Science.gov

Sample records for 4-digit standard industrial

  1. Optical media standards for industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical storage is a new and growing area of technology that can serve to meet some of the mass storage needs of the computer industry. Optical storage is characterized by information being stored and retrieved by means of diode lasers. When most people refer to optical storage, they mean rotating disk media, but there are 1 or 2 products that use lasers to read and write to tape. Optical media also usually means removable media. Because of its removability, there is a recognized need for standardization, both of the media and of the recording method. Industry standards can come about in one or more different ways. An industry supported body can sanction and publish a formal standard. A company may ship enough of a product that it so dominates an application or industry that it acquires 'standard' status without an official sanction. Such de facto standards are almost always copied by other companies with varying degrees of success. A governmental body can issue a rule or law that requires conformance to a standard. The standard may have been created by the government, or adopted from among many proposed by industry. These are often known as de jure standards. Standards are either open or proprietary. If approved by a government or sanctioning body, the standard is open. A de facto standard may be either open or proprietary. Optical media is too new to have de facto standards accepted by the marketplace yet. The proliferation of non-compatible media types in the last 5 years of optical market development have convinced many of the need for recognized media standards.

  2. Standards for a nonstandard industry

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This paper will address recent efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop standards related to physical security. Physical security is a nonstandardized industry, with standards only beginning to be developed. Even where there are security standards, few means of product and system certification exist; compare this to safety where an Underwriters` Laboratories (UL) certification mark is considered a must. As a result, security products and systems performance often prove unsatisfactory. Efforts are underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop performance testing standards for physical security systems and to establish a means of certification against those and other related standards. This should make physical protection more cost effective and of higher reliability in the Department of Energy and elsewhere. This paper will briefly describe the problem as well as the background of the DOE standardization initiative, give a brief glimpse into both standardization and certification, describe Sandia`s activities in this regard, list basic principles of standardization, discuss the relevant players in US standardization, and describe how standards can help solve some of the physical security problems.

  3. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Methods: Review of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between January 2001 and March 2002. Search terms included "ASHRAE", "ventilation", "minutes", "memo", and the names of key players and organisations as identified in the initial searches. Analysis of ASHRAE and other relevant documents publicly available and the personal files of a Standard 62 committee member; interviews of a selected number of ASHRAE players; observation of an ASHRAE meeting. Results: The tobacco industry has been involved in the development of ventilation standards for over 20 years. It has successfully influenced the standard and continues to attempt to change the standard from a smoke-free framework into an "accommodation" framework. The industry acts directly and through consultants and allies. The major health groups have been largely absent and the health interests have been poorly represented in standard development. While concentrated in the USA, ASHRAE standards are adopted worldwide. Conclusion: The tobacco industry determined that allowing smoking in ventilation standards for indoor air quality was a high priority and dedicated significant human and financial resources to ensure that its interests were represented. The health groups, until recently, have largely ignored the policy implications for tobacco control of standard development. This situation is changing, but unless health groups maintain high visibility within ASHRAE, the tobacco industry may succeed in creating a standard that ignores the dangers of secondhand smoke. PMID:12432157

  4. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains industrial education courses standards for 183 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts. The first part, the curriculum framework, includes four major sections: major…

  5. The Standards Projects: Agricultural Education Standards; Industrial Arts Education Standards; Vocational Home Economics Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Harold R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three program areas in vocational education which now have nationally developed and validated standards: agriculture and agribusiness education, home economics, and industrial arts. Standards cover curriculum, students served, instructional staff, administration and supervision, support systems, teaching methods, public relations, safety…

  6. Industry needs for silicon crystals and standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    The trend of the device fabrication industry requirement for larger crystals is reviewed. The ranges of properties and uniformities measurement standards needed for resistivity (four-point probe and spreading resistance) and for the chemical composition of oxygen and carbon impurities are presented.

  7. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

  8. Standardized Curriculum for General Industrial Maintenance Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: general industrial maintenance trades I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation and leadership activities; (2) safety; (3) blueprint reading; (4) oxyacetylene cutting; (5) preventative maintenance; (6)…

  9. Industrial Wireless Sensor Standards; A User Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, John N; Taft, Cyrus W.; Manges, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Future industrial use of wireless instrumentation will undoubtedly increase dramatically in the coming years. Deployment of such instrumentation in an industrial setting with its security and robustness criteria that are much more stringent than residential performance criteria hinges on user acceptance of verified performance as well as meeting cost requirements. Today, circa 2011, these industrial users are faced with many choices when specifying a wireless sensor network, including radio performance, battery life, interoperability concerns, and standards compliance. With industrial users standing on the precipice to order and deploy (literally) millions of wireless instruments, it is imperative that accurate information for applying the technology to real-world applications be available to the end-user.

  10. Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3096 1995 (Revised...s) and Address(es) U.S. Dept of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20210 Performing...interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. Material contained in this publication is in the public

  11. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  12. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

  13. Enterprise Standard Industrial Classification Manual. 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

    This classification is presented to provide a standard for use with statistics about enterprises (i.e., companies, rather than their individual establishments) by kind of economic activity. The enterprise unit consists of all establishments under common direct or indirect ownership. It is defined to include all entities, including subsidiaries,…

  14. Guidelines for Assessing Michigan Standards in Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Ronald J.

    This document presents Michigan's standards in industrial technology education and details assessment procedures that will enable Michigan industrial technology teachers to analyze, upgrade, and justify their current programs. The introductory section contains the following materials: a discussion of supportive organizations; an overview of…

  15. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  16. State Initiatives on Industry-Based Skill Standards and Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzglass, Evelyn; Simon, Martin

    A study examined state initiatives for industry-based skill standards and credentials. Officials in 19 states were interviewed, case studies of programs in 3 states (Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Texas) were conducted, and focus group discussions were held with 25 individuals. State skill standards were generally found to be tied to broader efforts…

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Industrial Maintenance General Maintenance Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards for the industrial maintenance general maintenance cluster are intended to be a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. An introduction provides the Illinois perspective; Illinois Occupational…

  18. A review of the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar array manufacturing industry costing standards model is designed to compare the cost of producing solar arrays using alternative manufacturing processes. Constructive criticism of the methodology used is intended to enhance its implementation as a practical design tool. Three main elements of the procedure include workbook format and presentation, theoretical model validity and standard financial parameters.

  19. SAMICS: Input data preparation. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for estimating the price that a manufacturer would have to charge for the product of a specified manufacturing process sequence. A line-by-line explanation is given of those standard formats which describe the economically important characteristics of the manufacturing processes and the technological structure of the companies and the industry. This revision provides an updated presentation of Format A Process Description, consistent with the October 1978 version of that form. A checklist of items which should be entered on Format A as direct expenses is included.

  20. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  1. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  2. Influence of legal standards on the practice of industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1976-06-01

    Prescriptive standards for the work environment affect the professional practice of industrial hygiene. Among the advantages are: legal requirements reinforce professional recommendations; penalties encourage abatement of hazards; compliance should ensure a safe and healthful environment; recordkeeping requirements will provide a basis for future action. Among the disadvantages are: rigid evaluation procedures, reporting format, etc., discourage professional judgment and development of new methods; professional reports become legal documents; single standards do not focus on the total environment.

  3. Integrating standard operating procedures and industry notebook standards to evaluate students in laboratory courses.

    PubMed

    Wallert, Mark A; Provost, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the preparedness of graduates from the Biochemistry and Biotechnology (BCBT) Major at Minnesota State University Moorhead for employment in the bioscience industry we have developed a new Industry certificate program. The BCBT Industry Certificate was developed to address specific skill sets that local, regional, and national industry experts identified as lacking in new B.S. and B.A. biochemistry graduates. The industry certificate addresses concerns related to working in a regulated industry such as Good Laboratory Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices, and working in a Quality System. In this article we specifically describe how we developed a validation course that uses Standard Operating Procedures to describe grading policy and laboratory notebook requirements in an effort to better prepare students to transition into industry careers.

  4. 48 CFR 852.211-72 - Technical industry standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical industry standards. 852.211-72 Section 852.211-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  5. Industrial Quality Standards and Total Quality Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, James D. T.

    1991-01-01

    Examines practical applications for the suitability of two different approaches to quality management within engineering education. One utilizes quality systems standards as typified by a specific industrial process that ensures an effective production system. The other applies the notion of total quality management emphasizing a process of…

  6. Profiles of the National Industry Skills Standards Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Mikala L., Comp.

    In an effort to develop a more uniform and comprehensive system of national skill standards, the U.S. Departments of Education and Labor have awarded grants to 22 technical committees, composed of representatives from business, labor, and education, in a variety of industries and occupations. These projects will begin proposing national standards…

  7. A blessing in disguise: international standards for the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Lonien, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Regardless of the industry, standards are ubiquitous in our everyday lives and essential to the interconnection of people, businesses, and countries. Standardization seeks to consensually establish the best technical application forany given process in order to ensure consistent quality, minimization of risks,and interoperability. As a life scientist, I was surprised to see my natural reservation towards draconic documentation change. Life science standards aref undamentally important for the smooth transaction of data and repetition of experiments, and may help small and medium enterprises gain the international attention they deserve and require, in order to get their innovations noticed.

  8. Industrial market and energy management guide. Standard Industrial Classification 22, textile mill products industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Purpose of this guide is twofold: First, to provide an overview of the industrial market for consulting engineers in the textile mill products industry by providing an overall description of the market, its size, and attitudes toward more energy efficient operations. Second, to present sources of information to help consulting engineers locate these industries on a local and national level, and further assess their market opportunities. The facts and figures that describe the various elements of this industrial sector are presented along with its national distribution of plant locations, and resources where more detailed information can be found. Process flow diagrams, process step descriptions, and energy efficient ideas are presented.

  9. Standards, Regulation and Registration of Dental Laboratories. An Industry Update.

    PubMed

    Giovannone, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    State dental associations are showing increased interest in maintaining current standards and regulations affecting the dental laboratory industry as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration. The domestic dental laboratory industry is being significantly stressed by foreign competition, rapid technology development and unprecedented consolidation, which are changing the way that prosthetic devices and restorations are manufactured and delivered to dentists. Of paramount importance to the prescribing dentist is the accurate documentation of the source and materials being used in prostheses being delivered to patients.

  10. SAMIS- STANDARD ASSEMBLY-LINE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY SIMULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Standard Assembly-Line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program was originally developed to model a hypothetical U. S. industry which manufactures silicon solar modules for use in electricity generation. The SAMIS program has now been generalized to the extent that it should be useful for simulating many different production-line manufacturing industries and companies. The most important capability of SAMIS is its ability to "simulate" an industry based on a model developed by the user with the aid of the SAMIS program. The results of the simulation are a set of financial reports which detail the requirements, including quantities and cost, of the companies and processes which comprise the industry. SAMIS provides a fair, consistent, and reliable means of comparing manufacturing processes being developed by numerous independent efforts. It can also be used to assess the industry-wide impact of changes in financial parameters, such as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required return on equity. Because of the large amount of data needed to describe an industry, a major portion of SAMIS is dedicated to data entry and maintenance. This activity in SAMIS is referred to as model management. Model management requires a significant amount of interaction through a system of "prompts" which make it possible for persons not familiar with computers, or the SAMIS program, to provide all of the data necessary to perform a simulation. SAMIS is written in TURBO PASCAL (version 2.0 required for compilation) and requires 10 meg of hard disk space, an 8087 coprocessor, and an IBM color graphics monitor. Executables and source code are provided. SAMIS was originally developed in 1978; the IBM PC version was developed in 1985. Release 6.1 was made available in 1986, and includes the PC-IPEG program.

  11. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  12. A study of software standards used in the avionics industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1994-01-01

    Within the past decade, software has become an increasingly common element in computing systems. In particular, the role of software used in the aerospace industry, especially in life- or safety-critical applications, is rapidly expanding. This intensifies the need to use effective techniques for achieving and verifying the reliability of avionics software. Although certain software development processes and techniques are mandated by government regulating agencies, no one methodology has been shown to consistently produce reliable software. The knowledge base for designing reliable software simply has not reached the maturity of its hardware counterpart. In an effort to increase our understanding of software, the Langley Research Center conducted a series of experiments over 15 years with the goal of understanding why and how software fails. As part of this program, the effectiveness of current industry standards for the development of avionics is being investigated. This study involves the generation of a controlled environment to conduct scientific experiments on software processes.

  13. CAD Services: an Industry Standard Interface for Mechanical CAD Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell; Weitzer, Ilan

    2002-01-01

    Most organizations seek to design and develop new products in increasingly shorter time periods. At the same time, increased performance demands require a team-based multidisciplinary design process that may span several organizations. One approach to meet these demands is to use 'Geometry Centric' design. In this approach, design engineers team their efforts through one united representation of the design that is usually captured in a CAD system. Standards-based interfaces are critical to provide uniform, simple, distributed services that enable the 'Geometry Centric' design approach. This paper describes an industry-wide effort, under the Object Management Group's (OMG) Manufacturing Domain Task Force, to define interfaces that enable the interoperability of CAD, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. This critical link to enable 'Geometry Centric' design is called: Cad Services V1.0. This paper discusses the features of this standard and proposed application.

  14. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Standards of Performance for... the following source categories: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process...

  15. Importance to industry of standards in electronic data exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormell, Prudence M. J.

    1996-08-01

    All instruments incorporating lenses are produced with the help of a range of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) programs. Standardization of the way optical data is specified by these programs will enable the combination of lens designs with mechanical, electrical or electronic designs to take place with less effort and greater accuracy. The STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP), a universal interface for CAD programs, has been devised and is now accepted as an international standard (ISO 10303). The Neutral Optical Data Interface Format is proposed as an adjunct to STEP to deal with the optical interface and a working group ISO TC172/SC1/WG4 has been set up to define it. A statement of the Scope of this Working Group, a brief description of the Application Protocol and an example of an Application Activity Model will be presented in this paper and details of a proposed survey to determine the needs of users and industry will be given.

  16. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), identified as NAICS 2012, into its table of small..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May...

  17. Evolution of the VLT instrument control system toward industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Zins, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The VLT control system is a large distributed system consisting of Linux Workstations providing the high level coordination and interfaces to the users, and VME-based Local Control Units (LCU's) running the VxWorks real-time operating system with commercial and proprietary boards acting as the interface to the instrument functions. After more than 10 years of VLT operations, some of the applied technologies used by the astronomical instruments are being discontinued making it difficult to find adequate hardware for future projects. In order to deal with this obsolescence, the VLT Instrumentation Framework is being extended to adopt well established Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components connected through industry standard fieldbuses. This ensures a flexible state of the art hardware configuration for the next generation VLT instruments allowing the access to instrument devices via more compact and simpler control units like PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC's). It also makes it possible to control devices directly from the Instrument Workstation through a normal Ethernet connection. This paper outlines the requirements that motivated this work, as well as the architecture and the design of the framework extension. In addition, it describes the preliminary results on a use case which is a VLTI visitor instrument used as a pilot project to validate the concepts and the suitability of some COTS products like a PC-based PLCs, EtherCAT8 and OPC UA6 as solutions for instrument control.

  18. 75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters; National... Boilers; Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources... Boilers and Process Heaters located at major sources; Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  19. Leveraging Industry Standards for GeoSpatial Portal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimble, D.; Garegnani, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in mainstream IT data sharing techniques through the leveraging of mainstream IT standards such as the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) extensible markup language (XML), simple object access protocol (SOAP) based web services and the Java Community Process (JCP) driven portlet technology (JSR-0168) in addition to the wide adoption of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) GIS web service specifications (WMS, WFS, WCS, WMC, CS-W etc.) are intersecting within commercial GIS technologies. For example, the next generation GIS Portal technology for the U.S. Government's Geospatial One-Stop has been developed to help establish an industrial strength geospatial portal that can be used as the primary U.S. Government coordinating portal for geospatial related activities. In addition to these technologies providing common highly interoperable portals, heavier desktop and server applications are further integrating technologies that will enable the scientific communities to link into these mainstream information portals. By example, we will discuss the incorporation of the Open Source scripting language known as Python into the commercial GIS platform both on the desktop and on the server. For example, users have already developed python code that can be deployed providing the GIS user access to large repositories of scientific multidimensional data via the OpeNDAP protocol that can be incorporated into the GIS analysis and workflow. Additional development in the support of NetCDF and in the future additional scientific data formats will expand the use of such formats within the GIS community. This presentation will provide an overview and demonstrations of these technologies and how they are relevant to the Earth and Space Science Informatics Community.

  20. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including commercial and industrial electric motors. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent, amended standards would be technologically feasible and......

  1. 75 FR 15440 - Guidance for Industry on Standards for Securing the Drug Supply Chain-Standardized Numerical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Standards for Securing the Drug Supply Chain--Standardized Numerical Identification for Prescription Drug Packages; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  2. [Revision process and thinking of emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) was released recently, which is the third revision since the first release in 1985. This paper reviewed the revision process for the emission standard of air pollutants in cement industry, analyzed the impact of environmental protection situation and management policies changes on the content and form of the standard. The standard formulating principles and several key issues together constitute the base of emission standard, which are not only important to complete the theories and methods of emission standard development, but also important to improve the environmental management and pollution control level.

  3. Integrating Standard Operating Procedures and Industry Notebook Standards to Evaluate Students in Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallert, Mark A.; Provost, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the preparedness of graduates from the Biochemistry and Biotechnology (BCBT) Major at Minnesota State University Moorhead for employment in the bioscience industry we have developed a new Industry certificate program. The BCBT Industry Certificate was developed to address specific skill sets that local, regional, and national industry…

  4. Adopting Industry Standards for Control Systems Within Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, James Scott; Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a description of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) standards for process control and outlines the experiences at JSC with using these standards to interface with I/O hardware from three independent vendors. The I/O hardware was integrated with a commercially available SCADA/HMI software package to make up the control and monitoring system for the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS). OPC standards were utilized for communicating with I/O hardware and the software was used for implementing monitoring, PC-based distributed control, and redundant data storage over an Ethernet physical layer using an embedded din-rail mounted PC.

  5. Frequency standards from industry over the next 25 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    1994-01-01

    Present and possible future performance for many of the existing and new commercial frequency standards is presented here. Recent progress in the gas cell atomic standards with regards to size and cost is significant and considerable improvement is expected. Cesium beam standards will benefit in stability and accuracy from optical pumping. Cooled hydrogen masers will offer extremely good stability. Advances in trapped ion and cesium fountain technologies make them good high performance candidates for the future. The quartz oscillator field is more mature and consequently performance improvements for the future are going to be less spectacular. Oscillators stabilized to GPS will have many applications. Recent performance of cooled microwave dielectric resonator oscillators is very good and they offer the promise of serving as flywheel oscillators for advanced performance atomic standards.

  6. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...EPA is promulgating national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: Industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers. The final emission standards for control of mercury and polycyclic organic matter emissions from coal-fired area source boilers are based on the maximum achievable control technology. The final emission standards......

  7. Origins of colour vision standards within the transport industry.

    PubMed

    Vingrys, A J; Cole, B L

    1986-01-01

    Colour vision standards should reflect changes in our understanding of the nature of these defects as well as technological advances that place less importance upon the visual senses of the human operator. Therefore it is suggested that visual standards be subject to routine reviews in order to assess their suitability for modern work environments. This paper gives a chronological account of the introduction of colour vision standards by several national transport authorities and identifies historical reasons that led to their implementation. It is concluded that the same factors that gave rise to the adoption of early colour vision standards are still relevant for modern transport systems. However the recent deployment of automatic or semi-automatic control or navigational systems has substantially altered man's role from being the primary source of information input to one of a monitoring process. This has generated a good deal of debate and uncertainty regarding the level of responsibility that a human operator has for the control of modern transport vehicles. Nevertheless, it is argued that in the absence of complete automation some type of visual standard is needed whenever visual judgements must be made by human observers.

  8. Tips and Tricks of Incorporating Industry Standards into a Library Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Jennifer; Sandberg, Tami

    2015-11-05

    Professional literature on the incorporation of industry standards into a library collection is somewhat limited. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the intricate details of acquiring, managing, and delivering electronic industry standards to library patrons in a seamless manner. Lessons learned regarding vendor selection and license agreements will also be discussed. Results from a survey administer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory will be used to analyze how collection policies can properly be developed to incorporate industry standards into a library setting. The key points of acquisition decisions, avoidance of liability issues, and cost will be addressed.

  9. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  10. Building Linkages: Making Integrated Standards Work for Education and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudis, Paula M.

    This report is designed to help state and local policymakers and practitioners understand the goals behind integrating academic and technical standards and the processes three national partnerships used to develop, test, and implement them in the context of curriculum reform. The first chapter of the report defines and describes integrated…

  11. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  12. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... industry standard; (3) Appropriate data or analysis, or both, for FRA to consider in determining whether..., placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of...

  13. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industry standard; (3) Appropriate data or analysis, or both, for FRA to consider in determining whether..., placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of...

  14. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet on the national air toxics standards issued October 16, 2009 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the chemical manufacturing industry.

  15. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliveries", and the name of key players, in different combinations.
RESULTS—It is clear that the tobacco industry, through the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA), play a major role in determining the scientific evidence and suggesting the standards that are eventually adopted as international standards for tobacco and tobacco products in several areas, including the measurement of cigarette tar and nicotine yield.
CONCLUSIONS—ISO's tobacco and tobacco products standards are not adequate to guide tobacco products regulatory policies, and no health claims can be made based on ISO's tobacco products standards. There is an urgent need for tobacco control advocates and groups worldwide to be more involved with the work of the ISO, both directly and through their national standardisation organisations.


Keywords: tar and nicotine measurement; International Organization for Standardization; ISO; Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco; CORESTA; regulatory policy PMID:11387528

  16. 75 FR 70011 - Guidance for Industry, Mammography Quality Standards Act Inspectors, and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry, Mammography Quality Standards Act Inspectors, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; The Mammography Quality Standards Act Final Regulations: Modifications and Additions to Policy Guidance Help System 13; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  17. Industrial Wireless Sensors: A User's Perspective on the Impact of Standards on Wide-spread Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Cyrus W.; Manges, Wayne W; Sorge, John N

    2012-01-01

    The role of wireless sensing technologies in industrial instrumentation will undoubtedly become more important in the years ahead. . Deployment of such instrumentation in an industrial setting with its heightened security and robustness criteria hinges on user acceptance of verified performance as well as meeting cost requirements. Today, industrial users face many choices when specifying a wireless sensor network, including radio performance, battery life, interoperability, security, and standards compliance. The potential market for industrial wireless sensors is literally millions of wireless instruments and it is imperative that accurate information for applying the technology to real-world applications be available to the end-user so that they can make informed deployment decisions. The majority of industrial wireless automation designs now being deployed or being considered for deployment are based on three different standards . The HART Communications Foundation s WirelessHART (IEC 62591), the International Society of Automation s ISA100.11a, and the offering from the Industrial Wireless Alliance of China known as WIA-PA (IEC 62601). Aside from these industrial automation standards, users must also be cognizant of the underlying wireless network standards IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.15.3a and their interactions with the three principal industrial automation protocols mentioned previously. The crucial questions being asked by end users revolve around sensor network performance, interoperability, reliability, and security. This paper will discuss potential wireless sensor applications in power plants, barriers to the acceptance of wireless technology, concerns related to standards, and provide an end user prospective on the issues affecting wide-spread deployment of wireless sensors. Finally, the authors conclude with a discussion of a recommended path forward including how standards organizations can better facilitate end user decision making and

  18. [A comparative study on domestic and foreign emission standards of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) becomes effective on Mar. 1st, 2014. It will play an important role in pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structure adjustment, and layout optimization for cement industry. Based on the research of emission standard in China, U. S., EU and Japan, the similarities and differences in the pollutant projects, control indicators, limits and means of implementation were discussed and advice was proposed, with the purpose to provide a reference for revision of emission standard, and to improve the level of environmental management and pollution control.

  19. 20 °C—A Short History of the Standard Reference Temperature for Industrial Dimensional Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted

    2007-01-01

    One of the basic principles of dimensional metrology is that a part dimension changes with temperature because of thermal expansion. Since 1931 industrial lengths have been defined as the size at 20 °C. This paper discusses the variety of standard temperatures that were in use before that date, the efforts of C.E. Johansson to meet these variations, and the effort by the National Bureau of Standards to bring the United States to the eventual world standard. PMID:27110451

  20. 20 °C-A Short History of the Standard Reference Temperature for Industrial Dimensional Measurements.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    2007-01-01

    One of the basic principles of dimensional metrology is that a part dimension changes with temperature because of thermal expansion. Since 1931 industrial lengths have been defined as the size at 20 °C. This paper discusses the variety of standard temperatures that were in use before that date, the efforts of C.E. Johansson to meet these variations, and the effort by the National Bureau of Standards to bring the United States to the eventual world standard.

  1. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  2. Developing global health technology standards: what can other industries teach us?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of effective and affordable technologies to address health needs in the developing world. One way to address problems of innovation and affordability is to design global health technologies to follow agreed-upon standards. This Debate article argues that we can better develop standards for global health technologies if we learn lessons from other industries. Discussion The article’s Background section begins by explaining why standards are needed in global health. For example, if global health technologies can be modularized into independent interfacing parts, these parts can then interact via well-defined standards in a “plug and play” fashion. This can avoid development of mutually incompatible solutions by different organizations, speed the pace of innovation, unlock health systems from single providers and approaches, and lower barriers to entry. The Background then gives a brief primer on standards and discusses incentives for health standards. The article’s Discussion section begins with brief relevant cases of standards development from other industries, including electricity, container shipping, CD standards, Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the Internet. It then explores lessons from these and other industries that suggest how to develop standards for global health technologies. The remainder of the Discussion considers intellectual property and regulatory issues and standards-based global health business models, and ends with a checklist of considerations for health standards development leaders. (The associated Additional file discusses observations from standards development for cell phones and semiconductors, as well as challenges in the standards development process itself.) Throughout the article, point-of-care diagnostics are used as an illustrative example. An initiative is already underway to explore standardized diagnostics platforms. Summary This Debate article aims to convince the reader that standards can

  3. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  4. Helicopter passenger survival suit standards in the UK offshore oil industry.

    PubMed

    Leese, W L; Norman, J N

    1979-02-01

    Special protective clothing for helicopter passengers in transit to and from installations in the U.K. offshore oil industry is considered essential. Such clothing is required to increase the survival chances in the unlikely event of a helicopter ditching. This paper discusses the nature of the threat to life in such an event and proposes standards for the specific protective clothing required to meet it. Test criteria are also outlined, to ensure that standards set are maintained.

  5. Avoiding ISO-lation: What international standards mean for U.S. industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crognale, G.; Walter-Slepicka, M.

    1996-03-01

    US companies are awash in an effort to promote and self-proclaim conformance to ISO 9000, the series of quality standards established by the International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland). One only needs to drive along any roadway to note another banner proclaiming a company`s conformance or certification, or pick up a magazine or newspaper to read that a company is ISO 9001-certified. Quality standards are not quite the same as environmental standards, however. As a result, some companies may be receiving mixed signals with how ISO 9000 compares to the proposed ISO 14000 standards series for environmental management systems. This article clarifies some of these perceptions, and describes in greater detail what the environmental standards are, what they mean for industry and what they can do for companies that implement them.

  6. 77 FR 47882 - Lead in General Industry Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... in severe cases of lead toxicity. The standard specifies the following requirements that impose... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Lead in General Industry Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Lead in General Industry Standard...

  7. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired...

  8. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... January 17, 2012 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air..., January 17, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC47...

  9. 77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... and heating equipment that is configured as a split system air-conditioner incorporating a single... package air conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system heat pump that uses... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating,...

  10. 33 CFR 137.20 - May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation? 137.20 Section 137.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION...

  11. 33 CFR 137.20 - May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation? 137.20 Section 137.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION...

  12. 33 CFR 137.20 - May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation? 137.20 Section 137.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION...

  13. 33 CFR 137.20 - May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation? 137.20 Section 137.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION...

  14. 33 CFR 137.20 - May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May industry standards be used to comply with this regulation? 137.20 Section 137.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION...

  15. External Confirmation of Adherence to Standards: As Applicable to Academic Programmes as to Business and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Aaron W.; Burke, Monica G.

    2010-01-01

    The development of, and adherence to, performance standards is imperative for success in today's competitive global market. This is as true for academic programmes in higher education as it is for the manufacturing and service sectors. Just like their counterparts in business and industry, it is important that graduate career preparation…

  16. 78 FR 43145 - Announcing Approval of Federal Information Processing Standard 186-4, Digital Signature Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... the protection of data: The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) and the Rivest- Shamir Adelman Algorithm (RSA). This revision includes a clarification of..., first published on May 19, 1994 (59 FR 26208), specified a digital signature algorithm (DSA) to...

  17. The need for industry and occupation standards in hospital discharge data.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Frey, Leslie T

    2013-05-01

    Occupational injuries and illnesses affect the productivity of the U.S. workforce, yet public health surveillance in the United States does not adequately track and report these incidents. Adding industry and occupation standards to US hospital data collection would enable physicians, researchers, and payors to accurately account for occupational injuries and illnesses as well as support prevention initiatives. The authors petitioned for the inclusion of standards for industry and occupation within hospital data; however, additional support from the occupational and environmental health community is needed to move the petition to adoption. This article discusses the policy implications and benefits to occupational medicine and public health provided by collecting industry and occupation in hospital discharge data, as well as the process of initiating a data change request with the National Uniform Billing Committee.

  18. Assessment of new sources performance standards (NSPS) for anthracite-fired industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. and Berger Associates, under separate contracts with the US Department of Energy, were requested to estimate the impact of various levels of industrial boiler new sources performance standards (NSPS) on potential future markets for anthracite use in industrial boilers and to analyze the impact of changes in anthracite use on the air quality, environment, and economics of the NE Pennsylvania anthracite region. The combined contractors' analyses presented here review the properties of anthracite as a fuel, primarily in industrial markets, as well as present use and trends for future use. This report focuses on the anticipated effect of an exemption for anthracite from the industrial boiler sulfur dioxide NSPS, currently under development by the Environmental Protection Agency. At present, on a national basis industrial bolers are not a major market for anthracite. In 1973, only 1.26 percent of the coal burned in major industrial boilers was anthracite. However, the market for anthracite is a highly regional one; more than half of the anthracite consumed in industrial boilers between 1973 and 1978 was in Pennsylvania. The major constraints to future use of anthracite are its cost relative to substitute fuels and feedstocks and its technical limitations which can be overcome in part by purchasing larger, more expensive, boilers. An exemption for anthracite from sulfur removal requirements in the upcoming NSPS for industrial boilers would make the more expensive but cleaner anthracite competitive with bituminous coal. This analysis estimates the 1995 annual anthracite consumption by industrial boilers. The best case estimate is 2.7 million tons; the worst case is 11,000 tons. Socio-economic factors related to the use of anthracite in Northeastern Pennsylvania are considered.

  19. The Role of National Industry-Based Skill Standards in the Development, Implementation, and Assessment of Community College Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.; Woo, Hui-Jeong; Marvel, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    Using a descriptive survey design, a nationally representative sample of community college career and technical deans were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed awareness and implementation of industry-based skill standards. For those institutions implementing industry-based skill standards, the questionnaire sought additional…

  20. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  1. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section 231.35 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.35 Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. (a) Petitions for modification of an...

  2. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section 231.35 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.35 Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. (a) Petitions for modification of an...

  3. Youth Programs and the Job Training Partnership Act. Developing Competency Standards: A Guide for Private Industry Council Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumpf, Lori

    This guide is intended to assist Private Industry Council (PIC) members in developing competency standards for youth programs receiving Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) funds. Discussed first are the benefits of competency standards to PICs and service delivery areas (SDAs). The various components of program standards (types of skills, skill…

  4. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, T.; Bird, G.; Wallace, D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  5. Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard.

    PubMed

    Michaels, David; Monforton, Celeste; Lurie, Peter

    2006-02-23

    While exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been associated with increased lung cancer risk for more than 50 years, the chemical is not currently regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) on the basis of its carcinogenicity. The agency was petitioned in 1993 and sued in 1997 and 2002 to lower the workplace Cr(VI) exposure limit, resulting in a court order to issue a final standard by February 2006. Faced with the threat of stronger regulation, the chromium industry initiated an effort to challenge the scientific evidence supporting a more protective standard. This effort included the use of "product defense" consultants to conduct post hoc analyses of a publicly-funded study to challenge results viewed unfavorably by the industry. The industry also commissioned a study of the mortality experience of workers at four low-exposure chromium plants, but did not make the results available to OSHA in a timely manner, despite multiple agency requests for precisely these sorts of data. The commissioned study found a statistically significant elevation in lung cancer risk among Cr(VI)-exposed workers at levels far below the current standard. This finding changed when the multi-plant cohort was divided into two statistically underpowered components and then published separately. The findings of the first paper published have been used by the chromium industry to attempt to slow OSHA's standard setting process. The second paper was withheld from OSHA until it was accepted for publication in a scientific journal, after the rulemaking record had closed. Studies funded by private sponsors that seek to influence public regulatory proceedings should be subject to the same access and reporting provisions as those applied to publicly funded science. Parties in regulatory proceedings should be required to disclose whether the studies were performed by researchers who had the right to present their findings without the sponsor's consent or

  6. NASA/aircraft industry standard specification for graphite fiber toughened thermoset resin composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A standard specification for a selected class of graphite fiber/toughened thermoset resin matrix material was developed through joint NASA/Aircraft Industry effort. This specification was compiled to provide uniform requirements and tests for qualifying prepreg systems and for acceptance of prepreg batches. The specification applies specifically to a class of composite prepreg consisting of unidirectional graphite fibers impregnated with a toughened thermoset resin that produce laminates with service temperatures from -65 F to 200 F when cured at temperatures below or equal to 350 F. The specified prepreg has a fiber areal weight of 145 g sq m. The specified tests are limited to those required to set minimum standards for the uncured prepreg and cured laminates, and are not intended to provide design allowable properties.

  7. Economic analysis of effluent limitation guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, W.

    1998-12-01

    This report estimates the economic and financial effects and the benefits of compliance with the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Centralized Waste Treatment (CWT) industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has measured these impacts in terms of changes in the profitability of waste treatment operations at CWT facilities, changes in market prices to CWT services, and changes in the quantities of waste management at CWT facilities in six geographic regions. EPA has also examined the impacts on companies owning CWT facilities (including impacts on small entities), on communities in which CWT facilities are located, and on environmental justice. EPA examined the benefits to society of the CWT effluent limitations guidelines and standards by examining cancer and non-cancer health effects of the regulation, recreational benefits, and cost savings to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to which indirect-discharging CWT facilities send their wastewater.

  8. Test of the standardization draft ISO/CD 11146 for industrial lasers systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Christof; Scholl, Marcus

    1995-04-01

    The procedures suggested in the standardization draft ISO/CD 11146 for measurement for beam widths and beam radii are tested critically in application to several laser systems common in industrial use. It is shown from measured intensity profiles that the above mentioned procedures require data filtering and introduction of a cutoff. Examples of filtering and cutoff are given. The influence of filtering and cutoff on the results is shown. The use of the presented additional data processing is demonstrated in several measured examples. A slight modification of the definition of beam parameters is invented and a fitting routine for their calculation is specified. Application to beams of typical stable and unstable resonator systems as well as coaxial resonator systems is presented. The results of the paper recommend a supplement of the standardization draft.

  9. Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

  10. Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  11. Gasoline risk management: a compendium of regulations, standards, and industry practices.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    This paper is part of a special series of publications regarding gasoline toxicology testing and gasoline risk management; this article covers regulations, standards, and industry practices concerning gasoline risk management. Gasoline is one of the highest volume liquid fuel products produced globally. In the U.S., gasoline production in 2013 was the highest on record (API, 2013). Regulations such as those pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) and many others provide the U.S. federal government with extensive authority to regulate gasoline composition, manufacture, storage, transportation and distribution practices, worker and consumer exposure, product labeling, and emissions from engines and other sources designed to operate on this fuel. The entire gasoline lifecycle-from manufacture, through distribution, to end-use-is subject to detailed, complex, and overlapping regulatory schemes intended to protect human health, welfare, and the environment. In addition to these legal requirements, industry has implemented a broad array of voluntary standards and best management practices to ensure that risks from gasoline manufacturing, distribution, and use are minimized.

  12. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... of immunity for that activity. (b) The bureaus are required to maintain detailed minutes of...

  13. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... of immunity for that activity. (b) The bureaus are required to maintain detailed minutes of...

  14. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... of immunity for that activity. (b) The bureaus are required to maintain detailed minutes of...

  15. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... of immunity for that activity. (b) The bureaus are required to maintain detailed minutes of...

  16. [Fatal deception: the tobacco industry's "new" world standards for tobacco marketing].

    PubMed

    Saloojee, Yussuf; Hammond, Ross

    2002-02-01

    Being increasingly threatened by the worldwide antismoking struggle, the major tobacco companies are eager to improve their public image. This leads the companies to adopt inconsequential "measures" such as the tobacco industry's "new" standards for tobacco marketing that were "voluntarily" issued in September 2001 by the British American Tobacco company. These measures are clearly attempts to reduce the disapproval generated by the companies' promotion and advertising campaigns, which indirectly target young people. With these standards the tobacco companies supposedly commit themselves, among other things, to not using advertising directed at youth and to not selling or distributing tobacco products in places frequented by young people. This document explains why these measures are completely ineffective, are not anything new, and are a subtle effort to feign a conscientious, responsible attitude, which is far from genuine. As long as there are marketing activities directed at adults, young people will be exposed to the influence of those activities. Many countries have completely prohibited the marketing of tobacco products, given that the "new" marketing standards do not represent progress in any way whatsoever.

  17. Industrial Education. Missouri's Show-Me Standards and Vocational Education Competencies Cross Reference. Main Report [and] Mini Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This publication consists of the main and mini reports for Missouri's Show-Me Standards and vocational education competencies for industrial education. This database documents the common ground between academic skills and vocational competencies. Both components of the Show-Me Standards--knowledge (content) and performance (process)--have been…

  18. Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

  19. CAIS standard manual. System number 26. Industrial gas storage and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  20. Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-06-01

    Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine.

  1. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  2. The Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lisa L.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufficient to protect the public. The food industry has made highly visible pledges to curtail children's food marketing, sell fewer unhealthy products in schools, and label foods in responsible ways. Ceding regulation to industry carries opportunities but is highly risky. In some industries (e.g., tobacco), self-regulation has been an abject failure, but in others (e.g., forestry and marine fisheries), it has been more successful. We examined food industry self-regulation in the context of other self-regulatory successes and failures and defined 8 standards that should be met if self-regulation is to be effective. PMID:20019306

  3. Clean Air Act Guidelines and Standards for Solvent Use and Surface Coating Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the solvent use and surface coating industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  4. Integration of the CERCLA and RCRA processes at an industrial facility using Texas risk reduction standards

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.B.; Rogers, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Industrial facilities in Texas that use, store and/or treat hazardous materials operate pursuant to the conditions of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit and must also ensure compliance with provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) if nominated to the National Priorities List of contaminated sites. While the CERCLA and RCRA programs have differing approaches, their objective is similar, i.e., mitigation of releases or threatened releases of toxic substances that may adversely impact human health or the environment. Recognizing the similarities in regulatory intent, a regulated facility may use Texas-promulgated risk reduction standards to establish risk-based contaminant specific cleanup levels for corrective actions pursuant to RCRA authority. Simultaneously, the facility will be evaluated for risk to human and ecological endpoints pursuant to CERCLA. A Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) must be conducted to establish site-wide objectives that will be applied to individual solid waste management units ensuring compliance with all substantive requirements of CERCLA. The authors conclude that the parallel, integrated approach to these regulatory requirements will accelerate characterization/remediation of potential waste disposal sites, thereby reducing Environmental Restoration program expenditures.

  5. Interconnected, microporous hollow fibers for tissue engineering: commercially relevant, industry standard scale-up manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tuin, Stephen A; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-09-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the field of tissue engineering to create functional tissue using biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds that support cell growth, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. However, many of these constructs are severely limited by poor nutrient diffusion throughout the tissue-engineered construct, resulting in cell death and tissue necrosis at the core. Nutrient transport can be improved by creation and use of scaffolds with hollow and microporous fibers, significantly improving permeability and nutrient diffusion. The purpose of this review is to highlight current technological advances in the fabrication of hollow fibers with interconnected pores throughout the fiber walls, with specific emphasis on developing hollow porous nonwoven fabrics for use as tissue engineering constructs via industry standard processing technologies: Spunbond processing and polymer melt extrusion. We outline current methodologies to create hollow and microporous scaffolds with the aim of translating that knowledge to the production of such fibers into nonwoven tissue engineering scaffolds via spunbond technology, a commercially relevant and viable melt extrusion manufacturing approach that allows for facile scale-up.

  6. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B. ); Serot, D.E. ); Kellogg, M.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner that allows evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key non-manufacturing sectors. This volume presents tabular and graphical results of the historical analysis and projections for each SIC industry. (JF)

  7. The Structuring of Shared Voluntary Standards in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry: Communicating to Reach Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Larry D.; Beyer, Janice M.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on organizational communication by tracing how voluntary cooperative standards were developed for the semiconductor industry through reflexive communication processes initiated by the SEMATECH consortium. Analyzes seven pivotal incidents that show how increased communication produced new provinces of meaning, actions,…

  8. 78 FR 53498 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A., Inc. AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  9. Knowledge of stakeholders in the game meat industry and its effect on compliance with food safety standards.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan Leon; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2011-10-01

    The game meat industry is continuing to grow in South Africa. Several stakeholders are involved in the game meat supply chain and a high level of knowledge is necessary to ensure compliance with legislation and standards. It was therefore necessary to determine the level of knowledge of the stakeholders since this has not been determined before. Information regarding the extent of stakeholders' knowledge and the possible impact on compliance to standards was obtained through a desk-top study and an analysis of questionnaire responses from industry, consumers and relevant authorities. Results have shown that consumers have a specific expectation regarding the safe production of game meat. Limitations in the knowledge of the stakeholders have been identified. Understanding these limitations can assist policy-makers, law enforcers and the game meat industry in developing strategies to alleviate the problem. The result of this study may assist in providing consumers with game meat that is safe for human consumption.

  10. Benefits of voluntary industry standards: The triumph of experience over regulation

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Voluntary international standards for mining machinery may gradually replace many national regulations. The days of establishing voluntary standards nation by nation, inhibiting the important flow of international trade, could be numbered. This does not mean that nations will cease domestic regulatory activities within their boundaries, but rulemaking will pay considerable attention to voluntary international standards and will likely strive for compatibility with voluntary international standards. International standards setting bodies are developing standards for machine safety. When these standards are complete and adopted, some nations will require machinery to comport with them. International commerce in products that do not conform to these voluntary international standards may be discouraged.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(3) Arc Welding and Cutting .351 Arsenic, organic .1118 Asbestos: Airborne Concentration .1101(c...) Welding Standards .453(b)(5) Air Quality, underground construction .800(h), (j) Airborne Contaminant Mists...: Airborne Concentration .1127(c) Compliance .1127(f) Emergency Situations .1127(h) Exposure,...

  12. 76 FR 51993 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Standards for Clinical Trial Imaging Endpoints; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... standardization of imaging procedures when an important imaging endpoint is used in a clinical trial of a... outlines the major considerations for standardization of image acquisition, image interpretation methods... of image acquisition and interpretation standardization, a medical practice standard and a...

  13. Industrial-electricity-conservation potential in the Pacific Northwest. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.; Hinkle, B.K.

    1983-03-01

    The findings of an update of the assessment of industrial electricity conservation potential in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) completed in February 1982 are presented. Using a detailed process energy end use data base developed by SRC in an earlier study for BPA, conservation measures were identified for nine 4-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) industries, representing the most energy intensive industries in each of the major industry groups in the PNW, in the February 1982 report. Assumptions associated with these measures were revised in response to comments from industry representatives in the PNW. An engineering-economic analysis was performed for each conservation measure. Based on the economic attractiveness of the measure relative to average hurdle rates (which are equivalent to the cost of equity) in each industry, estimates of the economic potential of each conservation measure were made. A market penetration model was then used to estimate the actual implementation of each measure over time. The conservation potential estimated for the 4-digit industries was extrapolated to the 2-digit level using an analysis of the end uses of electricity and a baseline forecast of industrial electricity requirements provided by BPA. Options for BPA and utility programs to encourage industrial electricity conservaton were identified and their costs and benefits were estimated.

  14. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Pulp and Paper Industry AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the pulp and paper industry... Action NESHAP for: OECA Contact \\1\\ OAQPS Contact \\2\\ Pulp and Paper Sara Ayres, (202) John...

  15. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  16. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  17. A Virtual Geophysical Network: Using Industry Standard Technology to Link Geographically Distributed Sensors and Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Crotwell, H. P.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported distributed data centers as a method of providing scientific researchers access to data from seismological networks around the world. For nearly a decade, the NetDC system used email as the method through which users could access data centers located around the globe in a seamless fashion. More recently the IRIS DMC has partnered with the University of South Carolina to develop a new method through which a virtual data center can be created. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology is an industry standard distributed computing architecture. Traditionally used by major corporations, IRIS has developed a Data Handling Interface (DHI) system that is capable of connecting services at participating data centers (servers) to applications running on end-users computing platforms (clients). For seismology we have identified three services. 1) A network service that provides information about geophysical observatories around the world such as where the sensors exist, what types of information are recorded on the sensors, and calibration information that allows proper use of the data, 2) an event service that allows applications to access information about earthquakes and seismological events and 3) waveform services that allow users to gain access to seismograms or time series data from other geophysical sensors. Seismological Data Centers operate the servers thereby allowing a variety of client applications to directly access the information at these data centers. Currently IRIS, the U. of South Carolina, UC Berkeley, and a European Data Center (ORFEUS) have been involved in the DHI project. This talk will highlight some of the DHI enabled clients that allow geophysical information to be directly transferred to the clients. Since the data center servers appear with the same interface specification (Interface Definition Language) a client that can talk to one DHI server can talk to any DHI enabled

  18. On Physician-Industry Relationships and Unreasonable Standards of Proof for Harm: A Population-Level Bioethics Approach.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The primary claim of this paper is that a widely used argument against obstructing, curtailing, or eliminating deep physician-industry relationships is deficient. The typical argument critiqued requires that proof that physician-industry relationships cause harm flows from randomized controlled trials. Chief among the deficiencies in this claim is the fact that this specific demand for proof of harm essentially guts the precautionary principle. In so doing, the typical argument neuters the basic justification for public health action. In place of this fallacious move, the paper argues that proof of harm can be demonstrated via evidentiary standards widely accepted within the knowledge communities of public health scientists and epidemiologists. The paper concludes by noting that while there may be good reasons to oppose curtailment of deep physician-industry relationships, the typical argument described here is not among them.

  19. [Establishment and improvement of emission control standard system of volatile organic compounds in industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Hui

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become one of the priority control pollutants, due to the regional compound pollution problem represented by atmospheric haze. Through the analysis of the present situation for current national and local emission standards of VOCs, the pollution characteristics and the emission inventory of VOCs, a basic standard system of VOCs has been proposed and improved.

  20. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate, conform to: (1) ACI Standard 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318... the Design and Construction of Fixed Offshore Concrete Structures, 1984; reapproved 1997 (incorporated... December 15, 2007, Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates (incorporated by reference as...

  1. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., conform to: (1) ACI Standard 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and... Construction of Fixed Offshore Concrete Structures, 1984; reapproved 1997 (incorporated by reference at § 250... for Concrete Aggregates (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198); (16) ASTM Standard C 94/C...

  2. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., conform to: (1) ACI Standard 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and... Construction of Fixed Offshore Concrete Structures, 1984; reapproved 1997 (incorporated by reference at § 250... for Concrete Aggregates (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198); (16) ASTM Standard C 94/C...

  3. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and Commentary (ACI 318R-95) (incorporated... Concrete Structures, 1984; reapproved 1997 (incorporated by reference at § 250.198); (3) ANSI/AISC 360-05...) Standard C 33-07, approved December 15, 2007, Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates...

  4. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., conform to: (1) ACI Standard 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and... Construction of Fixed Offshore Concrete Structures, 1984; reapproved 1997 (incorporated by reference at § 250... for Concrete Aggregates (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198); (16) ASTM Standard C 94/C...

  5. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means the... Central Data Exchange CEEL Community Emergency Exposure Levels CEMS Continuous Emissions Monitoring System... Information Collection Request IRIS Integrated Risk Information System ISIS Industrial Sectors...

  6. 76 FR 22154 - Powered Industrial Trucks Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... requirements address truck design, construction, and modification, as well as certification of training and... regarding the design and construction of, and modifications made to, the trucks they are operating, and that... industrial trucks, thereby preventing such hazards as fires and explosions caused by poorly...

  7. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means the... services. \\1\\ North American Industry Classification System. This table is not intended to be exhaustive... EPA Method 10 or install, operate, and maintain CO continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS)...

  8. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in Seven Industry Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet discusses national emission standards for acrylic and modacrylic fibers production, carbon black production, chemical manufacturing: chromium compounds, flexible polyurethane foam production and fabrication, lead acid battery manufacturing,

  9. Fact Sheets: Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in Seven Industry Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a June 2007 fact sheet and a March 2008 fact sheet for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Wood Preserving Area Sources. These documents provide a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  10. Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on Standardization of Carbon-Phenolic Test Methods and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, William B. (Compiler); Pinoli, Pat C. (Compiler); Upton, Cindy G. (Compiler); Day, Tony (Compiler); Hill, Keith (Compiler); Stone, Frank (Compiler); Hall, William B.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a compendium of the presentations of the 12th biannual meeting of the Industry Advisory Committee under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program. A complete transcript of the welcoming talks is provided. Presentation outlines and overheads are included for the other sessions: SPIP Overview, Past, Current and Future Activity; Test Methods Manual and Video Tape Library; Air Force Developed Computer Aided Cure Program and SPC/TQM Experience; Magneto-Optical mapper (MOM), Joint Army/NASA program to assess composite integrity; Permeability Testing; Moisture Effusion Testing by Karl Fischer Analysis; Statistical Analysis of Acceptance Test Data; NMR Phenolic Resin Advancement; Constituent Testing Highlights on the LDC Optimization Program; Carbon Sulfur Study, Performance Related Testing; Current Rayon Specifications and Future Availability; RSRM/SPC Implementation; SRM Test Methods, Delta/Titan/FBM/RSRM; and Open Forum on Performance Based Acceptance Testing -- Industry Experience.

  11. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 1. Analysis of fuel use implications

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Heller, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the Industrial Fuel Choice Analysis Model (IFCAM) led to several concerns: first, the retirement rate used in the model seems to overestimate retirement levels, thus overstating the potential for coal penetration in the industrial sector. Also, the coal transportation rate is assumed to increase by 15% between 1978 and 1985 and remain constant thereafter. In light of recent rate increase approvals the expected price escalation of labor and materials used in railroad expansion, the currently assumed rail rate escalators seem too low. Additionally, the model does not deal with the issue of substitution of small boiler combinations for large boilers. Both promulgation and enforcement may provide incentives for installation of small boiler combinations. For IFCAM to reflect this phenomenon, alternative assumptions and model modifications are suggested. Fuel price projections, the capacity utilization distribution, boiler size distribution, and translation of costs into model algorithms are considered.

  12. Industry Standard Notation for Architecture-Centric Model-Based Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-20

    Bruce Lewis (AMRDEC SED) served as subcommittee chair, with Peter Feiler (SEI) as technical lead and author of the language. AADL incorporates concepts...underlying runtime system [ Feiler 09]. A number of recent studies have identified this problem and recommended a paradigm shift towards architecture-centric...AVSI 09] Feiler P. H., Hansson J., de Niz D., & Wrage L. System Architecture Virtual Integration: An Industrial Case Study (CMU/SEI-2009-TR-017

  13. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities....

  14. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... / Friday, September 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121... System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is correcting an interim...

  15. National Apprenticeship and Training Standards for the Sign, Pictorial Display, Electric Sign and Process Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee for the Sign, Pictorial Display, Electric Sign, and Process Industry, Washington, DC.

    Revised national standards for sign, pictorial display, electric sign, and process apprenticeships were developed to provide guidelines to local employers and labor groups to be used in setting up and operating uniform and effective apprenticeship programs. The apprenticeship term is 10,000 hours or 5 years of on-the-job training subdivided into…

  16. Proceedings: Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, William B.

    1992-08-01

    Verbal discussions during the biannual meeting of the Industry Advisory Committee for Carbon-phenolic constituent test methodology, which is constituted under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), are addressed. The items on the agenda are: (1) NASA video tape library; (2) product code identification; (3) NMR progress; (4) IR and DMTA workshop; (5) aerospace database update; (6) M vision database demonstration; (7) constituent fingerprinting; (8) cured materials test development; (9) engineering needs for computer modeling; and (10) review action items. The materials prepared to support some of the oral presentations are also included in the Appendix.

  17. Proceedings: Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Verbal discussions during the biannual meeting of the Industry Advisory Committee for Carbon-phenolic constituent test methodology, which is constituted under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), are addressed. The items on the agenda are: (1) NASA video tape library; (2) product code identification; (3) NMR progress; (4) IR and DMTA workshop; (5) aerospace database update; (6) M vision database demonstration; (7) constituent fingerprinting; (8) cured materials test development; (9) engineering needs for computer modeling; and (10) review action items. The materials prepared to support some of the oral presentations are also included in the Appendix.

  18. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

    1980-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

  19. Summary of 2012 Reconsideration Public Comments and Responses for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers at Area Sources: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has a 12/2012 document that provides EPA’s responses to public comments on EPA’s Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters

  20. Summary of Public Comments and Responses for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has a 12/2012 document that provides EPA’s responses to public comments on EPA’s Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters

  1. Development of a Fan-Filter Unit Test Standard, LaboratoryValidations, and its Applications across Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-10-20

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is now finalizing the Phase 2 Research and Demonstration Project on characterizing 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units in the market using the first-ever standard laboratory test method developed at LBNL.[1][2][3] Fan-filter units deliver re-circulated air and provide particle filtration control for clean environments. Much of the energy in cleanrooms (and minienvironments) is consumed by 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) or 4-foot x 4-foot (122-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units that are typically located in the ceiling (25-100% coverage) of cleanroom controlled environments. Thanks to funding support by the California Energy Commission's Industrial Program of the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, and significant participation from manufacturers and users of fan-filter units from around the world, LBNL has developed and performed a series of standard laboratory tests and reporting on a variety of 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units (FFUs). Standard laboratory testing reports have been completed and reported back to anonymous individual participants in this project. To date, such reports on standard testing of FFU performance have provided rigorous and useful data for suppliers and end users to better understand, and more importantly, to quantitatively characterize performance of FFU products under a variety of operating conditions.[1] In the course of the project, the standard laboratory method previously developed at LBNL has been under continuous evaluation and update.[2][3] Based upon the updated standard, it becomes feasible for users and suppliers to characterize and evaluate energy performance of FFUs in a consistent way.

  2. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  3. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, A.; Dai, I.; Oleniuk, P.; Todd, B.

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  4. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report covers the major agricultural handling and processing industries qualifying for partial overtime exemption under the Fair Labor Standards Act and evaluates the need for such exemptions. Questionnaires which were sent to firms in various processing industries provide data on nearly 4,000 processors. The results show that existing…

  5. Analysis of Open Automated Demand Response Deployments in California and Guidelines to Transition to Industry Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Riess, David; Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-02

    This report reviews the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) deployments within the territories serviced by California?s investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and the transition from the OpenADR 1.0 specification to the formal standard?OpenADR 2.0. As demand response service providers and customers start adopting OpenADR 2.0, it is necessary to ensure that the existing Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) infrastructure investment continues to be useful and takes advantage of the formal standard and its many benefits. This study focused on OpenADR deployments and systems used by the California IOUs and included a summary of the OpenADR deployment from the U.S. Department of Energy-funded demonstration conducted by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected and analyzed data about OpenADR 1.0 deployments, categorized architectures, developed a data model mapping to understand the technical compatibility of each version, and compared the capabilities and features of the two specifications. The findings, for the first time, provided evidence of the total enabled load shed and average first cost for system enablement in the IOU and SMUD service territories. The OpenADR 2.0a profile specification semantically supports AutoDR system architectures and data propagation with a testing and certification program that promotes interoperability, scaled deployments by multiple vendors, and provides additional features that support future services.

  6. Industrial/organizational psychology and the federal judiciary: expert witness testimony and the Daubert standards.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Peter H; Thornton, George C

    2004-02-01

    This research examined judicial perceptions of the field of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology, explored how judges evaluate and weigh I/O psychology expert witness testimony, and scrutinized the use of the Daubert factors in judicial assessments (of social scientific evidentiary reliability. In a mail survey, federal judges were randomly presented with one of four prototypical descriptions of I/O psychology expert witness testimony in civil age discrimination in employment litigation. Judges were found to be relatively unfamiliar with the field of I/O psychology, and few had previously heard or read the testimony of an I/O psychologist. Sixty-six percent of the federal judges rated themselves at least moderately likely to admit the expert's testimony at trial, regardless of the testimony scenario presented. Judges rated the evidence overall as relevant, moderately reliable, moderately probative, and prejudicial. Both judicial familiarity with the field of I/O psychology and prior experience with I/O testimony were found to be positively related to likelihood of admitting the evidence. Manipulations of the scientific foundation for the expert testimony did not substantially affect admission decision. Judges ascribed the most importance to the general acceptance Daubert factor in their evaluation of evidentiary reliability. Implications for the science and practice of I/O psychology in the legal system are presented and discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Industry Standard Turbulence Models on an Axisymmetric Supersonic Compression Corner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations of a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) created by a Mach 2.85 flow over an axisymmetric 30-degree compression corner were carried out. The objectives were to evaluate four turbulence models commonly used in industry, for SWBLIs, and to evaluate the suitability of this test case for use in further turbulence model benchmarking. The Spalart-Allmaras model, Menter's Baseline and Shear Stress Transport models, and a low-Reynolds number k- model were evaluated. Results indicate that the models do not accurately predict the separation location; with the SST model predicting the separation onset too early and the other models predicting the onset too late. Overall the Spalart-Allmaras model did the best job in matching the experimental data. However there is significant room for improvement, most notably in the prediction of the turbulent shear stress. Density data showed that the simulations did not accurately predict the thermal boundary layer upstream of the SWBLI. The effect of turbulent Prandtl number and wall temperature were studied in an attempt to improve this prediction and understand their effects on the interaction. The data showed that both parameters can significantly affect the separation size and location, but did not improve the agreement with the experiment. This case proved challenging to compute and should provide a good test for future turbulence modeling work.

  8. National Institute of Standards and Technology - Texas instruments industrial collaboratory testbed.

    SciTech Connect

    Postek, M. T.

    1998-10-29

    A portion of the mission of the NIST Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) is to improve and advance length metrology in aid of U.S. Industry. This responsibility is found within the Precision Engineering Division (PED). The successful development of a ''Collaborator'' for TelePresence Microscopy provides an important new tool to promote technology transfer in the area of length metrology and measurement technology. NIST and Texas Instruments under the auspices of the National Automated Manufacturing Testbed (NAMT) and in collaboration with the University of Illinois are developing a microscopy collaborator testbed to demonstrate the value of telepresence microscopy within a large distributed manufacturing facility such as Texas Instruments and between organizations such as NET, Texas Instruments and Universities. Telepresence Microscopy is an application of the state-of-the-art Internet based technology to long-distance scientific endeavors. Long distance can refer to across the country or from one site within a company to another. Telepresence is currently being applied to electron microscopy in several locations where unique analytical facilities (such as those at NIST) can be utilized via Internet connection. Potentially this can provide tremendous savings to a company where asset sharing can now be rapidly and effectively accessed or remote unique facilities can be utilized without the requirement of expensive and time consuming travel. This methodology is not limited to electron microscopy, but its power is currently exemplified by its application to that form of microscopy.

  9. IDC reengineering Phase 2 & 3 US industry standard cost estimate summary

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  10. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  11. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 7: Industrial Maintenance Technology, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  12. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was selected from the list of standards identified

  13. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries - Volume 1: Concepts and Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B. ); Serot, D.E. ); Kellogg, M.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner to allow evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key nonmanufacturing sectors. This volume lays out the general concepts and methods used to develop the emergency operating estimates. The historical analysis of capacity extends from 1974 through 1986. Some nonmanufacturing industries are included. In addition to mining and utilities, key industries in transportation, communication, and services were analyzed. Physical capacity and efficiency of production were measured. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  14. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  15. Aerodynamic data banks for Clark-Y, NACA 4-digit and NACA 16-series airfoil families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Camba, J., III; Morris, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    With the renewed interest in propellers as means of obtaining thrust and fuel efficiency in addition to the increased utilization of the computer, a significant amount of progress was made in the development of theoretical models to predict the performance of propeller systems. Inherent in the majority of the theoretical performance models to date is the need for airfoil data banks which provide lift, drag, and moment coefficient values as a function of Mach number, angle-of-attack, maximum thickness to chord ratio, and Reynolds number. Realizing the need for such data, a study was initiated to provide airfoil data banks for three commonly used airfoil families in propeller design and analysis. The families chosen consisted of the Clark-Y, NACA 16 series, and NACA 4 digit series airfoils. The various component of each computer code, the source of the data used to create the airfoil data bank, the limitations of each data bank, program listing, and a sample case with its associated input-output are described. Each airfoil data bank computer code was written to be used on the Amdahl Computer system, which is IBM compatible and uses Fortran.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Subpart LLL Rule Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Spring 2016 document is intended for the use of EPA staff, State and Local regulatory agencies and their staff, and industry plant managers for the NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry.

  17. Academic, Industry and Student Perspectives on the Inclusion of "Vocational Knowledge" in a "Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement" for Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuña, Tina Botwright; Kelder, Jo-Anne; Able, Amanda J.; Guisard, Yann; Bellotti, William D.; McDonald, Glenn; Doyle, Richard; Wormell, Paul; Meinke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perspective of industry stakeholders in a national project to develop a Learning and Teaching Academic Standards (LTAS) Statement for the Agriculture discipline. The AgLTAS Statement will be aligned with the Science LTAS Statement published in 2011 and comprise a discourse on the nature and extent of the Agriculture…

  18. Can Industrial-Organizational Psychology Survive the Advancement of Professional Psychology? Speciality Standards for Providers of I/O Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Thomas E.

    The Revised Standards for Providers of Psychological Services, developed by a committee of the American Psychological Association, have an important impact on industrial/organizational psychologists. Currently, four types of controls exist as assurances to the public that appropriate psychological services are being provided. They are: graduate…

  19. Segmental 2:4 digit ratio. Unilateral, bilateral and hand-type differences in men.

    PubMed

    Khaĭrullin, Radik

    2011-12-01

    Most studies of the 2:4 digit ratio (DR) of the human hand have analyzed its possibilities for use as an indicator of the functional, psychological, and, with rare exception, morphological features of the body. Each of the functional flexor segments (each phalanx) contributes to the common variability of the total digital length. The aim of this study was to determine patterns in the relationships between each segmental digit ratio (SDR) and the overall 2:4 DR. We studied the variability of the SDRs in comparison with the general 2:4 DR of 202 young males aged 16-21 years. The length of the functional segments of the digits was measured between the flexor skin furrows on the palmar surface. The change in the SDR means that values can be ranked as follows: proximal SDR (SDR-P)>DR>distal SDR (SDR-D)>medial SDR (SDR-M). Bilateral differences are inherent in the segmental SDR-P. Most quantitative regularities inherent in the total 2:4 DR are also intrinsic to the 2:4 DR of the distal segment of the digit; in particular, this phenomenon is displayed in hands of the ulnar (male) type. Overall, the values of the distal rather than the other functional flexor segments of the second and fourth digits are similar in magnitude to the general 2:4 DR. At the same time, the greatest correlation and hence, the largest contribution to the total variability in the general DR is from the variability of the SDR-P values. Our data demonstrate the importance of various digit segment sizes in determining their overall length and the derivative ratios.

  20. 13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? 121.201 Section 121.201 Business Credit... has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? Link to an amendment...) 221115 Wind Electric Power Generation (see footnote 1) 221116 Geothermal Electric Power Generation...

  1. 13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? 121.201 Section 121.201 Business Credit... has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? Link to an amendment... Generation (see footnote 1) 221116 Geothermal Electric Power Generation (see footnote 1) 221117...

  2. Industrial training approach using GPM P5 Standard for Sustainability in Project Management: a framework for sustainability competencies in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johan, Kartina; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-11-01

    Malaysian Engineering Accreditation (Engineering Programme Accreditation Manual, 2007) requires all bachelor degree in engineering programmes to incorporate a minimum of two months industrial training in order for the programme to be accredited by the council. The industrial training has the objective to provide students on the insights of being an engineer at the workplace hence increasing their knowledge in employability skills prior to graduation. However the current structure of industrial training is not able to inculcate good leadership ability and prepare students with sustainability competencies needed in the era of Sustainable Development (SD). This paper aims to study project management methodology as a framework to create a training pathway in industrial training for students in engineering programs using Green Project Management (GPM) P5 standard for sustainability in project management. The framework involves students as interns, supervisors from both university and industry and also participation from NonProfit Organisation (NPO). The framework focus on the development of the student's competency in employability skills, lean leadership and sustainability competencies using experiential learning approach. Deliverables of the framework include internship report, professional sustainability report using GPM P5 standard and competency assessment. The post-industrial phase of the framework is constructed for students to be assessed collaboratively by the university, industry and the sustainability practitioner in the country. The ability for the interns to act as a change agent in sustainability practices is measured by the competency assessment and the quality of the sustainability report. The framework support the call for developing holistic students based on Malaysian Education Blueprint (Higher Education) 2015-2025 and address the gap between the statuses of engineering qualification to the sustainability competencies in the 21st century in

  3. Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Currie, D. G.; Vittori, R.; Cantone, C.; Garattini, M.; Boni, A.; Martini, M.; Lops, C.; Intaglietta, N.; Tauraso, R.; Arnold, D. A.; Pearlman, M. R.; Bianco, G.; Zerbini, S.; Maiello, M.; Berardi, S.; Porcelli, L.; Alley, C. O.; McGarry, J. F.; Sciarretta, C.; Luceri, V.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2011-03-01

    We built a new experimental apparatus (the “Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facility”, SCF) and created a new test procedure (the SCF-Test) to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of cube corner laser retroreflectors in space for industrial and scientific applications. The primary goal of these innovative tools is to provide critical design and diagnostic capabilities for Satellites Laser Ranging (SLR) to Galileo and other GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) constellations. The capability will allow us to optimize the design of GNSS laser retroreflector payloads to maximize ranging efficiency, to improve signal-to-noise conditions in daylight and to provide pre-launch validation of retroreflector performance under laboratory-simulated space conditions. Implementation of new retroreflector designs being studied will help to improve GNSS orbits, which will then increase the accuracy, stability, and distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), to provide better definition of the geocenter (origin) and the scale (length unit).Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP) and the temperature distribution of the SLR retroreflector payload under thermal conditions produced with a close-match solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time movement of the payload to experimentally simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to both solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These unique capabilities provide experimental validation of the space segment for SLR and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR).We used the SCF facility and the SCF-Test to perform a comprehensive, non-invasive space characterization of older generation, back-coated retroreflectors of the GIOVE-A and -B (Galileo In-Orbit Validation Elements) and the GPS-35

  4. [An investigation of the application of hygienic standards for the design of industrial enterprises (GBZ 1-2010)].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Zhang, M

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To study the applicability, the high frequency used content, the feasibility, and issues needed to be solved of the standard of GBZ 1-2010, aiming to provide technical evidence for the revision of GBZ1. Methods: In the study, the data were collected by referring to the literature database and the questionnaire from June 2013 to June 2015. There were 2 surveys carried out in the study, with methods including questionnaire survey and specific interview. The investigation methods include the paper version of the questionnaire by mail, the electronic version of the questionnaire by e-mail, and the online survey. And 111 questionnaires were collected. Results: In total, the applicability survey (the first survey) received 156 suggestions covering 76 items from 23 facilities, and 13 key technical issues were summarized to be solved as priorities. In the application survey (the second survey) , the leading three jobs using GBZ 1-2010 were the occupational hazards evaluation for constructive project (82.0%) , lecturing/training (65.8%) , occupational hazards monitoring (64.9%) , respectively. The high frequency used contents of GBZ 1-2010 were the sixth part "the basic hygienic requirements for workplace" (90.1%) , the fifth part "site selection, overall layout and workshop design" (87.4%) , the seventh part "the basic hygienic requirements for welfare room" (85.6%) , respectively. In the results of feasibility, scores of the fourth part "the general rules" , the fifth part "site selection, overall layout and workshop design" , the sixth part "the basic hygienic requirements for workplace" , the seventh part "the basic hygienic requirements for welfare room" , the eighth "emergency rescue" , annex A "the correct use instructions" , annex B "buffer zone standards for industrial enterprises" were 2.6, 3.1, 3.5, 3.8, 3.2, 3.3, 2.6, respectively. Among 111 questionnaires, the parts needed to be modified as priories were the fifth part "site selection, overall layout

  5. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  6. Economy and Technology of China Analysis and Evaluation of the Industrial Technological Standards of China (Selected Pages).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-18

    blister Steel 7.21 fibers 21.38 sugar 20.23 paper for newspaper 6.12 primary energy 19.13 electric power generation 3.00 Figure 1-6. Annual consumption...mo- steel . . - sugar a [28 (CaI .. 2 0 N MW . t4# 20- 30 • 25 ft) . China ISO 0 -4 3t5- 0 2,110 0i 0 U"-4 &.10 V W , ( o India 2100 SM II " 4U W( 90...a) fibre (A) sugar (a) food (o) 3. Industrial structures of low level: The industrial structure in China has features common to all developing nations

  7. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob

    This student manual contains the following six units for classroom and laboratory experiences in high school industrial electronics: (1) introduction and review of DC and AC circuits; (2) semiconductors; (3) integrated circuits; (4) digital basics; (5) complex digital circuits; and (6) computer circuits. The units include unit objectives, specific…

  8. Training Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-09-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

  9. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  10. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 13: Laser Machining, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  11. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 12: Instrumentation, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  12. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 14: Automated Equipment Technician (CIM), of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  13. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 3: Machining, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  14. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 10: Computer-Aided Drafting & Design, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  15. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 6: Welding, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  16. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 8: Sheet Metal & Composites, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  17. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 5: Mold Making, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational speciality areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  18. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 9: Tool and Die, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  19. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 2: Career Development, General Education and Remediation, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  20. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 4: Manufacturing Engineering Technology, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  1. Economic-impact analysis of effluent-limitations guidelines and standards for the organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic-fibers industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report identifies and analyzes economic impacts that are likely to result from water-pollution-control regulations on the organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic fibers (OCPSF) industry. The regulations included EPA effluent limitations and standards. The report supplements technical studies supporting the issuance of the OCPSF regulations by estimating the broader economic effects that might result from the application of various control methods and technologies. The primary economic-impact variables assessed include the costs of the contemplated regulations, and the potential for these regulations to cause plant closure, unemployment, reductions in profitability, shifts in the balance of trade, and anticompetitive effects on small business and new facilities.

  2. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry

    PubMed Central

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Methods: Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Results: Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (p<0.005). Furthermore, the average hip flexion angle decreased for cushioned shoes as well as midfoot bearing shoes (p<0.002). The range of motion of the knee joint increased for cushioned shoes. As expected, plantar pressure distributions varied significantly between cushioned or midfoot bearing shoes and shoes without ergonomic components. Conclusion: The overall function of safety shoes is the avoidance of injury in case of an industrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations. PMID:27488038

  3. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in U.S. manufacturing industries: 1994--2005

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1997-02-01

    To develop integrated policies for mobilization preparedness, planners require estimates and projections of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. This report develops projections of national emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 458 US manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. These measures are intended for use in planning models that are designed to predict the demands for detailed industry sectors that would occur under conditions such as a military mobilization or a major national disaster. This report is part of an ongoing series of studies prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to support mobilization planning studies of the Federal Emergency Planning Agency/US Department of Defense (FEMA/DOD). Earlier sets of EOC estimates were developed in 1985 and 1991. This study presents estimates of EOC through 2005. As in the 1991 study, projections of capacity were based upon extrapolations of equipment capital stocks. The methodology uses time series regression models based on industry data to obtain a response function of industry capital stock to levels of industrial output. The distributed lag coefficients of these response function are then used with projected outputs to extrapolate the 1994 level of EOC. Projections of industrial outputs were taken from the intermediate-term forecast of the US economy prepared by INFORUM (Interindustry Forecasting Model, University of Maryland) in the spring of 1996.

  4. On the utility of GPU accelerated high-order methods for unsteady flow simulations: A comparison with industry-standard tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeire, B. C.; Witherden, F. D.; Vincent, P. E.

    2017-04-01

    First- and second-order accurate numerical methods, implemented for CPUs, underpin the majority of industrial CFD solvers. Whilst this technology has proven very successful at solving steady-state problems via a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes approach, its utility for undertaking scale-resolving simulations of unsteady flows is less clear. High-order methods for unstructured grids and GPU accelerators have been proposed as an enabling technology for unsteady scale-resolving simulations of flow over complex geometries. In this study we systematically compare accuracy and cost of the high-order Flux Reconstruction solver PyFR running on GPUs and the industry-standard solver STAR-CCM+ running on CPUs when applied to a range of unsteady flow problems. Specifically, we perform comparisons of accuracy and cost for isentropic vortex advection (EV), decay of the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV), turbulent flow over a circular cylinder, and turbulent flow over an SD7003 aerofoil. We consider two configurations of STAR-CCM+: a second-order configuration, and a third-order configuration, where the latter was recommended by CD-adapco for more effective computation of unsteady flow problems. Results from both PyFR and STAR-CCM+ demonstrate that third-order schemes can be more accurate than second-order schemes for a given cost e.g. going from second- to third-order, the PyFR simulations of the EV and TGV achieve 75× and 3× error reduction respectively for the same or reduced cost, and STAR-CCM+ simulations of the cylinder recovered wake statistics significantly more accurately for only twice the cost. Moreover, advancing to higher-order schemes on GPUs with PyFR was found to offer even further accuracy vs. cost benefits relative to industry-standard tools.

  5. Validation of the MUFITS reservoir simulator against standard industrial simulation tools for CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview of the reservoir simulator MUFITS capabilities for modelling underground carbon dioxide storage using the EOS-modules GASSTORE and BLACKOIL. The GASSTORE module covers three-phase solid-liquid-gas flows of water, carbon dioxide and salt components. The extended black-oil model is utilized in the BLACKOIL module, which can be applied in the CO2 storage scenarios to two-phase flows of CO2 and brine components. The modules allow comprehensive options including salt precipitation/dissolution, thermal processes, multiple properties regions, and complicated initial vertical equilibration. The PVT tables for the BLACKOIL module can be generated automatically from the GASSTORE module for a given reservoir temperature and brine salinity. We test the simulator against published benchmarking studies. We then consider an application case of CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany. For that purpose, we use a calibrated 3D geological reservoir model comprising a highly heterogeneous distribution of porosity and permeability in a fluvial geological setting. The simulation is conducted using the EOS-module BLACKOIL and the modelling results are in excellent agreement with the results of the industrial simulators applied in previous benchmarks. In particular, the bottom-hole pressure in the injection well, the total mass of dissolved CO2 and spatial CO2 distribution are identical with previously published results.

  6. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term.

  7. Recovery Act: Develop a Modular Curriculum for Training University Students in Industry Standard CO{sub 2} Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R. C.; Stoudt, E. L.

    2013-05-31

    CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery, Sequestration, & Monitoring Measuring & Verification are topics that are not typically covered in Geoscience, Land Management, and Petroleum Engineering curriculum. Students are not typically exposed to the level of training that would prepare them for CO{sub 2} reservoir and aquifer sequestration related projects when they begin assignments in industry. As a result, industry training, schools & conferences are essential training venues for new & experienced personnel working on CO{sub 2} projects for the first time. This project collected and/or generated industry level CO{sub 2} training to create modules which faculties can utilize as presentations, projects, field trips and site visits for undergrad and grad students and prepare them to "hit the ground running" & be contributing participants in CO{sub 2} projects with minimal additional training. In order to create the modules, UTPB/CEED utilized a variety of sources. Data & presentations from industry CO{sub 2} Flooding Schools & Conferences, Carbon Management Workshops, UTPB Classes, and other venues was tailored to provide introductory reservoir & aquifer training, state-of-the-art methodologies, field seminars and road logs, site visits, and case studies for students. After discussions with faculty at UTPB, Sul Ross, Midland College, other universities, and petroleum industry professionals, it was decided to base the module sets on a series of road logs from Midland to, and through, a number of Permian Basin CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, CO{sub 2} Carbon Capture and Storage (CCUS) projects and outcrop equivalents of the formations where CO{sub 2} is being utilized or will be utilized, in EOR projects in the Permian Basin. Although road logs to and through these projects exist, none of them included CO{sub 2} specific information. Over 1400 miles of road logs were created, or revised specifically to highlight CO{sub 2} EOR projects. After testing a number of

  8. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  9. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  10. Stricter clean air standards

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    1997-07-01

    New standards for ozone and particulate matter stir a debate between the EPA and industrial groups. The article discusses both the history of the ozone and particulates standards, the goal of the EPA to protect health and evaluation of what the standards mean to health, and the industrial response.

  11. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  12. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program 1985 Ship Production Symposium. Volume 1, Paper Number 17: Overview of Panel SP-6 - Marine Industry Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Task S-43, Cableway Standards: o Standard for Cableway Components and Ass,emblies Task S-44, Deck Covering Guide: o Standard Guide for Deck Covering...4556) Deck Covering in Electrical/Electronic Gear Fibrous Double–Braided Polyester Rope Acceptable Methods for Fitting Chocks Water Trap for Diesel...Engines Terminals, Air, Diffusing, Circular Rope , Nylon Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting Corrosion-Prevention Compound, Solvent Cutback, Cold Application

  14. Skill Standards. Experience in Certification Systems Shows Industry Involvement To Be Key. Report to the Chairman, Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In an attempt to determine their role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of skill training programs, existing standards and certification systems in 20 selected occupations were reviewed to identify the following: their common characteristics, barriers to their development and use, benefits of standards and certification to employers…

  15. Standards for contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borson, Eugene N.

    2004-10-01

    Standards are an important component of national and international trade. We depend upon standards to assure that manufactured parts will work together, wherever they are made, and that we speak the same technical language, no matter what language we speak. Understanding is important in order to know when to take exceptions to or tailor the standard to fit the job. Standards that are used in contamination control have increased in numbers over the years as more industries have had to improve their manufacturing processes to enhance reliability or yields of products. Some older standards have been revised to include new technologies, and many new standards have been developed. Some of the new standards were written for specific industries while others apply to many industries. Many government standards have been replaced with standards from nongovernmental standards organizations. This trend has been encouraged by U.S. law that requires the government to use commercial standards where possible. This paper reviews some of the more important standards for the aerospace industry, such as IEST-STD-CC1246 and ISO 14644-1, that have been published in recent years. Benefits, usage, and problems with some standards will be discussed. Some standards are referenced, and websites of some standards organizations are listed.

  16. California--Becoming an Agricultural and Industrial Power. Grade 4 Model Lesson for Unit 3, Standard 4.4. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freet, Jane; Porter, Priscilla

    This unit focuses on California's growth as an agricultural and industrial power in the 20th century and includes the impact of key people and key historic events. The unit is divided into 4 overlapping topics and should take 10 weeks to implement. Students examine how California became a power by tracing the transformation of the California…

  17. Toys: More Than Trifles for Play. A Review of the Toy Industry, Educational Claims, Safety Standards and Precautions, Toy Selection and Toy Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce; Stewart, Patricia

    This document reviews literature that is relevant to the evaluation and selection of educational toys. Information is summarized under the following topics: (1) the value of toys and manufacturers' claims; (2) basics of the toy industry; (3) toy hazards and accidents; (4) guidelines for toy selection; (5) toy safety legislation and protection; and…

  18. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume II, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Definitions of terms used in the Fair Labor Standards Act and statistical tables compiled from a survey of agricultural processing firms comprise this appendix, which is the second volume of a two volume report. Volume I is available as VT 012 247. (BH)

  19. The National Shipbuilding Research Program 1985 Ship Production Symposium. Volume 1, Paper Number 20: Marine Industry Standards of the U.S. and the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    de Janeiro shipyard of EMAQ- Engenhario E Maquinas S.A.; research for tune chairman of the National Science Board’s Committee on Maritime...this expedite preparation of a Brazilian standard but it assured acceptance by the classification societies. -539- FIGURE 5 - ENGENHARIA E MAQUINAS S.A

  20. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  1. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  2. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  3. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  4. 75 FR 5707 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... in the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct-final rule revising the Acetylene Standard for general industry. DATES: As of February...- final rule to update the incorporated references in its Acetylene Standard for general industry at...

  5. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... date of its direct final rule that revises the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating the... that revised the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to the Compressed...

  6. 77 FR 13997 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... in the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct-final rule revising the Acetylene Standard for general industry. DATES: Effective March...-final rule to update the incorporated references in its Acetylene Standard for general industry at...

  7. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  8. [Introduction to a new definition of the standard of dose exposures and dose units by the German Industrial Norm DIN 6814, Part 3].

    PubMed

    Harder, D

    1985-02-01

    The recent draft of the DIN standard on dose quantities and dose units is presented in original version and explained by the chairman of the Working Committee Dosimetry. There are important modifications by the introduction of SI units, the new definitions of site dose and individual dose, characteristic dose rate and dose rate constant, as well as by corrections of the notions "secondary electron equilibrium and "free in air".

  9. Standardization and assessment of cell culture media quantities in roller poly ethylene terephthalate bottles employed in the industrial rabies viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, S; Chaansha, S; Rajesh, K; Santhiya, T; Charles, C; Venkataramana, K N

    2009-09-15

    Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain) is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5). The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC) tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL) show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production.

  10. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy introduced into the International Standard Organization (ISO) regulations as an alternative method for detection and identification of pathogens in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Evelin; Korsak, Dorota; Kowalska, Aneta; Księżopolska-Gocalska, Monika; Niedziółka-Jönsson, Joanna; Roźniecka, Ewa; Michałowicz, Weronika; Albrycht, Paweł; Podrażka, Marta; Hołyst, Robert; Waluk, Jacek; Kamińska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    We show that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) can serve as a fast, reliable, and easy method for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., in different types of food matrices (salmon, eggs, powdered infant formula milk, mixed herbs, respectively). The main aim of this work was to introduce the SERS technique into three ISO (6579:2002; 11290-1:1996/A1:2004; 22964:2006) standard procedures required for detection of these bacteria in food. Our study demonstrates that the SERS technique is effective in distinguishing very closely related bacteria within a genus grown on solid and liquid media. The advantages of the proposed ISO-SERS method for bacteria identification include simplicity and reduced time of analysis, from almost 144 h required by standard methods to 48 h for the SERS-based approach. Additionally, PCA allows one to perform statistical classification of studied bacteria and to identify the spectrum of an unknown sample. Calculated first and second principal components (PC-1, PC-2) account for 96, 98, and 90% of total variance in the spectra and enable one to identify the Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., respectively. Moreover, the presented study demonstrates the excellent possibility for simultaneous detection of analyzed food-borne bacteria in one sample test (98% of PC-1 and PC-2) with a goal of splitting the data set into three separated clusters corresponding to the three studied bacteria species. The studies described in this paper suggest that SERS represents an alternative to standard microorganism diagnostic procedures. Graphical Abstract New approach of the SERS strategy for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, and C. sakazakii in selected food matrices.

  12. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  13. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  14. Financial performance, ISO 9000 standard and safe driving practices effects on accident rate in the U.S. motor carrier industry.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Eitan; Marcus, Alfred

    2007-07-01

    The question this research address is if voluntary certification with ISO 9000 standards can reduce the number of accidents large trucks have. Certification might have a positive effect depending upon the actions a company takes as a result of being certified, for instance, a company may change driver training and maintenance and how it carries out corrective action. We identified 40 ISO 9002: 1994 certified U.S. trucking companies and compared their safety performance before and after ISO certification. We also compared them to a group of motor carriers that had similar characteristics but were not certified. The safety performance of the certified carriers was significantly better after certification than before, and it also was significantly better than that of non-certified carriers, findings that we believe can be useful to carriers, shippers and regulators who wish to better understand the value of certification.

  15. Polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid-grafted-natural rubber as bio-adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous standard solution and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Phetphaisit, Chor Wayakron; Yuanyang, Siriwan; Chaiyasith, Wipharat Chuachuad

    2016-01-15

    Bio-adsorbent modified natural rubber (modified NR) was prepared, by placing the sulfonic acid functional group on the isoprene chain. This modification was carried out with the aim to prepare material capable to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. The structures of modified NR materials were characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies. Thermal gravimetric analysis of modified NR showed that the initial degradation temperature of rubber decreases with increasing amount of polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) in the structure. In addition, water uptake of the rubber based materials was studied as a function of time and content of PAMPS. The influence of the amount of PAMPS grafted onto NR, time, pH, concentration of metal ions, temperature, and regeneration were studied in terms of their influence on the adsorption of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+)). The adsorption isotherms of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model, while Cu(2+) was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. However, the results from these two isotherms resulted in a similar behavior. The adsorption capacity of the modified NR for the various heavy metals was in the following order: Pb(2+)∼Cd(2+)>Cu(2+). The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 272.7, 267.2, and 89.7 mg/g of modified rubber, respectively. Moreover, the modified natural rubber was used for the removal of metal ions in real samples of industrial effluents where the efficiency and regeneration were also investigated.

  16. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  18. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  19. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 15: Administrative Information, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This volume developed by the Machine Tool Advanced Skill Technology (MAST) program contains key administrative documents and provides additional sources for machine tool and precision manufacturing information and important points of contact in the industry. The document contains the following sections: a foreword; grant award letter; timeline for…

  20. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  1. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  2. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  3. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  4. 77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and... standards for general industry at 29 CFR 1910.135, shipyard employment at 29 CFR 1915.155, marine...

  5. Standards 101; the ASA standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul D.

    2002-11-01

    ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

  6. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  7. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  8. Standardizing Construction between Industry and Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    The sections are checked against one another to insure that applicable documents are included by reference and that referenced paragraphs cross ...skylights, sound transmission control, penthouses and roof structures, masonry or concrete chimneys , fireplaces and barbecues, fire extinguishing systems...Engineering firms (A&E’s), and various associations dealing with the product. An attempt is made to cover as large a cross section as possible

  9. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  10. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  11. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  12. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  13. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Standards and Standardization Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    These three papers consider various models and mechanisms for the achievement of industrial standardization. The first, "Duopoly Compatibility Standards with Partial Cooperation and Standards Leadership" (Sanford V. Berg, University of Florida) presents a model of duopolists producing differentiated substitutes, and considers the…

  14. Multinational Industry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that there is a need for a strong partnership between industry and education. Outlines the important services that multinational companies perform for the world's peoples. Suggests ways that teachers can help their students succeed in the market place. Calls for maintaining high standards, increased teamwork, and emphasis on work-study.…

  15. Industrial power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrells, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a broad overview of industrial power distribution. Primary focus will be on selection of the various low voltage components to achieve the end product. Emphasis will be on the use of national standards to ensure a safe and well designed installation.

  16. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  17. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  18. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  19. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  20. Helicopter simulator standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The initial advisory circular was produced in 1984 (AC 120-XX). It was not finalized, however, because the FAR's for pilot certification did not recognize helicopter simulators and, therefore, permitted no credit for their use. That is being rectified, and, when the new rules are published, standards must be available for qualifying simulators. Because of the lack of a data base to support specification of these standards, the FAA must rely on the knowledge of experts in the simulator/training industry. A major aim of this workshop is to form a working group of these experts to produce a set of standards for helicopter training simulators.

  1. Implementation Of Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pates, Don

    1981-01-01

    The application of the proposed ASHRAE Standard "Application of Infrared Sensing Devices to the Assessment of Building Heat Loss Characteristics" afford the design professional and the construction industry with a standard of performance and a test of the quality of the Building Envelope. An established standard is required to communicate a uniform performance test that can be included in Section 00200 supplementary conditions of a new project specifications or contracted for as a special test before commencing a remodeling -retrofit project. Thermograms provided to the design professionals will assist in more thermally effective future designs.

  2. Standardization in optics characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev

    2000-11-01

    In many advanced fields of optical technology, progresses are extremely dependent on reliable characterization procedures employed for quality assessment in volume manufacturing as well as for the optimization of high performance optical components. With the rapid development of laser technology and modern optics, especially optical metrology gained of importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical components. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered nowadays as common quality factors, which are often indicated in optics catalogues and are considered by the customers for the design of optical systems. As a consequence of this trend, standardization of measurement procedures for the characterization of optical components became a crucial point for the optics industry and for critical applications of optical components in laser systems as well as conventional optical devices. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed in the Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) resulting in practical International Standards or Draft Standards for the measurement of optical absorption, scattering, reflectance and laser induced damage thresholds. In this paper, the current state of standardized characterization techniques for optical components is summarized. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO/DIS 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO/DIS 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of recent trends in laser technology and its applications in semiconductor lithography.

  3. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National…

  4. Electronics Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    companies to begin listing stock options as expenses on financial reports (Chappell, 2005). The industry had used stock options extensively to help... stock options (Chappell, 2005). Industry representatives interviewed by the group argued against the requirement since they predict U.S. companies...may be less inclined now to offer stock options , and subsequently talent may be lost to aggressive foreign competition (Anonymous interviews, 2006

  5. What Makes Industries Strategic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    originally dcvclopcd the program on a Corn- paq machine, s2 Similar relationships pcrvade cvcn traditional industries. Proximity hclps autornakcrs direct...instantaneously through the ether, s2 But it is precisely because explicit information is so footloose that implicit information is so valuable. An...adopted a militarized version of Motorola’s 32-bit microprocessor, the 68020, as its standard, ll4 Meanwhile, computer-driven avionics gear in military

  6. The use of International Standards Organization ISO 9000 quality assurance standards in place of military standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerdite, Stanley M.

    1992-06-01

    The implementation of quality standards within the European Community by the creation of International Quality Standards 9000 is another step toward development of a global marketplace. It is in the interests of DoD to support this trend in order to help maintain the defense industrial base. The first part of this study performs a comparison of DoD quality standards to the ISO 9000 Standards. The second part of the study consists of a survey of U.S. firms that have become ISO 9000 registered. This survey is intended to provide an assessment of the current movement within the defense industrial base toward adoption of ISO 9000 Standards. The survey also attempts to identify potential implementation issues relating to adoption of ISO 9000 Standards in place of military standards. It is concluded that DoD should implement ISO 9000 and that the impact of this implementation will be favorable.

  7. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... rulemaking, the Agency is proposing to revise its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a... Companion Proposed Rule C. Request for Comment III. Summary and Explanation of Revisions to the...

  8. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  9. Subpart DDDDD- National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Redline Strikeout showing October 2015 Changes Compared to January 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that demonstrates the changes in the Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters: (NESHAP for Major Sources, from the revised October 2015 to the January 2013 version of the rule.

  10. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  11. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.

  12. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, US production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was 28.4 kt valued at $3.05 million. Refined garnet material sold or used was 30.4 kt valued at $10 million. For the year, the US was one of the world's leading consumers of industrial garnet. Domestic values for crude concentrates for different applications ranged from about $53 to $120/t. In the short term, excess production capacity, combined with suppliers that vary in quality, grain size and mineral type, will keep prices down.

  13. Is structural interface standardization beneficial?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombert, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Factors applicable to fixed angle, large field and fixed angle, large building flat plate photovoltaic (PV) generator arrays are discussed in the context of standardization. It is concluded that structural interface standardization may be highly desirable in any one major project, but not at this time in the overall PV industry. Attempts to mandate such standardization will act as a deterrent to long-range improvements. In specific projects, structural standardization should be defined at the largest practical interface, leaving the maximum possible freedom to the module and array manufacturer. There is a corollary area, however, where detailed standards would benefit the industry; the matter of Standard Practices. Work being done towards definition of acceptable/desirable practices in materials, finishes, fastening and locking methods, grounding techniques, lightning protection, etc., and in handling the environmental ranges, should be continued.

  14. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaff, Herman J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes industrially important yeasts, molds, bacteria, and actinomycetes. Discussed in detail are microbial products, such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, enzymes, and capsular polysaccharides. Traces the historical background of human cell culture, mentioning recombinant DNA research and hybridization of normal mammalian cells…

  16. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, U.S. production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was estimated to be 56.5 kt (62,300 st), valued at about $8.85 million. This was a 10-percent decrease in quantity compared with 2008 production. Refined garnet material sold or used was 28 kt (31,000 st) valued at $7.96 million.

  17. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, S.C.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of the fermenation industry's wastes is presented. In addition to studies on the characterization, treatment, and disposal of wastes in alcohol fuel production, studies concerning wastes from breweries, wineries, yeast manufacture, pharmaceutical production, and distilleries are reviewed. (JMT)

  18. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  19. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  20. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness, and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  1. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  2. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2010-08-01

    The document provides a methodology to estimate unmetered industrial water use for evaporative cooling systems, steam generating boiler systems, batch process applications, and wash systems. For each category standard mathematical relationships are summarized and provided in a single resource to assist Federal agencies in developing an initial estimate of their industrial water use. The approach incorporates industry norms, general rules of thumb, and industry survey information to provide methodologies for each section.

  3. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1995-09-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who`s Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed.

  4. Digital optical tape: Technology and standardization issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1996-01-01

    During the coming years, digital data storage technologies will continue an aggressive growth to satisfy the user's need for higher storage capacities, higher data transfer rates and long-term archival media properties. Digital optical tape is a promising technology to satisfy these user's needs. As any emerging data storage technology, the industry faces many technological and standardization challenges. The technological challenges are great, but feasible to overcome. Although it is too early to consider formal industry standards, the optical tape industry has decided to work together by initiating prestandardization efforts that may lead in the future to formal voluntary industry standards. This paper will discuss current industry optical tape drive developments and the types of standards that will be required for the technology. The status of current industry prestandardization efforts will also be discussed.

  5. Design and quality standards for custom hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    A hybrid microcircuit standard was developed after a thorough review of applicable NASA, military, industry, and technical society specifications and standards and compilation of comments from technical reviewers throughout the hybrid industry. The draft of the standard submitted to the technical reviewers, the comments from the reviewers, and the completed standard are discussed.

  6. Industrial alliances

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.V.

    1993-09-13

    The United States is emerging from the Cold War era into an exciting, but challenging future. Improving the economic competitiveness of our Nation is essential both for improving the quality of life in the United States and maintaining a strong national security. The research and technical skills used to maintain a leading edge in defense and energy now should be used to help meet the challenge of maintaining, regaining, and establishing US leadership in industrial technologies. Companies recognize that success in the world marketplace depends on products that are at the leading edge of technology, with competitive cost, quality, and performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory and its Industrial Partnership Center (IPC) has the strategic goal to make a strong contribution to the nation`s economic competitiveness by leveraging the government`s investment at the Laboratory: personnel, infrastructure, and technological expertise.

  7. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  8. Shipbuilding Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    vessels, the industry cannot compete internationally due to higher costs and prices . On the commercial side, based on information provided during...challenges. The defense sector, though producing the most advanced ships in the world, does so at exorbitant prices , limiting the number that the U.S...Navy can afford. Based on visits to twenty-four U.S. and Australian shipyards, the U.S. government should provide targeted support to the commercial

  9. Industrial radiointroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliuev, V. V.; Leonov, B. I.; Gusev, E. A.

    The operating principles and design of various types of radiointroscopes used in industry for fault inspection are described, together with the sources of penetrating radiation, radiooptic image converters, and image amplifiers. The theory of image formation by a radiointroscope and mathematical models of the image formation are discussed. Consideration is given to the design of radioscope television systems, and their optical characteristics, resolving power, signal/noise characteristics, contrast sensitivity, and the transmission band of the communication channel.

  10. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on...

  11. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on...

  12. Basic Guidelines for Application of Performance Standards to Commissioning of DCS Digital Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT), the Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA, formerly Electronic Industries ...These performance specifications are in turn based on industry standards where applicable and on military requireme-ts where necessary. Some users will...performance standards. Its advantages include (1) EFS is the industry -wide standard in the United States; (2) all modern bit error rate test

  13. Industrial Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhorst, Marsha L.; Coyne, Linda B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on some of the most widely used analytical techniques in monitoring personal exposures in the workplace for assessing human health risk. Discusses several basic techniques: solid sorbents, calibration standards, derivatizations, dosimeters, biomonitoring, gas monitoring, particulates, isocyanates, formaldehyde, and…

  14. Standardizing medical data.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, M G

    1997-01-01

    Congress passed The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 in the doldrums of last Summer, and promptly charged the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics to begin working on the regulations that will help providers, payers, and all members of the public adhere to the spirit of the law. What does this legislation portend for the health care industry? Standardization of information systems will play a large role in assuring the portability of health care insurance from one employer and payer to another in this legislation. Accountability, too, will depend on those same data standards to allow comparisons of processes and outcomes of care across health plans, providers, communities, states, and regions. In fact, without standardized data describing patients and their treatments, there can be no comparisons of their outcomes of care, or the processes used to treat them.

  15. National Standard Petroleum Oil Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1936-03-04

    largely according to the recommendations of a committee appointed by the American Petroleum Institute to represent the petroleum industry. In order to... Petroleum Institute , the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and the National Bureau of Standards, in December 1921, agreed to recommend that in the future only...overcome the confusion that has existed in the petroleum-oil industry by reason of the use of two so-called Baume scales for light liquids, the American

  16. Spring 2008 Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    UNCTAD, 2006). While all industries are arguably essential, of this list, only dairy products rise to the level of national importance. The question to...Spring 2008 Industry Study Final Report Manufacturing Industry The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National...SUBTITLE Spring 2008 Industry Study Final Report: Manufacturing Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  17. Information for Industrial Development,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Information processing, *Technology transfer, * Industries , Information transfer, Industrial engineering , Planning, Research management, Investments...Operation, Industrial production, Data bases, Information systems, User needs, Symposia

  18. 76 FR 27935 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Administration (SBA) proposes to increase small business size standards ] for 22 industries in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 48-49, Transportation and Warehousing. As part of its ongoing initiative to review all size standards, SBA has evaluated all industries in NAICS Sector 48-49 that...

  19. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  20. Networking standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

  1. Industrial utilization research, September 1993. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Gas Research Institute's industrial utilization research program is described. Its three primary objectives are: to maintain the dominant position of natural gas in traditional industrial applications by developing technologies that improve productivity and product quality, and lower emissions and costs; to develop new applications for gas which provide significant environmental, productivity, quality, and economic benefits to users; to ensure that industrial gas equipment remains economically competitive and can meet ever-tightening emission standards in the future by improving burners, controls, and materials. The discussion of the objectives, issues, benefits, goals, accomplishments, and research strategies is illustrated with the contract summaries and arranged according to the five project areas: Industrial Combustion, Metals Industrial Processes, Nonmetals Industrial Processes, Industrial Materials, and Industrial Controls.

  2. (Terminology standardization)

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  3. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  4. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  5. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  6. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  7. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  8. Illiteracy in Devon During the Industrial Revolution, 1754-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Press Operations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  10. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Nursing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Medical Office Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  12. Industrial furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Shostak, V.M.; Tolochko, A.I.; Volkov, V.P.; Maradudin, G.I.; Schekin, N.G.; Popov, M.I.; Shepelev, D.N.; Matveev, A.I.; Butnyakov, A.I.; Rzhavichev, A.P.

    1986-09-02

    An industrial furnace is described which consists of: a bath made of a refractory material for filling with a melt; a direct current source; main current-carrying elements having free ends extending to an operating area of the refractory material of the bath below and above the melt, and the main current-carrying elements extending to the operating area below the melt being connected with opposite terminals of the current source from the main current-carrying elements extending to the operating area above the melt; and additional current-carrying elements having free ends sunk in the refractory material of the bath below and above the melt and the additional current-carrying elements being connected with the terminals of the power source of opposite polarity with respect to the connection of the main current-carrying elements of a corresponding part of the operating area.

  13. Industry Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

  14. Implementing PAT with Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  15. How utilizes can revitalize industry

    SciTech Connect

    De Vaul, D.; Bartsch, C.

    1993-12-31

    During the first weeks of his presidency, Bill Clinton asserted that the nation`s industries must modernize if Americans are to enjoy a rising standard of living. He noted that inadequate knowledge about new production technologies and inadequate capital for plant improvements were making it hard for manufacturers, particularly small and midsized firms, to improve their productivity and economic competitiveness. And though he said his administration would stress the benefits of government research, technology transfer, and financial assistance, President Clinton acknowledged that Washington needs new partners to help modernize U.S. industrial processes. Electric utilities are likely candidates. They have considerable technical expertise and access to large sums of capital that could help industry improve its productivity. Fortuitously, power companies also would benefit by such a partnership stimulating local economic activity and better managing electricity demands. Although many utilities pursue so-called demand-side management programs for their commercial and residential customers, most have not focused much attention on the industrial sector, in part because achieving industrial energy efficiency requires more specialized expertise than do routine energy audits to improve the insulation and lighting of homes and commercial buildings. Yet the reasons to target industry are compelling: Industrial firms consume more than 35 percent of the electricity in the United States, and investment in retooling manufacturing operations with energy-efficient and productive equipment could help spur economic revitalization.

  16. NASA space station software standards issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, G. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The selection and application of software standards present the NASA Space Station Program with the opportunity to serve as a pacesetter for the United States software in the area of software standards. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the NASA defined software standards issues are summerized and discussed. Several significant standards issues are offered for NASA consideration. A challenge is presented for the NASA Space Station Program to serve as a pacesetter for the U.S. Software Industry through: (1) Management commitment to software standards; (2) Overall program participation in software standards; and (3) Employment of the best available technology to support software standards

  17. The Distribution of Artists among Industrial Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Diane C.

    In 1980 the civilian labor force included over one million artists. This report, based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, contains a detailed analysis of the distribution of those artists among various types of industries. Artists were assigned to one of 230 detailed industry categories, based upon the 1972 Standard Industrial…

  18. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  19. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  20. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  1. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  2. American National Standards: The Consensus Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Thom

    2000-01-01

    Since the early 20th Century, technical and professional societies have developed standards within their areas of expertise addressing aspects of their industries which they feel would benefit from a degree of standardization. From the beginning, the use of these standards was strictly voluntary. It did not take jurisdictional authorities long, however, to recognize that application of these voluntary standards enhanced public safety, as well as leveling the playing field in trade. Hence, laws were passed mandating their use. Purchasers of goods and services also recognized the advantages of standardization, and began requiring the use of standards in their procurement contracts. But how do jurisdictions and purchasers know that the standard they are mandating is a broad-based industry standard, or a narrowly focused set of rules which only apply to one company or institution, thereby giving them an unfair advantage? The answer is "consensus", and a unified approach in achieving it.

  3. Industrial Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASTRAN is an offshoot of the computer-design technique used in construction of airplanes and spacecraft. [n this technique engineers create a mathematical model of the aeronautical or space vehicle and "fly" it on the ground by means of computer simulation. The technique enables them to study performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on the final configuration and proceeding with construction. From this base of aerospace experience, NASA-Goddard developed the NASTRAN general purpose computer program, which offers an exceptionally wide range of analytic capability with regard to structures. NASTRAN has been applied to autos, trucks, railroad cars, ships, nuclear power reactors, steam turbines, bridges, and office buildings. NASA-Langley provides program maintenance services regarded as vital by many NASTRAN users. NASTRAN is essentially a predictive tool. It takes an electronic look at a computerire$.dedgn and reports how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. It can, for example, note areas where high stress levels will occur-potential failure points that need strengthening. Conversely, it can identify over-designed areas where weight and material might be saved safely. NASTRAN can tell how pipes stand up under strong fluid flow, how metals are affected by high temperatures, how a building will fare in an earthquake or how powerful winds will cause a bridge to oscillate. NASTRAN analysis is quick and inexpensive. It minimizes trial-and-error in the design process and makes possible better, safe, lighter structures affording large-scale savings in development time and materials. Some examples of the broad utility NASTRAN is finding among industrial firms are shown on these pages.

  4. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  5. HCA Inc.: standardization in action.

    PubMed

    Ball, Marion J; Cortes-Comerer, Nhora; Costin, Melinda; Hudson, Krysia; Augustine, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing government and healthcare industry initiatives clearly indicate that information technology will be the driver for change in healthcare. As systems proliferate, healthcare organizations grapple with issues of whether to choose best-of-breed systems or standardize around one vendor. For many years, HCA Inc. has been a major proponent of standardization to help meet its financial and patient safety objectives. This article examines HCA's experience and explores how standardization has been a major factor in the company's financial and clinical success, enabling faster implementation, greater quality control and significant cost-savings.

  6. Database service for Japanese Standards Information : 'KIKAKU NET'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masayuki

    Japanese Standards Association (JSA) started the standards information database services, 'KIKAKU NET' in October 1989. In Japan, it is the only standards information database compiled based on the information and know-hows which the Association has accumulated over fifteen years and has been entrusted the project for research by Agency Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It covers the domestic standards information datafile for Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS), and some Japanese Association Standards which are related to JIS, and the foreign standards information datafile for international standards of ISO and IEC, foreign national standards, and foreign association standards. 'KIKAKU NET' is available for user's personal computer by on-line access to the host computer of distributors which have been contracted with the Association. This paper describes characteristics, contents and the system outline of 'KIKAKU NET'.

  7. 77 FR 959 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... entities Industry 325 Manufacturing industries, particularly petrochemical, chemical, polymers, plastics... another opportunity to comment on the specific application to your industry. Because we feel that... organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP). The proposed uniform standards reflect the...

  8. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... sources for Major Source Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters; the NESHAP for new and existing sources for Area Source Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; and... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  9. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  10. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-04-28

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. [open quotes]It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000[close quote], says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. [open quote]We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions[close quote]. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard.

  11. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection; Correction of Notice of Proposed...) with regard to the construction industry head protection standards to eliminate confusion resulting... follows: a. Remove paragraph (c). b. Revise paragraph (b) to read as follows: 1926.100 Head...

  12. Robotic equipment in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Purnell, G

    1998-01-01

    Robotic technology is beginning to find uses in the meat processing industry. This paper attempts to describe the potential benefits and some of the problems in implementing robots for meat processing. An overview of some of the robotic equipment available and in development for beef, pork, lamb, poultry, fish and seafood processing is given. Standard industrial robots already perform meat industry tasks involving regular and uniform products and processes. Robotic automation is emerging for more skilled tasks but is not yet fully accepted or implemented in the meat industry.

  13. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  14. [Standard rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections.

  15. China's emerging vaccine industry.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Liang, Yan; Zeng, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The Chinese vaccine industry is developing rapidly due to an emerging and large market for current and new vaccines, a large potential for local vaccine manufacturing both in the public and private domain, and a governmental orientation towards national vaccine self-sufficiency. There are currently over 40 companies and institutions manufacturing a large variety of traditional (EPI) and some new vaccines. The innovative development capacity of state vaccine institutions is stimulated by significant government investments. Various Chinese influenza manufacturers were in 2009 among the first worldwide to obtain national license for their pandemic H1N1 flu vaccines. It is of interest to note that private but also governmental entities are committed to raise manufacturing quality standards to reach WHO prequalification. It is expected that WHO prequalification for at least one product from a Chinese manufacturer will have been obtained by 2011. This will open the door to the global market for Chinese vaccines.

  16. Robots in modern industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of robotic device types and capabilities, and an assessment is made of the relative benefits they confer in present and planned numbers on such industrial countries as Japan, the U.S., and West Germany. Attention is also given to possible social impacts of large-scale implementation, and the need for close consultation between management and labor is stressed. It is reported that, while the hourly cost of robot labor remained at between $4.00 and $4.60 over the period 1960-present, human hourly labor costs (including fringe benefits) have risen from less than $4.00 to nearly $17.00. Among the types of devices described are: (1) remotely controlled manipulator vehicles; (2) undersea robotic craft; (3) servo-controlled robots; and (4) articulated robots. Also covered are robot programming languages derived from such standard languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, and BASIC.

  17. Standardizing Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Vani, Kodela; Tracey, Brian; Kamstock, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    A new standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC) control for breast cancer testing comprises formalin-fixed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor peptide antigens covalently attached to 8-µm glass beads. The antigen-coated beads are suspended in a liquid matrix that hardens upon pipetting onto a glass microscope slide. The antigen-coated beads remain in place through deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and immunostaining. The intensity of the beads’ stain provides feedback regarding the efficacy of both antigen retrieval and immunostaining. As a first report, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the new IHC controls (“IHControls”). To evaluate sensitivity, various staining problems were simulated. IHControls detected primary and secondary reagent degradation similarly to tissue controls. This first group of IHControls behaved similarly to tissue controls expressing high concentrations of the antigen. The IHControls were also able to detect aberrations in antigen retrieval, as simulated by sub-optimal times or temperatures. Specificity testing revealed that each antigen-coated bead was specific for its cognate IHC test antibody. The data support the conclusion that, like tissue controls, IHControls are capable of verifying the analytic components of an immunohistochemical stain. Unlike tissue controls, IHControls are prepared in large bulk lots, fostering day-to-day reproducibility that can be standardized across laboratories. PMID:25940339

  18. Professors and Industry Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheriff, Robert E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes backgrounds of geophysics graduates that are desired for employment by industry. Also listed are areas in which industry could help universities concerning the development of programs to meet the future manpower needs in industry. (BR)

  19. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  20. Beryllium: a modern industrial hazard.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Kathleen; Day, Gregory A; Schuler, Christine R

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium exposure can cause a granulomatous lung disease in workers who develop a lymphocyte-mediated sensitization to the metal. Workers in diverse industries are at risk because beryllium's properties are critical to nuclear, aerospace, telecommunications, electronic, metal alloy, biomedical, and semiconductor industries. The occupational air concentration standard's failure to protect beryllium workers is driving many scientific and occupational health advances. These developments include study of bioavailability of different physicochemical forms of beryllium, medical surveillance to show effectiveness of skin protection in preventing sensitization in high-risk processes, gene-environment interaction, transgenic mice for use in experimental research, and risk-based management of industrial exposures in the absence of effective exposure-response information. Beryllium sensitization and disease prevention are paradigms for much broader public health action in both occupational and general population settings.

  1. 13 CFR 121.301 - What size standards are applicable to financial assistance programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (without affiliates) must not exceed the size standard designated for the industry in which the applicant... the size standard designated for either the primary industry of the applicant alone or the primary industry of the applicant and its affiliates, which ever is higher. These size standards are set forth...

  2. The Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial standard observer is a computational model that provides a measure of the visibility of a target in a uniform background image or of the visual discriminability of two images. Standard observers have long been used in science and industry to quantify the discriminability of colors. Color standard observers address the spectral characteristics of visual stimuli, while the spatial standard observer (SSO), as its name indicates, addresses spatial characteristics. The SSO is based on a model of human vision. The SSO was developed in a process that included evaluation of a number of earlier mathematical models that address optical, physiological, and psychophysical aspects of spatial characteristics of human visual perception. Elements of the prior models are incorporated into the SSO, which is formulated as a compromise between accuracy and simplicity. The SSO operates on a digitized monochrome still image or on a pair of such images. The SSO consists of three submodels that operate sequentially on the input image(s): 1. A contrast model, which converts an input monochrome image to a luminance contrast image, wherein luminance values are expressed as excursions from, and normalized to, a mean; 2. A contrast-sensitivity-filter model that includes an oblique-effect filter (which accounts for the decline in contrast sensitivity at oblique viewing angles); and 3. A spatial summation model, in which responses are spatially pooled by raising each pixel to the power beta, adding the results, and raising the sum to the 1/b power. In this model, b=2.9 was found to be a suitable value. The net effect of the SSO is to compute a numerical measure of the perceptual strength of the single image, or of the visible difference (denoted the perceptual distance) between two images. The unit of a measure used in the SSO is the just noticeable difference (JND), which is a standard measure of perceptual discriminability. A target that is just visible has a measure of 1 JND.

  3. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  4. Technical Data Interoperability (TDI) Pathfinder Via Emerging Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Mike; Gill, Paul; Hill, Bradley; Ibach, Brandon; Jones, Corey; Ungar, David; Barch, Jeffrey; Ingalls, John; Jacoby, Joseph; Manning, Josh; Bengtsson, Kjell; Falls, Mark; Kent, Peter; Heath, Shaun; Kennedy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The TDI project (TDI) investigates trending technical data standards for applicability to NASA vehicles, space stations, payloads, facilities, and equipment. TDI tested COTS software compatible with a certain suite of related industry standards for capabilities of individual benefits and interoperability. These standards not only esnable Information Technology (IT) efficiencies, but also address efficient structures and standard content for business processes. We used source data from generic industry samples as well as NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) data from space systems.

  5. The Education Industry in Puerto Rico. An Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terry W.

    The policy of the Fair Labor Standards Act is to eventually establish the same minimum wage standards in Puerto Rico as in the 50 states. Pursuant to this policy, this report was prepared for Industry Committee No. 129-A for the Education Industry in Puerto Rico. It contains economic and other data pertinent to the committee's duties. The minimum…

  6. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting...” within the meaning of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947, as amended, or the Railway Labor Act,...

  7. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  8. NATIONAL ROOFERS APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

    THE PURPOSES OF THESE NATIONAL STANDARDS ARE TO SERVE AS A PROMOTIONAL INSTRUMENT TO ENCOURAGE THE PROPER TRAINING OF APPRENTICES WITHIN THE INDUSTRY AND TO GUIDE LOCAL JOINT APPRENTICESHIP. THE STANDARDS WERE ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE 1,400 HOURS OF ON-THE-JOB TRAINING PER YEAR FOR A 3-YEAR PERIOD WITH 144 HOURS OF RELATED INSTRUCTION PER YEAR FOR…

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Insurance Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document contains 56 occupational skill standards for the insurance occupational cluster, as required for the state of Illinois. Skill standards, which were developed by committees that included educators and representatives from business, industry, and labor, are intended to promote education and training investment and ensure that students…

  10. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Swine Production Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document contains 52 Occupational Skill Standards for the swine production occupational cluster, as required for the state of Illinois. Skill Standards, which were developed by committees that included educators, business, industry, and labor, are intended to promote education and training investment and ensure that students and workers are…

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Housekeeping Management Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document contains 44 occupational skill standards for the housekeeping management occupational cluster, as required for the state of Illinois. Skill standards, which were developed by committees that included educators and representatives from business, industry, and labor, are intended to promote education and training investment and ensure…

  12. New Zealand's drug development industry.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Michelle Marie; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Carswell, Christopher; Garg, Sanjay

    2013-09-13

    The pharmaceutical industry's profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ) from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ's clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ's clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  13. Survey of standards applicable to a database management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urena, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Industry, government, and NASA standards, and the status of standardization activities of standards setting organizations applicable to the design, implementation and operation of a data base management system for space related applications are identified. The applicability of the standards to a general purpose, multimission data base management system is addressed.

  14. International Quality Standards in College. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, F. Craig; Birch, Derek W.

    A study was conducted to examine the application of quality standards developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to colleges in England and Wales. The British Standards Institution (BSI) has applied these standards to service industries, thus providing a framework for case studies in colleges. Six colleges in England and Wales…

  15. A Critical Discussion of Standards for Web-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Oliver; Schellhase, Jorg; Winand, Udo

    Learning technology standards are increasingly gaining importance in the field of Web-based teaching. At present, two standards dominating the market are taking shape. These are the AICC (Aviation Industry Computer Based Training Committee) standard of the AICC organization and the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard of the…

  16. Diversification and Challenges of Software Engineering Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1994-01-01

    The author poses certain questions in this paper: 'In the future, should there be just one software engineering standards set? If so, how can we work towards that goal? What are the challenges of internationalizing standards?' Based on the author's personal view, the statement of his position is as follows: 'There should NOT be just one set of software engineering standards in the future. At the same time, there should NOT be the proliferation of standards, and the number of sets of standards should be kept to a minimum.It is important to understand the diversification of the areas which are spanned by the software engineering standards.' The author goes on to describe the diversification of processes, the diversification in the national and international character of standards organizations, the diversification of the professional organizations producing standards, the diversification of the types of businesses and industries, and the challenges of internationalizing standards.

  17. Standard atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Willis Ray

    1923-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.

  18. 2001 Industry Studies: Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    industry can pay, and the munitions industry has difficulty providing the lucrative stock options and other equity attractions that other industries...improve the financial strength of the munitions industry, and result in an enhanced ability to provide stock options and equity attractions to both

  19. A View of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph describes industry at a point in time from the perspective of the faculty in Industrial Education at the University of Minnesota. Section 1 describes the effort to define industry from the perspective of the industrial, business, and economic literature. The remainder of this section is divided into the two components of analysis…

  20. 75 FR 65051 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Inspection of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Brady, Aerospace... Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities,'' dated February 10, 1998, industry and the FAA have been working with ASTM International to develop...

  1. Industry Study, Electronics Industry, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    environment. We will develop these observations, and others, in the course of this paper. We are first going to establish context for the industry ...Taiwanese IC industry illustrates the best example of a world class IC CVVI concept. Specifically, TSMC co- develops advanced-technology designs with their...technology node. Significant expenditures by industry and government are required to educate new intellectual talent, perform research and development

  2. National Agenda for Hydrogen Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of hydrogen codes and standards with an emphasis on the national effort supported and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the help and cooperation of standards and model code development organizations, industry, and other interested parties, DOE has established a coordinated national agenda for hydrogen and fuel cell codes and standards. With the adoption of the Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap and with its implementation through the Codes and Standards Technical Team, DOE helps strengthen the scientific basis for requirements incorporated in codes and standards that, in turn, will facilitate international market receptivity for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  3. 40 CFR 266.111 - Standards for direct transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.111 Standards for... boilers and industrial furnaces subject to §§ 266.102 or 266.103 if hazardous waste is directly transferred from a transport vehicle to a boiler or industrial furnace without the use of a storage unit....

  4. 40 CFR 266.111 - Standards for direct transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.111 Standards for... boilers and industrial furnaces subject to §§ 266.102 or 266.103 if hazardous waste is directly transferred from a transport vehicle to a boiler or industrial furnace without the use of a storage unit....

  5. 40 CFR 266.111 - Standards for direct transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.111 Standards for... boilers and industrial furnaces subject to §§ 266.102 or 266.103 if hazardous waste is directly transferred from a transport vehicle to a boiler or industrial furnace without the use of a storage unit....

  6. 40 CFR 266.111 - Standards for direct transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.111 Standards for... boilers and industrial furnaces subject to §§ 266.102 or 266.103 if hazardous waste is directly transferred from a transport vehicle to a boiler or industrial furnace without the use of a storage unit....

  7. 40 CFR 266.103 - Interim status standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.103... and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste where such standards define the acceptable... boiler or industrial furnace that on or before August 21, 1991 is either in operation burning...

  8. 40 CFR 266.111 - Standards for direct transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.111 Standards for... boilers and industrial furnaces subject to §§ 266.102 or 266.103 if hazardous waste is directly transferred from a transport vehicle to a boiler or industrial furnace without the use of a storage unit....

  9. 40 CFR 266.103 - Interim status standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.103... and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste where such standards define the acceptable... boiler or industrial furnace that on or before August 21, 1991 is either in operation burning...

  10. 40 CFR 266.103 - Interim status standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.103... and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste where such standards define the acceptable... boiler or industrial furnace that on or before August 21, 1991 is either in operation burning...

  11. ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This 5-part publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility.…

  12. TARDEC Industrial Base Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    TARDEC Industrial Base Overview Randal Gaereminck, Associate Director, Industrial Base, Manufacturing, Logistics, & Value Engineering TARDEC...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 PURPOSE 2 To inform the conference attendees about TARDEC’s Industrial Base Mission and Capabilities AGENDA 3...Partnership • IBIT Policy Benefits • IBIT Mission • Industrial Base Engineering Support • Sustainment Engineering – Obsolescence • Industrial Base Engineering

  13. Creating and Sustaining an Effective Government-Defense Industry Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    of program management in private industry is guided by both doctrine and best practices. PMI’s Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK ®), as...embodied in the PMBOK ® Guide, serves as the repository for both industry-developed doctrine and best practices in program management (PMI, 2008). The... PMBOK is the industry standard for program management doctrine and best practices. It represents the PM approach embraced by our industry partners

  14. Journal standards.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  15. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS`s) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department`s technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  16. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS's) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department's technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  17. High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

  18. Strategic Industrial Alliances in Paper Industry: XML- vs Ontology-Based Integration Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumenko, Anton; Nikitin, Sergiy; Terziyan, Vagan; Zharko, Andriy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify cases related to design of ICT platforms for industrial alliances, where the use of Ontology-driven architectures based on Semantic web standards is more advantageous than application of conventional modeling together with XML standards. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative analysis of the two latest and the most obvious…

  19. The Canadian Beef Industry

    PubMed Central

    Fredeen, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cattle industry in Canada has changed greatly over the past several decades. Size of the national dairy herd has reduced steadily but this reduction has been more than offset by an increase in the beef herd. As the dairy herd has decreased, the role of the Holstein has increased. The genetic improvement of the Canadian Holstein, based on selection procedures emphasizing progeny performance and mediated through increasing use of artificial insemination, has earned the breed a strong international reputation. This is reflected by the increasing international demand for semen. The strongest growth of the national beef herd occurred during a period of brisk import activity. Several of the new nonBritish breeds are now well established. Their advent on the Canadian scene rekindled interest in crossbreeding and systematic crossbreeding programs designed to make controlled use of heterozygosity are in the process of development. The new breeds of major importance at this time combine rapid growth rate with desirable carcass characteristics, specifically lean content. This, coupled with the carcass grade standards inaugurated in 1972, has resulted in improved efficiency of lean meat production. Importation activity has waned and a review of the production credentials of breeds not yet in Canada suggests little likelihood that they will contribute meaningfully to Canadian production. The numerous beef breeds now in Canada are presently undergoing a process of applied evaluation and relatively few of them seem destined to make a lasting contribution. The future of the cattle industry will be determined largely by economic developments. However, the ability of the ruminant to utilize food materials that do not compete directly with human demands should ensure an enduring future. PMID:7363257

  20. International standardization compliance in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Tyler B.

    The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial aviation industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.

  1. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  2. NORSOK standards -- Replacing company specifications in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, A.R.; Langeland, T.; Tangen, T.A.; Haugland, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The rising cost of offshore development and reduction in oil prices required new initiatives for the business to survive. Therefore, the Norwegian oil industry has, as a part of the NORSOK initiative, developed a set of new industry standards to replace individual company specifications. The ultimate goal is to develop a set of international (ISO) standards for the industry. The main principles for the NORSOK standards were established as follows: define an acceptable level of safety; make extensive references to international standards; specify functional requirements where possible; include variation control to secure defined interfaces and exchangeability; describe good enough requirements; and be short.

  3. Graphic arts standards update: 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, David Q.

    1996-03-01

    Color definition and data exchange continue to be dominant themes in both the US and international graphic arts standards activity. However, there is a growing understanding of the role that metrology and printing process definition play in helping define stable process conditions to which color characterization data can be related. Standards have already been published that define the requirements for color measurement and computation, scanner input characterization targets, four-color output characterization data sets, and graphic arts applications of densitometry. Work continues on standards relating to ink testing and ink color specifications. The numerical specifications of SWOP proof printing have been captured in ANSI standard CGATS.6-1995. Work has been completed, and Technical Report ANSI CGATS TR 001-1995 has been published, that relates the colorimetry of the printed sheet to the CMYK input for press proofing meeting SWOP and CGATS.6 specifications. Work is ongoing to provide similar data for other printing processes. Such color characterization data is key to the development of color profiles for standard printing conditions. Specifications for color profiles, to allow color definitions to be moved between color management systems, are being developed by the International Color Consortium. The existing graphic arts data exchange, process control, and color related standards are summarized and the current status of work in progress is reviewed. In addition, the interaction of the formal standards programs and other industry-driven specification activity is discussed.

  4. Inflatable packers move from petroleum industry to environmental industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    Inflatable packers have been used extensively in the petroleum industry for cementing, testing, fracturing, plugging, and treatment of wells. Today the technology is being applied increasingly in the environmental and geotechnical areas, and the use of inflatable packers has become standard practice in these fields. With emerging applications, new tools are continually being developed. This paper describes three relatively new applications for inflatable packers in the environmental industry: (1) operating and sealing Class I injection wells, (2) isolating bedrock intervals for hydrogeological testing and sampling, and (3) pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing to increase recovery of contaminants. Electronic instrumentation is making possible the real time acquisition of data essential to the new applications. The use of a tipple tranducer sub-assembly for formation testing will be described. A purging and sampling technique employing packers that was developed at the Love Canal hazardous waste site will be briefly described.

  5. Industrial Applications of Electronic Nose Technology in the Textiles Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Tim; Chandler, Rob; Hallam, Viv; Simpson, Claire; Bentham, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Electronic nose technology has been available commercially for over 12 years but uptake in actual industrial applications has yet to be fully realised. We report 2 specific test protocols being used in the textiles industry that allow the direct measurement of anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics. Results will be shown for the standard anti-odour test which was specifically commissioned by Courtaulds PLC and which is being used by a number of manufacturers. The second test, which measures the anti-microbial and the anti-odour capabilities of fabrics simultaneously was developed in 2008. Results will be shown that clearly indicate both parameters are detected and proofs of anti-microbial capabilities will be given. These 2 tests will for the first time, enable the fulfillment of legislation that states for textile product claims, anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics must be scientifically substantiated.

  6. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  7. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  8. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  9. Ministry of Ordinance Industry Standardization Work (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-17

    horizontal boring machines. What type of alloy structural steel should be selected for the major parts of the boring machine ? It is necessary to make use of...the theories of the science- of metal materials and metallographic heat treatment. We specify the smoothness of the main axis of the boring machine , the

  10. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fare. (1) For U.S. Mainland-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands markets where the Board has specified day-of.... (2) For U.S. Mainland-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands markets where the Board has specified only seasonal fare differentials: the off-peak-season fare appearing in tariffs in effect on July 1, 1977. (3) For...

  11. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.31... illustrated in the example set out at the end of this subpart. (d) Intrastate markets in California,...

  12. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.31... illustrated in the example set out at the end of this subpart. (d) Intrastate markets in California,...

  13. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.31... illustrated in the example set out at the end of this subpart. (d) Intrastate markets in California,...

  14. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.31... illustrated in the example set out at the end of this subpart. (d) Intrastate markets in California,...

  15. Teaching Teachers Industrial Organic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teacher seminar held at the University of Minnesota to introduce the addition of courses of industrial chemistry into higher education science curriculums in order to better prepare college science graduates for positions in industry. (SL)

  16. The Industry That Can.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Edward

    This speech by the U.S. Commissioner of Education reviews the education industry and education-industry relations. Examples illustrate the effective partnership that can be created to fashion and achieve successful vocational and career education programs. (MML)

  17. The World Oil Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Christopher T.

    1976-01-01

    America's domestic petroleum industry and the international industry have been dominated by seven major firms. Although production costs decreased, sale prices soared with developing political-corporate interrelationships. (MR)

  18. Industrial storage applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a technology demonstration for the food processing industry, development and technology demonstrations for selected near-term, in-plant applications and advanced industrial applications of thermal energy storage are overviewed.

  19. METHANE: INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter provides qualitative information on the magnitude of industrial sources of methane and, where possible, provides information to allow the reader to quantify methane emissions. One difficulty in quantifying methane emissions from industry is the inconsistent treatment ...

  20. Health Care Becomes an Industry

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Darius A.

    2004-01-01

    The delivery of health care is in the process of “industrialization” in that it is undergoing changes in the organization of work which mirror those that began in other industries a century ago. This process is characterized by an increasing division of labor, standardization of roles and tasks, the rise of a managerial superstructure, and the degradation (or de-skilling) of work. The consolidation of the health care industry, the fragmentation of physician roles, and the increasing numbers of nonphysician clinicians will likely accelerate this process. Although these changes hold the promise of more efficient and effective health care, physicians should be concerned about the resultant loss of autonomy, disruption of continuity of care, and the potential erosion of professional values. PMID:15053287

  1. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  2. Translational informatics: an industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health. PMID:22237867

  3. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    PubMed Central

    Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were

  4. Standardization efforts in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengodan, Senthil; Bansal, Raj

    1999-11-01

    The recent interest in IP telephony has led to a tremendous increase of standardization activities in the area. The three main standards bodies in the area of IP telephony are the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU-T) Study Group (SG) 16, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the European Telecommunication Standards Institute's (ETSI) TIPHON project. In addition, forums such as the International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium (IMTC), the Intelligent Network Forum (INF), the International Softswitch Consortium (ISC), the Electronic Computer Telephony Forum (ECTF), and the MIT's Internet Telephony Consortium (ITC) are looking into various other aspects that aim at the growth of this industry. This paper describes the main tasks (completed and in progress) undertaken by these organizations. In describing such work, an overview of the underlying technology is also provided.

  5. Standards for moderate thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N K; Olesen, B W

    1985-06-01

    Recently two Draft International Standards dealing with specifications of the conditions for thermal comfort (ISO DIS 7730) and measurement procedures (ISO DIS 7726) have been approved by the International Stadardisation Organisation (ISO). The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has made a standard with similar requirements for the thermal environment (ASHRAE, 1981). To verify the requirements, measurements of different thermal parameters have to be performed. Guidelines as to how and where to measure are also given in the standards. The present paper deals mainly with the requirements and measurements that are relevant for moderate thermal environments in places of residence, offices, hospitals and light industry. For evaluation of very hot or very cold surroundings, other methods are required. Only measurements of parameters that influence the perception of the thermal surroundings are included.

  6. FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter focuses on methane emissions from the coal and natural gas industries. The petroleum industry is not addressed because of the lack of related quality data. Emission points are identified for each industry, and a discussion of factors affecting emissions is presented. ...

  7. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  8. 2011 Training Industry Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents "Training" magazine's exclusive analysis of the U.S. training industry, featuring 2011 training expenditures, budgetary allocations, delivery methods, and training priorities. Now in its 30th year, The Industry Report is recognized as the training industry's most trusted source of data on budgets, staffing, and…

  9. Industrial Fire Brigade Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    Organized as a teaching outline for an industrial plant fire brigade course, this manual contains a rationale for an industrial plant brigade as an adjunct to the local firefighting services; information to the instructor concerning the implementation of an industrial fire brigade program; and a teaching outline consisting of eleven sections: (1)…

  10. Functions of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Southern Coll., Statesboro.

    Intended for teachers of industrial arts in teaching the functions of industry, this course of study was compiled as a result of the EPDA Institute in Industrial and Career Development at Georgia Southern College. Contents are: (1) Introduction, (2) Organization, (3) Research and Development, (4) Production, (5) Marketing, (6) Finance and Control,…

  11. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  12. Shipbuilding Industry, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Heavy Industries, Ulsan, KS Hyundai Automotive, Ulsan, KS Samsung Shipyard, Geoje, KS 3 INTRODUCTION The ability of a maritime nation to...labor; thus the industry has shifted its production base from Europe to Asia. Within Asia there has been an intense competition between South...combined accounted for 77.9 percent of global production in 2006. 4 In 2008, South Korean shipbuilders continued to dominate the construction of all

  13. Industry`s turnaround looks real

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the industry outlook for North American gas and oil industries. In a robust Canada, land sales are setting records, drilling is up, and output is rising beyond last year`s 21% growth. A perception among US operators that wellhead prices will remain stable is translating to increased spending. The USA, Canada, Mexico, Cuba are evaluated separately, with brief evaluations of Greenland, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rico. Data are presented on drilling activities.

  14. Electron tubes for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellert, Bernd

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.

  15. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  16. Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-01

    The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry. The Roadmap outlines key goals for products and markets, materials technology, manufacturing technology, environmental technology, human resources, and industry health programs. The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry. The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry.

  17. Theoretical Design of a Depolarized Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) on SMF-28 Single-Mode Standard Optical Fiber Based on Closed-Loop Sinusoidal Phase Modulation with Serrodyne Feedback Phase Modulation Using Simulation Tools for Tactical and Industrial Grade Applications.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ramón José; Álvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, José María

    2016-04-27

    This article presents, by means of computational simulation tools, a full analysis and design of an Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) prototype based on a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase- modulation. The complete design of the different blocks, optical and electronic, is presented, including some novelties as the sinusoidal bias phase-modulation and the use of an integrator to generate the serrodyne phase-modulation signal. The paper includes detailed calculation of most parameter values, and the plots of the resulting signals obtained from simulation tools. The design is focused in the use of a standard single-mode optical fiber, allowing a cost competitive implementation compared to commercial IFOG, at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The design contains an IFOG model that accomplishes tactical and industrial grade applications (sensitivity ≤ 0.055 °/h). This design presents two important properties: (1) an optical subsystem with advanced conception: depolarization of the optical wave by means of Lyot depolarizers, which allows to use a sensing coil made by standard optical fiber, instead by polarization maintaining fiber, which supposes consequent cost savings and (2) a novel and simple electronic design that incorporates a linear analog integrator with reset in feedback chain, this integrator generating a serrodyne voltage-wave to apply to Phase-Modulator (PM), so that it will be obtained the interferometric phase cancellation. This particular feedback design with sawtooth-wave generated signal for a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase modulation has not been reported till now in the scientific literature and supposes a considerable simplification with regard to previous designs based on similar configurations. The sensing coil consists of an 8 cm average diameter spool that contains 300 m of standard single-mode optical-fiber (SMF-28 type) realized by quadrupolar winding. The working wavelength will be

  18. Theoretical Design of a Depolarized Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) on SMF-28 Single-Mode Standard Optical Fiber Based on Closed-Loop Sinusoidal Phase Modulation with Serrodyne Feedback Phase Modulation Using Simulation Tools for Tactical and Industrial Grade Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ramón José; Álvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, José María

    2016-01-01

    This article presents, by means of computational simulation tools, a full analysis and design of an Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) prototype based on a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase- modulation. The complete design of the different blocks, optical and electronic, is presented, including some novelties as the sinusoidal bias phase-modulation and the use of an integrator to generate the serrodyne phase-modulation signal. The paper includes detailed calculation of most parameter values, and the plots of the resulting signals obtained from simulation tools. The design is focused in the use of a standard single-mode optical fiber, allowing a cost competitive implementation compared to commercial IFOG, at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The design contains an IFOG model that accomplishes tactical and industrial grade applications (sensitivity ≤ 0.055 °/h). This design presents two important properties: (1) an optical subsystem with advanced conception: depolarization of the optical wave by means of Lyot depolarizers, which allows to use a sensing coil made by standard optical fiber, instead by polarization maintaining fiber, which supposes consequent cost savings and (2) a novel and simple electronic design that incorporates a linear analog integrator with reset in feedback chain, this integrator generating a serrodyne voltage-wave to apply to Phase-Modulator (PM), so that it will be obtained the interferometric phase cancellation. This particular feedback design with sawtooth-wave generated signal for a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase modulation has not been reported till now in the scientific literature and supposes a considerable simplification with regard to previous designs based on similar configurations. The sensing coil consists of an 8 cm average diameter spool that contains 300 m of standard single-mode optical-fiber (SMF-28 type) realized by quadrupolar winding. The working wavelength will be

  19. 40 CFR 60.562-1 - Standards: Process emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-1 Standards: Process emissions... paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section. (A) Reduce emissions of total organic compounds...

  20. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Retail Garden Center Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  1. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Physical Therapist Assistant Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  2. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Metal Stamping Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  3. 78 FR 36083 - Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... 3245-AG29 Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business..., effective October 24, 2012, increased small business size standards for nine industries in North American... ``611519'' to read as follows: Sec. 121.201 What size standards has SBA identified by North...

  4. 40 CFR 61.147 - Standard for fabricating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fabricating. 61.147... § 61.147 Standard for fabricating. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the following fabricating... for the molten metal industry. (b) Standard. Each owner or operator of any of the...

  5. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... generally accepted by the surety industry and in accordance with SBA's Standard Operating Procedures on... standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.15 Underwriting and servicing standards....

  6. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... generally accepted by the surety industry and in accordance with SBA's Standard Operating Procedures on... standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.15 Underwriting and servicing standards....

  7. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... generally accepted by the surety industry and in accordance with SBA's Standard Operating Procedures on... standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.15 Underwriting and servicing standards....

  8. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... generally accepted by the surety industry and in accordance with SBA's Standard Operating Procedures on... standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.15 Underwriting and servicing standards....

  9. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... generally accepted by the surety industry and in accordance with SBA's Standard Operating Procedures on... standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.15 Underwriting and servicing standards....

  10. Standard Features and Their Impact on 3D Engineering Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldenmeyer, K. M.; Hartman, N. W.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of feature-based 3D modeling in industry has necessitated the accumulation and maintenance of standard feature libraries. Currently, firms who use standard features to design parts are storing and utilizing these libraries through their existing product data management (PDM) systems. Standard features have enabled companies to…

  11. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Jackson, Roderick K; Cox, Matthew; Cortes, Rodrigo; Deitchman, Benjamin H

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  12. Industry as the Content Base for Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, R. Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Discusses industry-based industrial arts: components of this base; structure of the base; and organizing industry-based industrial arts programs using processing, management, and model enterprise modules. (CT)

  13. INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN RELATION TO WATER SUPPLIES

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Wellington

    1921-01-01

    Principal responsibility for preventing stream pollution by industrial wastes should be placed on the plants themselves. But municipalities should not depend upon out-of-date purification plants, but should utilize new methods. State health officers should have regulatory powers under standardized laws conforming to Federal practices. Imagesp198-a PMID:18010452

  14. Wool, Jute and Flax Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training International, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Early achievement in the textile industry training program focused on operative training, followed by emphasis on management development. Recruitment efforts have been increased. As Assessment of Training scheme provides standards, assistance, and recognition for individual companies in maintaining adequate training programs. (MW)

  15. 76 FR 67466 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Nominations for Nonvoting Industry Representatives on the National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory... nonvoting industry representatives to serve on the National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Mammography Quality Standards Reauthorization Act of 2004 (Pub....

  16. Camp Standards with Interpretations for the Accreditation of Organized Camps. Revised Edition. Basic Standards Course Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The American Camping Association's (ACA) Camp Standards Program assists camp administrators in providing a quality camp experience and assists the public in selecting camps that meet standards accepted by the industry and recognized by the government. ACA Camp Standards represent desirable practices basic to quality programs. Accredited camps and…

  17. 13 CFR 121.102 - How does SBA establish size standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requests to change existing size standards or establish new ones for emerging industries to the Division... the structure of an industry, including degree of competition, average firm size, start-up costs and... from other industries, growth trends, historical activity within an industry, unique factors...

  18. 13 CFR 121.102 - How does SBA establish size standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requests to change existing size standards or establish new ones for emerging industries to the Division... the structure of an industry, including degree of competition, average firm size, start-up costs and... from other industries, growth trends, historical activity within an industry, unique factors...

  19. 13 CFR 121.102 - How does SBA establish size standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requests to change existing size standards or establish new ones for emerging industries to the Division... the structure of an industry, including degree of competition, average firm size, start-up costs and... from other industries, growth trends, historical activity within an industry, unique factors...

  20. 13 CFR 121.102 - How does SBA establish size standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requests to change existing size standards or establish new ones for emerging industries to the Division... the structure of an industry, including degree of competition, average firm size, start-up costs and... from other industries, growth trends, historical activity within an industry, unique factors...

  1. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  2. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  3. The Extreme-Technology Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The persistent annual R&D quota of >15% of revenue in the semiconductor industry has been and continues to be more than twice as high as the OECD definition for High-Technology Industry. At the frontiers of miniaturization, the Cost-of-Ownership (COO) continues to rise upwards to beyond 10 billion for a Gigafactory. Only leaders in the world market for selected processors and memories or for foundry services can afford this. Others can succeed with high-value custom products equipped with high-performance application-specific standard products acquired from the leaders in their specific fields or as fabless original-device manufacturers buying wafers from top foundries and packaging/testing from contract manufacturers, thus eliminating the fixed cost for a factory. An overview is offered on the leaders in these different business models. In view of the coming highly diversified and heterogeneous world of nanoelectronic-systems competence, the point is made for global networks of manufacturing and services with the highest standards for product quality and liability.

  4. Dependability of technical items: Problems of standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, G. A.; Voropai, N. I.; Kovalev, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is concerned with problems blown up in the development of a new version of the Interstate Standard GOST 27.002 "Industrial product dependability. Terms and definitions". This Standard covers a wide range of technical items and is used in numerous regulations, specifications, standard and technical documentation. A currently available State Standard GOST 27.002-89 was introduced in 1990. Its development involved a participation of scientists and experts from different technical areas, its draft was debated in different audiences and constantly refined, so it was a high quality document. However, after 25 years of its application it's become necessary to develop a new version of the Standard that would reflect the current understanding of industrial dependability, accounting for the changes taking place in Russia in the production, management and development of various technical systems and facilities. The development of a new version of the Standard makes it possible to generalize on a terminological level the knowledge and experience in the area of reliability of technical items, accumulated over a quarter of the century in different industries and reliability research schools, to account for domestic and foreign experience of standardization. Working on the new version of the Standard, we have faced a number of issues and problems on harmonization with the International Standard IEC 60500-192, caused first of all by different approaches to the use of terms and differences in the mentalities of experts from different countries. The paper focuses on the problems related to the chapter "Maintenance, restoration and repair", which caused difficulties for the developers to harmonize term definitions both with experts and the International Standard, which is mainly related to differences between the Russian concept and practice of maintenance and repair and foreign ones.

  5. Why the US needs an industrial policy

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the nation has lost its economic innocence - the genial assurance that American industry would, without government intervention, provide an unfailing engine for bettering the American standard of living. Mr. Reich argues that under these changed circumstances, we can no longer afford the luxury of easy or painless answers to the problems of industry. Instead, we must face the fact that wrenching structural changes will have to be made in the economy if America's industrial base is to regain its full international competitiveness. And these changes will, in turn, require a carefully drawn industrial policy both to encourage the flow of capital where it is needed and to ease the inevitable dislocations of the labor force. 9 references, 5 tables.

  6. [Stomata--surgical standards].

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Malayeri, V; Seiler, C A; Candinas, D

    2003-01-01

    The placement of an intestinal stoma is still a common procedure despite the recent advantages in intestinal surgery. It is mandatory to apply meticulously sound surgical principles in order to achieve good results. Nevertheless, intestinal stomas are envisioned with a high perioperative morbidity which is mostly caused by surgical inadequacy. This can lead to considerable problems in management of the stoma in the long term and ultimately will affect quality of life of the patient. The cumulative morbidity can be given by 50% with prolaps, hernia, stenosis and necrosis as well as stoma retraction being the most relevant. In contrast, an adequate intestinal stoma will positively affect the quality of life of the patient. The availability of devices developed by the industry and the inauguration of a professional service in certain hospitals simplified the management of patients with a stoma. This significantly improved the standards of care especially regarding preoperative preparation and postoperative management. Thus, most patients are able to maintain an active and socially integrated life with minimal physical and psychical limitations.

  7. Opportunities in the industrial biobased products industry.

    PubMed

    Carole, Tracy M; Pellegrino, Joan; Paster, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 89 million metric t of organic chemicals and lubricants, the majority of which are fossil based, are produced annually in the United States. The development of new industrial bioproducts, for production in stand-alone facilities or biorefineries, has the potential to reduce our dependence on imported oil and improve energy security. Advances in biotechnology are enabling the optimization of feedstock composition and agronomic characteristics and the development of new and improved fermentation organisms for conversion of biomass to new end products or intermediates. This article reviews recent biotechnology efforts to develop new industrial bioproducts and improve renewable feedstocks and key market opportunities.

  8. Metrication: An economic wake-up call for US industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, G. P.

    1993-03-01

    As the international standard of measurement, the metric system is one key to success in the global marketplace. International standards have become an important factor in international economic competition. Non-metric products are becoming increasingly unacceptable in world markets that favor metric products. Procurement is the primary federal tool for encouraging and helping U.S. industry to convert voluntarily to the metric system. Besides the perceived unwillingness of the customer, certain regulatory language, and certain legal definitions in some states, there are no major impediments to conversion of the remaining non-metric industries to metric usage. Instead, there are good reasons for changing, including an opportunity to rethink many industry standards and to take advantage of size standardization. Also, when the remaining industries adopt the metric system, they will come into conformance with federal agencies engaged in similar activities.

  9. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  10. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...On July 18, 2012, the EPA proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and the Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants. This final action amends the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for the Portland cement industry. The EPA is also promulgating amendments with respect to......

  11. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2012....

  12. Vacuum Technology and Standardization-An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, H. M.; Rashid, H.

    2011-06-01

    Vacuum technology has been vital for the progress in almost every field of modern industrial & scientific research and technological developments. Research in this field is therefore important for the rapid progress in other sophisticated technologies. The modern society require precise know-how of vacuum metrology for its complex and sophisticated manufacturing processes and research activities. Accuracy in vacuum measurements is therefore an essential need for every application. The required accuracy is achieved with the help of well-calibrated vacuum gauges and this is possible only, if there exist proper vacuum standards of required range and accuracy. In this paper, a brief review of recently developed different vacuum standards, namely Standard Mercury Manometer, Standard Volume Expansion System and Standard Orifice Flow System will be presented, employed for the calibration of low, medium and high vacuum gauges respectively. Our recently developed standards are simple in design, least in vibration & degassing rate with desired accuracy, ease of operation and cost effective.

  13. In defense of industry-physician relationships.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to examine the economic, ethical, and legal foundations for conflict of interest restrictions between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries ("industry"). Recently academic medical centers and professional organizations have adopted policies that restrict permissible interactions between industry and physicians. The motive is to avoid financial conflicts of interest that compromise core values of altruism and fiduciary relationships. Productive relationships between industry and physicians provide novel drugs and devices of immense benefit to society. The issues are opposing views of medical economics, profit motives, medical professionalism, and extent to which interactions should be lawfully restricted. Industry goals are congruent with those of physicians: patient welfare, safety, and running a profitable business. Profits are necessary to develop drugs and devices. Physician collaborators invent products, refine them, and provide feedback and so are appropriately paid. Marketing is necessary to bring approved products to patients. Economic realities limit the extent to which physicians treat their patients altruistically and as fiduciaries. Providing excellent service to patients may be a more realistic standard. Statements from industry and the American College of Surgeons appropriately guide professional behavior. Preservation of industry-physician relationships is vital to maintain medical innovation and progress.

  14. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2001-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  15. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2004-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  16. Computed Tomography software and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Martz, H.E.; Skeate, M.F.; Schneberk, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.

    1990-02-20

    This document establishes the software design, nomenclature, and conventions for industrial Computed Tomography (CT) used in the Nondestructive Evaluation Section at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is mainly a users guide to the technical use of the CT computer codes, but also presents a proposed standard for describing CT experiments and reconstructions. Each part of this document specifies different aspects of the CT software organization. A set of tables at the end describes the CT parameters of interest in our project. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The world of standards: order or anarchy?

    PubMed

    Mason, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    As the development of many new standards for business continuity (BC) is seen across the globe, there is the danger that some of the benefits of developing an industry code or standard are being eroded. The very definition of the term 'standard' - a level of quality or excellence that is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged - is at risk as the proliferation and diversification of standards in existence and under development today continue to grow almost unchecked. This paper seeks to provide a personal view on the necessity of an international certifiable standard within the BC industry, with the hope that it will influence the debate in this area. In this manner, the paper contributes to the international evolution of BC. The standards related information is based on the author's experience as a member of the British Standards Institute's technical committee that developed BS25999 parts 1 and 2, and his experience in implementing both standards through to certification within his own organisation. References to the Business Continuity Institute are made not as a parochial 'British' group, but in terms of its growing development into a true global professional membership organisation.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed industrial stairs. 1910.24 Section 1910.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs....

  19. Dry Lubricant Smooths the Way for Space Travel, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Reviving industry standards for coating parts in tungsten disulfide, a dry lubricant developed for the Mariner space probes managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the 1960s and '70s, Applied Tungstenite, a relatively new Temecula, California-based company, has found a client base in the mushrooming commercial space industry, as well as other manufacturers.

  20. Occupational Medical Trends in the 70's from Industrial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Industrial health measures to ensure worker productivity constitute physical examinations as well as environmental control systems. Considered are automatic record keeping facilities for case histories, preventive medical and mental counselling, development of safety standards, and health insurance and disability benefit plans. Cooperation of industry health programs with community health aspects is required to eliminate the loss of manpower capability through alcoholism or mental disease.

  1. Spring 2006. Industry Study. Health Care Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    among 191 member countries in the extent to which caregivers are responsive to a patient’s expectations of receiving treatment with dignity and...other health practitioners. This segment of the industry includes the offices of chiropractors , optometrists, podiatrists, occupational and physical...Health Administration (OSHA), which mandates facility safety; Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA), which mandates policies to

  2. New Testing Standard For European Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, P.

    2004-08-01

    Standardization is a key aspect of the production business committed to the optimization of the product development and cost. In the Space field, American industries and Government organizations have developed since several decades Space standards like the MIL series, deriving them from the aircraft and military fields, or the NASA standards. The same happened later in other countries like Russia, Japan and China. In the last years most of those standards were revised to cope with the emerging needs of the market. In Europe, the Space activities were generally managed by a set of ESA standards, the PSS, which covered some aspects of these activities and reflected the up-to-date approaches and common practices. But, in the last years an initiative was also promoted by ESA, National Agencies and Space Organizations, named ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization), with the aim to develop a coherent, single set of user-friendly standards for use in all European space activities. European industries supported this initiative, including a deep involvement of Alenia Spazio and, sometime through a suitable revision of the old PSS documents, new standards were defined, as for the "Testing" (ECSS-E-10-03A, now published). The ECSS-E-10-03A provides standard environmental and performance test requirements for space products (systems and their constituents) which are generally applicable to all projects. Scope of this paper is to present the status of the worldwide initiatives in the testing standardization, the major contents of the European ECSS Testing standard and the possibilities for tailoring. Differences in requirement definition with other international testing standards and proposals for further ECSS optimization are presented on the basis of Alenia Spazio experience in supporting the above initiatives.

  3. The methanol industry`s missed opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout its history the methanol industry has been backward in research and development and in industry cooperation on public image and regulatory matters. It has been extremely reticent as to the virtue of its product for new uses, especially for motor fuel. While this is perhaps understandable looking back, it is inexcusable looking forward. The industry needs to cooperate on a worldwide basis in research and market development, on the one hand, and in image-building and political influence, on the other, staying, of course, within the US and European and other regional antitrust regulations. Unless the industry develops the motor fuel market, and especially the exciting new approach through fuel cell operated EVs, to siphon off incremental capacity and keep plants running at 90% or more of capacity, it will continue to live in a price roller-coaster climate. A few low-cost producers will do reasonably well and the rest will just get along or drop out here and there along the way, as in the past. Having come so far from such a humble beginning, it is a shame not to realize the full potential that is clearly there: a potential to nearly double sales dollars without new plants and to produce from a plentiful resource, at least for the next half-century, all the methanol that can be imagined to be needed. Beyond that the industry can turn to renewable energy--the sun--via biomass growth, to make their product. In so doing, it can perhaps apply methanol as a plant growth stimulant, in effect making the product fully self-sustainable. The world needs to know what methanol can do to provide--economically and reliably--the things upon which a better life rests.

  4. Technology Education Curriculum Standards K-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover. Div. of Vocational Education.

    These standards have been developed to provide a rationale and educational model for establishing Technology Education programs and for modifying Industrial Arts programs to reflect characteristics of technological systems. National curriculum theories and practices and Delaware's Educational Goals have provided the foundation for the development…

  5. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  6. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Plastics Molding Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the plastics molding industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State Board of Education, Illinois Community…

  7. Airborne particulate matter from primarily geologic, non-industrial sources at levels below National Ambient Air Quality Standards is associated with outpatient visits for asthma and quick-relief medication prescriptions among children less than 20 years old enrolled in Medicaid in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chimonas, Marc-Andre R; Gessner, Bradford D

    2007-03-01

    In Anchorage, Alaska, particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 micro m (PM(10)) arise primarily from natural, geologic sources, and particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) arise primarily from automobile emissions. The current study used a population-based time-series analysis design to evaluate the effects of daily and weekly PM(10) and PM(2.5) on respiratory health outcomes among children <20 years of age residing in Anchorage enrolled in Medicaid. All generated estimating equations models were adjusted for season, year, weekends, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Relative to the days with PM(10) mass concentration < or = 13 micro g/m(3), a significant 9.3% increase (RR: 1.093, 95% CI: 1.004-1.191) in the rate of outpatient visits for asthma occurred during days with PM(10) of 20-33 micro g/m(3). No further dose-response occurred for days with PM(10) > or = 34 micro g/m(3). A significant 18.1% increase (RR: 1.181, 95% CI: 1.010-1.381) in the rate of quick-relief medication prescriptions occurred during days with PM(10) of 34-60 micro g/m(3), and a 28.8% increase (RR: 1.288, 95% CI: 1.026-1.619) occurred during days with PM(10) > or = 61 micro g/m(3). Similar results for outpatient asthma visits and quick-relief medication occurred in weekly models. There were no significant associations with PM(2.5) in either daily or weekly models. These subtle but statistically significant associations suggest that non-industrial, geologic sources of PM(10) may have measurable health effects at levels below current national standards.

  8. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  9. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  10. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  11. Rebuilding America's Industrial Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret within the academic or manufacturing communities that community colleges are the nation's training ground for industrial-skilled trade careers. But outside community college classrooms and industrial plants, many people are in the dark about the growing numbers of these often-well-paid and in-demand jobs. This article introduces the…

  12. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  13. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  14. Geothermal industry assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  15. Innovations in Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A.; Blinova, Ekaterina A.; Orlova, Liubov N.; Romanova, Marianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the study of the role and importance of innovation, its classification, the problems of its application in the hotel industry with emphasis on the application of sensory marketing tools in the development of the innovative marketing mix within the hospitality industry. The article provides an analysis of the "seven…

  16. Exploring the Industrial Subculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barry A.

    This book is an attempt to create a theoretical vocabulary for those who believe that the sociology of industrial organizations should concern itself with discovering the ways in which people in industry define their life-position and with examining the collective and organizational consequences of these views which they hold of themselves. Using…

  17. 2010 Training Industry Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Now in its 29th year, The Industry Report is recognized as the training industry's most trusted source of data on budgets, staffing, and programs. This year, the study was conducted by an outside research firm in June-August 2010, when members from the "Training" magazine database were e-mailed an invitation to participate in an online…

  18. Wanted! Industrial Hygienists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stilkind, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Due to increased pressure (for example, from the Occupational Safety and Health Act) to create healthier/safer worker environments, the number of industrial hygienist positions has increased. Compares the need to the demand. Examines industrial hygienist salary ranges, expected educational background, job opportunities, and training program…

  19. Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-02-01

    This roadmap describes the industry's R&D strategy, priorities, milestones, and performance targets for achieving its long-term goals. It accounts for changes in the industry and the global marketplace since the first roadmap was published in 1997. An updated roadmap was published November 2001. (PDF 1.1 MB).

  20. Collapse of an industry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The author details the politics of nuclear energy in the U.S. and points out the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of industrial planning for this sector. He uses the nuclear industry as an example of how capitalism and democracy can be incompatible in some situations.

  1. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  2. Industrial Education Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Instruction, Lansing.

    Factors for consideration by an industrial education planning committee are discussed. Selection, purchasing, and storage of new types of equipment and supplies, in addition to students' project storage, are noted as worthy of consideration in planning the shop facility. Planning factors for the various types of industrial arts laboratories are…

  3. Training in British Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the need for, and development of, further education and practical training for recruits into industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses how, at the time of writing, many firms were developing and operating training schemes for industrial personnel. Firms benefit themselves from…

  4. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  5. Coal myths and environmental realities: Industrial fuel-use decisions in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with two inconsistent myths that persistently surround industrial use of coal. The first myth is that the Clean Air Act effectively precludes use of coal; the second, that industrial use of coal will expand rapidly. Through analysing fuel-use decisions actually made by industry, Mr. Alm concludes that environmental quality standards have played a minor role in industrial choice of fuel. Historically, natural gas and oil have been both less costly and more convenient fuels for industry to use.

  6. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  7. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 63.11581 - What are my standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Chemical Preparations Industry... concentration of each of the process vent streams from equipment in target HAP service within a...

  9. Assessment of US industry's technology trends and new technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The utility and effectiveness of a novel approach (the Applications Development, or AD approach), intended to augment the efficiency of NASA's technology utilization (TU) through dissemination of NASA technologies and joint technology development efforts with U.S. industry is tested. The innovative AD approach consists of the following key elements: selection of NASA technologies appearing to have leading edge attributes; interaction with NASA researchers to assess the characteristics and quality of each selected technology; identification of industry's needs in the selected technology areas; structuring the selected technologies in terms of specifications and standards familiar to industry (industrial Spec. Sheets); identification and assessment of industry's interest in the specific selected NASA technologies, utilizing the greatly facilitated communication made possible by the availability of the industrial Spec. Sheets; and matching selected NASA technologies with the needs of selected industries.

  10. The Ampere and Electrical Standards

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, Randolph E.; Cage, Marvin E.; Tang, Yi-hua; Jeffery, Anne-Marie; Kinard, Joseph R.; Dziuba, Ronald F.; Oldham, Nile M.; Williams, Edwin R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some of the major contributions to metrology and physics made by the NIST Electricity Division, which has existed since 1901. It was one of the six original divisions of the National Bureau of Standards. The Electricity Division provides dc and low-frequency calibrations for industrial, scientific, and research organizations, and conducts research on topics related to electrical metrology and fundamental constants. The early work of the Electricity Division staff included the development of precision standards, such as Rosa and Thomas standard resistors and the ac-dc thermal converter. Research contributions helped define the early international system of measurement units and bring about the transition to absolute units based on fundamental principles and physical and dimensional measurements. NIST research has helped to develop and refine electrical standards using the quantum Hall effect and the Josephson effect, which are both based on quantum physics. Four projects covering a number of voltage and impedance measurements are described in detail. Several other areas of current research at NIST are described, including the use of the Internet for international compatibility in metrology, determination of the fine-structure and Planck constants, and construction of the electronic kilogram. PMID:27500018

  11. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  12. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  13. Baseline Industry Analysis, Advance Ceramics Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Commerce , Department of Defense, and the National Critical Technologies Panel. Advanced Ceramics, which include ceramic matrix composites, are found in...ceramics and materials industry being identified as a National Critical Technology, Commerce Emerging Technology, and Defense Critical Technology.’ There is...total procurement cost in advanced systems, and as much as ten percent of the electronics portion of those weapons. Ceramic capacitors are almost as

  14. Shipbuilding Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Department of the Army LTC Edward Loewen, U.S. Army Mr. John Madden, Department of the Navy Lt Col Stacy McNutt, U.S. Air Force Mr. Steven Pawlow...Department of the Army Col Mark Tull, U.S. Marine Corps CDR George Vassilikas, U. S. Navy Ms. Tamara Verdon , National Geospatial Intelligence...December 7, 2001, 2001. 1. IBISWorld. IBISWorld Industry Report - Ship Building in the US2007. John Fisher. Looking Outside the Box - Confronting the

  15. Manufacturing Industry, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    pdf. Cooper, William H., Specialist in International Trade and Finance . “Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S...News, February 13, 2009. http://www.economist.com/ finance /displaystory.cfm?story_id=13129949. Economists.com. “The Return of Economic Nationalism...of Oldenburg, Nov 15, 2007), Vol. 222, Part C. " Finance and Economics: Industrial Metamorphosis; Manufacturing Employment." The Economist 377, no

  16. Spring 2007. Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    manufacturing industry if it is engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products...the interdependency between new research and manufacturing becomes vitally important. In 2004, the DOC (p. 7) reported the US manufacturing sector...present new business opportunities for US goods. Worldwide, manufactured goods account for more than 77% of global trade (NAM, 2006, p. 41

  17. Spring 2006. Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Vuong Co., Ltd, HCMC, Vietnam Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Japan Nike Factory, Dong Nai, Vietnam NTK/NGK, Komaki City, Japan OPV...Corporation, Nagoya, Japan US Consul General, HCMC, Vietnam US Consulate, Nagoya, Japan US Embassy, Beijing, China UTC, P&W Chengdu Aerotech...Manufacturing, Chengdu, China Vina Kyoei Steel, Ltd, Phu My, Vietnam Yamazaki Mazak, Minokamo City, Japan Yara, Phu My, Vietnam 1 INTRODUCTION “A

  18. 40 CFR 60.483-1 - Alternative standards for valves-allowable percentage of valves leaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After January 5, 1981, and on...

  19. 40 CFR 60.483-1 - Alternative standards for valves-allowable percentage of valves leaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After January 5, 1981, and on...

  20. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  1. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  2. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  3. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  4. 45 CFR 155.210 - Navigator program standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance industry; or, (4) Receive any consideration directly or indirectly from any health insurance... of QHP options and insurance affordability programs; and, (iv) The privacy and security standards...) Community and consumer-focused nonprofit groups; (ii) Trade, industry, and professional associations;...

  5. 45 CFR 155.210 - Navigator program standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... insurance; (3) Be an association that includes members of, or lobbies on behalf of, the insurance industry... of QHP options and insurance affordability programs; and, (iv) The privacy and security standards... Navigator grant: (i) Community and consumer-focused nonprofit groups; (ii) Trade, industry, and...

  6. Industries and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ward, E M; Burnett, C A; Ruder, A; Davis-King, K

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between selected industries and cancer is reviewed. This article will focus on several industries which have not been covered elsewhere in this volume, briefly describe current research on cancer in the agricultural and construction industries, and discuss surveillance data on cancer mortality in relation to industry listed on US death certificates. Employment in the rubber industry has been associated with bladder cancer, leukemia, stomach, and lung cancer and is considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to have 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.' Studies of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have reported excess mortality from gastrointestinal neoplasms, hematologic neoplasms, and skin cancer (specifically malignant melanoma); IARC considers that the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is 'limited.' Employment in the boot and shoe industry has been associated with nasal adenocarcinomas in England and Italy ('sufficient'). Hairdressers and barbers have been found to have excess bladder cancer and less consistent evidence for several other sites ('limited'). Workers exposed to wood dust have excess mortality from cancer of the nasal sinuses and paranasal cavities; there is less consistent evidence for excess laryngeal cancer ('sufficient'). Workers employed in the petroleum industry have limited evidence for excess leukemia and other lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms, and skin cancer (particularly malignant melanoma) ('limited').

  7. Mask Industry Assessment: 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. David

    2011-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the tenth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report has been used as one of the baselines to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It continues to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was essentially the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into following categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  8. Mask Industry Assessment: 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David Y.

    2010-09-01

    A survey created supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the ninth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was basically the same as the 2005 through 2009 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  9. Economics of automobile fuel-economy standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economies of scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.

  10. Anticipatory Standards and the Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashba, Edward; Gamota, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Standardization will play an increasing role in creating a smooth transition from the laboratory to the marketplace as products based on nanotechnology are developed and move into broad use. Traditionally, standards have evolved out of a need to achieve interoperability among existing products, create order in markets, simplify production and ensure safety. This view does not account for the escalating trend in standardization, especially in emerging technology sectors, in which standards working groups anticipate the evolution of a technology and facilitate its rapid development and entrée to the market place. It is important that the nanotechnology community views standards as a vital tool to promote progress along the nanotechnology value chain - from nanoscale materials that form the building blocks for components and devices to the integration of these devices into functional systems. This paper describes the need for and benefits derived from developing consensus standards in nanotechnology, and how standards are created. Anticipatory standards can nurture the growth of nanotechnology by drawing on the lessons learned from a standards effort that has and continues to revolutionize the telecommunications industry. Also, a brief review is presented on current efforts in the US to create nanotechnology standards.

  11. How industries change.

    PubMed

    McGahan, Anita M

    2004-10-01

    It's fairly obvious: To make intelligent investments within your organization, you need to understand how your whole industry is changing. But such knowledge is not always easy to come by. Companies misread clues and arrive at false conclusions all the time. To truly understand where your industry is headed, you have to take a long-term, high-level look at the context in which you do business, says Boston University professor Anita McGahan. She studied a variety of businesses from a cross section of industries over a ten-year period, examining how industry structure affects business profitability and investor returns. Her research suggests that industries evolve along one of four distinct trajectories--radical, progressive, creative, and intermediating--that set boundaries on what will generate profits in a business. These four trajectories are defined by two types of threats. The first is when new, outside alternatives threaten to weaken or make obsolete core activities that have historically generated profits for an industry. The second is when an industry's core assets--its resources, knowledge, and brand capital--fail to generate value as they once did. Industries undergo radical change when core assets and core activities are both threatened with obsolescence; they experience progressive change when neither are jeopardized. Creative change occurs when core assets are under threat but core activities are stable, and intermediating change happens when core activities are threatened while core assets retain their capacity to create value. If your company's innovation strategy is not aligned with your industry's change trajectory, your plan for achieving returns on invested capital cannot succeed, McGahan says. But if you understand which path you're on, you can determine which strategies will succeed and which will backfire.

  12. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  13. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The deployment of parabolic dish systems into the industrial sector for the purpose of providing users, suppliers, sponsors, and developers with a realistic assessment of system feasibility in selected near-term industrial applications will be accomplished initially through the industrial module experiment and later through additional experiments involving thermal, electric, and combined thermal and electrical systems. The approach is to progress through steps, from single module to multi-module systems, from thermal-only applications to more complex combined thermal and electric applications. The experience of other solar thermal experiments, particularly those involving parabolic dish hardware, will be utilized to the fullest extent possible in experiment planning and implementation.

  14. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  16. Standards for holdup measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

  17. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  18. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  19. Bricklayer: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 0110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The graduate of the Bricklayer apprenticeship training is a journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) produce a better quality product than the minimum acceptable by industry standard; (4) use and maintain tools and equipment to the standards of…

  20. New Skills for an Old Industry: Transforming the Oil Industry in a Former Soviet Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how the existing workforce in Kazakhstan's oil industry is being upgraded in skills, knowledge, and competencies to bring them up to the standards of the West. Discusses the design phase, including career development plans, training plans, and business plans; job ladders and specifications; assessing skill levels; and an…