frameshift Hotspot of the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yazhen; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie C.; Saleh, Sam; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Stone, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The OPdG adduct N2-(3-oxo-1-propenyl)dG, formed in DNA exposed to malondialdehyde, was introduced into 5′-d(ATCGCXCGGCATG)-3′•5′-d(CATGCCGCGAT)-3′ at pH 7 (X = OPdG). The OPdG adduct is the base-catalyzed rearrangement product of the M1dG adduct, 3-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one. This duplex, named the OPdG-2BD oligodeoxynucleotide, was derived from a frameshift hotspot of the Salmonella typhimuium hisD3052 gene and contained a two-base deletion in the complementary strand. NMR spectroscopy revealed that the OPdG-2BD oligodeoxynucleotide underwent rapid bulge migration. This hindered its conversion to the M1dG-2BD duplex, in which the bulge was localized and consisted of the M1dG adduct and the 3′-neighbor dC [Schnetz-Boutaud, N. C., Saleh, S., Marnett, L. J., and Stone, M. P. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 15638−15649]. The spectroscopic data suggested that bulge migration transiently positioned OPdG opposite dC in the complementary strand, hindering formation of the M1dG-2BD duplex, or alternatively, reverting rapidly formed intermediates in the OPdG to M1dG reaction pathway when dC was placed opposite from OPdG. The approach of initially formed M1dG-2BD or OPdG-2BD duplexes to an equilibrium mixture of the M1dG-2BD and OPdG-2BD duplexes was monitored as a function of time, using NMR spectroscopy. Both samples attained equilibrium in ∼140 days at pH 7 and 25 °C. PMID:17645303

  20. The effect of knockout of sulfotransferases 1a1 and 1d1 and of transgenic human sulfotransferases 1A1/1A2 on the formation of DNA adducts from furfuryl alcohol in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2014-10-01

    Furfuryl alcohol is a rodent carcinogen present in numerous foodstuffs. Sulfotransferases (SULTs) convert furfuryl alcohol into the DNA reactive and mutagenic 2-sulfoxymethylfuran. Sensitive techniques for the isotope-dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of resulting DNA adducts, e.g. N (2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N (2)-MF-dG), were developed. To better understand the contribution of specific SULT forms to the genotoxicity of furfuryl alcohol in vivo, we studied the tissue distribution of N (2)-MF-dG in different mouse models. Earlier mutagenicity studies with Salmonella typhimurium strains expressing different human and murine SULT forms indicated that human SULT1A1 and murine Sult1a1 and 1d1 catalyze furfuryl alcohol sulfo conjugation most effectively. Here, we used three mouse lines to study the bioactivation of furfuryl alcohol by murine SULTs, FVB/N wild-type (wt) mice and two genetically modified models lacking either murine Sult1a1 or Sult1d1. The animals received a single dose of furfuryl alcohol, and the levels of the DNA adducts were determined in liver, kidney, lung, colon and small intestine. The effect of Sult1d1 gene disruption on the genotoxicity of furfuryl alcohol was moderate and limited to kidney and small intestine. In contrast, the absence of functional Sult1a1 had a massive influence on the adduct levels, which were lowered by 33-73% in all tissues of the female Sult1a1 null mice compared with the wt animals. The detection of high N (2)-MF-dG levels in a humanized mouse line expressing hSULT1A1/1A2 instead of endogeneous Sult1a1 and Sult1d1 supports the hypothesis that furfuryl alcohol is converted to the mutagenic 2-sulfoxymethylfuran also in humans.

  1. DNA Sequence Modulates Geometrical Isomerism of the trans-8,9-Dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)-9-hydroxy Aflatoxin B1 Adduct

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, is oxidized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide, which alkylates DNA at N7-dG. Under basic conditions, this N7-dG adduct rearranges to yield the trans-8,9-dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 (AFB1–FAPY) adduct. The AFB1–FAPY adduct exhibits geometrical isomerism involving the formamide moiety. NMR analyses of duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 5′-XA-3′, 5′-XC-3′, 5′-XT-3′, and 5′-XY-3′ sequences (X = AFB1–FAPY; Y = 7-deaza-dG) demonstrate that the equilibrium between E and Z isomers is controlled by major groove hydrogen bonding interactions. Structural analysis of the adduct in the 5′-XA-3′ sequence indicates the preference of the E isomer of the formamide group, attributed to formation of a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N6 exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighbor adenine. While the 5′-XA-3′ sequence exhibits the E isomer, the 5′-XC-3′ sequence exhibits a 7:3 E:Z ratio at equilibrium at 283 K. The E isomer is favored by a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N4-dC exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighbor cytosine. The 5′-XT-3′ and 5′-XY-3′ sequences cannot form such a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the 3′-neighbor T or Y, respectively, and in these sequence contexts the Z isomer is favored. Additional equilibria between α and β anomers and the potential to exhibit atropisomers about the C5–N5 bond do not depend upon sequence. In each of the four DNA sequences, the AFB1–FAPY adduct maintains the β deoxyribose configuration. Each of these four sequences feature the atropisomer of the AFB1 moiety that is intercalated above the 5′-face of the damaged guanine. This enforces the Ra axial conformation for the C5–N5 bond. PMID:25587868

  2. DNA Sequence Modulates Geometrical Isomerism of the trans-8,9- Dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)- 9-hydroxy Aflatoxin B1 Adduct.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Brown, Kyle L; Ma, Ruidan; Stone, Michael P

    2015-02-16

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, is oxidized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide, which alkylates DNA at N7-dG. Under basic conditions, this N7-dG adduct rearranges to yield the trans-8,9-dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)−FAPY) adduct. The AFB(1)−FAPY adduct exhibits geometrical isomerism involving the formamide moiety. NMR analyses of duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 5′-XA-3′, 5′-XC-3′, 5′-XT-3′, and 5′-XY-3′ sequences (X = AFB(1)−FAPY; Y = 7-deaza-dG)demonstrate that the equilibrium between E and Z isomers is controlled by major groove hydrogen bonding interactions.Structural analysis of the adduct in the 5′-XA-3′ sequence indicates the preference of the E isomer of the formamide group,attributed to formation of a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N(6) exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighboradenine. While the 5′-XA-3′ sequence exhibits the E isomer, the 5′-XC-3′ sequence exhibits a 7:3 E:Z ratio at equilibrium at 283K. The E isomer is favored by a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N(4)-dC exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighbor cytosine. The 5′-XT-3′ and 5′-XY-3′ sequences cannot form such a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the 3′-neighbor T or Y, respectively, and in these sequence contexts the Z isomer is favored. Additional equilibria between α and β anomers and the potential to exhibit atropisomers about the C5−N(5) bond do not depend upon sequence. In each of the four DNA sequences, the AFB(1)−FAPY adduct maintains the β deoxyribose configuration. Each of these four sequences feature the atropisomer of the AFB(1) moiety that is intercalated above the 5′-face of the damaged guanine. This enforces the Ra axialc onformation for the C5−N(5) bond.

  3. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates

  4. Aristoxazole analogues. Conversion of 8-nitro-1-naphthoic acid to 2-methylnaphtho[1,2-d]oxazole-9-carboxylic acid: comments on the chemical mechanism of formation of DNA adducts by the aristolochic acids.

    PubMed

    Priestap, Horacio A; Barbieri, Manuel A; Johnson, Francis

    2012-07-27

    2-Methylnaphtho[1,2-d]oxazole-9-carboxylic acid was obtained by reduction of 8-nitro-1-naphthoic acid with zinc-acetic acid. This naphthoxazole is a condensation product between an 8-nitro-1-naphthoic acid reduction intermediate and acetic acid and is a lower homologue of aristoxazole, a similar condensation product of aristolochic acid I with acetic acid that was previously reported. Both oxazoles are believed to arise via a common nitrenium/carbocation ion mechanism that is likely related to that which leads to aristolochic acid-DNA-adducts.

  5. Influence of C-5 substituted cytosine and related nucleoside analogs on the formation of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-dG adducts at CG base pairs of DNA.

    PubMed

    Guza, Rebecca; Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Murphy, Kristopher; Dissanayake, Thakshila; Lin, Chen; Giambasu, George Madalin; Lad, Rahul R; Wojciechowski, Filip; Amin, Shantu; Sturla, Shana J; Hudson, Robert H E; York, Darrin M; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia Y

    2011-05-01

    Endogenous 5