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Sample records for 4-f imaging system

  1. A novel reconfigurable optical interconnect architecture using an Opto-VLSI processor and a 4-f imaging system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingya; Xiao, Feng; Alameh, Kamal

    2009-12-01

    A novel reconfigurable optical interconnect architecture for on-board high-speed data transmission is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The interconnect architecture is based on the use of an Opto-VLSI processor in conjunction with a 4-f imaging system to achieve reconfigurable chip-to-chip or board-to-board data communications. By reconfiguring the phase hologram of an Opto-VLSI processor, optical data generated by a vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) associated to a chip (or a board) is arbitrarily steered to the photodetector associated to another chip (or another board). Experimental results show that the optical interconnect losses range from 5.8dB to 9.6dB, and that the maximum crosstalk level is below -36dB. The proposed architecture is tested for high-speed data transmission, and measured eye diagrams display good eye opening for data rate of up to 10Gb/s.

  2. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  3. Digital confocal microscopy using a virtual 4f-system based on numerical beam propagation for depth measurement without mechanical scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Toda, Masataka; Kuno, Yasuyuki; Nozawa, Jin; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa

    2016-08-01

    We propose a digital confocal microscope using a virtual 4f-system based on numerical beam propagation for depth measurement without mechanical scanning. In our technique, the information in the sample target along the depth direction is obtained by defocusing the virtual 4f-system, which consists of two virtual lenses arranged in a computer simulation. The principle of our technique is completely different from that of the mechanical scanning method used in the conventional confocal microscope based on digital holography. By using the virtual 4f-system, the measurement and exposure time can be markedly reduced because multilayered tomographic images are generated using a single measurement. In this study, we tested the virtual depth imaging technique by measuring cover glasses arranged along the depth direction.

  4. Lattice dynamics and elastic properties of the 4f electron system: CeN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Yanming; Svane, A.; Eriksson, O.

    2011-11-01

    The electronic structure, structural stability, and lattice dynamics of cerium mononitride are investigated using ab initio density-functional methods involving an effective potential derived from the generalized gradient approximation and without special treatment for the 4f states. The 4f states are hence allowed to hop from site to site, without an on-site Hubbard U, and contribute to the bonding, in a picture often referred to as itinerant. It is argued that this picture is appropriate for CeN at low temperatures, while the anomalous thermal expansion observed at elevated temperatures indicates entropy-driven localization of the Ce f electrons, similar to the behavior of elemental cerium. The elastic constants are predicted from the total energy variation of strained crystals and are found to be large, typical for nitrides. The phonon dispersions are calculated showing no soft modes, and the Grüneisen parameter behaves smoothly. The electronic structure is also calculated using the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation (where G denotes the Green's function and W denotes the screened interaction). The Fermi surface of CeN is dominated by large egg-shaped electron sheets centered on the X points, which stem from the p-f mixing around the X point. In contrast, assuming localized f electrons leads to a semimetallic picture with small band overlaps around X.

  5. Impulse attack-free four random phase mask encryption based on a 4-f optical system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2009-04-20

    Optical encryption methods based on double random phase encryption (DRPE) have been shown to be vulnerable to different types of attacks. The Fourier plane random phase mask (RPM), which is the most important key, can be cracked with a single impulse function attack. Such an attack is viable because the Fourier transform of a delta function is a unity function. Formation of a unity function can be avoided if RPMs are placed in front of both lenses in a 4-f optical setup, thereby protecting the DRPE from an impulse attack. We have performed numerical simulations to verify the proposed scheme. Resistance of this scheme is checked against the brute force and the impulse function attacks. The experimental results validate the feasibility of the scheme.

  6. Exotic phenomena in 4f systems: From complex magnetism to surface conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sean Michael

    For materials synthesized with f-electron elements, the interaction between f-electrons and conduction electrons often leads to interesting physics. As the temperature is lowered, the f-electrons can hybridize with the conduction electrons in a process known as the Kondo effect. In a Kondo lattice material, the screening may become coherent at the so-called coherence temperature T*. The resulting material is often metallic, containing heavy bands with effective masses many times larger than the free electron mass. In some cases, the development of coherence leads to a filled heavy-electron band where the chemical potential lies within the hybridization gap, resulting in insulating behavior. CeAgBi2 is an antiferromagnetic compound (TN = 6.4 K) belonging to the former (metallic) case. The close energy scales of the Kondo coherence, antiferromagnetism, and crystal field levels results in complex physical properties. Transport measurements reveal a coupling between the different magnetic phases and Hall resistivity. As the field is increased, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature is suppressed to zero Kelvin. Typically, this is expected to result in a quantum critical point. However, due to strange transport behavior in the paramagnetic regime, the usual signatures of quantum criticality are hidden. SmB6 is a Kondo insulator due to the fact that the hybridization results in the opening of a gap. However, as the temperature is further lowered, the resistance saturates. Originally believed to be due to in-gap conduction states in the bulk, the true reason for the resistance saturation is a robust conducting surface state. Several theories predict that the surface state is a result of SmB6 belonging to a class of materials known as topological insulators. However, direct imaging of the spin-momentum locking of the surface states indicative of a topological insulator has proved elusive. Through transport and magnetic measurements, indirect evidence of the nature of

  7. Single crystal X-ray structure study of the Li(2-x)Na(x)Ni[PO4]F system.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Koike, Shinji; Tatsumi, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Hironori

    2012-05-21

    The new compounds Li(2-x)Na(x)Ni[PO(4)]F (x = 0.7, 1, and 2) have been synthesized by a solid state reaction route. Their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li(1.3)Na(0.7)Ni[PO(4)]F crystallizes with the orthorhombic Li(2)Ni[PO(4)]F structure, space group Pnma, a = 10.7874(3), b = 6.2196(5), c = 11.1780(4) Å and Z = 8, LiNaNi[PO(4)]F crystallizes with a monoclinic pseudomerohedrally twinned structure, space group P2(1)/c, a = 6.772(4), b = 11.154(6), c = 5.021(3) Å, β = 90° and Z = 4, and Na(2)Ni[PO(4)]F crystallizes with a monoclinic twinned structure, space group P2(1)/c, a = 13.4581(8), b = 5.1991(3), c = 13.6978(16) Å, β = 120.58(1)° and Z = 8. For x = 0.7 and 1, the structures contain NiFO(3) chains made up of edge-sharing NiO(4)F(2) octahedra, whereas for x = 2 the chains are formed of dimer units (face-sharing octahedra) sharing corners. These chains are interlinked by PO(4) tetrahedra forming a 3D framework for x = 0.7 and different Ni[PO(4)]F layers for x = 1 and 2. A sodium/lithium disorder over three atomic positions is observed in Li(1.3)Na(0.7)Ni[PO(4)]F structure, whereas the alkali metal atoms are well ordered in between the layers in the LiNaNi[PO(4)]F and Na(2)Ni[PO(4)]F structures, which makes both compounds of great interest as potential positive electrodes for sodium cells.

  8. Highly compact (4F2) and well behaved nano-pillar transistor controlled resistive switching cell for neuromorphic system application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Wang, Xinpeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Kang, Jinfeng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-10-31

    To simplify the architecture of a neuromorphic system, it is extremely desirable to develop synaptic cells with the capacity of low operation power, high density integration, and well controlled synaptic behaviors. In this study, we develop a resistive switching device (ReRAM)-based synaptic cell, fabricated by the CMOS compatible nano-fabrication technology. The developed synaptic cell consists of one vertical gate-all-around Si nano-pillar transistor (1T) and one transition metal-oxide based resistive switching device (1R) stacked on top of the vertical transistor directly. Thanks to the vertical architecture and excellent controllability on the ON/OFF performance of the nano-pillar transistor, the 1T1R synaptic cell shows excellent characteristics such as extremely high-density integration ability with 4F(2) footprint, ultra-low operation current (<2 nA), fast switching speed (<10 ns), multilevel data storage and controllable synaptic switching, which are extremely desirable for simplifying the architecture of neuromorphic system.

  9. Highly Compact (4F2) and Well Behaved Nano-Pillar Transistor Controlled Resistive Switching Cell for Neuromorphic System Application

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Wang, Xinpeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Kang, Jinfeng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-01-01

    To simplify the architecture of a neuromorphic system, it is extremely desirable to develop synaptic cells with the capacity of low operation power, high density integration, and well controlled synaptic behaviors. In this study, we develop a resistive switching device (ReRAM)-based synaptic cell, fabricated by the CMOS compatible nano-fabrication technology. The developed synaptic cell consists of one vertical gate-all-around Si nano-pillar transistor (1T) and one transition metal-oxide based resistive switching device (1R) stacked on top of the vertical transistor directly. Thanks to the vertical architecture and excellent controllability on the ON/OFF performance of the nano-pillar transistor, the 1T1R synaptic cell shows excellent characteristics such as extremely high-density integration ability with 4F2 footprint, ultra-low operation current (<2 nA), fast switching speed (<10 ns), multilevel data storage and controllable synaptic switching, which are extremely desirable for simplifying the architecture of neuromorphic system. PMID:25359219

  10. Phase retrieval in 4f optical system: background compensation and sparse regularization of object with binary amplitude.

    PubMed

    Migukin, Artem; Agour, Mostafa; Katkovnik, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Generally, wave field reconstructions obtained by phase-retrieval algorithms are noisy, blurred, and corrupted by various artifacts such as irregular waves, spots, etc. These distortions, arising due to many factors, such as nonidealities of the optical system (misalignment, focusing errors), dust on optical elements, reflections, and vibration, are hard to localize and specify. It is assumed that there is a cumulative disturbance called "background," which describes mentioned distortions in the coherent imaging system manifested at the sensor plane. Here we propose a novel iterative phase-retrieval algorithm compensating for these distortions in the optical system. An estimate of this background is obtained via special calibration experiments, and then it is used for the object reconstruction. The algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood approach targeting on the optimal object reconstruction from noisy data and imaging enhancement using a priori information on the object amplitude. In this work we demonstrate the compensation of the distortions of the optical trace for a complex-valued object with a binary amplitude. The developed algorithm results in state-of-the-art filtering, and sharp reconstruction imaging of the object amplitude can be achieved. PMID:23292403

  11. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  12. Constraints on Titanite Acitvity in the System CaTiSiO4O-CaAlSiO4F: Implications for Thermobarometry in Metamorphic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropper, P.; Manning, C. E.; Essene, E. J.

    2006-12-01

    Titanite is a common accessory mineral that could be used reliably in phase equilibrium calculations, if activity-composition relations in Al-F titanites were known. Troitzsch and Ellis (2001, CMP, 142, 543) and Tropper et al. (2002, JPet., 43, 1787) gave non-ideal mixing models along the join CaTiSiO4O- CaAlSiO4F. Tropper et al. (2002) derived a negative interaction parameter W, whereas Troitzsch and Ellis (2001) derived a regular model with both positive and negative W, but favored positive values. These differences strongly influence calculated CaTiSiO4O activity (attn). Although more experiments are needed, our result that γttn<1 at high T indicates a large degree of non-ideal behavior, even at >900°C, which in turn will affect thermobarometry. Comparing available activity models shows that at these T, attn is substantially underestimated by the fully ionic model used by Manning and Bohlen (1991, CMP, 109, 1), in which attn = XCaXTiXSi(XO)5. This model assumes independent mixing of Al for Ti and random mixing of F and O on all O sites. However, F substitutes only in one O site (O1; Oberti et al., 1991, EJM, 3, 777). A fully ionic model should therefore be recast as attn = XCaXTiXSiXO, where XO indicates the mole fraction of O on the (O1) site. The substitution of F on the O1 site is coupled with Al, so it is called the ideal coupled model. Unlike the regular model, the prefered ionic model departs strongly from ideality at ≤600°C, consistent with independent constraints. However, experimentally determined attn is approximated by an ideal molecular model (XTi) at ≥900°C, so this model is recommended for thermobarometry in high- T metamorphic rocks until more data are available. Recalculation of the P recorded by the three eclogites from Manning and Bohlen (1991) using the different activity models discussed here yields differences that may be as high as 2.0 GPa.

  13. Development of a nonlinear optical measurement-4 coherent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Song, Yinglin; Gu, Jihua; Yang, Junyi; Shui, Min; Hou, Dengke; Zhu, Zongjie

    2009-07-01

    After the nonlinear optical phenomena were discovered, people began to research the techniques to detect the optical nonlinearities of materials. In this paper, a new optical nonlinear measurement technique-4f coherent imaging system is recommended. The system has many advantages: single shot real-time measurement, simple experimental apparatus, high sensitivity, being able to detect the magnitude and sign of both nonlinear absorption and refraction at the same time, low requirement of beam spatial distribution, and so on. This paper introduces the theory of the 4f system and makes a detailed review and expounds development and application of the 4f coherent image system. The nerve of the experiment is improving the phase diaphragm. The shape of the diaphragm from the double-slits to the small rectangular object, and transition to a circular aperture, finally forming a circular phase diaphragm, which is a circular aperture in the center add a phase object. Following these diaphragm changes, the sensitivity of the system is greatly improved. The latest developments of the system are series-wound double 4f coherent imaging technique and the time-resolved pump-probe system based on NIT-PO. The time-resolved pump-probe system based on NIT-PO can be used to measure the dynamic characteristics of excited states nonlinear absorption and refraction.

  14. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  15. eIF4F: A Retrospective*

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The original purification of the heterotrimeric eIF4F was published over 30 years ago (Grifo, J. A., Tahara, S. M., Morgan, M. A., Shatkin, A. J., and Merrick, W. C. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 5804–5810). Since that time, numerous studies have been performed with the three proteins specifically required for the translation initiation of natural mRNAs, eIF4A, eIF4B, and eIF4F. These have involved enzymatic and structural studies of the proteins and a number of site-directed mutagenesis studies. The regulation of translation exhibited through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is predominately seen as the phosphorylation of 4E-BP, an inhibitor of protein synthesis that functions by binding to the cap binding subunit of eIF4F (eIF4E). A hypothesis that requires the disassembly of eIF4F during translation initiation to yield free subunits (eIF4A, eIF4E, and eIF4G) is presented. PMID:26324716

  16. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  17. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  18. Medical image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Wang, Jinxiang

    1994-12-01

    In this paper a medical image processing system is described. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. Principles and cases provided here. Many kinds of pictures are used in modern medical diagnoses, for example B-supersonic, X-ray, CT and MRI. Some times the pictures are not good enough for diagnoses. The noises interfere with real situation on these pictures. That means the image processing is needed. A medical image processing system is described in this paper. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. There are four functions in that system. The first part is image processing. More than thirty four programs are involved. The second part is calculating. The areas or volumes of single or multitissues are calculated. Three dimensional reconstruction is the third part. The stereo images of organs or tumors are reconstructed with cross-sections. The last part is image storage. All pictures can be transformed to digital images, then be stored in hard disk or soft disk. In this paper not only all functions of that system are introduced, also the basic principles of these functions are explained in detail. This system has been applied in hospitals. The images of hundreds of cases have been processed. We describe the functions combining real cases. Here we only introduce a few examples.

  19. Multi Spectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An optical imaging system provides automatic co-registration of a plurality of multi spectral images of an object which are generated by a plurality of video cameras or other optical detectors. The imaging system includes a modular assembly of beam splitters, lens tubes, camera lenses and wavelength selective filters which facilitate easy reconfiguration and adjustment of the system for various applications. A primary lens assembly generates a real image of an object to be imaged on a reticle which is positioned at a fixed length from a beam splitter assembly. The beam splitter assembly separates a collimated image beam received from the reticle into multiple image beams, each of which is projected onto a corresponding one of a plurality of video cameras. The lens tubes which connect the beam splitter assembly to the cameras are adjustable in length to provide automatic co-registration of the images generated by each camera.

  20. Spectrographic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Michael D.; Treado, Patrick J.

    1991-01-01

    An imaging system for providing spectrographically resolved images. The system incorporates a one-dimensional spatial encoding mask which enables an image to be projected onto a two-dimensional image detector after spectral dispersion of the image. The dimension of the image which is lost due to spectral dispersion on the two-dimensional detector is recovered through employing a reverse transform based on presenting a multiplicity of different spatial encoding patterns to the image. The system is especially adapted for detecting Raman scattering of monochromatic light transmitted through or reflected from physical samples. Preferably, spatial encoding is achieved through the use of Hadamard mask which selectively transmits or blocks portions of the image from the sample being evaluated.

  1. Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

    2005-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

  2. Image Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  3. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  4. Visions image operating system

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, R.R.; Hanson, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The image operating system is a complete software environment specifically designed for dynamic experimentation in scene analysis. The IOS consists of a high-level interpretive control language (LISP) with efficient image operators in a noninterpretive language. The image operators are viewed as local operators to be applied in parallel at all pixels to a set of input images. In order to carry out complex image analysis experiments an environment conducive to such experimentation was needed. This environment is provided by the visions image operating system based on a computational structure known as a processing cone proposed by Hanson and Riseman (1974, 1980) and implemented on a VAX-11/780 running VMS. 6 references.

  5. Spaceborne electronic imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices for the design of the spaceborne elements of electronic imaging systems are presented. A spaceborne electronic imaging system is defined as a device that collects energy in some portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with detector(s) whose direct output is an electrical signal that can be processed (using direct transmission or delayed transmission after recording) to form a pictorial image. This definition encompasses both image tube systems and scanning point-detector systems. The intent was to collect the design experience and recommended practice of the several systems possessing the common denominator of acquiring images from space electronically and to maintain the system viewpoint rather than pursuing specialization in devices. The devices may be markedly different physically, but each was designed to provide a particular type of image within particular limitations. Performance parameters which determine the type of system selected for a given mission and which influence the design include: Sensitivity, Resolution, Dynamic range, Spectral response, Frame rate/bandwidth, Optics compatibility, Image motion, Radiation resistance, Size, Weight, Power, and Reliability.

  6. Imaging the lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Munn, Lance L; Padera, Timothy P

    2014-11-01

    Visualization of the lymphatic system is clinically necessary during diagnosis or treatment of many conditions and diseases; it is used for identifying and monitoring lymphedema, for detecting metastatic lesions during cancer staging and for locating lymphatic structures so they can be spared during surgical procedures. Imaging lymphatic anatomy and function also plays an important role in experimental studies of lymphatic development and function, where spatial resolution and accessibility are better. Here, we review technologies for visualizing and imaging the lymphatic system for clinical applications. We then describe the use of lymphatic imaging in experimental systems as well as some of the emerging technologies for improving these methodologies.

  7. Imaging the lymphatic system

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the lymphatic system is clinically necessary during diagnosis or treatment of many conditions and diseases; it is used for identifying and monitoring lymphedema, for detecting metastatic lesions during cancer staging and for locating lymphatic structures so they can be spared during surgical procedures. Imaging lymphatic anatomy and function also plays an important role in experimental studies of lymphatic development and function, where spatial resolution and accessibility are better. Here, we review technologies for visualizing and imaging the lymphatic system for clinical applications. We then describe the use of lymphatic imaging in experimental systems as well as some of the emerging technologies for improving these methodologies. PMID:24956510

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  9. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  10. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  11. Radiation imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-03-22

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  12. Radiation imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John T.; Immel, David M.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Plummer, Jean R.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-06-28

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  13. 77 FR 321 - Section 4(f) Policy Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Highway Administration Section 4(f) Policy Paper AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... draft Section 4(f) Policy Paper that will provide guidance on the procedures the FHWA will follow when... practicable. Background A copy of the proposed Section 4(f) Policy Paper is available for download and...

  14. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) property; (iv) The views of the official(s) with jurisdiction over each Section 4(f) property; (v) The... mitigation, the magnitude of any adverse impacts to resources not protected by Section 4(f); and (vii... Section 4(f) evaluations are developed by the Administration based on experience with a specific set...

  15. Toward Molecular 4f Single-Ion Magnet Qubits.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kasper S; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; McAdams, Simon; Weihe, Høgni; Bendix, Jesper; Tuna, Floriana; Piligkos, Stergios

    2016-05-11

    Quantum coherence is detected in the 4f single-ion magnet (SIM) Yb(trensal), by isotope selective pulsed EPR spectroscopy on an oriented single crystal. At X-band, the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) and phase memory (Tm) times are found to be independent of the nuclei bearing, or not, a nuclear spin. The observation of Rabi oscillations of the spin echo demonstrates the possibility to coherently manipulate the system for more than 70 rotations. This renders Yb(trensal), a sublimable and chemically modifiable SIM, an excellent candidate for quantum information processing. PMID:27105449

  16. Cardiac Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not available to all patients with narrowed arteries, balloon angioplasty has expanded dramatically since its introduction with an estimated further growth to 562,000 procedures in the U.S. alone by 1992. Growth has fueled demand for higher quality imaging systems that allow the cardiologist to be more accurate and increase the chances of a successful procedure. A major advance is the Digital Cardiac Imaging (DCI) System designed by Philips Medical Systems International, Best, The Netherlands and marketed in the U.S. by Philips Medical Systems North America Company. The key benefit is significantly improved real-time imaging and the ability to employ image enhancement techniques to bring out added details. Using a cordless control unit, the cardiologist can manipulate images to make immediate assessment, compare live x-ray and roadmap images by placing them side-by-side on monitor screens, or compare pre-procedure and post procedure conditions. The Philips DCI improves the cardiologist's precision by expanding the information available to him.

  17. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  18. Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

  19. Scorpion image segmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  20. Flame Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Heidi L. (Inventor); Smith, Harvey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for imaging a flame and the background scene is discussed. The flame imaging system consists of two charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras. One camera uses a 800 nm long pass filter which during overcast conditions blocks sufficient background light so the hydrogen flame is brighter than the background light, and the second CCD camera uses a 1100 nm long pass filter, which blocks the solar background in full sunshine conditions such that the hydrogen flame is brighter than the solar background. Two electronic viewfinders convert the signal from the cameras into a visible image. The operator can select the appropriate filtered camera to use depending on the current light conditions. In addition, a narrow band pass filtered InGaAs sensor at 1360 nm triggers an audible alarm and a flashing LED if the sensor detects a flame, providing additional flame detection so the operator does not overlook a small flame.

  1. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  2. Tactical Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1990-02-01

    The ability to send photographic information to command centers is a vital element in performing effective near real-time reconnaissance and surveillance operations. This imagery, in conjunction with other battlefield data, provides the battlefield commander with up-to-date intelligence for making decisions. Until recently, the ability to provide this real-time information was severely restricted by the logistics of physically moving, developing, and then disseminating the film. This time delay resulted in out-of-date, stale intelligence. This problem situation has eased recently due to technological developments that have been instrumental in facilitating the dissemination of near real-time information to forward operating areas and behind enemy lines. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has capitalized on these developments and established the Tactical Imaging System (TIS). This miniaturized, man-pack, SATCOM/HF transmitting system provides near real-time tactical imagery. It consists of an image sensor, image intensifier, zoom lens, and image transmission processor. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications. The TIS will have potential application in areas such as identification (friend or foe), reconnaissance, surveillance, and battlefield assessment. Under the TIS program, NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed hands-on experience in still video images and related technologies, including fleet satellite communications, HF transmission, image compression algorithms, VSLI integrated circuitry design, and day/night imagery techniques. NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed a complete, miniaturized system to conduct operational demonstrations, and to demonstrate operational tactics and utilization concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications.

  3. Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.; Fecht, B.A.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of the MEASUREMENT OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  4. Tetranuclear Zn/4f coordination clusters as highly efficient catalysts for Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kieran; Kumar, Prashant; Akien, Geoffrey R; Chilton, Nicholas F; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Tizzard, Graham J; Coles, Simon J; Kostakis, George E

    2016-06-14

    A series of custom-designed, high yield, isoskeletal tetranuclear Zn/4f coordination clusters showing high efficiency as catalysts with low catalytic loadings in Friedel-Crafts alkylation are described for the first time. The possibility of altering the 4f centers in these catalysts without altering the core topology allows us to further confirm their stability via EPR and NMR, as well to gain insights into the plausible reaction mechanism, showcasing the usefulness of these bimetallic systems as catalysts. PMID:27248829

  5. Imaging system fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    2011-05-01

    Point-and-shoot, TV studio broadcast, and thermal infrared imaging cameras have significantly different applications. A parameter that applies to all imaging systems is Fλ/d, where F is the focal ratio, λ is the wavelength, and d is the detector size. Fλ/d uniquely defines the shape of the camera modulation transfer function. When Fλ/d<2, aliased signal corrupts the imagery. Mathematically, the worst case analysis assumes that the scene contains all spatial frequencies with equal amplitudes. This quantifies the potential for aliasing and is called the spurious response. Digital data cannot be seen; it resides in a computer. Cathode ray tubes, flat panel displays, and printers convert the data into an analog format and are called reconstruction filters. The human visual system is an additional reconstruction filter. Different displays and variable viewing distance affect the perceived image quality. Simulated imagery illustrates different Fλ/d ratios, displays, and sampling artifacts. Since the human visual system is primarily sensitive to intensity variations, aliasing (a spatial frequency phenomenon) is not considered bothersome in most situations.

  6. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  7. The coordination chemistry and magnetism of some 3d–4f and 4f amino-polyalcohol compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Joseph W.; Collison, David

    2014-01-01

    Triethanolamine, teaH3, and diethanolamine, RdeaH2, 3d–4f and 4f compounds demonstrate an enormous variety in their structure and bonding. This review examines the synthetic strategies to these molecules and their magnetic properties, whilst trying to assess these ligands’ suitability towards new SMMs and magnetic refrigerants. PMID:25009361

  8. 4f electron delocalization and volume collapse in praseodymium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph A.; Moore, Kevin T.; Lipp, Magnus J.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Chow, Paul; Rod, Eric; Xiao, Yuming; Evans, William J.

    2012-04-17

    We study the pressure evolution of the 4f electrons in elemental praseodymium metal compressed through several crystallographic phases, including the large volume-collapse transition at 20 GPa. Using resonant x-ray emission, we directly and quantitatively measure the development of multiple electronic configurations with differing 4f occupation numbers, the key quantum observable related to the delocalization of the strongly correlated 4f electrons. These results provide a high-fidelity test of prior predictions by dynamical mean-field theory, and support the hypothesis of a strong connection between electronic and structural degrees of freedom at the volume-collapse transition.

  9. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 4(f) evaluations will be coordinated with the Department of Interior, Department of Agriculture, and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for...

  10. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 4(f) evaluations will be coordinated with the Department of Interior, Department of Agriculture, and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for...

  11. Acoustic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  12. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  13. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  14. ee4fγ—A program for e+e-→4f,4f γ with nonzero fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołodziej, Karol; Jegerlehner, Fred

    2004-05-01

    A computer program ee4fγ for calculating cross-sections of any four fermion final state of e+e--annihilation at high energy and the corresponding bremsstrahlung reaction that is possible in the framework of the Standard Model is presented. As the fermion masses are arbitrary, the cross-sections for channels that do not contain e+ and/or e- in the final state can be computed without any collinear cut, the on-shell top quark production can be studied and the Higgs boson exchange can be incorporated in a consistent way. The program can be used as a Monte Carlo generator of unweighted events as well. Program summaryTitle of program:ee4fγ Version: 1.0 (February 2004) Catalogue identifier: ADTQ Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTQ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computers: all Operating systems: Unix/Linux Programming language used:FORTRAN 90 CPC Program Library subprograms used:RANLUX, ACPR RANLUX 79 (1994) 111—a random number generator Memory required to execute with typical data: 4.0 Mb No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 364 490 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 278 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: Description of all e+e-→4 fermions and corresponding bremsstrahlung reactions that are possible in the Standard Model (SM) to lowest order and with nonzero fermion masses at center of mass energies typical for next generation linear colliders. Such reactions are relevant, typically, for W-pair or intermediate mass Higgs boson production and decay. Method of solution: Matrix elements are calculated with the helicity amplitude method. The phase space integration is performed numerically utilizing a multi-channel Monte Carlo method. Restrictions on complexity of the problem: No higher order effects are taken into account, except for assuming the fine

  15. Impact of the Kohn-Sham Delocalization Error on the 4f Shell Localization and Population in Lanthanide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Thomas J; Autschbach, Jochen

    2016-07-12

    The extent of ligand to metal donation bonding and mixing of 4f (and 5d) orbitals with ligand orbitals is studied by Kohn-Sham (KS) calculations for LaX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), GdX3, and LuX3 model complexes, CeCl6(2-), YbCp3, and selected lanthanide complexes with larger ligands. The KS delocalization error (DE) is quantified via the curvature of the energy for noninteger electron numbers. The extent of donation bonding and 4f-ligand mixing correlates well with the DE. For Lu complexes, the DE also correlates with the extent of mixing of ligand and 4f orbitals in the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs). However, the localized set of MOs and population analyses indicate that the closed 4f shell is localized. Attempts to create situations where mixing of 4f and ligand orbitals occurs due to a degeneracy of fragment orbitals were unsuccessful. For La(III) and, in particular, for Ce(IV), Hartree-Fock, KS, and coupled cluster singles and doubles calculations are in agreement in that excess 4f populations arise from ligand donation, along with donation into the 5d shell. Likewise, KS calculations for all systems with incompletely filled 4f shells, even those with "optimally tuned" functionals affording a small DE, produce varying degrees of excess 4f populations which may be only partially attributed to 5d polarization.

  16. Impact of the Kohn-Sham Delocalization Error on the 4f Shell Localization and Population in Lanthanide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Thomas J; Autschbach, Jochen

    2016-07-12

    The extent of ligand to metal donation bonding and mixing of 4f (and 5d) orbitals with ligand orbitals is studied by Kohn-Sham (KS) calculations for LaX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), GdX3, and LuX3 model complexes, CeCl6(2-), YbCp3, and selected lanthanide complexes with larger ligands. The KS delocalization error (DE) is quantified via the curvature of the energy for noninteger electron numbers. The extent of donation bonding and 4f-ligand mixing correlates well with the DE. For Lu complexes, the DE also correlates with the extent of mixing of ligand and 4f orbitals in the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs). However, the localized set of MOs and population analyses indicate that the closed 4f shell is localized. Attempts to create situations where mixing of 4f and ligand orbitals occurs due to a degeneracy of fragment orbitals were unsuccessful. For La(III) and, in particular, for Ce(IV), Hartree-Fock, KS, and coupled cluster singles and doubles calculations are in agreement in that excess 4f populations arise from ligand donation, along with donation into the 5d shell. Likewise, KS calculations for all systems with incompletely filled 4f shells, even those with "optimally tuned" functionals affording a small DE, produce varying degrees of excess 4f populations which may be only partially attributed to 5d polarization. PMID:27224494

  17. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Will; Ryan, Andy; Jacobs, Ian J; Menon, Usha; Bessant, Conrad; Jones, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system. PMID:18570637

  18. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

  19. High speed imaging television system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William O.; Rabenhorst, David W.

    1984-01-01

    A television system for observing an event which provides a composite video output comprising the serially interlaced images the system is greater than the time resolution of any of the individual cameras.

  20. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  1. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  2. Redetermination of durangite, NaAl(AsO4)F

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Gordon W.; Yang, Betty N.; Thompson, Richard M.; Wenz, Michelle D.; Andrade, Marcelo B.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of durangite, ideally NaAl(AsO4)F (chemical name sodium aluminium arsenate fluoride), has been determined previously [Kokkoros (1938). Z. Kristallogr. 99, 38–49] using Weissenberg film data without reporting displacement parameters of atoms or a reliability factor. This study reports the redetermination of the structure of durangite using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from a natural sample with composition (Na0.95Li0.05)(Al0.91Fe3+ 0.07Mn3+ 0.02)(AsO4)(F0.73(OH)0.27) from the type locality, the Barranca mine, Coneto de Comonfort, Durango, Mexico. Durangite is isostructural with minerals of the titanite group in the space group C2/c. Its structure is characterized by kinked chains of corner-sharing AlO4F2 octa­hedra parallel to the c axis. These chains are cross-linked by isolated AsO4 tetra­hedra, forming a three-dimensional framework. The Na+ cation (site symmetry 2) occupies the inter­stitial sites and is coordinated by one F− and six O2− anions. The AlO4F2 octa­hedron has symmetry -1; it is flattened, with the Al—F bond length [1.8457 (4) Å] shorter than the Al—O bond lengths [1.8913 (8) and 1.9002 (9) Å]. Examination of the Raman spectra for arsenate minerals in the titanite group reveals that the position of the band originating from the As—O symmetric stretching vibrations shifts to lower wavenumbers from durangite, maxwellite [ideally NaFe(AsO4)F], to tilasite [CaMg(AsO4)F]. PMID:23284315

  3. Polyoxometalate-supported 3d-4f heterometallic single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaojia; Zhou, Wenzhe; Li, Yangguang; Ke, Hongshan; Tang, Jinkui; Clérac, Rodolphe; Wang, Yonghui; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

    2012-03-01

    The reactions of [CuTbL(Schiff)(H(2)O)(3)Cl(2)]Cl complexes with A- or B-type Anderson polyoxoanions lead to new polyoxometalate-supported 3d-4f heterometallic systems with single-molecule-magnet behavior.

  4. 48 CFR 47.305-4 - F.o.b. destination solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-4 F.o.b. destination solicitations. (a) When preparing f.o.b destination solicitations, the contracting officer shall refer to...

  5. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  6. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  7. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  8. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  9. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  10. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 60007A InnerView Real-time X-ray Imaging System, produced by National Imaging Systems, a division of FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc. (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), Northbrook, IL, is a third generation spinoff from x-ray astronomy technology. Goddard Space Flight Center developed the original technology into the Lixiscope, a small, portable, minimal radiation x-ray instrument that could be used at the scene of an accident. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc., adapted this technology to develop the FlouroScan, a low-intensity, x-ray system that could be used without the lead aprons, film badges and lead-lined walls that conventional systems require. The InnerView is a spinoff of non-destructive testing and product inspection.

  11. Plant Cap-binding Complexes Eukaryotic Initiation Factors eIF4F and eIFISO4F

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Laura K.; Allen, M. Leah; Nitka, Kelley R.; Campbell, Lara; Murphy, Patricia A.; Browning, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    The initiation of translation in eukaryotes requires a suite of eIFs that include the cap-binding complex, eIF4F. eIF4F is comprised of the subunits eIF4G and eIF4E and often the helicase, eIF4A. The eIF4G subunit serves as an assembly point for other initiation factors, whereas eIF4E binds to the 7-methyl guanosine cap of mRNA. Plants have an isozyme form of eIF4F (eIFiso4F) with comparable subunits, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. Plant eIF4A is very loosely associated with the plant cap-binding complexes. The specificity of interaction of the individual subunits of the two complexes was previously unknown. To address this issue, mixed complexes (eIF4E-eIFiso4G or eIFiso4E-eIF4G) were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli for biochemical analysis. The activity of the mixed complexes in in vitro translation assays correlated with the large subunit of the respective correct complex. These results suggest that the eIF4G or eIFiso4G subunits influence translational efficiency more than the cap-binding subunits. The translation assays also showed varying responses of the mRNA templates to eIF4F or eIFiso4F, suggesting that some level of mRNA discrimination is possible. The dissociation constants for the correct complexes have KD values in the subnanomolar range, whereas the mixed complexes were found to have KD values in the ∼10 nm range. Displacement assays showed that the correct binding partner readily displaces the incorrect binding partner in a manner consistent with the difference in KD values. These results show molecular specificity for the formation of plant eIF4F and eIFiso4F complexes and suggest a role in mRNA discrimination during initiation of translation. PMID:21965660

  12. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  13. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  14. Multilingual system using Internet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tadashi; Hata, Yoshitsugu; Iida, Ryouji; Kakugawa, Hirotsugu; Ae, Tadashi; Murakami, Hisae

    2000-12-01

    In these years, multilingual system becomes important, but, most computer environment cannot handle all languages (scripts) in ths world. This paper presents a multilingual imaging system on the Internet. In this system, characters are converted into bitmaps, and therefore, we can display multilingual text on WWW browsers. In order to convert multilingual plain text into bitmap images, we have developed software named ctext2pgm and VFlib. VFlib is a software component to rasterize fonts in various file formats, and ctext2pgm generates bitmap image files form multilingual plain texts. Ctext2pgm is an application program of VFlib, and it supports about 30 languages. We also introduce a language education system for various languages. This is an example of the multilingual system using internet imaging.

  15. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  16. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  17. Stereoscopic medical imaging collaboration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Fumio; Hirano, Takenori; Nakabayasi, Yuusuke; Minoura, Hirohito; Tsuruoka, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    The computerization of the clinical record and the realization of the multimedia have brought improvement of the medical service in medical facilities. It is very important for the patients to obtain comprehensible informed consent. Therefore, the doctor should plainly explain the purpose and the content of the diagnoses and treatments for the patient. We propose and design a Telemedicine Imaging Collaboration System which presents a three dimensional medical image as X-ray CT, MRI with stereoscopic image by using virtual common information space and operating the image from a remote location. This system is composed of two personal computers, two 15 inches stereoscopic parallax barrier type LCD display (LL-151D, Sharp), one 1Gbps router and 1000base LAN cables. The software is composed of a DICOM format data transfer program, an operation program of the images, the communication program between two personal computers and a real time rendering program. Two identical images of 512×768 pixcels are displayed on two stereoscopic LCD display, and both images show an expansion, reduction by mouse operation. This system can offer a comprehensible three-dimensional image of the diseased part. Therefore, the doctor and the patient can easily understand it, depending on their needs.

  18. Hyperspectral Systems Increase Imaging Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In 1983, NASA started developing hyperspectral systems to image in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. In 2001, the first on-orbit hyperspectral imager, Hyperion, was launched aboard the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft. Based on the hyperspectral imaging sensors used in Earth observation satellites, Stennis Space Center engineers and Institute for Technology Development researchers collaborated on a new design that was smaller and used an improved scanner. Featured in Spinoff 2007, the technology is now exclusively licensed by Themis Vision Systems LLC, of Richmond, Virginia, and is widely used in medical and life sciences, defense and security, forensics, and microscopy.

  19. A programmable image compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrelle, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

  20. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  1. Devices, systems, and methods for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Appleby, David; Fraser, Iain; Watson, Scott

    2008-04-15

    Certain exemplary embodiments comprise a system, which can comprise an imaging plate. The imaging plate can be exposable by an x-ray source. The imaging plate can be configured to be used in digital radiographic imaging. The imaging plate can comprise a phosphor-based image storage device configured to convert an image stored therein into light.

  2. Limbic system (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... structures which govern emotions and behavior. The limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus and amygdala, is involved in the formation of long-term memory, and is closely associated with the olfactory structures (having to do with the sense of ...

  3. Skin imaging in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taeyoung; Abignano, Giuseppina; Lettieri, Giovanni; Wakefield, Richard J.; Emery, Paul; Del Galdo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Fibrotic involvement of the skin is a cardinal feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The extent of skin involvement is associated with internal organ involvement, coinciding with more severe disease course and poor prognosis. A palpation-based semi-quantitative score, the modified Rodnan skin score, is widely used for the assessment of skin involvement, but it is entailed by significant limitations. More objective approaches to measure skin involvement employing imaging have been explored continuously in the past decades and are currently advancing. Here, we review the use of different imaging techniques for the assessment of skin involvement in patients with SSc, focusing mainly on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography.

  4. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  5. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.L.; Kulp, T.J.

    1995-03-10

    Practical limitations of underwater imaging systems are reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and the resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the oceanic transmission window of the visible spectrum (blue-green portion) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging The properties of laser bearm in range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence effect of common volume back scatter to reduce or eliminate noise, increase signal to noise levels. Synchronously scanned systems rely on the highly collimated nature of the laser beam for spatial rejection of common volume back scatter. A synchronous, raster-scanning underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS) has been developed at Lawrence liver-more National Laboratory. The present UWLIS system differs from earlier synchronous scanners in its ability to scan in two dimensions at conventional video frame rate (30 Hz). The imaging performance of the present UWLIS was measured at distances of up to 6.3 AL (at a physical distance of 15.2 meters) during an in-water tank test and 4.5 to 5.0 AL (at a physical distance of 30 meters) during open water oceanic testing. The test results indicate that the UWLIS system is already capable of extending the underwater imaging range beyond that of conventional floodlight illuminated SIT cameras. The real or near real time frame rates of the UWLIS make possible operations in a mode in which the platform speed is randomly varied. This is typical of the operational environment in which the platform is often maneuvered above and around rugged seafloor terrain`s and obstacles.

  6. Hyperspectral imaging system for UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Yuquan

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is proposed under airborne remote sensing application background. By the application of Offner convex spherical grating spectral imaging system and using large area array detector push-broom imaging, hyperspectral imaging system with the indicators of 0.4μm to 1.0μm spectral range, 120 spectral bands, 5nm spectral resolution and 1m ground sampling interval (flight altitude 5km) is developed and completed. The Offner convex grating spectral imaging system is selected to achieve non-spectral line bending and colorless distortion design results. The diffraction efficiency is 15%-30% in the range of 0.4μm to 1.0μm wavelength. The system performances are tested by taking spectral and radiometric calibration methods in the laboratory. Based on monochromatic collimated light method for spectral performance parameters calibration of hyperspectral optical remote sensor, the analysis results of spectral calibration data show that the calibration test repeatability is less than 0.2 nm within one hour. The spectral scaling results show that the average spectral resolution of hyperspectral optical remote sensor is 4.94 nm, and the spatial dimension of the high-spectral optical remote sensor spectral resolution is less than 5 nm, the average of the typical spectral bandwidth is about 6 nm, the system average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is up to 43dB under typical operating conditions. Finally the system functionalities and performance indicators are verified by the aviation flight tests, which it's equipped on UAV. The actual image quality is good, and the spectral position is stable.

  7. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  8. A compact THz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sešek, Aleksander; Å vigelj, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this paper is the development of a compact low cost imaging THz system, usable for observation of the objects near to the system and also for stand-off detection. The performance of the system remains at the high standard of more expensive and bulkiest system on the market. It is easy to operate as it is not dependent on any fine mechanical adjustments. As it is compact and it consumes low power, also a portable system was developed for stand-off detection of concealed objects under textile or inside packages. These requirements rule out all optical systems like Time Domain Spectroscopy systems which need fine optical component positioning and requires a large amount of time to perform a scan and the image capture pixel-by-pixel. They are also almost not suitable for stand-off detection due to low output power. In the paper the antenna - bolometer sensor microstructure is presented and the THz system described. Analysis and design guidelines for the bolometer itself are discussed. The measurement results for both near and stand-off THz imaging are also presented.

  9. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    DOE PAGES

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rathermore » than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.« less

  10. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rather than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.

  11. Lattice dynamics of neodymium: Influence of 4 f electron correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, O.; Piekarz, P.; Bosak, A.; Jochym, P. T.; Ibrahimkutty, S.; Seiler, A.; Krisch, M.; Baumbach, T.; Parlinski, K.; Stankov, S.

    2016-07-01

    Incorporation of strong electron correlations into the density functional theory (DFT) for the electronic structure calculations of light lanthanides leads to a modification of interatomic forces and consequently the lattice dynamics. Using first-principles theory we demonstrate the substantial influence of the 4 f electron correlations on the phonon dispersion relations of Nd. The calculations are verified by an inelastic x-ray scattering experiment performed on a single-crystalline Nd(0001) film. We show that very good agreement between the calculated and measured data is achieved when electron-electron interactions are treated by the DFT +U approach.

  12. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  13. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  14. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  15. Video imaging systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, H. Lee

    1989-07-01

    Recent technological advances in the field of electronics have made video imaging a viable substitute for the traditional Polaroid(trademark) picture used to create photo ID credentials. New families of hardware and software products, when integrated into a system, provide an exciting and powerful toll which can be used simply to make badges or enhance an access control system. The reader is made aware of who is currently in this business and compare their capabilities.

  16. Origin of the nonplanarity of tetrafluoro cyclobutadiene, C4F4.

    PubMed

    Seal, Prasenjit; Chakrabarti, Swapan

    2007-02-01

    Density functional theory as well as Møller-Plesset investigations has been carried out on tetrafluoro cyclobutadiene, C4F4, to explore the origin of its nonplanarity. Although Petersson et al. (Petersson, E. J.; Fanuele, J. C.; Nimlos, M. R.; Lemal, D. M.; Ellison, G. B.; Radziszewski, J. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11122-11123) had earlier predicted a nonplanar geometry of this compound on the basis of spectral and bond orbital analysis, the explanation of the same from a more fundamental point of view is still missing. In the present study, we provide a heuristic explanation for the origin of nonplanarity of C4F4. The two major driving forces behind this nonplanar geometry are the unusual aromaticity of this cyclic homoatomic 4pi electron system and the second-order Jahn-Teller effect (SOJTE). These driving forces can well be explained by various energy and density parameters and also by nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) values. Aromaticity of a cyclic homoatomic 4pi electron system is quite remarkable. The enhancement of pi- delocalization as evidenced from molecular orbital analysis may be attributed to s-ppi mixing in nonplanar C4F4.

  17. Self-assembly of the first discrete 3d-4f-4f triple-stranded helicate.

    PubMed

    Riis-Johannessen, Thomas; Bernardinelli, Gérald; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Clifford, Sarah; Dalla Favera, Natalia; Piguet, Claude

    2009-06-15

    The connection of an additional bidentate chelating unit at the extremity of a segmental bis-tridentate ligand in L5 provides an unprecedented sequence of binding sites for the self-assembly of heterometallic 3d-4f triple-stranded helicates. Thorough thermodynamic and structural investigations in acetonitrile show the formation of intricate mixtures of complexes when a single type of metal (3d or 4f) is reacted with L5. However, the situation is greatly simplified when Zn(II) (3d-block) and Lu(III) (4f-block) are simultaneously coordinated to L5, thus leading to only two identified species: the target C(3)-symmetrical trinuclear triple-stranded d-f-f helicate HHH-[ZnLu(2)(L5)(3)](8+) and a tetranuclear double-stranded complex [Zn(2)Lu(2)(L5)(2)](10+). Interestingly, the removal of Zn(II) from the former triple-helical complex has only a minor effect on the coordination of Lu(III), and translational autodiffusion coefficients show a simple reduction of the length of the molecular rigid cylinder from L = 2.7 nm in HHH-[ZnLu(2)(L5)(3)](8+) to L = 2.3 nm in HHH-[Lu(2)(L5)(3)](6+). Finally, the complete thermodynamic picture provides five novel stability macroconstants containing information about short-range (ca. 9 A) and long-range (ca. 18 A) intramolecular intermetallic d-f and f-f interactions. PMID:19499959

  18. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOEpatents

    Bolstad, Jon O.

    1987-01-01

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  19. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOEpatents

    Bolstad, J.O.

    1984-06-12

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  20. Enhanced integral imaging system using image floating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Sung-Wook; Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-09-01

    Enhanced integral imaging system based on the image floating method is proposed. The integral imaging is one of the most promising methods among the autostereoscopic displays and the integrated image has the volumetric characteristics unlike the other stereoscopic images. The image floating is a common 3D display technique, which uses a big convex lens or a concave mirror to exhibit the image of a real object to the observer. The image floating method can be used to emphasize the viewing characteristics of the volumetric image and the noise image which is located on the fixed plane can be eliminated by the floating lens through the control of the focal length. In this paper, the solution of the seam noise and the image flipping of the integral imaging system is proposed using the image floating method. Moreover, the advanced techniques of the integral imaging system can be directly applied to the proposed system. The proposed system can be successfully applied to many 3D applications such as 3D television.

  1. Functional characterization of genetic polymorphisms identified in the human cytochrome P450 4F12 (CYP4F12) promoter region.

    PubMed

    Cauffiez, Christelle; Klinzig, Florian; Rat, Emmanuel; Tournel, Gilles; Allorge, Delphine; Chevalier, Dany; Lovecchio, Tonio; Pottier, Nicolas; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Lhermitte, Michel; D'Halluin, Jean-Claude; Broly, Franck; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc

    2004-06-15

    The human cytochrome CYP4F12 has been shown to be active toward inflammatory mediators and exogenous compounds such as antihistaminic drugs. In the present study, we report the first investigation of polymorphisms in the human CYP4F12 gene. A screening for sequence variations in the 5'-flanking region was performed by a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) strategy, using DNA samples from 53 unrelated French individuals of Caucasian origin. Several polymorphisms were identified, comprising a large deletion located in intron 1 (CYP4F12*v1), two isolated substitutions -402G>A (CYP4F12*v3) and -188 T>C (CYP4F12*v4) and nine combined mutations, -474T>C, -279A>C, -224A>G, -173G>A, -145C>G, -140T>C, -126T>C, -56T>C, and -21T>G (CYP4F12*v2). Considering the nature and location of the polymorphisms characterizing the CYP4F12*v1 and *v2, the functional relevance of those two allelic variants was further examined by transfecting different cell lines with constructs of the related region of the CYP4F12/luciferase reporter gene. Both alleles lead to a significant decrease of CYP4F12 gene expression in HepG2 cell line and, therefore, are likely to determine interindividual differences in CYP4F12 gene expression. PMID:15163554

  2. Inertial imaging with nanomechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Hanay, M Selim; Kelber, Scott I; O'Connell, Cathal D; Mulvaney, Paul; Sader, John E; Roukes, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Mass sensing with nanoelectromechanical systems has advanced significantly during the last decade. With nanoelectromechanical systems sensors it is now possible to carry out ultrasensitive detection of gaseous analytes, to achieve atomic-scale mass resolution and to perform mass spectrometry on single proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of mass within an individual analyte can be imaged--in real time and at the molecular scale--when it adsorbs onto a nanomechanical resonator. Each single-molecule adsorption event induces discrete, time-correlated perturbations to all modal frequencies of the device. We show that by continuously monitoring a multiplicity of vibrational modes, the spatial moments of mass distribution can be deduced for individual analytes, one-by-one, as they adsorb. We validate this method for inertial imaging, using both experimental measurements of multimode frequency shifts and numerical simulations, to analyse the inertial mass, position of adsorption and the size and shape of individual analytes. Unlike conventional imaging, the minimum analyte size detectable through nanomechanical inertial imaging is not limited by wavelength-dependent diffraction phenomena. Instead, frequency fluctuation processes determine the ultimate attainable resolution. Advanced nanoelectromechanical devices appear capable of resolving molecular-scale analytes.

  3. Stereoscopic wide field of view imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prechtl, Eric F. (Inventor); Sedwick, Raymond J. (Inventor); Jonas, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A stereoscopic imaging system incorporates a plurality of imaging devices or cameras to generate a high resolution, wide field of view image database from which images can be combined in real time to provide wide field of view or panoramic or omni-directional still or video images.

  4. Imaging systems and materials characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides a broad background for the historical development and modern applications of light optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, field-ion microscopy and several forms of scanning probe microscopes. Numerous case examples illustrating especially synergistic applications of these imaging systems are provided to demonstrate materials characterization especially in the context of structure-property-performance issues which define materials science and engineering.

  5. Combined terahertz imaging system for enhanced imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganova, Irina N.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Metelkina, Anna A.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2016-06-01

    An improved terahertz (THz) imaging system is proposed for enhancing image quality. Imaging scheme includes THz source and detection system operated in active mode as well as in passive one. In order to homogeneously illuminate the object plane the THz reshaper is proposed. The form and internal structure of the reshaper were studied by the numerical simulation. Using different test-objects we compare imaging quality in active and passive THz imaging modes. Imaging contrast and modulation transfer functions in active and passive imaging modes show drawbacks of them in high and low spatial frequencies, respectively. The experimental results confirm the benefit of combining both imaging modes into hybrid one. The proposed algorithm of making hybrid THz image is an effective approach of retrieving maximum information about the remote object.

  6. Imaging methodologies for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah E; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology has recently achieved significant success in the understanding of complex interconnected phenomena such as cell polarity and migration. In this context, the definition of systems biology has come to encompass the integration of quantitative measurements with sophisticated modeling approaches. This article will review recent progress in live cell imaging technologies that have expanded the possibilities of quantitative in vivo measurements, particularly in regards to molecule counting and quantitative measurements of protein concentration and dynamics. These methods have gained and continue to gain popularity with the biological community. In general, we will discuss three broad categories: protein interactions, protein quantitation, and protein dynamics. PMID:25482526

  7. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  8. Studies of low-lying triplet states in 1,3-C4F6, c-C4F6 and 2-C4F6 by electron energy-loss spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Anzai, K.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Silva, F. Ferreira da; Mogi, D.; Tanioka, T.; Tanaka, H.

    2013-06-01

    This Letter reports on the first measurements of the lowest lying triplet states as studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy for C4F6 isomers, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4F6), hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) and hexafluoro-2-butyne (2-C4F6). This study has been performed at an incident electron energy of 30 eV, 30°, whilst sweeping the energy loss over the range 2.0-15.0 eV. The electronic state spectroscopy has been investigated and the assignments supported by multi-reference quantum chemical calculations. The transition to the steepest electronic excited potential energy curve, is suggested to be dominant for 2-C4F6, due to the large broadening in its energy profile.

  9. Energies of 4f^N and 4f^N-15d States Relative to Host Bands in Rare-earth-doped Fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, C. W.; Joubert, M.-F.; Tkachuk, A.

    2005-03-01

    Energies of 4f^N states relative to crystal band states were measured for rare-earth ions in the optical host materials LiYF4, Na0.4Y0.6F2.2, and LaF3 using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Spectra were modeled to determine the valence band maximum and 4f^ electron binding energies in each material. These results were combined with 4f^N to 4f^N-15d transition energies to determine 5d binding energies for the lowest levels of excited 4f^N-15d configurations. While 4f^N ground-state energies vary within several eV of the valence band maximum for different rare-earth ions in each host, the lowest 4f^N-15d states have similar energies and are several eV below the bottom of the conduction band. A simple model accurately described 4f^N and 4f^N-15d binding energies across the entire series of rare-earth ions. These results improve the understanding of optical materials for lasers, phosphors, and spectral hole burning applications for optical signal processing and data storage.

  10. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places hot spots, or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  11. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  12. Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.

  13. Pioneer imaging photopolarimeter optical system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellicori, S. F.; Russell, E. E.; Watts, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft en route to the vicinity of Jupiter is described. This instrument is capable of moderate resolution spin-scan imaging and high precision polarimetric and photometric mapping of Jupiter in red and blue light. The field of view can be selectively changed from 0.50 mrad square to 40 mrad square to accommodate resolution and radiance combinations ranging from the zodiacal background to that of Jupiter. Optical materials were chosen to survive, with minimum degradation, the rigors of a nearly 2-year journey to Jupiter including transit through the Jovian trapped radiation belts. The optics are described in detail, and the operational system is outlined. The procedures for preflight and in-flight calibration are described, and some performance characteristics and preliminary flight results are presented.

  14. Pioneer imaging photopolarimeter optical system.

    PubMed

    Pellicori, S F; Russell, E E; Watts, L A

    1973-06-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft en route to the vicinity of Jupiter is described. This instrument is capable of moderate resolution spin-scan imaging and high precision polarimetric and photometric mapping of Jupiter in red and blue light. The field of view can be selectively changed from 0.50 mrad square to 40 mrad square to accommodate resolution and radiance combinations ranging from the zodiacal background to that of Jupiter. The dynamic range (radiance) of the instrument is greater than 10(8). Optical materials were chosen to survive, with minimum degradation, the rigors of a nearly 2-year journey to Jupiter including transit through the Jovian trapped radiation belts. The optics are described in detail, and the operational system is outlined. The procedures for preflight and in-flight calibration are described, and some performance characteristics and preliminary flight results are presented. PMID:20125507

  15. Single System Image Cluster Management

    2004-02-13

    Cluster computing has quickly proven itself to be a capable workhorse for a wide variety of production computing tasks; however, setting up and maintaining a cluster still requires significantly more effort than administrating just a single machine. As computing hardware descreases in price and cluster sizes grow, it is becoming increasingly important to manage clusters cleverly so that a system administration effort can "scale" as well. To ease the task of mananging many machines, administratorsmore » often deploy an environment that is homogeneous across all nodes of a cluster, and maintain a snapshot of the filesystem as a 'master image'. However due to operational, behavioral, and physical constraints, many nodes often require numerous deviations from the master image in order to operate as desired.« less

  16. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  17. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V.

    2016-05-03

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  18. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-12-31

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  19. Stochastic image reconstruction for a dual-particle imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, M. C.; Polack, J. K.; Poitrasson-Rivière, A.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2016-02-01

    Stochastic image reconstruction has been applied to a dual-particle imaging system being designed for nuclear safeguards applications. The dual-particle imager (DPI) is a combined Compton-scatter and neutron-scatter camera capable of producing separate neutron and photon images. The stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) method was investigated as an imaging method for the DPI because only a minimal estimation of system response is required to produce images with quality that is comparable to common maximum-likelihood methods. This work contains neutron and photon SOE image reconstructions for a 252Cf point source, two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel canisters representing point sources, and the MOX fuel canisters representing a distributed source. Simulation of the DPI using MCNPX-PoliMi is validated by comparison of simulated and measured results. Because image quality is dependent on the number of counts and iterations used, the relationship between these quantities is investigated.

  20. Auto-Versioning Systems Image Manager

    2013-08-01

    The av_sys_image_mgr utility provides an interface for the creation, manipulation, and analysis of system boot images for computer systems. It is primarily intended to provide a convenient method for managing the introduction of changes to boot images for long-lived production HPC systems.

  1. Accessing 4f-states in single-molecule spintronics.

    PubMed

    Fahrendorf, Sarah; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Besson, Claire; Caciuc, Vasile; Matthes, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Kögerler, Paul; Bürgler, Daniel E; Schneider, Claus M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic molecules are potential functional units for molecular and supramolecular spintronic devices. However, their magnetic and electronic properties depend critically on their interaction with metallic electrodes. Charge transfer and hybridization modify the electronic structure and thereby influence or even quench the molecular magnetic moment. Yet, detection and manipulation of the molecular spin state by means of charge transport, that is, spintronic functionality, mandates a certain level of hybridization of the magnetic orbitals with electrode states. Here we show how a judicious choice of the molecular spin centres determines these critical molecule-electrode contact characteristics. In contrast to late lanthanide analogues, the 4f-orbitals of single bis(phthalocyaninato)-neodymium(III) molecules adsorbed on Cu(100) can be directly accessed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Hence, they contribute to charge transport, whereas their magnetic moment is sustained as evident from comparing spectroscopic data with ab initio calculations. Our results showcase how tailoring molecular orbitals can yield all-electrically controlled spintronic device concepts.

  2. Using an image retrieval system for image data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Jatko, William B.; Lakhani, Fred

    2002-07-01

    Images of semiconductor defects are maintained in semiconductor yield-management systems to help diagnose problems that arise during the manufacturing process. A common problem in future systems is the number of images to maintain, which is increasing at an alarming rate due to the growing use of in-line and off-line imaging systems. A manufacturing-specific content-based image retrieval system, or Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) system, was developed by ORNL in coordination with International SEMATECH during 1998-1999. The system uses commercial databases to store image information and uses a customized indexing technology to rapidly retrieve similar images base don visual content. In addition to acting as a yield management tool based on storing and retrieving images, the system can be utilized as a tool for data management by helping determine when images are redundant in relation to previously stored data. Ideally this information can be used to time-stamp the data for future purging based on a variety of ratings such as 'long- term', 'mid-term', and 'short-term'. In some situations the feedback from the AIR system can even be used to omit the image entirely based on pre-existing close matches. In this paper we explore techniques for using the AIR system to assist in image data management. Experimental results are shown with simulated image data representing various degrees of image clustering of redundancy, and manufacturing image data accumulated during earlier field-testing of the AIR system at industry sites. Early results indicate substantial reductions in the size of industry databases may be achievable while continuing to maintain an adequate representation and history of the manufacturing process. To reduce the number of stored images, AIR technology can be used in place of, or as a guide for, the typical 'store for N months and purge' approach to image management. This approach will enhance the use of the image database, since the real bottleneck in

  3. Information Systems - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) represents an effort by CIP grantees in a consortium to create a database of spiral CT images of the lung for use in CAD (computer-aided detection) algorithm research. The Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) is extending the efforts of the LIDC, to create a larger database of spiral CT imaging of the lung for use in CAD algorithm research. Image Archive Resources contains links to Web sites related to the interests of the NCI CIP Image Archive Committee. The Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) is a database of research data on in vivo molecular imaging and contrast agents.

  4. Infrared and Raman spectra of the fluoroxysulfate ion, SO/sub 4/F/sup -1 -/, and of fluorine perchlorate, ClO/sub 4/F

    SciTech Connect

    Appelman, E.H.; Basile, L.J.; Kim, H.

    1982-07-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of solid cesium and rubidium fluoroxysulfates, CsSO/sub 4/F and RbSO/sub 4/F, have been measured, along with the gas-phase spectra of the isoelectronic molecule fluorine perchlorate, ClO/sub 4/F. The spectra are consistent with a perchloric acid type structure of C/sub s/ symmetry, and the vibrational bands have been assigned with reference to the analogous species of C/sub 3..nu../ symmetry: the fluorosulfate ion, SO/sub 3/F/sup -/, and perchloryl fluoride, ClO/sub 3/F. Normal-coordinate analyses have been carried out for both ClO/sub 4/F and SO/sub 4/F/sup -/. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Measurement of image plane illumination uniformity of photoelectric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Deng-kui; Yang, Hong; Sha, Ding-guo; Jiang, Chang-lu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Xing-hui; Ma, Shi-bang; Yuan, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The image plane illumination nonuniformity caused by optical system or detector will affect the detection precision of photoelectric imaging system, especially in image guidance, positioning and recognition. An image plane illumination uniformity measurement device was set up, which was characteristiced of high uniformity and wide dynamic range. The device was composed of an asymmetric integrating sphere,the image collection and processing system, as well as the electrical control system.The asymmetric integrating sphere had two different radius,which was respectively 800mm and 1000mm.The spectral region was (0.4~1.1)μm, the illumination range was (1×10-4~2×104)lx. The image collection and processing system had two different acquisition card,which were respectively used for analog and digital signals. The software can process for dynamic image or static image. The TracePro software was used to make a internal ray tracing of integrating sphere, the illumination uniformity at the export was simulated for the size of 330mm×230mm and Φ 100mm export, the results were respectively 97.95% and 98.33%. Then,an illuminometer was used to measure the actual illumination uniformity of integrating sphere, the result was shown the actual illumination uniformity was 98.8%. Finally, a visible photoelectric imaging system was tested ,and three different uniformity indicators results were given.

  6. Improved Interactive Medical-Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Twombly, Ian A.; Senger, Steven

    2003-01-01

    An improved computational-simulation system for interactive medical imaging has been invented. The system displays high-resolution, three-dimensional-appearing images of anatomical objects based on data acquired by such techniques as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). The system enables users to manipulate the data to obtain a variety of views for example, to display cross sections in specified planes or to rotate images about specified axes. Relative to prior such systems, this system offers enhanced capabilities for synthesizing images of surgical cuts and for collaboration by users at multiple, remote computing sites.

  7. Pressure variation of 4f excitation energies in Eu and Tm metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J. F.; Wilkins, J. W.

    1987-08-01

    Calculations of 4f-electron excitation energies as functions of the Wigner-Seitz radius rWS in europium and thulium metals are reported. Crystal potentials are constructed by the renormalized-atom method for integrally-occupied 4f configurations, and each excitation energy is derived from a difference of band total energies. As rWS decreases for each metal the 6s and 5d levels are progressively depopulated, leading to enhancement of the 4f occupancy at elevated pressures. In particular our results predict a 4f7-->4f8 transition in Eu at a pressure P~44 Mbar and a 4f12-->4f13 transition in Tm at P~3 Mbar.

  8. Copper Causes Regiospecific Formation of C4 F8 -Containing Six-Membered Rings and their Defluorination/Aromatization to C4 F4 -Containing Rings in Triphenylene/1,4-C4 F8 I2 Reactions.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Kerry C; Bukovsky, Eric V; Clikeman, Tyler T; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue-Bin; Popov, Alexey A; Boltalina, Olga V; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-01-18

    The presence of Cu in reactions of triphenylene (TRPH) and 1,4-C4 F8 I2 at 360 °C led to regiospecific substitution of TRPH ortho C(β) atoms to form C4 F8 -containing rings, completely suppressing substitution on C(α) atoms. In addition, Cu caused selective reductive-defluorination/aromatization (RD/A) to form C4 F4 -containing aromatic rings. Without Cu, the reactions of TRPH and 1,4-C4 F8 I2 were not regiospecific and no RD/A was observed. These results, supported by DFT calculations, are the first examples of Cu-promoted 1) regiospecific perfluoroannulation, 2) preparative C-F activation, and 3) RD/A. HPLC-purified products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature PES, and (1) H/(19) F NMR. PMID:26581454

  9. Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John; Zawada, Dave

    2006-01-01

    "Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)" describes the U.S. Geological Survey's Along-Track Reef Imaging System, a boat-based sensor package for rapidly mapping shallow water benthic environments. ATRIS acquires high resolution, color digital images that are accurately geo-located in real-time.

  10. MIARS: a medical image retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Mueen, A; Zainuddin, R; Baba, M Sapiyan

    2010-10-01

    The next generation of medical information system will integrate multimedia data to assist physicians in clinical decision-making, diagnoses, teaching, and research. This paper describes MIARS (Medical Image Annotation and Retrieval System). MIARS not only provides automatic annotation, but also supports text based as well as image based retrieval strategies, which play important roles in medical training, research, and diagnostics. The system utilizes three trained classifiers, which are trained using training images. The goal of these classifiers is to provide multi-level automatic annotation. Another main purpose of the MIARS system is to study image semantic retrieval strategy by which images can be retrieved according to different levels of annotation.

  11. Image acquisition system for a hospital enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Stephen M.; Beecher, David E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital enterprises are being created through mergers and acquisitions of existing hospitals. One area of interest in the PACS literature has been the integration of information systems and imaging systems. Hospital enterprises with multiple information and imaging systems provide new challenges to the integration task. This paper describes the requirements at the BJC Health System and a testbed system that is designed to acquire images from a number of different modalities and hospitals. This testbed system is integrated with Project Spectrum at BJC which is designed to provide a centralized clinical repository and a single desktop application for physician review of the patient chart (text, lab values, images).

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigation of 4f3↔4f25d interconfigurational transitions in Nd3+:LiYF4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collombet, A.; Guyot, Y.; Joubert, M. F.; Laroche, M.; Margerie, J.; Moncorgé, R.; Descroix, E.

    2003-07-01

    A complete spectroscopic investigation of the 4f3↔4f25d optical transitions of the Nd3+ ion is performed in the case of Nd:LiYF4, based on emission, excitation, ground-state absorption as well as excited-state absorption measurements. The global shape of all the experimental spectra is well reproduced by means of crystal-field calculations of the 4f25d sublevels, and the differences observed between polarized spectra on one hand, and between those recorded at low and room temperatures on the other hand, are successfully accounted for. It is also found that the absorption barycentre is shifted toward higher 4f25d energies when the chosen initial 4f3 sublevel itself is shifted toward higher energies. This behavior is assigned to a total or partial “memory” during the optical transition for the expectation values of different terms of the hamiltonian, especially the electrostatic ones. It is demonstrated that this effect should not be specific of Nd3+:LiYF4 and that it should occur, on the contrary, in every crystalline matrix and for any rare-earth ion from Pr3+ (4f2) to Tm3+ (4f12).

  13. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  14. Web-based medical image archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Edward B.; Warach, Steven; Cheung, Huey; Wang, Shaohua A.; Tangiral, Phanidral; Luby, Marie; Martino, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a Web-based medical image archive system in three-tier, client-server architecture for the storage and retrieval of medical image data, as well as patient information and clinical data. The Web-based medical image archive system was designed to meet the need of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke for a central image repository to address questions of stroke pathophysiology and imaging biomarkers in stroke clinical trials by analyzing images obtained from a large number of clinical trials conducted by government, academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers. In the database management-tier, we designed the image storage hierarchy to accommodate large binary image data files that the database software can access in parallel. In the middle-tier, a commercial Enterprise Java Bean server and secure Web server manages user access to the image database system. User-friendly Web-interfaces and applet tools are provided in the client-tier for easy access to the image archive system over the Internet. Benchmark test results show that our three-tier image archive system yields fast system response time for uploading, downloading, and querying the image database.

  15. IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR DUAL MODE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Miller, Erin A.; Misner, Alex C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Pitts, W. Karl; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-06-11

    The level of detail discernable in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes where information barriers are mandatory. However, if a balance can be struck between sufficient information barriers and feature extraction to verify or identify objects of interest, imaging may significantly advance verification efforts. This paper describes the development of combined active (conventional) radiography and passive (auto) radiography techniques for imaging sensitive items assuming that comparison images cannot be furnished. Three image analysis algorithms are presented, each of which reduces full image information to non-sensitive feature information and ultimately is intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying features present in the image. These algorithms are evaluated on both their technical performance in image analysis and their application with or without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The first algorithm reduces images to non-invertible pixel intensity histograms, retaining only summary information about the image that can be used in template comparisons. This one-way transform is sufficient to discriminate between different image structures (in terms of area and density) without revealing unnecessary specificity. The second algorithm estimates the attenuation cross-section of objects of known shape based on transition characteristics around the edge of the object’s image. The third algorithm compares the radiography image with the passive image to discriminate dense, radioactive material from point sources or inactive dense material. By comparing two images and reporting only a single statistic from the combination thereof, this algorithm can operate entirely behind an information barrier stage. Together with knowledge of the radiography system, the use of these algorithms in combination can be used to improve verification capability to inspection regimes and improve

  16. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    SciTech Connect

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W.

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  17. Handbook on COMTAL's Image Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulcon, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    An image processing system is the combination of an image processor with other control and display devices plus the necessary software needed to produce an interactive capability to analyze and enhance image data. Such an image processing system installed at NASA Langley Research Center, Instrument Research Division, Acoustics and Vibration Instrumentation Section (AVIS) is described. Although much of the information contained herein can be found in the other references, it is hoped that this single handbook will give the user better access, in concise form, to pertinent information and usage of the image processing system.

  18. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  19. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  20. Low-cost image analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  1. Image reconstruction and optimization using a terahertz scanned imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, İhsan Ozan; Özkan, Vedat A.; Idikut, Fırat; Takan, Taylan; Şahin, Asaf B.; Altan, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Due to the limited number of array detection architectures in the millimeter wave to terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, imaging schemes with scan architectures are typically employed. In these configurations the interplay between the frequencies used to illuminate the scene and the optics used play an important role in the quality of the formed image. Using a multiplied Schottky-diode based terahertz transceiver operating at 340 GHz, in a stand-off detection scheme; the effect of image quality of a metal target was assessed based on the scanning speed of the galvanometer mirrors as well as the optical system that was constructed. Background effects such as leakage on the receiver were minimized by conditioning the signal at the output of the transceiver. Then, the image of the target was simulated based on known parameters of the optical system and the measured images were compared to the simulation. By using an image quality index based on χ2 algorithm the simulated and measured images were found to be in good agreement with a value of χ2 = 0 .14. The measurements as shown here will aid in the future development of larger stand-off imaging systems that work in the terahertz frequency range.

  2. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  3. Image enhancement method for fingerprint recognition system.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunshan; Wei, Min; Tang, Haiying; Zhuang, Tiange; Buonocore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Image enhancement plays an important role in Fingerprint Recognition System. In this paper fingerprint image enhancement method, a refined Gabor filter, is presented. This enhancement method can connect the ridge breaks, ensures the maximal gray values located at the ridge center and has the ability to compensate for the nonlinear deformations. The result shows it can improve the performance of image enhancement.

  4. Carbothermal reduction synthesis of carbon coated Na2FePO4F for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Dongming; Chen, Shasha; Han, Chang; Ai, Changchun; Yuan, Liangjie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon coated spherical Na2FePO4F particles with typical diameters from 500 nm to 1 μm have been synthesized through an economical carbothermal reduction method with a simple apparatus. Mixed carbon source consists of citric acid and phenolic resin can form highly graphitized carbon and remarkably improve the electrical conductivity. When cycled against lithium, Na2FePO4F/C cathodes deliver maximum discharge capacity of 119 mAh g-1 at a low rate of 0.05 C. Reversible capacity of 110 mAh g-1, 74 mAh g-1 and 52 mAh g-1 can be obtained at 0.1 C, 1 C and 2 C rates, respectively. And after 30 cycles at 0.1 C, 91% of the discharge capacity can still be maintained. The electrochemical kinetic characteristic of electrode material is investigated by EIS and the apparent Li+ diffusion coefficient in the Li/Na2FePO4F system is evaluated to be as high as 1.152 × 10-11 cm2 s-1. This study demonstrates that the practical and economical synthesis process can be a promising way for industrial production of high performance Na2FePO4F/C electrode material for large-scale lithium ion batteries.

  5. Far Ultraviolet Imaging from the Image Spacecraft. 1; System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U.; Lampton, M.; Geller, S. P.; Habraken, S.; Renotte, E.; Jamar, C.; Rochus, P.; Spann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft A,ill be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these observations and tile measurement of the magnetospheric back-round neutral gas density, the IMAGE satellite instrument complement includes three Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. In tile wavelength region 120-1 90 nm. a downward-viewing aurora imager is only minimally contaminated sunlight, scattered from clouds and ground, and radiance of the aurora observed in a nadir viewing geometry can be observed in the presence of the high-latitude day-low. Tile Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) will provide broadband ultraviolet images of the aurora for maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the LBH N2 bands of the aurora. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a monochromatic imager, will image different types of aurora, filtered by wavelength. By measuring the Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha, the proton-induced component of the aurora will be imaged separately. Finally, the GEO instrument will observe the distribution of the geocoronal emission, which is a measure of the neutral background density source of the charge exchange in the magnetosphere. The FUV instrument complement looks radially outward from the rotating IMAGE satellite and, therefore, it spends only a short time observing tile aurora and the Earth during, each spin. Detailed descriptions of the WIC, Si, GEO, and their individual performance validations are discussed in companion papers. This paper summarizes the system requirements and system design approach taken to satisfy the science requirements. One primary requirement is to maximize photon collection efficiency and use efficiently tile short time available foe exposures. The FUV auroral imagers WIC and SI both have wide fields of view and take data continuously as the auroral region proceeds through the field of view. To minimize data volume, multiple images

  6. Single-Camera Panoramic-Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Jeffrey L.; Gilbert, John

    2007-01-01

    Panoramic detection systems (PDSs) are developmental video monitoring and image-data processing systems that, as their name indicates, acquire panoramic views. More specifically, a PDS acquires images from an approximately cylindrical field of view that surrounds an observation platform. The main subsystems and components of a basic PDS are a charge-coupled- device (CCD) video camera and lens, transfer optics, a panoramic imaging optic, a mounting cylinder, and an image-data-processing computer. The panoramic imaging optic is what makes it possible for the single video camera to image the complete cylindrical field of view; in order to image the same scene without the benefit of the panoramic imaging optic, it would be necessary to use multiple conventional video cameras, which have relatively narrow fields of view.

  7. Ligand field density functional theory calculation of the 4f2→ 4f15d1 transitions in the quantum cutter Cs2KYF6:Pr3+.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Urland, Werner; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Daul, Claude

    2013-09-01

    Herein we present a Ligand Field Density Functional Theory (LFDFT) based methodology for the analysis of the 4f(n)→ 4f(n-1)5d(1) transitions in rare earth compounds and apply it for the characterization of the 4f(2)→ 4f(1)5d(1) transitions in the quantum cutter Cs2KYF6:Pr(3+) with the elpasolite structure type. The methodological advances are relevant for the analysis and prospection of materials acting as phosphors in light-emitting diodes. The positions of the zero-phonon energy corresponding to the states of the electron configurations 4f(2) and 4f(1)5d(1) are calculated, where the praseodymium ion may occupy either the Cs(+)-, K(+)- or the Y(3+)-site, and are compared with available experimental data. The theoretical results show that the occupation of the three undistorted sites allows a quantum-cutting process. However size effects due to the difference between the ionic radii of Pr(3+) and K(+) as well as Cs(+) lead to the distortion of the K(+)- and the Cs(+)-site, which finally exclude these sites for quantum-cutting. A detailed discussion about the origin of this distortion is also described.

  8. The screening of 4f moments and delocalization in the compressed light rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, A K; Scalettar, R T; Jarrell, M

    2009-08-19

    Spin and charge susceptibilities and the 4f{sup n}, 4f{sup n{+-}1} configuration weights are calculated for compressed Ce (n=1), Pr (n=2), and Nd (n=3) metals using dynamical mean field theory combined with the local-density approximation. At ambient and larger volumes these trivalent rare earths are pinned at sharp 4f{sup n} configurations, their 4f moments assume atomic-limiting values, are unscreened, and the 4f charge fluctuations are small indicating little f state density near the Fermi level. Under compresssion there is dramatic screening of the moments and an associated increase in both the 4f charge fluctuations and static charge susceptibility. These changes are coincident with growing weights of the 4f{sup n-1} configurations, which it is argued are better measures of delocalization than the 4f{sup n+1} weights which are compromised by an increase in the number of 4f electrons caused by rising 6s, 6p bands. This process is continuous and prolonged as a function of volume, with strikingly similarity among the three rare earths, aside from the effects moderating and shifting to smaller volumes for the heavier members. The observed {alpha}-{gamma} collapse in Ce occurs over the large-volume half of this evolution, the Pr analog at smaller volumes, and Nd has no collapse.

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F blocks sphingomyelinase-induced LDL aggregation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T; Öörni, Katariina

    2015-06-01

    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20:1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20:1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modified LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention.

  10. Phase transfer function of digital imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Vikrant R.

    For the past several decades, optical engineering has relied heavily on Fourier analysis of linear systems as a valuable aid in realizing numerous imaging applications. Today, spatial frequency analysis via the optical transfer function (OTF) remains an integral tool for the design, characterization and testing of incoherent imaging systems. The magnitude of the complex OTF is known as the modulation transfer function (MTF) and its phase is given by the phase transfer function (PTF). The MTF represents the contrast reduction at each spatial frequency; whereas, the PTF represents the spatial shift of these frequencies. While the MTF has been used extensively to characterize imaging systems, the PTF has long been ignored because it was thought to have an insignificant presence and to be difficult to understand and measure. Through theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations, this work addresses all of these issues and shows that the PTF is a valuable tool for modern-day digital imaging systems. The effects of optical aberrations on the PTF of an imaging system in the absence of aliasing have been analyzed in detail. However, for the digital imaging systems, the effect of aliasing on the overall system behavior becomes an important consideration. To this end, the effects of aliasing on the PTF of the sampled imaging system are described and its key properties are derived. The role of PTF as an essential metric in today's imaging systems necessitates practical PTF measurement techniques. Two, easy-to-implement, image-based methods for PTF measurement are described and experimentally validated. These measurement methods and the insights gained from the theoretical analysis are leveraged for several applications spanning diverse fields such as optical system characterization, computational imaging, and image processing.

  11. RNA editing and regulation of Drosophila 4f-rnp expression by sas-10 antisense readthrough mRNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Peters, Nick T; Rohrbach, Justin A; Zalewski, Brian A; Byrkett, Colleen M; Vaughn, Jack C

    2003-06-01

    We have previously described an example of extensively A-to-G edited cDNA derived from adult heads of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In that study, the source of the predicted antisense RNA pairing strand for template recognition by dADAR editase was not identified, and the biological significance of the observed hyperediting was not known. Here, we address each of these questions. 4f-rnp and sas-10 are closely adjacent X-linked genes located on opposite DNA strands that produce convergent transcripts. We show that developmentally regulated antisense sas-10 readthrough mRNA arises by activation of an upstream promoter P2 during the late embryo stage of fly development. The sas-10 readthrough transcripts pair with 4f-rnp mRNA to form double-stranded molecules, as indicated by A-to-G editing observed in both RNA strands. It would be predicted that perfect RNA duplexes would be targeted for modification/degradation by enzyme pathways that recognize double-stranded RNAs, leading to decline in 4f-rnp mRNA levels, and this is what we observe. The observation using quantitative RT-PCR that sas-10 readthrough and 4f-rnp transcript levels are inversely related suggests a role for the antisense RNA in posttranscriptional regulation of 4f-rnp gene expression during development. Potential molecular mechanisms that could lead to this result are discussed, one of which is targeted transcript degradation via the RNAi pathway. Insofar as the dADAR editase and RNAi pathways are known to be constitutive in this system, it is likely that control of antisense RNA transcription is the rate-limiting factor. The results provide insight into roles of naturally occurring antisense RNAs in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression.

  12. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  13. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  14. Fidelity Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1999-01-01

    Many modeling, simulation and performance analysis studies of sampled imaging systems are inherently incomplete because they are conditioned on a discrete-input, discrete-output model that only accounts for blurring during image acquisition and additive noise. For those sampled imaging systems where the effects of digital image acquisition, digital filtering and reconstruction are significant, the modeling, simulation and performance analysis should be based on a more comprehensive continuous-input, discrete-processing, continuous-output end-to-end model. This more comprehensive model should properly account for the low-pass filtering effects of image acquisition prior to sampling, the potentially important noiselike effects of the aliasing caused by sampling, additive noise due to device electronics and quantization, the generally high-boost filtering effects of digital processing, and the low-pass filtering effects of image reconstruction. This model should not, however, be so complex as to preclude significant mathematical analysis, particularly the mean-square (fidelity) type of analysis so common in linear system theory. We demonstrate that, although the mathematics of such a model is more complex, the increase in complexity is not so great as to prevent a complete fidelity-metric analysis at both the component level and at the end-to-end system level: that is, computable mean-square-based fidelity metrics are developed by which both component-level and system-level performance can be quantified. In addition, we demonstrate that system performance can be assessed qualitatively by visualizing the output image as the sum of three component images, each of which relates to a corresponding fidelity metric. The cascaded, or filtered, component accounts for the end-to-end system filtering of image acquisition, digital processing, and image reconstruction; the random noise component accounts for additive random noise, modulated by digital processing and image

  15. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  16. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  17. Magnetism and superconductivity driven by identical 4f states in a heavy-fermion metal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe E; Nair, S; Stockert, O; Witte, U; Nicklas, M; Schedler, R; Bianchi, A; Fisk, Z; Wirth, S; Steglich, K

    2009-01-01

    The apparently inimical relationship between magnetism and superconductivity has come under increasing scrutiny in a wide range of material classes, where the free energy landscape conspires to bring them in close proximity to each other. Particularly enigmatic is the case when these phases microscopically interpenetrate, though the manner in which this can be accomplished remains to be fully comprehended. Here, we present combined measurements of elastic neutron scattering, magnetotransport, and heat capacity on a prototypical heavy fermion system, in which antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are observed. Monitoring the response of these states to the presence of the other, as well as to external thermal and magnetic perturbations, points to the possibility that they emerge from different parts of the Fermi surface. Therefore, a single 4f state could be both localized and itinerant, thus accounting for the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity.

  18. Nanosized LiVPO4F/graphene composite: A promising anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiexi; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Huang, Bin; Wang, Zhiguo; Guo, Huajun

    2014-04-01

    This study first reports the synthesis of the nanosized LiVPO4F/graphene composite (LVPF/G). The LVPF/G composite is prepared by a facile mechanochemical approach. XRD results reveal that the prepared composite are well crystallized with triclinic LiVPO4F. SEM and TEM images demonstrate that the LiVPO4F nanoparticles in the composite are well enwrapped by graphene. Used as anode material for lithium ion batteries, the prepared LVPF/G composite exhibits greatly improved electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties the LVPF/G composite depend heavily on the discharge cut-off potential. When the cut-off potential is altered to 0.01 V vs. Li/Li+, it possesses the best electrochemical performance. Under such optimal charge-discharge condition (3-0.01 V vs. Li/Li+), it shows an initial charge capacity of 287 mAh g-1 at 0.1C rate (1C = 310 mA g-1) and shows no capacity fading after 100 cycles. It also exhibits good rate capability, delivering about 168 mAh g-1 at 10C rate.

  19. Bioenergetic programming of macrophages by the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F.

    PubMed

    Datta, Geeta; Kramer, Philip A; Johnson, Michelle S; Sawada, Hirotaka; Smythies, Lesley E; Crossman, David K; Chacko, Balu; Ballinger, Scott W; Westbrook, David G; Mayakonda, Palgunachari; Anantharamaiah, G M; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; White, C Roger

    2015-05-01

    The apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mimetic peptide 4F favours the differentiation of human monocytes to an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. The goal of the present study was to test whether the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs (monocyte-derived macrophages) requires the induction of an oxidative metabolic programme. 4F treatment induced several genes in MDMs that play an important role in lipid metabolism, including PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CD36. Addition of 4F was associated with a significant increase in FA (fatty acid) uptake and oxidation compared with vehicle treatment. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by measurement of the OCR (oxygen-consumption rate). 4F increased basal and ATP-linked OCR as well as maximal uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. These changes were associated with a significant increase in ΔΨm (mitochondrial membrane potential). The increase in metabolic activity in 4F-treated MDMs was attenuated by etomoxir, an inhibitor of mitochondrial FA uptake. Finally, addition of the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 to 4F-treated MDMs reduced the expression of CD163 and CD36, cell-surface markers for M2 macrophages, and reduced basal and ATP-linked OCR. These results support our hypothesis that the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs to an anti-inflammatory phenotype is due, in part, to an increase in FA uptake and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  20. Imaging the Glycome in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Boyangzi; Mock, Feiyan; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The glycome, the full complement of glycans that cells produce, is an attractive target for molecular imaging. Imaging of the glycome in living systems has recently been enabled via bioorthogonal chemical reporter-based approaches. In this chapter, we describe two approaches to introduce bioorthogonal chemical reporters (tags) onto cell surface fucosylated glycans and glycans bearing LacNAc disaccharides, respectively. The tagged glycans can then be conjugated to imaging probes via bioorthogonal click chemistry. Similar approaches can be extended to image other sectors of the glycome in living systems. PMID:22289465

  1. Modified pressure system for imaging egg cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2008-04-01

    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.

  2. Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Mukai, Toshikazu

    2016-03-01

    We report a feasibility study of a terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) that oscillate at 0.30 THz. A pair of RTDs acted as an emitter and a detector in the system. Terahertz reflection images of opaque samples were acquired with our RTD imaging system. A spatial resolution of 1 mm, which is equal to the wavelength of the RTD emitter, was achieved. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection image was improved by 6 dB by using polarization optics that reduced interference effects. Additionally, the coherence of the RTD enabled a depth resolution of less than 3 µm to be achieved by an interferometric technique. Thus, RTDs are an attractive candidate for use in small THz imaging systems.

  3. Image change detection using a SWIR active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Armin L.; Monnin, David; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2013-10-01

    We are currently developing a system consisting of a GPS receiver, a three-axis magnetic compass as well as a digital video camera in order to visualize changes occuring along a regularily used itinerary. This is done by comparing actual images with images from the same scene, which have been acquired during a previous measurement. The luminosity of images from two different passages however can be quite different (due to different meteorological conditions). Whereas the global luminosity can be adjusted using non-linear luminosity correction, the treatment of shadows is more di cult. Since meteorological conditions cannot be controlled, we are investigating the possibility of using a Laser Gated Viewing system in the SWIR domain to illuminate the scene. Using appropriate filters for the camera, we are completely independent of natural illumination and in addition, the system can also be used at night.

  4. Expression of CYP4F12 in gastrointestinal and urogenital epithelia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Katarina; Schauer, Lydia; Sahlén, Göran E; Ronquist, Gunnar; Oliw, Ernst H

    2004-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 4F12 (CYP4F12) was originally cloned from human liver and small intestine. CYP4F12 can oxidize arachidonic acid, two stable prostaglandin H2 analogues, and an antihistamine, ebastine, but the tissue distribution and catalytic properties of CYP4F12 have not been fully investigated. An antipeptide polyclonal antibody was raised against the C-terminal of CYP4F12 (PLNVGLQ), evaluated by Western blot analysis and used for immunohistological analysis of 50 human tissues. Western blot analysis of recombinant CYP4F12, expressed in yeast, and microsomal proteins from adult and foetal liver, kidney, placenta at term, seminal vesicles, the prostate gland and purified prostasomes showed that the polyclonal antibody detected a protein of the expected size, approximately 60 kDa. CYP4F12 mRNA could be detected in seminal vesicles and prostate gland by reverse transcription-PCR. Prominent CYP4F12 immunoreactivity occurred, inter alia, in the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small intestine, and colon), collecting tubules, transitional epithelium, ovarian follicles, the endothelium of microvessels of placental villi (first trimester), and epidermis. We screened recombinant CYP4F12 for catalytic activity. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was hydroxylated at C18 and laurate at C11, but significant amounts of metabolites of 18:2n-6, 20:3n-9, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-6, and some prostaglandins could not be detected. We conclude that CYP4F12 is widely distributed in gastrointestinal and urogenital epithelia and exhibits a narrow substrate specificity. PMID:15078342

  5. Image informatics in systems biology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2005-02-01

    Digital optical microscopy, coupled with parallel processing and a large arsenal of labeling techniques, offers tremendous values to localize, identify, and characterize cells and molecules. This generates many image informatics challenges in requiring new algorithms and tools to extract, classify, correlate, and model image features and content from massive amounts of cellular and molecular images acquired. Image informatics aims to fill this gap. Coupling automated microscopy and image analysis with biostatistical and data mining techniques to provide a system biologic approach in studying the cells, the basic unit of life, potentially leads to many exciting applications in life and health sciences. In this presentation, we describe certain new system biology applications enabled by image informatics technology.

  6. Imaging characteristics of photogrammetric camera systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, R.; Halliday, J.

    1973-01-01

    In view of the current interest in high-altitude and space photographic systems for photogrammetric mapping, the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) undertook a comprehensive research project designed to explore the practical aspects of applying the latest image quality evaluation techniques to the analysis of such systems. The project had two direct objectives: (1) to evaluate the imaging characteristics of current U.S.G.S. photogrammetric camera systems; and (2) to develop methodologies for predicting the imaging capabilities of photogrammetric camera systems, comparing conventional systems with new or different types of systems, and analyzing the image quality of photographs. Image quality was judged in terms of a number of evaluation factors including response functions, resolving power, and the detectability and measurability of small detail. The limiting capabilities of the U.S.G.S. 6-inch and 12-inch focal length camera systems were established by analyzing laboratory and aerial photographs in terms of these evaluation factors. In the process, the contributing effects of relevant parameters such as lens aberrations, lens aperture, shutter function, image motion, film type, and target contrast procedures for analyzing image quality and predicting and comparing performance capabilities. ?? 1973.

  7. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  8. Caprin-1 is a target of the deafness gene Pou4f3 and is recruited to stress granules in cochlear hair cells in response to ototoxic damage.

    PubMed

    Towers, Emily R; Kelly, John J; Sud, Richa; Gale, Jonathan E; Dawson, Sally J

    2011-04-01

    The POU4 family of transcription factors are required for survival of specific cell types in different sensory systems. Pou4f3 is essential for the survival of auditory sensory hair cells and several mutations in human POU4F3 cause hearing loss. Thus, genes regulated by Pou4f3 are likely to be essential for hair cell survival. We performed a subtractive hybridisation screen in an inner-ear-derived cell line to find genes with differential expression in response to changes in Pou4f3 levels. The screen identified the stress-granule-associated protein Caprin-1 as being downregulated by Pou4f3. We demonstrated that this regulation occurs through the direct interaction of Pou4f3 with binding sites in the Caprin-1 5' flanking sequence, and describe the expression pattern of Caprin-1 mRNA and protein in the cochlea. Moreover, we found Caprin-1-containing stress granules are induced in cochlear hair cells following aminoglycoside-induced damage. This is the first report of stress granule formation in mammalian hair cells and suggests that the formation of Caprin-1-containing stress granules is a key damage response to a clinically relevant ototoxic agent. Our results have implications for the understanding of aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss and provide further evidence that stress granule formation is a fundamental cellular stress response.

  9. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  10. An Automated Imaging System for Radiation Biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Garty, Guy; Bigelow, Alan W.; Repin, Mikhail; Turner, Helen C.; Bian, Dakai; Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Taveras, Maria; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Brenner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe here an automated imaging system developed at the Center for High Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry. The imaging system is built around a fast, sensitive sCMOS camera and rapid switchable LED light source. It features complete automation of all the steps of the imaging process and contains built-in feedback loops to ensure proper operation. The imaging system is intended as a back end to the RABiT – a robotic platform for radiation biodosimetry. It is intended to automate image acquisition and analysis for four biodosimetry assays for which we have developed automated protocols: The Cytokinesis Blocked Micronucleus assay, the γ-H2AX assay, the Dicentric assay (using PNA or FISH probes) and the RABiT-BAND assay. PMID:25939519

  11. Venus Aerobot Surface Science Imaging System (VASSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    The VASSIS task was to design and develop an imaging system and container for operation above the surface of Venus in preparation for a Discovery-class mission involving a Venus aerobot balloon. The technical goals of the effort were to: a) evaluate the possible nadir-viewed surface image quality as a function of wavelength and altitude in the Venus lower atmosphere, b) design a pressure vessel to contain the imager and supporting electronics that will meet the environmental requirements of the VASSIS mission, c) design and build a prototype imaging system including an Active-Pixel Sensor camera head and VASSIS-like optics that will meet the science requirements. The VASSIS science team developed a set of science requirements for the imaging system upon which the development work of this task was based.

  12. Hyperspectral imaging utility for transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. Bruce; Tolliver, Denver

    2015-03-01

    The global transportation system is massive, open, and dynamic. Existing performance and condition assessments of the complex interacting networks of roadways, bridges, railroads, pipelines, waterways, airways, and intermodal ports are expensive. Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging remote sensing technique for the non-destructive evaluation of multimodal transportation infrastructure. Unlike panchromatic, color, and infrared imaging, each layer of a hyperspectral image pixel records reflectance intensity from one of dozens or hundreds of relatively narrow wavelength bands that span a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hence, every pixel of a hyperspectral scene provides a unique spectral signature that offers new opportunities for informed decision-making in transportation systems development, operations, and maintenance. Spaceborne systems capture images of vast areas in a short period but provide lower spatial resolution than airborne systems. Practitioners use manned aircraft to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolution, but at the price of custom missions and narrow focus. The rapid size and cost reduction of unmanned aircraft systems promise a third alternative that offers hybrid benefits at affordable prices by conducting multiple parallel missions. This research formulates a theoretical framework for a pushbroom type of hyperspectral imaging system on each type of data acquisition platform. The study then applies the framework to assess the relative potential utility of hyperspectral imaging for previously proposed remote sensing applications in transportation. The authors also introduce and suggest new potential applications of hyperspectral imaging in transportation asset management, network performance evaluation, and risk assessments to enable effective and objective decision- and policy-making.

  13. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  14. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:27044800

  15. Ultrasonic flow imaging system: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1991-09-01

    This report examines the feasibility and potential problems in developing a real-time ultrasonic flow imaging instrument for on-line monitoring of mixed-phased flows such as coal slurries. State-of-the-art ultrasonic imaging techniques are assessed for this application. Reflection and diffraction tomographies are proposed for further development, including image-reconstruction algorithms and parallel processing systems. A conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique is used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the particle motion in a solid/water flow. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  16. E4F1-mediated control of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is essential for skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Goguet-Rubio, Perrine; Seyran, Berfin; Gayte, Laurie; Bernex, Florence; Sutter, Anne; Delpech, Hélène; Linares, Laetitia Karine; Riscal, Romain; Repond, Cendrine; Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Touhami, Jawida; Noel, Jean; Vincent, Charles; Pirot, Nelly; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Herault, Yann; Sitbon, Marc; Pellerin, Luc; Sardet, Claude; Lacroix, Matthieu; Le Cam, Laurent

    2016-09-27

    The multifunctional protein E4 transcription factor 1 (E4F1) is an essential regulator of epidermal stem cell (ESC) maintenance. Here, we found that E4F1 transcriptionally regulates a metabolic program involved in pyruvate metabolism that is required to maintain skin homeostasis. E4F1 deficiency in basal keratinocytes resulted in deregulated expression of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (Dlat), a gene encoding the E2 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Accordingly, E4f1 knock-out (KO) keratinocytes exhibited impaired PDH activity and a redirection of the glycolytic flux toward lactate production. The metabolic reprogramming of E4f1 KO keratinocytes associated with remodeling of their microenvironment and alterations of the basement membrane, led to ESC mislocalization and exhaustion of the ESC pool. ShRNA-mediated depletion of Dlat in primary keratinocytes recapitulated defects observed upon E4f1 inactivation, including increased lactate secretion, enhanced activity of extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes, and impaired clonogenic potential. Altogether, our data reveal a central role for Dlat in the metabolic program regulated by E4F1 in basal keratinocytes and illustrate the importance of PDH activity in skin homeostasis. PMID:27621431

  17. Photo and thermoluminescence of KMgSO4 F: Ce and :Mn phosphors.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Anuradha; Gedam, S C; Dhoble, S J

    2015-06-01

    KMgSO4 F:Ce and KMgSO4 F:Mn phosphors were prepared by a wet chemical method and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics. PL emission of KMgSO4 F:Ce peaked at around 440 nm for the excitation at 377 nm due to 5d → 4f transition, while KMgSO4 F:Mn had a peak at 540 nm for an excitation at 363 nm and 247 nm due to (4) T1g  → (6) A1g transition. The phosphors also showed good thermoluminescence characteristics when they were exposed to γ-rays at a 5 Gy dose at the rate of 0.36 kGyh(-1) . KMgSO4 F:Ce exhibited a single thermoluminescence (TL) peak at around 167 °C and KMgSO4 F:Mn also exhibited a single TL peak at around 177 °C. Possible trapping parameters such as order of kinetics (b), the geometrical factor (μg ), the frequency factor (s) and the activation energy were also evaluated by Chen's half width method. This article discusses fundamental PL and TL characteristics in inorganic fluoride material activated by Ce(3+) and Mn(2+) ions and prepared by a wet chemical method.

  18. Alternative splicing determines the function of CYP4F3 by switching substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Christmas, P; Jones, J P; Patten, C J; Rock, D A; Zheng, Y; Cheng, S M; Weber, B M; Carlesso, N; Scadden, D T; Rettie, A E; Soberman, R J

    2001-10-12

    Diversity of cytochrome P450 function is determined by the expression of multiple genes, many of which have a high degree of identity. We report that the use of alternate exons, each coding for 48 amino acids, generates isoforms of human CYP4F3 that differ in substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and biological function. Both isoforms contain a total of 520 amino acids. CYP4F3A, which incorporates exon 4, inactivates LTB4 by omega-hydroxylation (Km = 0.68 microm) but has low activity for arachidonic acid (Km = 185 microm); it is the only CYP4F isoform expressed in myeloid cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow. CYP4F3B incorporates exon 3 and is selectively expressed in liver and kidney; it is also the predominant CYP4F isoform in trachea and tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. CYP4F3B has a 30-fold higher Km for LTB4 compared with CYP4F3A, but it utilizes arachidonic acid as a substrate for omega-hydroxylation (Km = 22 microm) and generates 20-HETE, an activator of protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Homology modeling demonstrates that the alternative exon has a position in the molecule which could enable it to contribute to substrate interactions. The results establish that tissue-specific alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can be used as a mechanism for changing substrate specificity and increasing the functional diversity of cytochrome P450 genes.

  19. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of lanthanide (Ce, Pr, and Nd) complexes of cyclooctatetraene: the role of 4f electrons.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sudesh; Roudjane, Mourad; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Liu, Yang; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2013-04-28

    Cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium complexes of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) complexes were produced in a laser-vaporization metal cluster source and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The computations included the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, and the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method. The spectrum of each complex exhibits multiple band systems and is assigned to ionization of several low-energy electronic states of the neutral complex. This observation is different from previous studies of M(COT) (M = Sc, Y, La, and Gd), for which a single band system was observed. The presence of the multiple low-energy electronic states is caused by the splitting of the partially filled lanthanide 4f orbitals in the ligand field, and the number of the low-energy states increases rapidly with increasing number of the metal 4f electrons. On the other hand, the 4f electrons have a small effect on the geometries and vibrational frequencies of these lanthanide complexes.

  20. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of lanthanide (Ce, Pr, and Nd) complexes of cyclooctatetraene: The role of 4f electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Sudesh; Roudjane, Mourad; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Yang Dongsheng; Liu Yang

    2013-04-28

    Cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium complexes of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) complexes were produced in a laser-vaporization metal cluster source and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The computations included the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, and the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method. The spectrum of each complex exhibits multiple band systems and is assigned to ionization of several low-energy electronic states of the neutral complex. This observation is different from previous studies of M(COT) (M = Sc, Y, La, and Gd), for which a single band system was observed. The presence of the multiple low-energy electronic states is caused by the splitting of the partially filled lanthanide 4f orbitals in the ligand field, and the number of the low-energy states increases rapidly with increasing number of the metal 4f electrons. On the other hand, the 4f electrons have a small effect on the geometries and vibrational frequencies of these lanthanide complexes.

  1. Self-adaptive iris image acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu; Qiu, Xianchao

    2008-03-01

    Iris image acquisition is the fundamental step of the iris recognition, but capturing high-resolution iris images in real-time is very difficult. The most common systems have small capture volume and demand users to fully cooperate with machines, which has become the bottleneck of iris recognition's application. In this paper, we aim at building an active iris image acquiring system which is self-adaptive to users. Two low resolution cameras are co-located in a pan-tilt-unit (PTU), for face and iris image acquisition respectively. Once the face camera detects face region in real-time video, the system controls the PTU to move towards the eye region and automatically zooms, until the iris camera captures an clear iris image for recognition. Compared with other similar works, our contribution is that we use low-resolution cameras, which can transmit image data much faster and are much cheaper than the high-resolution cameras. In the system, we use Haar-like cascaded feature to detect faces and eyes, linear transformation to predict the iris camera's position, and simple heuristic PTU control method to track eyes. A prototype device has been established, and experiments show that our system can automatically capture high-quality iris image in the range of 0.6m×0.4m×0.4m in average 3 to 5 seconds.

  2. FLIPS: Friendly Lisp Image Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Shirley J.

    1991-08-01

    The Friendly Lisp Image Processing System (FLIPS) is the interface to Advanced Target Detection (ATD), a multi-resolutional image analysis system developed by Hughes in conjunction with the Hughes Research Laboratories. Both menu- and graphics-driven, FLIPS enhances system usability by supporting the interactive nature of research and development. Although much progress has been made, fully automated image understanding technology that is both robust and reliable is not a reality. In situations where highly accurate results are required, skilled human analysts must still verify the findings of these systems. Furthermore, the systems often require processing times several orders of magnitude greater than that needed by veteran personnel to analyze the same image. The purpose of FLIPS is to facilitate the ability of an image analyst to take statistical measurements on digital imagery in a timely fashion, a capability critical in research environments where a large percentage of time is expended in algorithm development. In many cases, this entails minor modifications or code tinkering. Without a well-developed man-machine interface, throughput is unduly constricted. FLIPS provides mechanisms which support rapid prototyping for ATD. This paper examines the ATD/FLIPS system. The philosophy of ATD in addressing image understanding problems is described, and the capabilities of FLIPS are discussed, along with a description of the interaction between ATD and FLIPS. Finally, an overview of current plans for the system is outlined.

  3. Portable EDITOR (PEDITOR): A portable image processing system. [satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, G.; Slye, R.; Ozga, M.; Ritter, P.

    1986-01-01

    The PEDITOR image processing system was created to be readily transferable from one type of computer system to another. While nearly identical in function and operation to its predecessor, EDITOR, PEDITOR employs additional techniques which greatly enhance its portability. These cover system structure and processing. In order to confirm the portability of the software system, two different types of computer systems running greatly differing operating systems were used as target machines. A DEC-20 computer running the TOPS-20 operating system and using a Pascal Compiler was utilized for initial code development. The remaining programmers used a Motorola Corporation 68000-based Forward Technology FT-3000 supermicrocomputer running the UNIX-based XENIX operating system and using the Silicon Valley Software Pascal compiler and the XENIX C compiler for their initial code development.

  4. Portable imaging system method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsley, Timothy J.; Pruess, Jacob; Tomutsa, Liviu; Reiter, Paul A.; deCastro, Ted M.

    2006-07-25

    An operator shielded X-ray imaging system has sufficiently low mass (less than 300 kg) and is compact enough to enable portability by reducing operator shielding requirements to a minimum shielded volume. The resultant shielded volume may require a relatively small mass of shielding in addition to the already integrally shielded X-ray source, intensifier, and detector. The system is suitable for portable imaging of well cores at remotely located well drilling sites. The system accommodates either small samples, or small cross-sectioned objects of unlimited length. By rotating samples relative to the imaging device, the information required for computer aided tomographic reconstruction may be obtained. By further translating the samples relative to the imaging system, fully three dimensional (3D) tomographic reconstructions may be obtained of samples having arbitrary length.

  5. Imaging Systemic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, Karoline; Brooks, David J

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is now widely recognized to be a multisystem disorder affecting the brain and peripheral autonomic nerves. Extensive pathology is present in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and the intrinsic gastrointestinal plexuses in patients. Autonomic pathology and symptoms such as constipation can predate the clinical diagnosis by years or decades. Imaging studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of Parkinson's disease but focused primarily on imaging cerebral pathology. However, given the importance of understanding the nature, chronology, and functional consequences of peripheral pathology, there has been renewed interest in imaging peripheral organs in Parkinson's disease. Suitable imaging tools can be divided into two types: radiotracer studies that directly estimate loss of sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve terminals, and imaging modalities to quantitate dysphagia, gastric emptying, esophageal and intestinal transit times, and anorectal dyssynergia. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about peripheral imaging in Parkinson's disease. PMID:27072951

  6. Imaging Spectrometry-Concepts and System Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, M.; Chrien, T.; Duval, V.; Krabach, T.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of imaging spectrometry is finding broad application in scientific instrumentation for earth-based, airborne, and space applications. An imaging spectrometer is characterized by the combination of imaging with complete sampling in the spectral domain. In so doing, material identification can be accomplished and displayed in conjunction with the conventional recognizable image. An image spectrometer incorporates a wide variety of techniques, including focal plane arrays, imaging and spectrometer optics, and spectral dispersing devices. The design of a successful system involves a complex set of tradeoffs incorporating the properties and limitations of the various technologies. For applications in the infrared, additional technologies such as focal plane cooling are required, and the other technologies present more limitations and constraints.

  7. Illumination system characterization for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging is becoming a popular tool in the biomedical field, especially for detection and analysis of different types of cancers, analysis of skin burns and bruises, imaging of blood vessels and for many other applications. As in all imaging systems, proper illumination is crucial to attain optimal image quality that is needed for best performance of image analysis algorithms. In hyperspectral imaging based on filters (AOTF, LCTF and filter wheel) the acquired spectral signature has to be representative in all parts of the imaged object. Therefore, the whole object must be equally well illuminated - without shadows and specular reflections. As there are no restrictions imposed on the material and geometry of the object, the desired object illumination can only be achieved with completely diffuse illumination. In order to minimize shadows and specular reflections in diffuse illumination the light illuminating the object must be spatially, angularly and spectrally uniform. We present and test two diffuse illumination system designs that try to achieve optimal uniformity of the above mentioned properties. The illumination uniformity properties were measured with an AOTF based hyperspectral imaging system utilizing a standard white diffuse reflectance target and a specially designed calibration target for estimating the spatial and angular illumination uniformity.

  8. Layers and tubes of fluorographene C4F: Stability, structural and electronic properties from DFTB calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enyashin, A. N.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2013-06-01

    By means of the DFTB band structure calculations we have explored the layers' isomerism of fluorographene C4F. The relative stability, structural and electronic properties of the C4F layers and nanotubes have been revealed depending on the possible types of fluorine coverage: single-sided, double-sided or so-called non-uniform variants. Our main finding is that the aforementioned types of fluorine coverage are crucial for the morphology of these materials. At the non-uniform or single-sided coverage types the C4F structures aspire to the spontaneous folding in order to minimize their surface tension.

  9. Electron attachment properties of c-C4F8O in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachereau, A.; Fedor, J.; Janečková, R.; Kočišek, J.; Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    The electron attachment properties of octafluorotetrahydrofuran (c-C4F8O) are investigated using two complementary experimental setups. The attachment and ionization cross sections of c-C4F8O are measured using an electron beam experiment. The effective ionization rate coefficient, electron drift velocity and electron diffusion coefficient in c-C4F8O diluted to concentrations lower than 0.6% in the buffer gases N2, CO2 and Ar, are measured using a pulsed Townsend experiment. A kinetic model is proposed, which combines the results of the two experiments.

  10. Advanced laser systems for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Gross, Daniel; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development of laser systems for advanced photoacoustic imaging (PAI). We discuss the characteristics of these laser systems and their particular benefits for soft tissue imaging and next-generation breast cancer diagnostics. We provide an overview of laser performance and compare this with other laser systems that have been used for early-stage development of PAI. These advanced systems feature higher pulse energy output at clinically relevant repetition rates, as well as a novel wavelength-cycling output pulse format. Wavelength cycling provides pulse sequences for which the output repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths that provide differential imaging. This capability improves co-registration of captured differential images. We present imaging results of phantoms obtained with a commercial ultrasound detector system and a wavelength-cycling laser source providing ~500 mJ/pulse at 755 and 797 nm, operating at 25 Hz. The results include photoacoustic images and corresponding pulse-echo data from a tissue mimicking phantom containing inclusions, simulating tumors in the breast. We discuss the application of these systems to the contrast-enhanced detection of various tissue types and tumors.

  11. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-09-25

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.

  12. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS’s performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost. PMID:26404281

  13. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost. PMID:26404281

  14. An Open System for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMN-PT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 μV, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570

  15. Image-based panoramic virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Kurtis J.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive family of advanced virtual reality-telepresence systems and components have been developed. The purpose of these systems and components is to facilitate recording, processing, display, and interaction with audio and video signal(s) representing a scene or subject of three-dimensions (3-D). An overview of the systems currently available for license includes: a color video camera with real-time simultaneous spherical FOV coverage; a similar camera for recording various sides of a 3-D subject; an image based system for real-time processing and distribution of said camera based images onto 3-D wireframes; resultant camcorders are generally referred to as virtual reality/telepresence 'VRT camcorders'TM; a 'VIDEOROOM'TM large theater display system in which the floor, walls, and ceiling form a continuous display about the viewer for display of said images; 'INaVISION'TM a HMD system for viewing the same said images; and interactive control devices for manipulating said 3-D image and audio signal(s). Applications, to include visual and auditory simulation, host vehicle control, remote vehicle control, video teleconferencing, and so on, are feasible applications for the above technology. Rough costs of systems and components, photographs of a prototype system, and component illustrations are provided. Future directions of R&D are presented (i.e., Project HEAVEN: Humankind Eternal-Life Artificial-Intelligence Virtual Environment Network).

  16. Image Chain Analysis For Digital Image Rectification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arguello, Roger J.

    1981-07-01

    An image chain analysis, utilizing a comprehensive computer program, has been gen-erated for the key elements of a digital image rectification system. System block dia-grams and analyses for three system configurations employing film scanner input have been formulated with a parametric specification of pertinent element modulation transfer functions and input film scene spectra. The major elements of the system for this analy-sis include a high-resolution, high-speed charge-coupled device film scanner, three candidate digital resampling option algorithms (i.e., nearest neighbor, bilinear inter-polation and cubic convolution methods), and two candidate printer reconstructor implemen-tations (solid-state light-emitting diode printer and laser beam recorder). Suitable metrics for the digital rectification system, incorporating the effects of interpolation and resolution error, were established, and the image chain analysis program was used to perform a quantitative comparison of the three resampling options with the two candi-date printer reconstructor implementations. The nearest neighbor digital resampling function is found to be a good compromise choice when cascaded with either a light-emit-ting diode printer or laser beam recorder. The resulting composite intensity point spread functions, including resampling, and both types of reconstruction are bilinear and quadratic, respectively.

  17. Hologlyphics: volumetric image synthesis performance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Walter

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a novel volumetric image synthesis system and artistic technique, which generate moving volumetric images in real-time, integrated with music. The system, called the Hologlyphic Funkalizer, is performance based, wherein the images and sound are controlled by a live performer, for the purposes of entertaining a live audience and creating a performance art form unique to volumetric and autostereoscopic images. While currently configured for a specific parallax barrier display, the Hologlyphic Funkalizer's architecture is completely adaptable to various volumetric and autostereoscopic display technologies. Sound is distributed through a multi-channel audio system; currently a quadraphonic speaker setup is implemented. The system controls volumetric image synthesis, production of music and spatial sound via acoustic analysis and human gestural control, using a dedicated control panel, motion sensors, and multiple musical keyboards. Music can be produced by external acoustic instruments, pre-recorded sounds or custom audio synthesis integrated with the volumetric image synthesis. Aspects of the sound can control the evolution of images and visa versa. Sounds can be associated and interact with images, for example voice synthesis can be combined with an animated volumetric mouth, where nuances of generated speech modulate the mouth's expressiveness. Different images can be sent to up to 4 separate displays. The system applies many novel volumetric special effects, and extends several film and video special effects into the volumetric realm. Extensive and various content has been developed and shown to live audiences by a live performer. Real world applications will be explored, with feedback on the human factors.

  18. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  19. EOS image data processing system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, J.; Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Image Processing System (IPS) requirements and configuration are defined for NASA-sponsored advanced technology Earth Observatory System (EOS). The scope included investigation and definition of IPS operational, functional, and product requirements considering overall system constraints and interfaces (sensor, etc.) The scope also included investigation of the technical feasibility and definition of a point design reflecting system requirements. The design phase required a survey of present and projected technology related to general and special-purpose processors, high-density digital tape recorders, and image recorders.

  20. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  1. Processing nanoparticles with A4F-SAXS for toxicological studies: Iron oxide in cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Patrick; Boehmert, Linda; Bienert, Ralf; Kamutzki, Silvana; Karmutzki, Silvana; Niemann, Birgit; Lampen, Alfonso; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles are not typically ready-to-use for in vitro cell culture assays. Prior to their use in assays, powder samples containing nanoparticles must be dispersed, de-agglomerated, fractionated by size, and characterized with respect to size and size distribution. For this purpose we report exemplarily on polyphosphate-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous suspension. Fractionation and online particle size analysis was performed in a time-saving procedure lasting 50 min by combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (A4F) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Narrowly distributed nanoparticle fractions with radii of gyration (R(g)) from 7 to 21 nm were obtained from polydisperse samples. The A4F-SAXS combination is introduced for the preparation of well-characterized sample fractions originating from a highly polydisperse system as typically found in engineered nanoparticles. A4F-SAXS processed particles are ready-to-use for toxicological studies. The results of preliminary tests of the effects of fractionated iron oxide nanoparticles with a R(g) of 15 nm on a human colon model cell line are reported.

  2. FISH detection of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: Exclusion of D4F26 as critical site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.P.; Altherr, M.R.; Blake, J.M.; Keppen, L.D.

    1994-08-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is due to a deletion in the terminal band of 4p16.3. Among loci that have been involved in deletions are D4S95, D4S125, D4F26, as shown by PCR typing, Southern blot hybridization, and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Currently, FISH detection of WHS is predicated upon the deletion of the D4F26 locus with failure to hybridize to pC847.351, a commercially available cosmid probe. A WHS patient is shown to have an interstitial deletion, by hemizygosity at D4S98 and D4F26. This suggests that the tip of 4p, specifically D4F26, is not a critical deletion site for WHS. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  3. A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, D.; Tullis, I. D. C.; Laios, A.; Pathiraja, P. N. J.; Haldar, K.; Ahmed, A. A.; Vojnovic, B.

    2014-02-01

    We describe the development and performance analysis of two clinical near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) devices that aim to overcome some of the limitations of current FIGS systems. The devices operate in a widefield-imaging mode and can work (1) in conjunction with a laparoscope, during minimally invasive surgery, and (2) as a hand-held, open surgery imaging system. In both cases, narrow-band excitation light, delivered at multiple wavelengths, is efficiently combined with white reflectance light. Light is delivered to ~100 cm2 surgical field at 1-2 mW/cm2 for white light and 3-7 mW/cm2 (depending on wavelength) of red - near infrared excitation, at a typical working distance of 350 mm for the hand-held device and 100 mm for the laparoscope. A single, sensitive, miniaturized color camera collects both fluorescence and white reflectance light. The use of a single imager eliminates image alignment and software overlay complexity. A novel filtering and illumination arrangement allows simultaneous detection of white reflectance and fluorescence emission from multiple dyes in real-time. We will present both fluorescence detection sensitivity modeling and practical performance data. We have demonstrated the efficiency and the advantages of the devices both pre-clinically and during live surgery on humans. Both the hand-held and the laparoscopic systems have proved to be reliable and beneficial in an ongoing clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node detection in gynecological cancers. We will show preliminary results using two clinically approved dyes, Methylene blue and indocyanine green. We anticipate that this technology can be integrated and routinely used in a larger variety of surgical procedures.

  4. Characterization of the active site properties of CYP4F12.

    PubMed

    Eksterowicz, John; Rock, Dan A; Rock, Brooke M; Wienkers, Larry C; Foti, Robert S

    2014-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 4F12 is a drug-metabolizing enzyme that is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, colon, small intestine, and heart. The properties of CYP4F12 that may impart an increased catalytic selectivity (decreased promiscuity) were explored through in vitro metabolite elucidation, kinetic isotope effect experiments, and computational modeling of the CYP4F12 active site. By using astemizole as a probe substrate for CYP4F12 and CYP3A4, it was observed that although CYP4F12 favored astemizole O-demethylation as the primary route of metabolism, CYP3A4 was capable of metabolizing astemizole at multiple sites on the molecule. Deuteration of astemizole at the site of O-demethylation resulted in an isotope effect of 7.1 as well as an 8.3-fold decrease in the rate of clearance for astemizole by CYP4F12. Conversely, although an isotope effect of 3.8 was observed for the formation of the O-desmethyl metabolite when deuterated astemizole was metabolized by CYP3A4, there was no decrease in the clearance of astemizole. Development of a homology model of CYP4F12 based on the crystal structure of cytochrome P450 BM3 predicted an active site volume for CYP4F12 that was approximately 76% of the active site volume of CYP3A4. As predicted, multiple favorable binding orientations were available for astemizole docked into the active site of CYP3A4, but only a single binding orientation with the site of O-demethylation oriented toward the heme was identified for CYP4F12. Overall, it appears that although CYP4F12 may be capable of binding similar ligands to other cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP3A4, the ability to achieve catalytically favorable orientations may be inherently more difficult because of the increased steric constraints of the CYP4F12 active site. PMID:25074871

  5. Calculation of Thermodynamic Functions of Fluorammonium Complexes of 4 f Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Nefedov, R. A.; Sachkov, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical estimates are made of the thermodynamic functions of fluorammonium complexes of 4 f elements. Using techniques of statistical thermodynamics, we have obtained the temperature dependences of the basic thermodynamic state functions ( C p , ∆ H, ∆ S, and ∆ G). The decomposition temperatures of the investigated complex fluorides of 4 f elements have been estimated on the basis of an analysis of the obtained dependences.

  6. Construction of nitronyl nitroxide-based 3d-4f clusters: structure and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Feng; Hu, Peng; Li, Yun-Gai; Li, Li-Cun

    2015-02-01

    Three unprecedented nitronyl nitroxide radical-bridged 3d-4f clusters, [Ln2 Cu2 (hfac)10 (NIT-3py)2 (H2 O)2 ](Ln(III) =Y, Gd, Dy), have been obtained from the self-assembly of Ln(hfac)3 , Cu(hfac)2 , and the radical ligand. The Dy complex shows a slow relaxation of magnetization, representing the first nitronyl nitroxide radical-based 3d-4f cluster with single-molecule magnet behavior.

  7. An image retrieval system based on fractal dimension.

    PubMed

    Yao, Min; Yi, Wen-Sheng; Shen, Bin; Dai, Hong-Hua

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new kind of image retrieval system which obtains the feature vectors of images by estimating their fractal dimension; and at the same time establishes a tree-structure image database. After preprocessing and feature extracting, a given image is matched with the standard images in the image database using a hierarchical method of image indexing.

  8. Image-based systems biology of infection.

    PubMed

    Medyukhina, Anna; Timme, Sandra; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-06-01

    The successful treatment of infectious diseases requires interdisciplinary studies of all aspects of infection processes. The overarching combination of experimental research and theoretical analysis in a systems biology approach can unravel mechanisms of complex interactions between pathogens and the human immune system. Taking into account spatial information is especially important in the context of infection, since the migratory behavior and spatial interactions of cells are often decisive for the outcome of the immune response. Spatial information is provided by image and video data that are acquired in microscopy experiments and that are at the heart of an image-based systems biology approach. This review demonstrates how image-based systems biology improves our understanding of infection processes. We discuss the three main steps of this approach--imaging, quantitative characterization, and modeling--and consider the application of these steps in the context of studying infection processes. After summarizing the most relevant microscopy and image analysis approaches, we discuss ways to quantify infection processes, and address a number of modeling techniques that exploit image-derived data to simulate host-pathogen interactions in silico.

  9. Anonymization server system for DICOM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Amano, M.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nishitani, H.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed an anonymization system for DICOM images. It requires consent from the patient to use the DICOM images for research or education. However, providing the DICOM image to the other facilities is not safe because it contains a lot of personal data. Our system is a server that provides anonymization service of DICOM images for users in the facility. The distinctive features of the system are, input interface, flexible anonymization policy, and automatic body part identification. In the first feature, we can use the anonymization service on the existing DICOM workstations. In the second feature, we can select a best policy fitting for the Protection of personal data that is ruled by each medical facility. In the third feature, we can identify the body parts that are included in the input image set, even if the set lacks the body part tag in DICOM header. We installed the system for the first time to a hospital in December 2005. Currently, the system is working in other four facilities. In this paper we describe the system and how it works.

  10. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    PubMed Central

    Vaivoda, Rachel; Vaine, Christine; Boerstler, Cassandra; Galloway, Kristy; Christmas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01). This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies. PMID:26613087

  11. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a.

    PubMed

    Vaivoda, Rachel; Vaine, Christine; Boerstler, Cassandra; Galloway, Kristy; Christmas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9-2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01). This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  12. Results of a low power ice protection system test and a new method of imaging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.; Mesander, Geert A.

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a BF Goodrich De-Icing System's Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection (PIIP) system in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Characterization studies were done on shed ice particle size by changing the input pressure and cycling time of the PIIP de-icer. The shed ice particle size was quantified using a newly developed image software package. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m (6 ft) span, 0.53 m (221 in) chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The IRT test conditions were a -6.7 C (20 F) glaze ice, and a -20 C (-4 F) rime ice. The ice shedding events were recorded with a high speed video system. A detailed description of the image processing package and the results generated from this analytical tool are presented.

  13. The first intron of the 4F2 heavy-chain gene contains a transcriptional enhancer element that binds multiple nuclear proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinski, B.A.; Yang, L.H.; Cacheris, P.; Morle, G.D.; Leiden, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    The authors utilized the human 4F2 heavy-chain (4F2HC) gene as a model system to study the regulation of inducible gene expression during normal human T-cell activation. Previous studies have demonstrated that 4F2HC gene expression is induced during normal T-cell activation and that the activity of the gene is regulated, at least in part, by the interaction of a constitutively active 5'-flanking housekeeping promoter and a phorbol ester-responsive transcriptional attenuator element located in the exon 1-intron 1 region of the gene. They now report that 4F2HC intron 1 contains a transcriptional enhancer element which is active on a number of heterologous promoters in a variety of murine and human cells. This enhancer element has been mapped to a 187-base-pair RsaI-AluI fragment from 4F2HC intron 1. DNase I footprinting and gel mobility shift analyses demonstrated that this fragment contains two nuclear protein-binding sites (NF-4FA and NF-4FB) which flank a consensus binding site for the inducible AP-1 transcription factor. Deletion analysis showed that the NF-4FA, NF-4FB, and AP-1 sequences are each necessary for full enhancer activity. Murine 4F2HC intron 1 displayed enhancer activity similar to that of its human counterpart. Comparison of the sequences of human and murine 4F2HC intron 1s demonstrated that the NF-4FA, NF-4FB, and AP-1 sequence motifs have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution.

  14. Overcoming Dynamic Disturbances in Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eric W.; Dente, Gregory C.; Lyon, Richard G.; Chesters, Dennis; Gong, Qian

    2000-01-01

    We develop and discuss a methodology with the potential to yield a significant reduction in complexity, cost, and risk of space-borne optical systems in the presence of dynamic disturbances. More robust systems almost certainly will be a result as well. Many future space-based and ground-based optical systems will employ optical control systems to enhance imaging performance. The goal of the optical control subsystem is to determine the wavefront aberrations and remove them. Ideally reducing an aberrated image of the object under investigation to a sufficiently clear (usually diffraction-limited) image. Control will likely be distributed over several elements. These elements may include telescope primary segments, telescope secondary, telescope tertiary, deformable mirror(s), fine steering mirror(s), etc. The last two elements, in particular, may have to provide dynamic control. These control subsystems may become elaborate indeed. But robust system performance will require evaluation of the image quality over a substantial range and in a dynamic environment. Candidate systems for improvement in the Earth Sciences Enterprise could include next generation Landsat systems or atmospheric sensors for dynamic imaging of individual, severe storms. The technology developed here could have a substantial impact on the development of new systems in the Space Science Enterprise; such as the Next Generation Space Telescope(NGST) and its follow-on the Next NGST. Large Interferometric Systems of non-zero field, such as Planet Finder and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure, could benefit. These systems most likely will contain large, flexible optormechanical structures subject to dynamic disturbance. Furthermore, large systems for high resolution imaging of planets or the sun from space may also benefit. Tactical and Strategic Defense systems will need to image very small targets as well and could benefit from the technology developed here. We discuss a novel

  15. Overcoming Dynamic Disturbances in Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eric W.; Dente, Gregory C.; Lyon, Richard G.; Chesters, Dennis; Gong, Qian

    2000-01-01

    We develop and discuss a methodology with the potential to yield a significant reduction in complexity, cost, and risk of space-borne optical systems in the presence of dynamic disturbances. More robust systems almost certainly will be a result as well. Many future space-based and ground-based optical systems will employ optical control systems to enhance imaging performance. The goal of the optical control subsystem is to determine the wavefront aberrations and remove them. Ideally reducing an aberrated image of the object under investigation to a sufficiently clear (usually diffraction-limited) image. Control will likely be distributed over several elements. These elements may include telescope primary segments, telescope secondary, telescope tertiary, deformable mirror(s), fine steering mirror(s), etc. The last two elements, in particular, may have to provide dynamic control. These control subsystems may become elaborate indeed. But robust system performance will require evaluation of the image quality over a substantial range and in a dynamic environment. Candidate systems for improvement in the Earth Sciences Enterprise could include next generation Landsat systems or atmospheric sensors for dynamic imaging of individual, severe storms. The technology developed here could have a substantial impact on the development of new systems in the Space Science Enterprise; such as the Next Generation Space Telescope(NGST) and its follow-on the Next NGST. Large Interferometric Systems of non-zero field, such as Planet Finder and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure, could benefit. These systems most likely will contain large, flexible optomechanical structures subject to dynamic disturbance. Furthermore, large systems for high resolution imaging of planets or the sun from space may also benefit. Tactical and Strategic Defense systems will need to image very small targets as well and could benefit from the technology developed here. We discuss a novel

  16. Novel optical system for neonatal brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Shuoming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton; Anday, Endla; Ravishankar, Sudha; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria

    1999-03-01

    A highly portable, fast, safe and affordable imaging system that provides interpretable images of brain function in full- and pre-term neonates within a few seconds has been applied to neonates with normal and pathological states. We have used a uniquely sensitive optical tomography system, termed phased array, which has revealed significant functional responses, particularly to parietal stimulation in neonate brain. This system can indicate the blood concentration and oxygenation change during the parietal brain activation in full- and pre-term neonates. The preliminary clinical results, especially a longitudinal study of a cardiac arrest neonate, suggest a variety of future applications.

  17. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  18. Numerical simulation of imaging laser radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang

    2008-03-01

    Rational and effective design of imaging laser radar systems is the key of imaging laser radar system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective imaging laser radar system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser radar range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser radar system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.

  19. Active imaging system with Faraday filter

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, J.J.

    1993-04-13

    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  20. Active imaging system with Faraday filter

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, James J.

    1993-01-01

    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  1. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  2. Digital image-rectification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wie, P. H.; Stein, M.; Puccinelli, E.; Fields, B.

    1977-01-01

    System removes spatial distortions from data and brings data into conformance with Universal Transverse Mercator map projection, produces digital output products suitable for further machine processing and analysis, and fills need for geometrically corrected Landsat multispectral scanner digital data in several remote sensing application areas.

  3. Distributed-data imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.; Dornhoff, A.G.; DuBois, A.J.; Hodson, S.W.; Maestas, F.A.; Winkler, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    A group of eight Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha workstations is interconnected with ATM to form a cluster with supercomputer power. For output, each workstation drives a single tile on an 8-tile high- resolution frame buffer. A special purpose adapter is used to convert the workstation`s ATM format to the frame buffer`s HIPPI format. This paper discusses the rationale behind the workstation farm, and then describes the visualization output path in detail. To provide the system quickly, special emphasis was placed on making the design as simple as possible and using standard software protocols to drive and synchronize the display. The design choices are examined, and the resultant system is described.. Previously, a display could connect to a single computer; or a group of computers could drive a fragmented display, e.g., a video wall. Our system is unique in that it provides a high-quality desktop visualization display driven collectively by a group of workstations. A short video will be shown during the presentation to demonstrate the system capabilities.

  4. Display system for imaging scientific telemetric information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabiyakin, G. I.; Rykovanov, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A system for imaging scientific telemetric information, based on the M-6000 minicomputer and the SIGD graphic display, is described. Two dimensional graphic display of telemetric information and interaction with the computer, in analysis and processing of telemetric parameters displayed on the screen is provided. The running parameter information output method is presented. User capabilities in the analysis and processing of telemetric information imaged on the display screen and the user language are discussed and illustrated.

  5. Biomedical Imaging in Implantable Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haoyan; Hernandez, Christopher; Goss, Monika; Gawlik, Anna; Exner, Agata A.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) provide a platform for sustained release of therapeutic agents over a period of weeks to months and sometimes years. Such strategies are typically used clinically to increase patient compliance by replacing frequent administration of drugs such as contraceptives and hormones to maintain plasma concentration within the therapeutic window. Implantable or injectable systems have also been investigated as a means of local drug administration which favors high drug concentration at a site of interest, such as a tumor, while reducing systemic drug exposure to minimize unwanted side effects. Significant advances in the field of local DDS have led to increasingly sophisticated technology with new challenges including quantification of local and systemic pharmacokinetics and implant-body interactions. Because many of these sought-after parameters are highly dependent on the tissue properties at the implantation site, and rarely represented adequately with in vitro models, new nondestructive techniques that can be used to study implants in situ are highly desirable. Versatile imaging tools can meet this need and provide quantitative data on morphological and functional aspects of implantable systems. The focus of this review article is an overview of current biomedical imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and their application in evaluation of implantable DDS. PMID:25418857

  6. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of La 3NbSe 2O 4F 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Theodore D.; Mansuetto, Michael F.; Ibers, James A.

    1993-12-01

    Crystals of the unusual oxyfluoroselenide La 3NbSe 2O 4F 2 were obtained during the exploration of the quaternary La/Nb/Cu/Se system. Oxygen was extracted from the silica tube, while fluorine was present as a minor impurity in the La powder. The compound crystallizes in space group D 162 h- Pnma of the orthorhombic system with four formula units in a cell with dimensions: a = 11.290(4), b = 4.001(1), and c = 18.062(4) Å ( T = 113 K). The structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray methods. The presence of F in the crystals was confirmed by windowless EDAX measurements. The two F sites were distinguished from the four O sites from a combination of the X-ray refinement and a bond-valence parameter calculation made with the program EUTAX. In the structure the Nb atom is octahedrally coordinated while each of the three independent La atoms is in a tricapped trigonal prism. The Nb atom is bound to one Se atom and five O atoms while the three La sites are coordinated by various combinations of Se, O, and F atoms. The NbO 5Se octahedra corner share and the LaSe xO yF z tricapped trigonal prisms face share in the b direction.

  8. Dual-modality imaging system combined fast photoacoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we have developed a fast dual-modality imaging system for reconstruction photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging based on a novel digital phased array. The scanning mode and image reconstruction algorithms were modified from our previous work to improve the image quality. A 128-element linear transducer array is connected to a multichannel signal acquisition and digital beam-formation system providing techniques of dynamic receiving focus and dynamic receiving apodization to process the signal. We use the linear transducer array with combined scanning mode to detect signals at multiple locations on a circle around the sample. It makes our dual-modality imaging own the ability of imaging complicated structures of objects. An improved limited-field filtered back projection algorithm with directivity factors was applied in photoacoustic imaging to further improve the lateral resolution. Phase-controlled imaging algorithm was applied to reconstruct acoustical impedance difference in the pure ultrasound imaging. The experiments on phantoms and in vivo early breast cancer detection in a mouse model were performed. The images are clearly, accurately provided.

  9. A computed tomographic imaging system for experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanping; Wang, Jue; Liu, Fenglin; Yu, Honglin

    2008-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which is widely applied in medicine for diagnosis and surgical planning, and in industry for non-destructive testing (NDT) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). So, it is significant for college students to understand the fundamental of CT. In this work, A CT imaging system named CD-50BG with 50mm field-of-view has been developed for experimental teaching at colleges. With the translate-rotate scanning mode, the system makes use of a 7.4×10 8Bq (20mCi) activity 137Cs radioactive source which is held in a tungsten alloy to shield the radiation and guarantee no harm to human body, and a single plastic scintillator + photomultitude detector which is convenient for counting because of its short-time brightness and good single pulse. At same time, an image processing software with the functions of reconstruction, image processing and 3D visualization has also been developed to process the 16 bits acquired data. The reconstruction time for a 128×128 image is less than 0.1 second. High quality images with 0.8mm spatial resolution and 2% contrast sensitivity can be obtained. So far in China, more than ten institutions of higher education, including Tsinghua University and Peking University, have already applied the system for elementary teaching.

  10. Multimodal polarization system for imaging skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatina-Motts, E.; Neel, V. A.; Yaroslavskaya, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    An optical system is created that is capable of detecting tumor formations in vivo in real time by means of the spectrally resolved polarization imaging of light elastically scattered by tissue and imaging of fluorescence polarization of exogenous fluorophores. The performance characteristics of the system, such as the resolution, field of view, and power density and stability of the radiation, as well as the calibration G factor, are determined. The functionality of the system is tested under clinical conditions. Spectrally resolved signals of elastic scattering and fluorescence polarization images are detected both from the wound surface in vivo and from the bioptic material. The reliability of the method is proven by comparing the results with the data of histological studies.

  11. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  12. Volumetric imaging system for the ionosphere (VISION)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, Kenneth F.; Budzien, Scott A.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Thonnard, Stefan E.; Fortna, Clyde B.

    2002-01-01

    The Volumetric Imaging System for the Ionosphere (VISION) is designed to use limb and nadir images to reconstruct the three-dimensional distribution of electrons over a 1000 km wide by 500 km high slab beneath the satellite with 10 km x 10 km x 10 km voxels. The primary goal of the VISION is to map and monitor global and mesoscale (> 10 km) electron density structures, such as the Appleton anomalies and field-aligned irregularity structures. The VISION consists of three UV limb imagers, two UV nadir imagers, a dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and a coherently emitting three frequency radio beacon. The limb imagers will observe the O II 83.4 nm line (daytime electron density), O I 135.6 nm line (nighttime electron density and daytime O density), and the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands near 143.0 nm (daytime N2 density). The nadir imagers will observe the O I 135.6 nm line (nighttime electron density and daytime O density) and the N2 LBH bands near 143.0 nm (daytime N2 density). The GPS receiver will monitor the total electron content between the satellite containing the VISION and the GPS constellation. The three frequency radio beacon will be used with ground-based receiver chains to perform computerized radio tomography below the satellite containing the VISION. The measurements made using the two radio frequency instruments will be used to validate the VISION UV measurements.

  13. Underwater modulated pulse laser imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Shawn; Mullen, Linda J.; Cochenour, Brandon

    2014-05-01

    The detection and identification of underwater threats in coastal areas are of interest to the Navy. When identifying a potential target, both two-dimensional (amplitude versus position) and three-dimensional (amplitude and range versus position) information are important. Laser imaging in turbid coastal waters makes this task challenging due to absorption and scattering in both the forward and backward directions. Conventional imaging approaches to suppress scatter rely on a pulsed laser and a range-gated receiver or an intensity-modulated continuous wave laser and a coherent RF receiver. The modulated pulsed laser imaging system is a hybrid of these two approaches and uses RF intensity modulation on a short optical pulse. The result is an imaging system capable of simultaneously acquiring high-contrast images along with high-precision unambiguous ranges. A working modulated pulsed laser line scanner was constructed and tested with a custom-built transmitter, a large-bandwidth optical receiver, and a high-speed digitizing oscilloscope. The effectiveness of the modulation to suppress both backscatter and forward scatter, as applied to both magnitude and range images, is discussed.

  14. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  15. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Molnar, Gabor; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Hwu, En-Te

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatile disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy. PMID:27250434

  16. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  17. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems. PMID:24110711

  18. Wide field strip-imaging optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Arthur H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strip imaging wide angle optical system is provided. The optical system is provided with a 'virtual' material stop to avoid aberrational effects inherent in wide angle optical systems. The optical system includes a spherical mirror section for receiving light from a 180-degree strip or arc of a target image. Light received by the spherical mirror section is reflected to a frusto-conical mirror section for subsequent rereflection to a row of optical fibers. Each optical fiber transmits a portion of the received light to a detector. The optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance associated with optical fibers to substantially eliminate vignetting effects inherent in wide-angle systems. Further, the optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance of the optical fibers to substantially limit spherical aberration. The optical system is ideally suited for any application wherein a 180-degree strip image need be detected, and is particularly well adapted for use in hostile environments such as in planetary exploration.

  19. Information efficiency in hyperspectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Cao, Luyin; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2002-07-01

    In this work we develop a method for assessing the information density and efficiency of hyperspectral imaging systems that have spectral bands of nonuniform width. Imaging system designs with spectral bands of nonuniform width can efficiently gather information about a scene by allocating bandwidth among the bands according to their information content. The information efficiency is the ratio of information density to data density and is a function of the scene's spectral radiance, hyperspectral system design, and signal-to-noise ratio. The assessment can be used to produce an efficient system design. For example, one approach to determining the number and width of the spectral bands for an information-efficient design is to begin with a design that has a single band and then to iteratively divide a band into two bands until no further division improves the system's efficiency. Two experiments illustrate this approach, one using a simple mathematical model for the scene spectral-radiance autocorrelation function and the other using the deterministic spectral-radiance autocorrelation function of a hyperspectral image from NASA's Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer. The approach could be used either to determine a fixed system design or to dynamically control a system with variable-width spectral bands (e.g., using on-board processing in a satellite system).

  20. Earth Penetration Radar Imaging System (EPRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Earth Penetration Radar Imaging System (EPRIS) has been developed and has the capability to detect and locate buried mines, buried ordnance delivered by precision munitions, buried drums, buried waste/contaminants, and geological structures/features. The detected objects or features are mapped in three dimensions with high resolution. This information is then available for integration into a site characterization study. The EPRIS is a significant improvement in non-intrusive sensing and imaging capability. This phase of the EPRIS development has been extremely successful. Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) has implemented significant advances in technology into the EPRIS equipment. The frequency stepped radar sensor design has a very wide dynamic signal range and improved sensitivity over currently available equipment. The two- and three-dimensional image processing algorithms allow high-resolution placement and sizing of buried objects and/or features. The discussions related to the analog-to-digital converter and the spiral antenna, define the source of the dynamic range capability realized by EPRIS. The processing for this new radar makes use of unique synthetic aperature imaging (SAI) algorithms developed by CRC for frequency stepped radar systems. The SAI algorithms are necessary to obtain excellent spatial resolution on objects buried up to seven meters. The sensor signal processing represents a significant improvement in imaging systems. The CRC test facility permitted tests on objects buried up to 2.44 meters.

  1. Parallel asynchronous systems and image processing algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, D. D.; Perera, A. G. U.

    1989-01-01

    A new hardware approach to implementation of image processing algorithms is described. The approach is based on silicon devices which would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to evey pixel. A laminar architecture consisting of a stack of planar arrays of the device would form a two-dimensional array processor with a 2-D array of inputs located directly behind a focal plane detector array. A 2-D image data stream would propagate in neuronlike asynchronous pulse coded form through the laminar processor. Such systems would integrate image acquisition and image processing. Acquisition and processing would be performed concurrently as in natural vision systems. The research is aimed at implementation of algorithms, such as the intensity dependent summation algorithm and pyramid processing structures, which are motivated by the operation of natural vision systems. Implementation of natural vision algorithms would benefit from the use of neuronlike information coding and the laminar, 2-D parallel, vision system type architecture. Besides providing a neural network framework for implementation of natural vision algorithms, a 2-D parallel approach could eliminate the serial bottleneck of conventional processing systems. Conversion to serial format would occur only after raw intensity data has been substantially processed. An interesting challenge arises from the fact that the mathematical formulation of natural vision algorithms does not specify the means of implementation, so that hardware implementation poses intriguing questions involving vision science.

  2. Hyperfine structure of the 4f85d6s2 configuration of the Tb atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmann, B.; Stefanska, D.; Krzykowski, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, A and B hyperfine structure constants of electronic levels belonging to the configuration 4f85d6s2 of the terbium atom are presented, obtained via investigation of the hyperfine structure of 42 spectral lines, performed with the method of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a hollow cathode discharge. Results for 14 of the investigated levels belonging to the configuration 4f85d6s2 were obtained for the first time. Also results concerning the hyperfine structure of 29 levels, involved in the transitions as upper levels, are presented. For these levels, almost all the results were obtained for the first time. On the basis of the results obtained within this work and those known from the literature, parametrization of the hyperfine structure was performed. The determined values of one-electron parameters for configuration 4f85d6s2 were compared to the values known from literature, determined so far on the basis of a much lower number of electronic levels. Values of relativistic radial integrals of the hyperfine structure for electrons 4f and 5d of the configuration 4f85d6s2 were calculated with the use of the MCDF code. The comparison of radial integrals calculated semi-empirically with those determined with MCDF method yielded an estimate of the values of configuration interaction parameters in the case of both magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole interactions of the terbium atom.

  3. TARGETING THE eIF4F TRANSLATION INITIATION COMPLEX: A CRITICAL NEXUS FOR CANCER DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jerry; Graff, Jeremy; Ruggero, Davide; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Elevated protein synthesis is an important feature of many cancer cells and often arises as a consequence of increased signaling flux channeled to eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F, the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation. In many cellular and pre-clinical models of cancer, eIF4F deregulation results in changes in translational efficiency of specific mRNA classes. Importantly, many of these mRNAs code for proteins that potently regulate critical cellular processes such as cell growth and proliferation, enhanced cell survival, and cell migration that ultimately impinge on several hallmarks of cancer, including increased angiogenesis, deregulated growth control, enhanced cellular survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis. By being positioned as the molecular nexus downstream of key oncogenic signaling pathways (e.g. Ras, PI3K/AKT/TOR, and Myc), eIF4F serves as a direct link between important steps in cancer development and translation initiation. Identification of mRNAs particularly responsive to elevated eIF4F activity that typifies tumorigenesis underscores the critical role of eIF4F in cancer and raises the exciting possibility of developing new-in-class small molecules targeting translation initiation as anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:25593033

  4. Electron affinity of trans-2-C4F8 from electron attachment-detachment kinetics.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jane M; Condon, Laura R; DeSouza-Goding, Antonet; Miller, Thomas M; Bopp, Joseph C; Viggiano, A A

    2010-01-28

    Electron attachment and detachment kinetics of 2-C(4)F(8) were studied over the temperature range 298-487 K with a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Only parent anions were formed in the attachment process throughout this temperature range. At the highest temperatures, thermal electron detachment of the parent anions is important. Analysis of the 2-C(4)F(8) gas showed an 82/18 mixture of trans/cis isomers. The kinetic data at the higher temperatures were used to determine the electron affinity EA(trans-2-C(4)F(8)) = 0.79 +/- 0.06 eV after making some reasonable assumptions. The same quantity was calculated using the G3(MP2) compound method, yielding 0.74 eV. The kinetic data were not sufficient to establish a reliable value for EA(cis-2-C(4)F(8)), but G3(MP2) calculations give a value 0.017 eV greater than that for trans-2-C(4)F(8). MP2 and density functional theory were used to study the structural properties of the neutral and anion isomers.

  5. The magnetic resonance imaging-linac system.

    PubMed

    Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; van Vulpen, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The current image-guided radiotherapy systems are suboptimal in the esophagus, pancreas, kidney, rectum, lymph node, etc. These locations in the body are not easily accessible for fiducials and cannot be visualized sufficiently on cone-beam computed tomographies, making daily patient set-up prone to geometrical uncertainties and hinder dose optimization. Additional interfraction and intrafraction uncertainties for those locations arise from motion with breathing and organ filling. To allow real-time imaging of all patient tumor locations at the actual treatment position a fully integrated 1.5-T, diagnostic quality, magnetic resonance imaging with a 6-MV linear accelerator is presented. This system must enable detailed dose painting at all body locations. PMID:24931095

  6. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  7. Stereo Imaging Velocimetry System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and a method is provided for measuring three dimensional velocities at a plurality of points in a fluid employing at least two cameras positioned approximately perpendicular to one another. Image frames captured by the cameras may be filtered using background subtraction with outlier rejection with spike-removal filtering. The cameras may calibrated to accurately represent image coordinates in a world coordinate system using calibration grids modified using warp transformations. The two-dimensional views of the cameras may be recorded fur image processing and particle track determination. The tracer particles may be tracked on a two-dimensional basis and then stereo matched to obtain three-dimensional locations of the particles as a function of time so that velocities can be measured there from.

  8. Ultrafast optics: Imaging and manipulating biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheetz, Kraig E.; Squier, Jeff

    2009-03-01

    The rapid evolution of ultrafast optics technology over the past two decades has opened the window to a broad range of applications in biology and medicine. Compact, reliable, and turn-key ultrafast laser systems are enabling cutting-edge science to take place in everyday laboratories and clinics. Led by the discovery of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy nearly 20 years ago, the biological imaging community is exploring unique image contrast mechanisms and pushing spatial and temporal resolution to new limits. Concurrent with advancements in imaging are developments in the precision application of extremely high peak intensities available in ultrashort pulses for disrupting or manipulating targeted locations in biological systems on the submicron scale while leaving surrounding tissue healthy. The ability for scientists to selectively discriminate structures of interest at the cellular and subcellular levels under relevant physiological conditions shows tremendous promise for accelerating the path to understanding biological functions at the most fundamental level.

  9. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system.

    PubMed

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X

    2010-05-24

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  10. Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

    Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already

  11. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  12. Multi-spectral image dissector camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The image dissector sensor for the Earth Resources Program is evaluated using contrast and reflectance data. The ground resolution obtainable for low contrast at the targeted signal to noise ratio of 1.8 was defined. It is concluded that the system is capable of achieving the detection of small, low contrast ground targets from satellites.

  13. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  14. Functional imaging of the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James F

    2015-06-01

    Functional imaging, which provides information of how tissues function rather than structural information, is well established in neuro- and cardiac imaging. Many musculoskeletal structures, such as ligaments, fascia and mineralized bone, have by definition a mainly structural role and clearly don't have the same functional capacity as the brain, heart, liver or kidney. The main functionally responsive musculoskeletal tissues are the bone marrow, muscle and nerve and, as such, magnetic resonance (MR) functional imaging has primarily addressed these areas. Proton or phosphorus spectroscopy, other fat quantification techniques, perfusion imaging, BOLD imaging, diffusion and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are the main functional techniques applied. The application of these techniques in the musculoskeletal system has mainly been research orientated where they have already greatly enhanced our understanding of marrow physiology, muscle physiology and neural function. Going forwards, they will have a greater clinical impact helping to bridge the disconnect often seen between structural appearances and clinical symptoms, allowing a greater understanding of disease processes and earlier recognition of disease, improving prognostic prediction and optimizing the monitoring of treatment effect. PMID:26029633

  15. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  16. Ultrasoft pseudopotentials for lanthanide solvation complexes: core or valence character of the 4f electrons.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Rodolphe; Clavaguéra, Carine; Dognon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-04-28

    The 4f electrons of lanthanides, because of their strong localization in the region around the nucleus, are traditionally included in a pseudopotential core. This approximation is scrutinized by optimizing the structures and calculating the interaction energies of Gd(3+)(H(2)O) and Gd(3+)(NH(3)) microsolvation complexes within plane wave Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof calculations using ultrasoft pseudopotentials where the 4f electrons are included either in the core or in the valence space. Upon comparison to quantum chemical MP2 and CCSD(T) reference calculations it is found that the explicit treatment of the 4f electrons in the valence shell yields quite accurate results including the required small spin polarization due to ligand charge transfer with only modest computational overhead.

  17. Does the 4f-shell contribute to bonding in tetravalent lanthanide halides?

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Wen-Xin; Xu, Wei; Xiao, Yi; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-12-28

    Lanthanide tetrahalide molecules LnX{sub 4} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Tb; X = F, Cl, Br, I) have been investigated by density functional theory at the levels of the relativistic Zero Order Regular Approximation and the relativistic energy-consistent pseudopotentials, using frozen small- and medium-cores. The calculated bond lengths and vibrational frequencies are close to the experimental data. Our calculations indicate 4f shell contributions to bonding in LnX{sub 4}, in particular for the early lanthanides, which show significant overlap between the Ln 4f-shell and the halogen np-shells. The 4f shells contribute to Ln-X bonding in LnX{sub 4} about one third more than in LnX{sub 3}.

  18. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P.

    1997-04-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetry has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield.

  19. Pou4f2 knock-in Cre mouse: A multifaceted genetic tool for vision researchers

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Aaron B.; Bloomsburg, Samuel J.; Billingslea, Samuel A.; Merrill, Morgan M.; Li, Shuai; Thomas, Marshall W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase under control of the Pou4f2-promoter (also referred to as Brn-3b and Brn-3.2) was characterized. Pou4f2 expression has been reported in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina, in the midbrain, and in the germline. In this study, we characterize the expression pattern of this Cre-recombinase line and report its utility in targeted deletion, temporal deletion, RGC depletion, and germline targeting, which can be regulated by the sex of the Cre-carrying mouse. Methods: Pou4f2Cre was mapped by using a combination of PCR and sequencing of PCR products to better understand the construct and to locate where it was inserted within the Pou4f2 locus. Cre expression patterns were examined by crossing Pou4f2Cre/+ mice to Cre reporter mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to further define the pattern of Cre expression and Cre-mediated recombination within the retina, brain, and other tissues. Results: An internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-Cre cassette was inserted into the Pou4f2 gene disrupting normal gene function, as verified by the depletion of RGCs in mice homozygous for the insert. Pou4f2Cre expression was observed in the retina, brain, peripheral neurons, and male germ cells. Germline recombination was observed when the sire carried the Cre and the target for recombination. In all other breeding schemes, recombination was observed within subsets of cells within the retina, brain, intestines, heart, and gonads. In the retina, Cre efficiently targets recombination in neurons within the RGC layer (RGL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and a small percentage of photoreceptors, activity that has not been previously reported. Unlike most other Cre lines active in the inner retina, recombination in Müller and other glia was not observed in mice carrying Pou4f2Cre. Within the visual centers of the brain, Cre targets recombination in about 15% of cells within the superchiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate

  20. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager - System description and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.; Slye, Robert E.; Klooster, Steven A.; Freedman, Richard S.; Carle, Mark; Mcgregor, Lloyd F.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager was developed as an aircraft instrument to simulate the spectral and radiometric characteristics of the next generation of satellite ocean color instrumentation. Data processing programs have been developed as extensions of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner algorithms for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products. The latter include several bio-optical algorithms for estimating phytoplankton pigment concentration, as well as one for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water. Additional programs have been developed to geolocate these products and remap them into a georeferenced data base, using data from the aircraft's inertial navigation system. Examples illustrate the sequential data products generated by the processing system, using data from flightlines near the mouth of the Mississippi River: from raw data to atmospherically corrected data, to bio-optical data, to geolocated data, and, finally, to georeferenced data.

  1. Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; de Lange, Joop; Daniels, Johannes M A; Grünberg, Katrien; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-02-01

    A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field averaging method based on the alignment of randomly pointing field phasors is developed to reduce speckle noise. The variation of the polarization states incident on the tissue due to the circular scanning and catheter sheath birefringence is investigated. With this system we demonstrated imaging of ex vivo chicken muscle, in vivo pig lung and ex vivo human lung specimens. PMID:25836196

  2. MONSOON: Image Acquisition System or "Pixel Server"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Barry M.; Buchholz, Nick C.; Rahmer, Gustavo; Penegor, Gerald; Schmidt, Ricardo E.; Warner, Michael; Merrill, Michael; Claver, Charles F.; Ho, Y.; Chopra, K. N.; Shroff, C.; Shroff, D.

    2003-03-01

    The MONSOON Image Acquisition System has been designed to meet the need for scalable, multichannel, high-speed image acquisition required for the next-generation optical and infared detectors and mosaic projects currently under development at NOAO as described in other papers at this proceeding such as ORION, NEWFIRM, QUOTA, ODI and LSST. These new systems with their large scale (64 to 2000 channels) and high performance (up to 1Gbyte/s) raise new challenges in terms of communication bandwidth, data storage and data processing requirements which are not adequately met by existing astronomical controllers. In order to meet this demand, new techniques for not only a new detector controller, but rather a new image acquisition architecture, have been defined. These extremely large scale imaging systems also raise less obvious concerns in previously neglected areas of controller design such as physical size and form factor issues, power dissipation and cooling near the telescope, system assembly/test/ integration time, reliability, and total cost of ownership. At NOAO we have taken efforts to look outside of the astronomical community for solutions found in other disciplines to similar classes of problems. A large number of the challenges raised by these system needs are already successfully being faced in other areas such as telecommunications, instrumentation and aerospace. Efforts have also been made to use true commercial off the shelf (COTS) system elements, and find truly technology independent solutions for a number of system design issues whenever possible. The Monsoon effort is a full-disclosure development effort by NOAO in collaboration with the CARA ASTEROID project for the benefit of the astronomical community.

  3. Kondo physics in a rare earth ion with well localized 4f electrons.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Evangelisti, Marco; Fisk, Zachary; Schlottmann, Pedro; Gor'kov, Lev P

    2012-06-22

    Dilute Nd in simple cubic LaB(6) shows electrical resistance and specific heat features at low temperature consistent with a Kondo scale of T(K) 4f(3) J = 9/2 Hund's rule configuration which is not anticipated to be Kondo coupled to the conduction electrons in LaB(6). We conjecture that the unexpected Kondo effect arises via participation of 4f quadrupolar degrees of freedom of the Nd crystal-field, ground-state quartet.

  4. Imaging system considerations in Doppler global velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, H.D.; Tatam, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) is a full-field optical technique for the measurement of fluid flow velocities. The flow is illuminated using a light sheet, and the Doppler shift imposed on light scattered from moving particles within the sheet is imaged through a cell containing iodine vapor onto a solid-state array camera, thereby converting the Doppler frequency shifts into intensity variations in the image. In this paper, a DGV system is presented based around an argon-ion laser source and a fast digital image-processing system, which allows the DGV velocity map to be updated at camera frame rate. Interpretation of DGV images is complicated by errors which arise at positions some way out in the field of view due to the modified illumination and viewing vectors corresponding to these positions. Typical magnitudes of such errors are calculated. Significant errors can arise for points more than about 5{degree} out from the center of the field of view, and for divergence angles of the illumination beam exceeding about 10{degree} at a distance of 5 cm from the beam axis. Other considerations affecting system accuracy are also discussed.

  5. 4f photoemission from Ce clusters and disordered reaction products at Ce/Si and Ce/GaAs interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Atsushi; Grioni, M.; Joyce, J. J.; Weaver, J. H.

    1985-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation photoemission has been used to study the 4f emission from 4f electrons in Ce clusters and disordered reaction products at Ce/GaAs(110) and Ce/Si(111) interfaces. For low Ce coverages on GaAs(110), the reacted interface forms Ce-As local configurations with two 4f-derived features similar to those of bulk CeAs. The shallower 4f peak is located ~1 eV below EF, indicating that it is not due to fully relaxed 4f holes, consistent with the As p-->Ce 4f charge-transfer screening mechanism. For the Ce/Si interface, small Ce clusters formed at low coverage have only a single 4f peak at -3.3 eV, with no evidence of a second peak nearer EF. This is attributed to the reduced number of neighboring Ce 5d orbitals for the clusters, apparent stability of the γ phase relative to the α phase (in the ground state), and reducted 5d-->4f charge-transfer screening probability in the photoemission final state. At high coverages, Ce overlayers cover the reacted interfaces, but our results show that the 4f emission near EF is not established until θ~=20 monolayers, suggesting that the 4f-5d hybridization in metallic Ce is long ranged compared with the short-range Ce-4f/As-p hybridization.

  6. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  7. Retroreflective imaging systems for enhanced optical biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Mark H.; Nichols, Jacqueline; Collier, Christopher M.; Jin, Xian; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2014-05-01

    Biosensing is important for detection and characterization of microorganisms. When the detection and characterization of targeted microorganisms require micron-scale resolutions, optical biosensing techniques are especially beneficial. Optical biosensing can be applied through direct or indirect optical sensing techniques. The latter have demonstrated especially high sensitivities for the detection of targeted microorganisms with labeling. Unfortunately, such systems rely on high-resolution microscopy with microscopic sampling areas to image the labeled target microorganisms. This leads to long characterization times for applications such as pathogen detection in water quality monitoring where users must scan the micron-scale sampling areas across millimeter- or even centimeter-scale samples. This work introduces retroreflector labels for the detection and characterization of microorganisms for macroscopic sample sizes. The demonstrated retroreflective imaging system uses a laser source to illuminate the sample, in lieu of the fluorescent excitation source, and micron-scale retroreflector labels, in lieu of fluorescent stains/proteins. Antibodies are used to bind retroreflectors to targeted microorganisms. The presence of these microscopic retroreflector-microorganism pairs is monitored in a retroreflected image that is captured by a distant image sensor which shows a well-localized retroreflected beamspot for each pair. Characteristics of an appropriately-designed retroreflective imaging system which provide a quantifiable record of microorganism-coupled retroreflectors across macroscopic sample sizes are presented. Retroreflection directionality, collimation, and contrast are investigated for both corner-cube retroreflectors and spherical retroreflectors (of varying refractive indices). It is ultimately found that such a system is an effective tool for the detection and characterization of microorganism targets, down to a single-target detection limit.

  8. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  9. Implantable imaging system for visual prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanqing; Tao, Chen; Chai, Xinyu; Sun, Yong; Ren, Qiushi

    2010-06-01

    In order to propose a method of intraocular imaging system for the visual prosthesis, an implantable microcamera was developed and evaluated in vivo. The microcamera was specially developed and shaped to fit the rabbit's lens capsule and encapsulated with the biocompatible silicone. To evaluate the feasibility of this novel approach, the custom-built device was implanted following the surgical extraction of rabbit's lens. And clinical examinations were performed 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 week, and 1 month postoperatively, including slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure, wound status, anterior chamber depth, the presence of the iris fibrosi of neovascularization, and the position of the implant. Real-time imaging was performed in vivo 1 month after the operation, and the acquired images were processed with the software and hardware that were specially developed for generating the stimulating pulses. Short-term results showed the novel approach is promising.

  10. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  11. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. PMID:26962139

  12. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures.

  13. Contribution of the 4 f -core-excited states in determination of atomic properties in the Promethium Isoelectronic Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    The atomic properties of Pm-like ions were comprehensively studied using relativistic atomic codes with the main emphasis on W ion. Excitation energies of the 4f14 nl (with nl = 5 s , 6 s , 5 p , 6 p , 5 d , 6 d , and 5 f) states in Pm-like ions with nuclear charge Z ranging from 74 to 100 are evaluated within the framework of relativistic many-body theory (RMBPT). First- and second-order Coulomb energies and first- and second-order Breit corrections to the energies are calculated. The important question of what is the ground state in Pm-like ions was answered. Properties of the 4 f -core-excited states are evaluated using the multiconfiguration relativistic Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC code) and the Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (COWAN code). Our large scale calculations includes the following set of configurations: 4f14 5 s , 4f14 5 p , 4f13 5s2 , 4f13 5p2 , 4f13 5 s 5 p , 4f12 5s2 5 p , 4f12 5 s 5p2 , and 4f12 5p3 . Excitation energies, transition rates, and lifetimes in Pm-like tungsten are evaluated with additional inclusion of the 4f11 5s2 5p2 , 4f11 5 s 5p3 , 4f10 5s2 5p3 , and 4f10 5 s 5p4 configurations. Wavelengths of the 5 s - 5 p transitions are obtained by the COWAN, HULLAC, and RMBPT codes. This research was sponsored by DOE under the OFES grant DE-FG02-08ER54951 and in part by NNSA Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984. Work at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. was performed under the auspices of DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellman, Dennis E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline

  15. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  16. Map-guided image database system for remotely sensed data

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, T.; Shinoda, H.; Sawada, N.; Numagami, H.; Kidode, M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors describes an image database system designed for the management of Landsat image data. In this system, all images are stored under a unique coordinate system (the goedesic coordinate system), accompanied with map information. The user can retrieve any part of the images in terms of geographical names and/or their attributes. This system is implemented on a high-performance interactive image processing system, where remotely sensed data analysis programs can be performed with the aid of a high speed image processor. Experimental results have proved that this system is useful enough to perform remote sensing studies. 5 references.

  17. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  18. A new method of ICCD imaging system MRC measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-cai; Jin, Wei-qi; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Wei-qiang; Dong, Hai-yan

    2005-02-01

    Based on analysis of the working principle of ICCD imaging system, the paper develops a new testing system for synthetic performance of ICCD imaging system. With the help of this testing system for integrative performance and the theory of Weibull psychometric function, a new method for MRC measurement of Space Light Modulation (SLM) is proposed, and the paper firstly implements measurement for minimum resolvable contrast performance of ICCD imaging system. The method provides reference for MRC performance measurement of other imaging system.

  19. Calibration and characterization of spectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polder, Gerrit; van der Heijden, Gerie W.

    2001-09-01

    Spectral image sensors provide images with a large umber of contiguous spectral channels per pixel. This paper describes the calibration of spectrograph based spectral imaging systems. The relation between pixel position and measured wavelength was determined using three different wavelength calibration sources. Results indicate that for spectral calibration a source with very small peaks,such as a HgAr source, is preferred to arrow band filters. A second order polynomial model gives a better fit than a linear model for the pixel to wavelength mapping. The signal to noise ratio (SNR)is determined per wavelength. In the blue part of the spectrum,the SNR was lower than in the green and red part.This is due to a decreased quantum efficiency of the CCD,a smaller transmission coefficient of the spectrograph,as well as poor performance of the illuminant. Increasing the amount of blue light,using additional Fluorescent tube with special coating increased the SNR considerably. Furthermore, the spatial and spectral resolution of the system are determined.These can be used to choose appropriate binning factors to decrease the image size without losing information.

  20. [Diagnostic imaging of central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Vasculitis involving the central nervous system presents with infarction and hemorrhage, which are often nonspecific findings. Laboratory examinations are essential for diagnosis of vasculitis in addition to comprehensive and systematic review of the clinical course. Although most findings tend to be nonspecific, enhancement and thickening of the vascular wall indicate vasculitis. Visualization of the vascular wall requires selection of the appropriate imaging modality and mode of image acquisition. Contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and FDG-PET are useful for visualizing large vessel vasculitis, while CT, MRI, and angiography are effective for medium vessel vasculitis. The use of ultrasound is limited to evaluating vessels on the body surface. Although relatively thick vessels can be demonstrated by angiography, complete survey of small vessels is difficult. Here, we summarize the characteristics of each imaging modality and imaging findings of typical vasculitides-Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, Behçet's disease, primary angiitis of the CNS, and vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Differential diagnoses are also shown, including infective endocarditis, tuberculous meningitis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. PMID:25846439

  1. Digital imaging-based retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1997-05-01

    Researchers at the USAF Academy and the University of Texas are developing a computer-assisted retinal photocoagulation system for the treatment of retinal disorders (i.e. diabetic retinopathy, retinal tears). Currently, ophthalmologists manually place therapeutic retinal lesions, an acquired technique that is tiring for both the patient and physician. The computer-assisted system under development can rapidly and safely place multiple therapeutic lesions at desired locations on the retina in a matter of seconds. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion depth during irradiation and lesion placement to compensate for retinal movement. Both subsystems have been successfully demonstrated in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser. Two different design approaches are being pursued to combine the capabilities of both subsystems: a digital imaging-based system and a hybrid analog-digital system. This paper will focus on progress with the digital imaging-based prototype system. A separate paper on the hybrid analog-digital system, `Hybrid Retinal Photocoagulation System', is also presented in this session.

  2. The preventive effects of apolipoprotein mimetic D-4F from vibration injury-experiment in rats.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David J; Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin Ling; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Kao, Dennis S; Matloub, Hani S; Riley, Danny A

    2011-03-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a debilitating sequela of neurological and vascular injuries caused by prolonged occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. Our previous study demonstrated that short-term exposure to vibration can induce vasoconstriction and endothelial cell damage in the ventral artery of the rat's tail. The present study investigated whether pretreatment with D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-1 mimetic with known anti-oxidant and vasodilatory properties, prevents vibration-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial cell injury, and protein nitration. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mg/kg D-4F at 1 h before vibration of the tails for 4 h/day at 60 Hz, 49 m/s(2) r.m.s. acceleration for either 1 or 3 days. Vibration-induced endothelial cell damage was examined by light microscopy and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (a marker for free radical production). One and 3-day vibration produced vasoconstriction and increased nitrotyrosine. Preemptive treatment with D-4F prevented these negative changes. These findings suggest that D-4F may be useful in the prevention of HAVS.

  3. Late-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 4F caused by periaxin gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shoko; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Akiko; Maeda, Kengo; Suzuki, Takashi; Haruki, Hiroyo; Nakamura, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    We identified the main features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, type 4F, caused by a periaxin gene (PRX) mutation in Japanese patients. Periaxin is known as one of the key myelination molecules, forming tight junction between myelin loop and axon. We collected 427 DNA samples from individuals with CMT or CMT-related neuropathy, negative for PMP22 duplication. We investigated PRX mutations using a purpose-built resequencing array screen during the period 2006-2012. We detected two types of PRX mutations in three patients; one patient showed a novel homozygous p.D651N mutation and the other two showed homozygous p.R1070X mutation. All PRX mutations reported so far have been of nonsense or frameshift type. In this study, we found homozygous missense mutation p.D651N. Aspartate 651 is located in a repeat domain; its position might indicate an important function. PRX mutations usually lead to early-onset, autosomal-recessive demyelinating CMT neuropathy 4F (CMT4F) or Dejerine-Sottas disease; their clinical phenotypes are severe. In our three patients, the onset of the disease was at the age of 27 years or later, and their clinical phenotypes were milder compared with those reported in previous studies. We showed a variation of clinical phenotypes for CMT4F caused by a novel, nonsense PRX mutation. PMID:22847150

  4. CYP4F2 genetic polymorphisms are associated with coronary heart disease in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To explore the relationship between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese Han population. Methods We selected 440 CHD patients and 440 control subjects to perform a case - control study. Four SNPs (rs2108622, rs3093100, rs3093105 and rs3093135) in CYP4F2 gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR - RFLP) methods. The genotype and haplotype distributions were compared between the case and the control group. Results We found both rs2108622 and rs3093105 in CYP4F2 gene were associated with the risk for CHD (P <0.01). Haplotype analysis indicated that GGGT haplotype consisted by rs2108622-rs3093100-rs3093105-rs3093135 was associated with CHD risk (OR = 4.367, 95% CI: 2.241 ~ 8.510; P < 0.001), but GGTA haplotype was associated with decreased risk for CHD (OR = 0.450, 95% CI: 0.111 ~ 0.777; P <0.001). Conclusion CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of CHD in Chinese population. PMID:24886380

  5. A LANDSAT digital image rectification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.; Stein, M.

    1976-01-01

    DIRS is a digital image rectification system for the geometric correction of LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital image data. DIRS removes spatial distortions from the data and brings it into conformance with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection. Scene data in the form of landmarks are used to drive the geometric correction algorithms. Two dimensional least squares polynominal and spacecraft attitude modeling techniques for geometric mapping are provided. Entire scenes or selected quadrilaterals may be rectified. Resampling through nearest neighbor or cubic convolution at user designated intervals is available. The output products are in the form of digital tape in band interleaved, single band or CCT format in a rotated UTM projection. The system was designed and implemented on large scale IBM 360 computers.

  6. The 94 GHz MMW imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon

    1993-01-01

    The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.

  7. Patient handling arrangements for NMR imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, R.L.; Keller, J.T.

    1988-02-23

    In a nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system, including a magnet having a bore in which a subject to be imaged is to be located, a patient handling system is described comprising: a patient table which may be located so as to oppose the magnet bore, the patient table including a bottom portion and a top portion; a patient pallet, movably located on the top portion and adapted to be moved between the top portion and the magnet bore; mechanically driven transport means for transporting the patient pallet into and out of the magnet bore, including latch means for connecting the transport means to the patient pallet; and release means, located on the pallet, for manually releasing the latch means from the pallet, whereby the pallet may be manually removed from the magnet bore.

  8. Imaging the fetal central nervous system.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, B; Claus, F; De Catte, L

    2011-01-01

    The low prevalence of fetal central nervous system anomalies results in a restricted level of exposure and limited experience-- for most of the obstetricians involved in prenatal ultrasound. Sonographic guidelines for screening the fetal brain in a systematic way will probably increase the detection rate and enhance a correct referral to a tertiary care center, offering the patient a multidisciplinary approach of the condition. This paper aims to elaborate on prenatal sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis and outcome of various central nervous system malformations. Detailed neurosonographic investigation has become available through high resolution vaginal ultrasound probes and the development of a variety of 3D ultrasound modalities e.g. ultrasound tomographic imaging. In addition, fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the detection of gyration and neurulation-- anomalies and disorders of the gray and white matter. PMID:24753859

  9. Image selection system. [computerized data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, M. A.; Hurd, D.; Hubble, L.; Kroeck, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An image selection (ISS) was developed for the NASA-Ames Research Center Earth Resources Aircraft Project. The ISS is an interactive, graphics oriented, computer retrieval system for aerial imagery. An analysis of user coverage requests and retrieval strategies is presented, followed by a complete system description. Data base structure, retrieval processors, command language, interactive display options, file structures, and the system's capability to manage sets of selected imagery are described. A detailed example of an area coverage request is graphically presented.

  10. Vapor pressures of mixtures of CFC-114 with the potential replacement coolants C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Otey, M.G.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Enrichment Corporation`s production of isotopically enriched uranium depends solely on two plants which utilize the gaseous diffusion process. This process uses large quantities of CFC-114 as an evaporative coolant. CFC-114, however, will be phased out of production at the end of 1995 due to its potential to deplete stratospheric ozone. A search has been underway for substitutes for a number of years. The initial search (1988-89) for an ozone-friendly, commercially available, chemically compatible substitute yielded two candidates, FC-c318 (c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) and FC-3110 (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}). The intended mode of replacing coolant was to stage the new coolant into independent subsystems of the plants, so that some systems would continue to operate on CFC-114, and an increasing number would operate on the new coolant. During that changeover process, the possibility of coolant mixing arises in variety of scenarios. This work was intended to generate sufficient experimental information to be able to predict the vapor pressure of coolant mixtures over the range of operating conditions likely to be found in the diffusion plants. Specifically, vapor pressures were measured over the temperature range 322 to 355 K (120{degrees}F to 180{degrees}F) and over the full range of mole fractions for binary mixtures of CFC-114 with FC-3110, and of CFC-114 with FC-c318.

  11. Imaging system design for improved information capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, C. L.; Huck, F. O.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information for communication channels is used to assess the performance of line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems and to optimize the design trade-offs involving sensitivity, spatial response, and sampling intervals. Formulations and computational evaluations account for spatial responses typical of line-scan and sensor-array mechanisms, lens diffraction and transmittance shading, defocus blur, and square and hexagonal sampling lattices.

  12. An Evolving System For Image Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Julius F.

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of efforts at Hughes sponsored by DARPA and ONR to demonstrate the application of research results from the DARPA Image Understanding Project. This effort has led to the development of a model based, predictive paradigm for image understanding, based on the ACRONYM system concept developed at Stanford University by Rod Brooks and Tom Binford. The completed initial system and a second system in development provide a capability for automated photo-interpretation by identifying instances of modeled objects in imagery. These implementations exercise elements of 3-D modeling, object feature prediction (including illumination and shadows), model directed feature extraction, and situation assessment via temporal analysis. The current system in development reflects the knowledge and experience gained in developing the initial system, where roadblocks to the development of the predictive vision paradigm were identified. A substantially new approach was taken in several areas and a new kernel of support tools was developed. The new system provides more robust performance and is built to support further extensions and testing.

  13. An image stabilization system for solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, R.; Raja Bayanna, A.; Louis, Rohan Eugene; Kumar, Brajesh; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2007-09-01

    An image stabilization system has been developed and demonstrated for solar observations in the visible wave-length at Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) with a 15 cm Coudé-refractor. The softwa4re and hardware components of the system are similar to that of the low cost solar adaptive optics system developed for the 1.5 m McMath-Pierce solar telescope at Kitt Peak observatory for solar observations in the infrared. The first results presented. The system has a closed loop correction bandwidth in the range of 70 to 100 Hz. The root mean by a factor of 10 to 20. The software developes and key issues concerning optimum system performance have been addressed.

  14. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-12-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy. PMID:27611712

  15. Compact Microscope Imaging System with Intelligent Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a compact microscope imaging system (CMIS) that includes a miniature video microscope, a Cartesian robot (a computer- controlled three-dimensional translation stage), and machine-vision and control subsystems. The CMIS was built from commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and custom machine-vision software. The machine-vision and control subsystems include adaptive neural networks that afford a measure of artificial intelligence. The CMIS can perform several automated tasks with accuracy and repeatability . tasks that, heretofore, have required the full attention of human technicians using relatively bulky conventional microscopes. In addition, the automation and control capabilities of the system inherently include a capability for remote control. Unlike human technicians, the CMIS is not at risk of becoming fatigued or distracted: theoretically, it can perform continuously at the level of the best human technicians. In its capabilities for remote control and for relieving human technicians of tedious routine tasks, the CMIS is expected to be especially useful in biomedical research, materials science, inspection of parts on industrial production lines, and space science. The CMIS can automatically focus on and scan a microscope sample, find areas of interest, record the resulting images, and analyze images from multiple samples simultaneously. Automatic focusing is an iterative process: The translation stage is used to move the microscope along its optical axis in a succession of coarse, medium, and fine steps. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the image is computed at each step, and the FFT is analyzed for its spatial-frequency content. The microscope position that results in the greatest dispersal of FFT content toward high spatial frequencies (indicating that the image shows the greatest amount of detail) is deemed to be the focal position.

  16. Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moik, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) operates under control of the IBM-OS/MVT operating system and uses an IBM-2250 model 1 display unit as interactive graphic device. The input language in the form of character strings or attentions from keys and light pen is interpreted and causes processing of built-in image processing functions as well as execution of a variable number of application programs kept on a private disk file. A description of design considerations is given and characteristics, structure and logic flow of SMIPS are summarized. Data management and graphic programming techniques used for the interactive manipulation and display of digital pictures are also discussed.

  17. FIZICS: fluorescent imaging zone identification system, a novel macro imaging system.

    PubMed

    Skwish, Stephen; Asensio, Francisco; King, Greg; Clarke, Glenn; Kath, Gary; Salvatore, Michael J; Dufresne, Claude

    2004-12-01

    Constantly improving biological assay development continues to drive technological requirements. Recently, a specification was defined for capturing white light and fluorescent images of agar plates ranging in size from the NUNC Omni tray (96-well footprint, 128 x 85 mm) to the NUNC Bio Assay Dish (245 x 245 mm). An evaluation of commercially available products failed to identify any system capable of fluorescent macroimaging with discrete wavelength selection. To address the lack of a commercially available system, a custom imaging system was designed and constructed. This system provides the same capabilities of many commercially available systems with the added ability to fluorescently image up to a 245 x 245 mm area using wavelengths in the visible light spectrum.

  18. Systems for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.; Chivers, Daniel H.

    2012-12-11

    Systems that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors are provided. These systems increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  19. In vivo simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging with spectral multiplexed volume holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Jiulou; Zhang, Dong; Cai, Wenjuan; Chen, Nanguang; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    A simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging system incorporating multiplexed volume holographic grating (VHG) is developed to acquire multispectral images of an object in one shot. With the multiplexed VHG, the imaging system can provide the distribution and spectral characteristics of multiple fluorophores in the scene. The implementation and performance of the simultaneous multispectral imaging system are presented. Further, the system's capability in simultaneously obtaining multispectral fluorescence measurements is demonstrated with in vivo experiments on a mouse. The demonstrated imaging system has the potential to obtain multispectral images fluorescence simultaneously.

  20. The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Ardanuy, Philip E.

    1989-01-01

    Science requirements for a moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) data system are outlined, as well as the operations concept and system specifications based on these requirements. Two systems are considered - MODIS-N for a 40-channel nadir-viewing scanner and MODIS-T for a 64-channel tiltable scanner. The first system collects data from 15 thermal-infrared channels at all times and from 25 reflected-energy channels during daytime, while MODIS-T will take data from 64 channels on a 100-percent duty cycle during daytime only. Standard data products, data acquisition and processing, and requirements on data are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the interfaces between the science data processing facilities and the scientific users.

  1. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  2. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  3. Imaging tree root systems in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, George; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; McGuigan, Michael

    2000-04-01

    Predictions of global energy use in this century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This represents a serious environmental problem and contributes significantly to greenhouse gases that affect global warming. Terrestrial ecosystems are a huge natural biological scrubber for CO2 currently sequestering, directly from the atmosphere, about 25% (approximately 2 GtC) of the 7.4 Gt of anthropogenic carbon emitted annually into the atmosphere. The major carbon pathways into soil are through plant litter and roots. Presently, there are no means by which root morphology, distribution, and mass can be measured without serious sampling artifacts that alter these properties. The current methods are destructive and labor intensive. Preliminary results using a high frequency, 1.5 Ghz, impulse Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for nondestructive imaging of tree root systems in situ are presented. The 3D reconstructed image is used to assess root morphology and dimensions. The constraints, limitations, and potential solutions for using GPR for tree root systems imaging and analysis are discussed.

  4. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  5. Implementation of a novel floating-image display system having a background of multiview integral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Suk-Pyo; Oh, Yong-Seok; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2007-09-01

    A floating-image display technique, which can project two-dimensional images into a real space through a convex lens or a concave mirror, has been studied as a new approach for implementation of the next-generation three-dimensional (3D) display system. However, the conventional floating-image display system was implemented just by using active display devices such as LCD panel and it could provide only a real plane image in space to an observer comparing with other 3D display systems having different perspectives. For practical application of a floating-image display system to 3D display systems, multi-layered display structure might be required to present multi-depth images in space. In this paper, a novel floating-image display system composed of two plane images with different depth by use of a half mirror is proposed. One plane image of an object is provided with the conventional floating-image display system to present and the other plane image of a background is provided with the integral imaging technique. Therefore, the proposed display system can provide high-resolution floating images with background images having different perspectives to observers. To show the usefulness of the proposed system, some experiments are carried out and the results are presented as well.

  6. Correlation and relativistic effects for the 4f-nl and 5p-nl multipole transitions in Er-like tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2011-07-15

    Wavelengths, transition rates, and line strengths are calculated for the multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, and M3) transitions between the excited [Cd]4f{sup 13}5p{sup 6}nl, [Cd]4f{sup 14}5p{sup 5}nl configurations and the ground [Cd]4f{sup 14}5p{sup 6} state in Er-like W{sup 6+} ion ([Cd]=[Kr]4d{sup 10}5s{sup 2}). In particular, the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate energies and transition rates for multipole transitions in this hole-particle system. This method is based on the relativistic many-body perturbation theory that agrees with multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations in lowest order, and includes all second-order correlation corrections and corrections from negative-energy states. The calculations start from a [Cd]4f{sup 14}5p{sup 6} Dirac-Fock (DF) potential. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate-coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the multipole matrix elements needed for calculations of other atomic properties such as line strengths and transition rates. In addition, core multipole polarizability is evaluated in random-phase and DF approximations. The comparison with available data is demonstrated.

  7. Application of Si and SiO2 Etching Mechanisms in CF4/C4F8/Ar Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Nanoscale Patterns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junmyung; Efremov, Alexander; Yeom, Geun Young; Lim, Nomin; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the etching characteristics and mechanism for both Si and SiO2 in CF4/C4F8/Ar inductively coupled plasmas under a constant gas pressure (4 mTorr), total gas flow rate (40 sccm), input power (800 W), and bias power (150 W) was performed. It was found that the variations in the CF4/C4F8 mixing ratio in the range of 0-50% at a constant Ar fraction of 50% resulted in slightly non-monotonic Si and SiO2 etching rates in CF4-rich plasmas and greatly decreasing etching rates in C4F8-rich plasmas. The zero-dimensional plasma model, Langmuir probe diagnostics, and optical emission spectroscopy provided information regarding the formation-decay kinetics for the plasma active species, along with their densities and fluxes. The model-based analysis of the etching kinetics indicated that the non-monotonic etching rates were caused not by the similar behavior of the fluorine atom density but rather by the opposite changes of the fluorine atom flux and ion energy flux. It was also determined that the great decrease in both the Si and SiO2 etching rates during the transition from the CF4/Ar to C4F8/Ar gas system was due to the deposition of the fluorocarbon polymer film. PMID:26726514

  8. A hybrid continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Dolganova, Irina N. Zaytsev, Kirill I. Metelkina, Anna A.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid (active-passive mode) terahertz (THz) imaging system and an algorithm for imaging synthesis are proposed to enhance the THz image quality. The concept of image contrast is used to compare active and passive THz imaging. Combining the measurement of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back-scattered source radiation measurement, it becomes possible to use the THz image to retrieve maximum information about the object. The experimental results confirm the advantages of hybrid THz imaging systems, which can be generalized for a wide range of applications in the material sciences, chemical physics, bio-systems, etc.

  9. Characterization of Core Samples from a Hardened Crust Layer in Tank 4F

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. L.

    2005-09-28

    Waste removal operations in Tank 4F are scheduled to begin in late 2005 to provide material for Sludge Batch 5. Mining/probing operations to support installation of submersible mixer pumps encountered a hard layer of material at {approx}45'' to 50'' from the bottom of the tank. Attempts at penetrating the hard layer using a manual mining tool in several different risers were not successful. A core-sampling tool was used to obtain samples of the hard crust layer in Tank 4F for characterization. Three 12'' core samples and a dip sample of the supernate near the surface of the hard layer were sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results for the crystalline solids from both sample FTF-434 and FTF-435 identifies the major component of both samples as Burkeite (Na{sub 6}(CO{sub 3})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}). All of the other data collected on the crystalline solids from the Tank 4F core samples support this conclusion. The conditions in Tank 4F for the last twenty years have been ideal for Burkeite formation. The tank has been largely undisturbed with a tank temperature consistently above 30 C, a carbonate to sulfate molar ratio in the supernate conducive to Burkeite formation, and slow evaporation of the supernate phase. Thermodynamic modeling and the results of a Burkeite solubility test confirm that a ratio of 1:1:12 for the volumes of Burkeite solids, supernate, and inhibited water will dissolve all of the Burkeite. These ratios could be used to remove the 6'' layer of Burkeite from Tank 4F with no mixing. However, the thermodynamic modeling and the solubility test neglect the sludge layer beneath the Burkeite crust in Tank 4F. Settled sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste tanks usually contains greater than 75% interstitial supernate by volume. If the supernate in the sludge layer should mix into the solution used to dissolve the Burkeite, significantly more inhibited water would be needed to

  10. Five closely related 4-chloro-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines: similar molecular structures but different supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lina M; Jurado, Jorge; Palma, Alirio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Dibenz[b,f]azepine (DBA) is a privileged 6-7-6 tricyclic ring system of importance in both organic and medicinal chemistry. Benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines (BPAs), which also contain a privileged 6-7-6 ring system, are less well investigated, probably because of a lack of straightforward and versatile methods for their synthesis. A simple and versatile synthetic approach to BPAs based on intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation has been developed. A group of closely-related benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine derivatives, namely (6RS)-4-chloro-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C14H14ClN3, (I), (6RS)-4-chloro-8-hydroxy-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C14H14ClN3O, (II), (6RS)-4-chloro-8-methoxy-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C15H16ClN3O, (III), and (6RS)-4-chloro-8-methoxy-6,11-dimethyl-2-phenyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C21H20ClN3O, (IV), has been prepared and their structures compared with the recently published structure [Acosta-Quintero et al. (2015). Eur. J. Org. Chem. pp. 5360-5369] of (6RS)-4-chloro-2,6,8,11-tetramethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, (V). All five compounds crystallize as racemic mixtures and they have very similar molecular conformations, with the azepine ring adopting a boat-type conformation in each case, although the orientation of the methoxy substituent in each of (III) and (IV) is different. The supramolecular assemblies in (II) and (IV) depend upon hydrogen bonds of the O-H...N and C-H...π(arene) types, respectively, those in (I) and (V) depend upon π-π stacking interactions involving pairs of pyrimidine rings, and that in (III) depends upon a π-π stacking interaction involving pairs of phenyl rings. Short C-Cl...π(pyrimidine) contacts are present in (I), (II) and (IV) but not in (III) or (V). PMID:26632832

  11. Five closely related 4-chloro-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines: similar molecular structures but different supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lina M; Jurado, Jorge; Palma, Alirio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Dibenz[b,f]azepine (DBA) is a privileged 6-7-6 tricyclic ring system of importance in both organic and medicinal chemistry. Benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines (BPAs), which also contain a privileged 6-7-6 ring system, are less well investigated, probably because of a lack of straightforward and versatile methods for their synthesis. A simple and versatile synthetic approach to BPAs based on intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation has been developed. A group of closely-related benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine derivatives, namely (6RS)-4-chloro-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C14H14ClN3, (I), (6RS)-4-chloro-8-hydroxy-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C14H14ClN3O, (II), (6RS)-4-chloro-8-methoxy-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C15H16ClN3O, (III), and (6RS)-4-chloro-8-methoxy-6,11-dimethyl-2-phenyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C21H20ClN3O, (IV), has been prepared and their structures compared with the recently published structure [Acosta-Quintero et al. (2015). Eur. J. Org. Chem. pp. 5360-5369] of (6RS)-4-chloro-2,6,8,11-tetramethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, (V). All five compounds crystallize as racemic mixtures and they have very similar molecular conformations, with the azepine ring adopting a boat-type conformation in each case, although the orientation of the methoxy substituent in each of (III) and (IV) is different. The supramolecular assemblies in (II) and (IV) depend upon hydrogen bonds of the O-H...N and C-H...π(arene) types, respectively, those in (I) and (V) depend upon π-π stacking interactions involving pairs of pyrimidine rings, and that in (III) depends upon a π-π stacking interaction involving pairs of phenyl rings. Short C-Cl...π(pyrimidine) contacts are present in (I), (II) and (IV) but not in (III) or (V).

  12. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  13. Myeloid expression of cytochrome P450 4F3 is determined by a lineage-specific alternative promoter.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Peter; Carlesso, Nadia; Shang, Haibo; Cheng, Shing-Ming; Weber, Brittany M; Preffer, Frederic I; Scadden, David T; Soberman, Roy J

    2003-07-01

    The cytochrome P450 4F3 (CYP4F3) gene encodes two functionally distinct enzymes that differ only by the selection of exon 4 (CYP4F3A) or exon 3 (CYP4F3B). CYP4F3A inactivates leukotriene B4, a reaction that has significance for controlling inflammation. CYP4F3B converts arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a potent activator of protein kinase C. We have previously shown that mRNAs coding for CYP4F3A and CYP4F3B are generated from distinct transcription start sites in neutrophils and liver. We therefore investigated mechanisms that regulate the cell-specific expression of these two isoforms. Initially, we analyzed the distribution of CYP4F3 in human leukocytes and determined a lineage-specific pattern of isoform expression. CYP4F3A is expressed in myeloid cells and is coordinate with myeloid differentiation markers such as CD11b and myeloperoxidase during development in the bone marrow. In contrast, CYP4F3B expression is restricted to a small population of CD3+ T lymphocytes. We identified distinct transcriptional features in myeloid, lymphoid, and hepatic cells that indicate the presence of multiple promoters in the CYP4F3 gene. The hepatic promoter depends on a cluster of hepatocyte nuclear factor sites 123-155 bp upstream of the initiator ATG codon. The myeloid promoter spans 400 bp in a region 468-872 bp upstream of the ATG codon; it is associated with clusters of CACCT sites and can be activated by ZEB-2, a factor primarily characterized as a transcriptional repressor in cells that include lymphocytes. ZEB-2 interacts with C-terminal binding protein and Smads, and this would provide opportunities for integrating environmental signals in myelopoiesis and inflammation.

  14. Design and implementation of semantics-based image retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chundi; Liu, Shenkui; Pan, Ligong; Yin, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    Through the study of the existing image retrieval technology, in this paper, a new design scheme of semantics-based image retrieval system is presented. Based on the establishment of mapping relationship between the low-level image features and the low layer of semantic image, this scheme associates the low layer of semantic image with high-level semantics, thus realizing hierarchical semantics description structure, to improve the high-level semantic image recognition accuracy rate.

  15. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  16. Integrated bio-inspired fluidic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Francis, Cameron S.; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2010-02-01

    We developed a new type of optical lens device that can change its curvature like crystalline lens in human eye. The curvature changing capability of the lens allows for a tremendous tuning range in its optical power and subsequently enables miniaturized imaging systems that can perform autofocus, optical zoom, and other advanced functions. In this paper, we study the physical properties of bio-inspired fluidic lenses and demonstrate the optical functionality through miniaturized optical systems constructed with such lenses. We report an auto-focusing optical system that can turn from a camera to a microscope, and demonstrate more than 4X optical zoom with a very short total track length. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of fluidic lens zoom camera through minimally invasive gallbladder removal surgery.

  17. Architecture For An Image Filing And Indexing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Stanley N.; Paoni, Robert A.; Robeson, Glenn H.

    1986-06-01

    We are developing an in-house Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) targeted to the centralized storage of images acquired from our computer-assisted imaging modalities and to the display of these images on multi-modality viewing stations. The central image database is distributed between two system modules with image processing capabilities located at the viewing stations. The first module of the image database is an image filing subsystem used for the storage and retrieval of complete image files. In our initial work, this module consists of a Data General MV/6000 computer system with 1.16 Gbytes of on-line disk storage. However, more efficient dedicated filing systems may be substituted for this general purpose computer in future revisions. The second module is an image file indexing subsystem which has been implemented on a DEC PDP-11/44 computer and is tightly integrated with our MARS II (ADAC Laboratories) Radiology Information System. These two image database modules communicate via low-speed, serial communications lines. This report focuses on our developmental work on the image file indexing subsystem and its communications protocol with the image filing subsystem. The image file indexing subsystem automatically inserts image file locators for studies referenced by patient when an image is transmitted from the acquisition device (eg, CT) to the image filing subsystem. It also locates image files at the request of a viewing station user based on patient name, physician name, or study type for either read or unread studies. Other capabilities include cross-referencing patient attributes with the MARS II system, deleting studies based on predefined criteria, storing requests for hard copy, storing user selected image processing attributes for individual images, flagging the archival status of an image, and complete managerial functions. This central-ized image filing and indexing system comprises what will become the central element of our PACS.

  18. Compact wearable dual-mode imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nan; Huang, Chih-Yu; Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Huang, Chongyuan; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-09-01

    A wearable all-plastic imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery is presented. The compact size of the system is especially suitable for applications in the operating room. The system consists of a dual-mode imaging system, see-through goggle, autofocusing, and auto-contrast tuning modules. The paper will discuss the system design and demonstrate the system performance.

  19. Compact wearable dual-mode imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nan; Huang, Chih-Yu; Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Huang, Chongyuan; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A wearable all-plastic imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery is presented. The compact size of the system is especially suitable for applications in the operating room. The system consists of a dual-mode imaging system, see-through goggle, autofocusing, and auto-contrast tuning modules. The paper will discuss the system design and demonstrate the system performance. PMID:26358823

  20. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1560 Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1560 Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1560 Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project...

  3. Structural transformation of Li 2CoPO 4F upon Li-deintercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanova, Nellie R.; Gavrilov, Alexey N.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Bramnik, Kirill G.; Hibst, Hartmut

    Electrochemical performance and structural properties of the high-voltage cathode material Li 2CoPO 4F have been investigated. The cyclic voltammetry and coulometry under potential step mode in the voltage range 3.0-5.1 V vs. Li revealed a structural transformation at potentials above 4.8 V. This transformation occurring upon Li-extraction appears to be irreversible: the subsequent Li-insertion does not result in restoration of the initial structure, but takes place within a new "modified" framework. According to the structure refinement this modification involves the mutual rotations of (CoO 4F 2) octahedra and (PO 4) tetrahedra accompanied by the considerable unit cell expansion which is expected to enhance the Li-transport upon subsequent cycling. The new framework demonstrates a reversible Li-insertion/extraction in a solid-solution regime with stabilized discharge capacity at around 60 mAh g -1.

  4. A Landsat Digital Image Rectification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wie, P.; Stein, M.

    1976-01-01

    DIRS is a Digital Image Rectification System for the geometric correction of Landsat Multispectral Scanner digital image data. DIRS removes spatial distortions from the data and brings it into conformance with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection. Scene data in the form of landmarks or Ground Control Points (GCPs) are used to drive the geometric correction algorithms. The system offers extensive capabilities for 'shade printing' to aid in the determination of GCPs. Affine, two dimensional least squares polynominal and spacecraft attitude modeling techniques for geometric mapping are provided. Entire scenes or selected quadralaterals may be rectified. Resampling through nearest neighbor or cubic convolution at user designated intervals is available. The output products are in the form of digital tape in band interleaved, single band or CCT format in a rotated UTM projection. The system was designed and implemented on large scale IBM 360 computers with at least 300-500K bytes of memory for user application programs and five nine track tapes plus direct access storage.

  5. Image-gathering system design for information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Mccormick, Judith A.; Park, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    Image gathering and processing are assessed in terms of information and fidelity, and the relationship between these two figures of merit is examined. It is assumed that the system is linear and isoplanatic and that the signal and noise amplitudes are Gaussian, wide-sense stationary, and statistically independent. Within these constraints, it is found that the combined process of image gathering and reconstruction (which is intended to reproduce the output of the image-gathering system) behaves as optical, or photographic, image formation in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system ordinarily does not maximize the fidelity of the reconstructed image. The combined process of image gathering and restoration (which is intended to reproduce the input of the image-gathering system) behaves more as a communication channel in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system tends to maximize the fidelity of optimally restored representations of the input.

  6. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  7. Dedicated IR imaging fire sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Hans-Peter; Jahn, Herbert; Briess, Klaus; Lorenz, Eckehard; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Walter, Ingo; Oertel, Dieter

    2000-07-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and its industrial partners are working on two new spaceborne fire missions: (1) the Bi-spectral IR Detection small satellite mission (BIRD) to be launched in autumn 2000, and (2) the Innovative Infrared Sensor System FOCUS to be flown as an early external payload of the International Space Station. Both BIRD and FOCUS will use MIR/TIR solid state pushbroom imagers with real time digital signal processing providing an adaptive and very high dynamic range in radiometry. Promising results are obtained with the BIRD Airborne Simulator which has been flown at DLR in several airborne campaigns since 1997.

  8. THz imaging system with the IJJ emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Manabu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Sawamura, Masashi; Delfanazari, Kaveh; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) emitter consisted of thousands of IJJs uniformly stacked in single crystalline high-Tc superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O8 + δ (Bi-2212) [L. Ozyuzer et al., Science 318, (2007) 1291.] is expected to be a novel source of the continuous terahertz electromagnetic waves (THz-waves). The maximum emission power of tens of microwatts recently obtained with the mesa structure of IJJs seems to be sufficient to make use of the IJJ emitter for some practical applications such as THz imaging. According to the cavity resonance condition, we can control the radiation frequency by changing the geometrical size of the mesa. In this study, we develop the THz imaging system with IJJ emitter. In the presentation, we will show some transparent images of standard specimens obtained by the raster scanning method. Also, we will mention some problems to be solved for the future applications of the IJJ emitter. CREST-JST, WPI-MANA, Strategic Initiative A (University of Tsukuba).

  9. Requirement of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex in hepatitis E virus replication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinying; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Wenshi; Sprengers, Dave; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, one of the foremost causes of acute hepatitis, is becoming a health problem of increasing magnitude. As other viruses, HEV exploits elements from host cell biochemistry, but we understand little as to which components of the human hepatocellular machinery are perverted for HEV multiplication. It is, however, known that the eukaryotic translation initiation factors 4F (eIF4F) complex, the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, serves as an important component for the translation and replication of many viruses. Here we aim to investigate the role of three subunits of the eIF4F complex: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in HEV replication. We found that efficient replication of HEV requires eIF4A, eIF4G and eIF4E. Consistently, the negative regulatory factors of this complex: programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) exert anti-HEV activities, which further illustrates the requirement for eIF4A and eIF4E in supporting HEV replication. Notably, phosphorylation of eIF4E induced by MNK1/2 activation is not involved in HEV replication. Although ribavirin and interferon-α (IFN-α), the most often-used off-label drugs for treating hepatitis E, interact with this complex, their antiviral activities are independent of eIF4E. In contrast, eIF4E silencing provokes enhanced anti-HEV activity of these compounds. Thus, HEV replication requires eIF4F complex and targeting essential elements of this complex provides important clues for the development of novel antiviral therapy against HEV.

  10. Three-dimensional integral imaging display system via off-axially distributed image sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Yongri; Qu, Hongjia; Zhang, Miao; Cho, Myungjin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional integral imaging display system with a multiple recorded images using off-axially distributed image sensing. First, the depth map of the 3D objects is extracted from the off-axially recorded multi-perspective 2D images by using profilometry technique. Then, the elemental image array is computationally synthesized using the extracted depth map based on ray mapping model. Finally, the 3D images are optically displayed in integral imaging system. To show the feasibility of the proposed method, the optical experiments for 3D objects are carried out and presented in this paper.

  11. Superhydrophobic treatment using atmospheric-pressure He/C4F8 plasma for buoyancy improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Sooryun; Moon, A.-Young; Moon, Se Youn

    2015-04-01

    A superhydrophobic miniature boat was fabricated with aluminum alloy plates treated with atmospheric-pressure helium (He)/octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) plasma using 13.56 MHz rf power. When only 0.13% C4F8 was added to He gas, the contact angle of the surface increased to 140° and the surface showed superhydrophobic properties. On the basis of chemical and morphological analyses, fluorinated functional groups (CF, CF2, and CF3) and nano-/micro-sized particles were detected on the Al surface. These features brought about superhydrophobicity similar to the lotus effect. While the miniature boat, assembled with plasma-treated plates, was immersed in water, a layer of air (i.e., a plastron) surrounded the superhydrophobic surfaces. This effect contributed to the development of a 4.7% increase in buoyancy. In addition, the superhydrophobic properties lasted for two months under the submerged condition. These results demonstrate that treatment with atmospheric-pressure He/C4F8 plasma is a promising method of improving the load capacity and antifouling properties, and reducing the friction of marine ships through a fast and low-cost superhydrophobic treatment process.

  12. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude

    2015-04-14

    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  13. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  14. A novel interaction of Cap-binding protein complexes eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F and eIF(iso)4F with a region in the 3'-untranslated region of satellite tobacco necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Gazo, Brandy M; Murphy, Patricia; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Browning, Karen S

    2004-04-01

    Satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) RNA is naturally uncapped at its 5' end and lacks polyadenylation at its 3' end. Despite lacking these two hallmarks of eukaryotic mRNAs, STNV-1 RNA is translated very efficiently. A approximately 130-nucleotide translational enhancer (TED), located 3' to the termination codon, is necessary for efficient cap-independent translation of STNV-1 RNA. The STNV-1 TED RNA fragment binds to the eukaryotic cap-binding complexes, initiation factor (eIF) 4F and eIF(iso)4F, as measured by nitrocellulose binding and fluorescence titration. STNV-1 TED is a potent inhibitor of in vitro translation when added in trans. This inhibition is reversed by the addition of eIF4F or eIF(iso)4F, and the subunits of eIF4F and eIF(iso)4F cross-link to STNV-1 TED, providing additional evidence that these factors interact directly with STNV-1 TED. Deletion mutagenesis of the STNV-1 TED indicates that a minimal region of approximately 100 nucleotides is necessary to promote cap-independent translation primarily through interaction with the cap binding subunits (eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E) of eIF4F or eIF(iso)4F.

  15. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  16. QI2S - Quick Image Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghmouchi, Jamin; Aviely, Peleg; Ginosar, Ran; Ober, Giovanna; Bischoff, Ole; Nadler, Ron; Guiser, David; Citroen, Meira; Freddi, Riccardo; Berekovic, Mladen

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the Earth Observation mission will be driven by many factors, and the deveploment of new processing paradigms to facilitate data downlink, handling and storage will be a key factor. Next generation EO satellites will generate a great amount of data at a very high data rate, both radar and optical. Real-time onboard processing can be the solution to reduce data downlink and management on ground. Radiometric, geometric, and atmospheric corrections of EO data as well as material/object detection in addition to the well-known needs for image compression and signal processing can be performed directly on board and the aim of QI2S project is to demonstrate this. QI2S, a concept prototype system for novel onboard image processing and image interpretation which has been designed, developed and validated in the framework of an EU FP7 project, targets these needs and makes a significant step towards exceeding current roadmaps of leading space agencies for future payload processors. The QI2S system features multiple chip components of the RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip, which targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. It integrates advanced DSP cores with a multibank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high-speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The processor is being developed within the European FP7 Framework Program and will be qualified to the highest space standards.

  17. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uri, Bin-Nun

    2011-06-01

    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  18. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Nun, Uri

    2011-05-01

    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  19. Image engine: an integrated multimedia clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Buchanan, B G; Cooper, G F; Kaplan, B; Vries, J K

    1995-01-01

    Image Engine is a microcomputer-based system for the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of digitized clinical images. The system seeks to address the problem of integrating a wide range of clinically important images with the text-based electronic patient record. Rather than create a single, integrated database system for all clinical data, we are developing a separate image database system that creates real-time, dynamic links to other network-based clinical databases. To the user, this system will present an integrated multimedia representation of the patient record, providing access to both the image and text-based data required for effective clinical decision making. PMID:8591216

  20. Image engine: an integrated multimedia clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Buchanan, B G; Cooper, G F; Kaplan, B; Vries, J K

    1995-01-01

    Image Engine is a microcomputer-based system for the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of digitized clinical images. The system seeks to address the problem of integrating a wide range of clinically important images with the text-based electronic patient record. Rather than create a single, integrated database system for all clinical data, we are developing a separate image database system that creates real-time, dynamic links to other network-based clinical databases. To the user, this system will present an integrated multimedia representation of the patient record, providing access to both the image and text-based data required for effective clinical decision making.

  1. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

  2. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  3. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1999-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), aE wavelengths which best discl"lmlnate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential.

  4. SORIS—A standoff radiation imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelakiewicz, Scott; Hoctor, Ralph; Ivan, Adrian; Ross, William; Nieters, Edward; Smith, William; McDevitt, Daniel; Wittbrodt, Michael; Milbrath, Brian

    2011-10-01

    The detection of radiological and special nuclear material within the country's borders is a crucial component of the national security network. Being able to detect small amounts of radiological material at large distances is especially important for search applications. To provide this capability General Electric's Research Center has developed, as a part of DNDO's standoff radiation detection system advanced technology demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program, a standoff radiation imaging system (SORIS). This vehicle-based system is capable of detecting weak sources at large distances in relatively short times. To accomplish this, GE has developed a novel coded aperture detector based on commercial components from GE Healthcare. An array of commercial gamma cameras modified to increase the system efficiency and energy range are used as position sensitive detectors. Unlike typical coded aperture systems, however, SORIS employs a non-planar mask and thus does not suffer the typical limitations of partially encoded regions giving it a wide field of view. Source identification is done using both low-statistics anomaly indicators and conventional high-statistics algorithms being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of scanned areas and threats identified are displayed to the user and overlaid on satellite imagery.

  5. Distributed health care imaging information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Mary R.; Johnston, William E.; Guojun, Jin; Lee, Jason; Tierney, Brian; Terdiman, Joseph F.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed an ATM network-based system to collect and catalogue cardio-angiogram videos from the source at a Kaiser central facility and make them available for viewing by doctors at primary care Kaiser facilities. This an example of the general problem of diagnostic data being generated at tertiary facilities, while the images, or other large data objects they produce, need to be used from a variety of other locations such as doctor's offices or local hospitals. We describe the use of a highly distributed computing and storage architecture to provide all aspects of collecting, storing, analyzing, and accessing such large data-objects in a metropolitan area ATM network. Our large data-object management system provides network interface between the object sources, the data management system and the user of the data. As the data is being stored, a cataloguing system automatically creates and stores condensed versions of the data, textural metadata and pointers to the original data. The catalogue system provides a Web-based graphical interface to the data. The user is able the view the low-resolution data with a standard Internet connection and Web browser. If high-resolution is required, a high-speed connection and special application programs can be used to view the high-resolution original data.

  6. Image processing system to analyze droplet distributions in sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertollini, Gary P.; Oberdier, Larry M.; Lee, Yong H.

    1987-01-01

    An image processing system was developed which automatically analyzes the size distributions in fuel spray video images. Images are generated by using pulsed laser light to freeze droplet motion in the spray sample volume under study. This coherent illumination source produces images which contain droplet diffraction patterns representing the droplets degree of focus. The analysis is performed by extracting feature data describing droplet diffraction patterns in the images. This allows the system to select droplets from image anomalies and measure only those droplets considered in focus. Unique features of the system are the totally automated analysis and droplet feature measurement from the grayscale image. The feature extraction and image restoration algorithms used in the system are described. Preliminary performance data is also given for two experiments. One experiment gives a comparison between a synthesized distribution measured manually and automatically. The second experiment compares a real spray distribution measured using current methods against the automatic system.

  7. The active-passive continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganova, Irina N.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Metelkina, Anna A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2016-08-01

    Active and passive terahertz (THz) imaging have recently become essential instruments of various THz applications. In this paper the active- and passive-mode THz imaging systems are studied and the hybrid active-passive THz imaging system is suggested. The concept of image contrast was used to compare the active and passive THz imaging results. In order to achieve better image quality the hybrid system is considered to be effective. The main advantage of the proposed system is the combination of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back scattered source radiation. The experimental results demonstrate that the active-passive modality of THz imaging system allows retrieving maximum information about the object. An approach to synthesise the active-passive THz images was proposed using the false-color representation.

  8. An image retrieval system for three-dimensional image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chu-Hui; Lin, Jin-Shu

    2013-07-01

    With the progress of the age, the popularization of the computer and the internet, the text, images, photographs and varieties of multimedia will be uploaded to groups of the network space or cloud storage space by users. Thus, the multimedia data and technology have to renew and transfer by user constantly. How to search the images economically is a significant issue. This paper will focus on 3D images for in-depth investigate. It will propose an efficient 3D searching method. The analytical object is used by three-dimensional trademark gallery of the Intellectual Property Office of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, R.O.C. One three-dimensional trademark image expresses by a set of 2D images. This paper uses Harris Corner detection and combines CPDH (contour points distribution histogram) method to extract the shape feature and uses color histogram to refine the color feature. And then, the two features help to retrieve the similar 3D images. Experiment verifies that the method we proposed is effective.

  9. Computer Human Interaction for Image Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, David Volk

    1991-01-01

    Presents an approach to developing viable image computer-human interactions (CHI) involving user metaphors for comprehending image data and methods for locating, accessing, and displaying computer images. A medical-image radiology workstation application is used as an example, and feedback and evaluation methods are discussed. (41 references) (LRW)

  10. Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2007-03-01

    A compact multi-spectral imaging system is presented as diagnostic tool in dermatology and neurosurgery. Using an electronically tunable filter, a sensitive high resolution digital camera, 140 spectral images from 400 nm up to 720 nm are acquired in 40 s. Advanced image processing algorithms are used to enable interactive acquisition, viewing, image registration and image analysis. Experiments in the department of dermatology and neurosurgery show that multispectral imaging reveals much more detail than conventional medical photography or a surgical microscope, as images can be reprocessed to enhance the view on e.g. tumor boundaries. Using a hardware-based interactive registration algorithm, multi-spectral images can be aligned to correct for motion occurred during image acquisition or to compare acquisitions from different moments in time. The system shows to be a powerful diagnostics tool for medical imaging in the visual and near IR range.

  11. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    This project is part of the Photo Audiovisual Management System (PAMS). The project was initially identified in 1989 and has since been has been worked on under various names such as Image Retrieval and Viewing System, Photo Image Retrieval Subsystem and Image Processing and Compression System. This document builds upon the information collected and the analysis performed in the earlier phases of this project. The PAMS Photo Imaging subsystem will provide the means of capturing low resolution digital images from Photography`s negative files and associating the digital images with a record in the PAMS photo database. The digital images and key photo identification information will be accessible to HAN users to assist in locating and identifying specific photographs. After identifying desired photographs, users may request photo prints or high resolution digital images directly from Photography. The digital images captured by this project are for identification purposes only and are not intended to be of sufficient quality for subsequent use.

  12. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  13. A New High Frequency Ultrasound Skin Imaging System: Imaging Properties and Clinical in Vivo Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M.; Scharenberg, R.; Moussa, G.; Sand, M.; Hoffmann, K.; Altmeyer, P.; Ermert, H.

    In this paper, a new high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) system for high-resolution skin imaging is presented. For imaging, mechanical scans are performed with spherically focused single element transducers. Two separate applicators with different transducers are utilized to fulfill the different requirements for imaging the skin with 20MHz ultrasound and for lower range high resolution imaging of the uppermost skin layers with HFUS in the 100MHz range. Clinical images were acquired in the imaging lab of the Dermatological University Hospital. Imaging results of wound healing process and skin lesion nevus investigations are presented

  14. IMIS: An intelligence microscope imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, Michael; Hunter, Norwood; Taylor, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Until recently microscope users in space relied on traditional microscopy techniques that required manual operation of the microscope and recording of observations in the form of written notes, drawings, or photographs. This method was time consuming and required the return of film and drawings from space for analysis. No real-time data analysis was possible. Advances in digital and video technologies along with recent developments in article intelligence will allow future space microscopists to have a choice of three additional modes of microscopy: remote coaching, remote control, and automation. Remote coaching requires manual operations of the microscope with instructions given by two-way audio/video transmission during critical phases of the experiment. When using the remote mode of microscopy, the Principal Investigator controls the microscope from the ground. The automated mode employs artificial intelligence to control microscope functions and is the only mode that can be operated in the other three modes as well. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four modes of of microscopy and how the IMIS, a proposed intelligent microscope imaging system, can be used as a model for developing and testing concepts, operating procedures, and equipment design of specifications required to provide a comprehensive microscopy/imaging capability onboard Space Station Freedom.

  15. Network of fully integrated multispecialty hospital imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Kuzmak, Peter M.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) DHCP Imaging System records clinically significant diagnostic images selected by medical specialists in a variety of departments, including radiology, cardiology, gastroenterology, pathology, dermatology, hematology, surgery, podiatry, dental clinic, and emergency room. These images are displayed on workstations located throughout a medical center. All images are managed by the VA's hospital information system, allowing integrated displays of text and image data across medical specialties. Clinicians can view screens of `thumbnail' images for all studies or procedures performed on a selected patient. Two VA medical centers currently have DHCP Imaging Systems installed, and others are planned. All VA medical centers and other VA facilities are connected by a wide area packet-switched network. The VA's electronic mail software has been modified to allow inclusion of binary data such as images in addition to the traditional text data. Testing of this multimedia electronic mail system is underway for medical teleconsultation.

  16. A Ferret-based gastrointestinal image retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Steven; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree

    2007-01-01

    We developed a web-based interface for image retrieval and cluster analysis system. The system handles search queries using Ferret, a port to the Ruby language of the Apache Lucene indexing and searching system. The system uses de-identified endoscopic images from the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative data repository, and is designed for use by students and researchers.

  17. An image identification system of seal with fingerprint based on CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xu-cheng; Zhang, Shu-yan; Guo, Yong-fei

    2006-01-01

    CMOS image sensors now become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor, analog signal conditioning circuits, A/D converter and digital processing functions. Furthermore, CMOS sensors are the best choices for low-cost imaging systems. An image identification system based on CMOS image sensor is used to identify the seal images that include fingerprint, and then determine whether the seal is fake or not. The system consists of a color CMOS image sensor (OV2610), a buffer memory, a CPLD, a MCU (P89C61X2), a USB2.0 interface chip (ISP1581) and a personal computer. The CPLD implement the logic and timing of the system. The MCU and the USB2.0 interface chip deal with the communications between the images acquisition system and PC. Thus PC can send some parameters and commands to the images acquisition system and also read image data from it. The identification of the images of seal is processed by the PC. The structure and scheme of the system are discussed in detail in this paper. Several test images of seal taken by the system are also provided in the paper.

  18. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  19. Multimodality image guidance system integrating X-ray fluoroscopy and ultrasound image streams with electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Luis F.; Shechter, Guy; Stanton, Douglas; Dalal, Sandeep; Elgort, Daniel; Manzke, Robert; Chan, Raymond C.; Zagorchev, Lyubomir

    2007-03-01

    This work presents an integrated system for multimodality image guidance of minimally invasive medical procedures. This software and hardware system offers real-time integration and registration of multiple image streams with localization data from navigation systems. All system components communicate over a local area Ethernet network, enabling rapid and flexible deployment configurations. As a representative configuration, we use X-ray fluoroscopy (XF) and ultrasound (US) imaging. The XF imaging system serves as the world coordinate system, with gantry geometry derived from the imaging system, and patient table position tracked with a custom-built measurement device using linear encoders. An electromagnetic (EM) tracking system is registered to the XF space using a custom imaging phantom that is also tracked by the EM system. The RMS fiducial registration error for the EM to X-ray registration was 2.19 mm, and the RMS target registration error measured with an EM-tracked catheter was 8.81 mm. The US image stream is subsequently registered to the XF coordinate system using EM tracking of the probe, following a calibration of the US image within the EM coordinate system. We present qualitative results of the system in operation, demonstrating the integration of live ultrasound imaging spatially registered to X-ray fluoroscopy with catheter localization using electromagnetic tracking.

  20. A database system to support image algorithm evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Y. E.

    1977-01-01

    The design is given of an interactive image database system IMDB, which allows the user to create, retrieve, store, display, and manipulate images through the facility of a high-level, interactive image query (IQ) language. The query language IQ permits the user to define false color functions, pixel value transformations, overlay functions, zoom functions, and windows. The user manipulates the images through generic functions. The user can direct images to display devices for visual and qualitative analysis. Image histograms and pixel value distributions can also be computed to obtain a quantitative analysis of images.

  1. Localized and mixed valence state of Ce 4 f in superconducting and ferromagnetic CeO1 -xFxBiS2 revealed by x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Ootsuki, D.; Paris, E.; Iadecola, A.; Salome, M.; Schwier, E. F.; Iwasawa, H.; Shimada, K.; Asano, T.; Higashinaka, R.; Matsuda, T. D.; Aoki, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Mizokawa, T.

    2016-08-01

    We have performed Ce L3-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Ce 4 d -4 f resonant photoemission spectroscopy (PES) on single crystals of CeO1 -xFxBiS2 for x =0.0 and 0.5 in order to investigate the Ce 4 f electronic states. In Ce L3-edge XAS, a mixed valence of Ce was found in the x =0.0 sample, and F doping suppressed it, which is consistent with the results on polycrystalline samples. As for resonant PES, we found that the Ce 4 f electrons in both x =0.0 and 0.5 systems respectively formed a flat band at 1.0 and 1.4 eV below the Fermi level and there was no contribution to the Fermi surfaces. Interestingly, Ce valence in CeOBiS2 deviates from Ce3 + even though Ce 4 f electrons are localized, indicating the Ce valence is not in a typical valence fluctuation regime. We assume that localized Ce 4 f in CeOBiS2 is mixed with unoccupied Bi 6 pz , which is consistent with a previous local structural study. Based on the analysis of the Ce L3-edge XAS spectra using Anderson's impurity model calculation, we found that the transfer integral becomes smaller, increasing the number of Ce 4 f electrons upon the F substitution for O.

  2. Validation of an image simulation technique for two computed radiography systems: An application to neonatal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smans, Kristien; Vandenbroucke, Dirk; Pauwels, Herman; Struelens, Lara; Vanhavere, Filip; Bosmans, Hilde

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a computer model to simulate the image acquisition for two computed radiography (CR) imaging systems used for neonatal chest imaging: (1) The Agfa ADC Compact, a flying spot reader with powder phosphor image plates (MD 40.0); and (2) the Agfa DX-S, a line-scanning CR reader with needle crystal phosphor image plates (HD 5.0). The model was then applied to compare the image quality of the two CR imaging systems. Methods: Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate the transport of primary and scattered x rays in digital x-ray systems. The output of the Monte Carlo program was an image representing the energy absorbed in the detector material. This image was then modified using physical characteristics of the CR imaging systems to account for the signal intensity variations due to the heel effect along the anode-cathode axis, the spatial resolution characteristics of the imaging system, and the various sources of image noise. The simulation was performed for typical acquisition parameters of neonatal chest x-ray examinations. To evaluate the computer model, the authors compared the threshold-contrast detectability in simulated and experimentally acquired images of a contrast-detail phantom. Threshold-contrast curves were computed using a commercially available scoring program. Results: The threshold-contrast curves of the simulated and experimentally acquired images show good agreement; for the two CR systems, 93% of the threshold diameters calculated from the simulated images fell within the confidence intervals of the threshold diameter calculated from the experimentally assessed images. Moreover, the superiority of needle based CR plates for neonatal imaging was confirmed. Conclusions: The good agreement between simulated and experimental acquired results indicates that the computer model is accurate.

  3. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  4. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing in Drosophila spliceosomal assembly factor RNP-4F during development.

    PubMed

    Fetherson, Rebecca A; Strock, Stephen B; White, Kristen N; Vaughn, Jack C

    2006-04-26

    The 5'- and 3'-UTR regions in pre-mRNAs play a variety of roles in controlling eukaryotic gene expression, including translational modulation. Here we report the results of a systematic study of alternative splicing in rnp-4f, which encodes a Drosophila spliceosomal assembly factor. We show that most of the nine introns are constitutively spliced, but several patterns of alternative splicing are observed in two pre-mRNA regions including the 5'-UTR. Intron V is shown to be of recent evolutionary origin and is infrequently spliced, resulting in generation of an in-frame stop codon and a predicted truncated protein lacking a nuclear localization signal, so that alternative splicing regulates its subcellular localization. Intron 0, located in the 5'-UTR, is subject to three different splicing decisions in D. melanogaster. Northern analysis of poly(A+) mRNAs reveals two differently sized rnp-4f mRNA isoforms in this species. A switch in relative isoform abundance occurs during mid-embryo stages, when the larger isoform becomes more abundant. This isoform is shown to represent intron 0 unspliced mRNA, whereas the smaller transcript represents the product of alternative splicing. Comparative genomic analysis predicts that intron 0 is present in diverse Drosophila species. Intron 0 splicing results in loss of an evolutionarily conserved stem-loop constituting a potential cis-regulatory element at the 3'-splice site. A model is proposed for the role of this element both in 5'-UTR alternative splicing decisions and in RNP-4F translational modulation. Preliminary evidences in support of our model are discussed.

  5. Ketoconazole increases fingolimod blood levels in a drug interaction via CYP4F2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, John M; Dole, Kiran; Riviere, Gilles-Jacques; Pommier, Francoise; Maton, Steve; Jin, Yi; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Schmouder, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod is predominantly hydroxylated by cytochrome CYP4F2. In vitro experiments showed that ketoconazole significantly inhibited the oxidative metabolism of fingolimod by human liver microsomes and by recombinant CYP4F2. The authors used ketoconazole as a putative CYP4F2 inhibitor to quantify its influence on fingolimod pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. In a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study, 22 healthy subjects received a single 5-mg dose of fingolimod in period 1. In period 2, subjects received ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 9 days and a single 5-mg dose of fingolimod coadministered on the 4th day of ketoconazole treatment. Ketoconazole did not affect fingolimod t(max) or half-life, but there was a weak average increase in C(max) of 1.22-fold (90% confidence interval, 1.15-1.30). The AUC over the 5 days of ketoconazole coadministration increased 1.40-fold (1.31-1.50), and the full AUC to infinity increased 1.71-fold (1.53-1.91). The AUC of the active metabolite fingolimod-phosphate was increased to a similar extent by 1.67-fold (1.50-1.85). Ketoconazole predose plasma levels were not altered by fingolimod. The magnitude of this interaction suggests that a proactive dose reduction of fingolimod is not necessary when adding ketoconazole to a fingolimod regimen. The clinician, however, should be aware of this interaction and bear in mind the possibility of a fingolimod dose reduction based on clinical monitoring. PMID:19118083

  6. Digital image fusion systems: color imaging and low-light targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) systems in color imaging and low light target applications. This paper will discuss first the digital sensors that are utilized in the noted image fusion applications which is a 1900x1086 (high definition format) CMOS imager coupled to a Generation III image intensifier for the visible/near infrared (NIR) digital sensor and 320x240 or 640x480 uncooled microbolometer thermal imager for the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) digital sensor. Performance metrics for these digital imaging sensors will be presented. The digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) process will be presented in context of early fused night vision systems such as the digital image fused system (DIFS) and the digital enhanced night vision goggle and later, the long range digitally fused night vision sighting system. Next, this paper will discuss the effects of user display color in a dual color digital image fusion system. Dual color image fusion schemes such as Green/Red, Cyan/Yellow, and White/Blue for image intensifier and thermal infrared sensor color representation, respectively, are discussed. Finally, this paper will present digitally fused imagery and image analysis of long distance targets in low light from these digital fused systems. The result of this image analysis with enhanced A+B digital image fusion systems is that maximum contrast and spatial resolution is achieved in a digital fusion mode as compared to individual sensor modalities in low light, long distance imaging applications. Paper has been cleared by DoD/OSR for Public Release under Ref: 08-S-2183 on August 8, 2008.

  7. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-20

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ~ 7 eV) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν >/~ 400 eV) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of CeMIn5(M = Rh, Ir, and Co) and YbRh2Si2 with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant U5f compounds such as UFeGa5, their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all U5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized U5f compounds such as UPd3 and UO2 are essentially explained by the localized model that treats U5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion U-based compounds such as the hidden-order compound URu2Si2, their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures are generally well-explained by the band-structure calculation, whereas the states in the vicinity of EF show some deviations due to electron correlation effects. Furthermore, the electronic structures of URu2Si2 in the paramagnetic and hidden-order phases are

  8. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-20

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ~ 7 eV) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν >/~ 400 eV) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of CeMIn5(M = Rh, Ir, and Co) and YbRh2Si2 with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant U5f compounds such as UFeGa5, their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all U5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized U5f compounds such as UPd3 and UO2 are essentially explained by the localized model that treats U5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion U-based compounds such as the hidden-order compound URu2Si2, their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures are generally well-explained by the band-structure calculation, whereas the states in the vicinity of EF show some deviations due to electron correlation effects. Furthermore, the electronic structures of URu2Si2 in the paramagnetic and hidden-order phases are

  9. XeCl laser pumped iodine laser using t-C4F9I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In Heon; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1989-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser using t-C4F9I as the active material was pumped by a XeCl laser. An iodine laser output energy of 3 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns was obtained when the pumping pulse energy was 80 mJ, the iodine pressure was 70 torr, and the reflectance of the output mirror was 85 percent. The high pumping efficiency and low threshold pump power achieved in this experiment are attributable to the high absorption cross section at the pump laser wavelength (308 nm) of the iodide used.

  10. XeCl laser pumped iodine laser using t-C4F9I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In Heon; Han, Kwang S.

    1989-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser using t-C4F9I as the active material was pumped by an XeCl laser. An iodine laser output energy of 3 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns was obtained when the pumping pulse energy was 80 mJ, the iodide pressure was 70 torr, and the reflectance of the output mirror was 85 percent. The high pumping efficiency and low threshold pump power achieved in this experiment are attributable to the high absorption cross section at the pump laser wavelength (308 nm) of the iodide used.

  11. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ∼ 7~\\text{eV} ) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν ≳ 400~\\text{eV} ) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of \\text{Ce}M\\text{I}{{\\text{n}}5} (M=\\text{Rh} , \\text{Ir} , and \\text{Co} ) and \\text{YbR}{{\\text{h}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UFeG}{{\\text{a}}5} , their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all \\text{U}~5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UP}{{\\text{d}}3} and \\text{U}{{\\text{O}}2} are essentially explained by the localized model that treats \\text{U}~5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion \\text{U} -based compounds such as the hidden-order compound \\text{UR}{{\\text{u}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} , their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures

  12. 4-[F-18]fluoroproline: A potential tracer for collagen synthesis. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamacher, K.; Herz, M.; Truckenbrodt, R.

    1996-05-01

    Proline is an important constituent of the structural protein collagen. It has been shown that its fluorinated analogs (2S,4S)- and particularly (2S,4R)-4-fluoroproline are also incorporated into collagen (Gottlieb et al., Biochemistry (1965), 4: 2507). 4-[F-18]fluoroproline is therefore a potential probe for studying abnormal collagen synthesis e. g. in tumors, lung fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. We have evaluated the two diastereomeric forms using a transplantable osteosarcoma in mice as an in vivo model for elevated collagen synthesis, and a MCF 7 mamma carcinoma cell line for monolayer incubation studies.

  13. Transitions between the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16+, Ir17+, and Ir18+ ions for clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Flambaum, V. V.; Safronova, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    Iridium ions near 4 f - 5 s level crossings are the leading candidates for a new type of atomic clocks with a high projected accuracy and a very high sensitivity to the temporal variation of the fine structure constant α. To identify spectra of these ions in experiment accurate calculations of the spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities should be performed. Properties of the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16+, Ir17+, and Ir18+ ions are evaluated using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (COWAN code). We evaluate excitation energies, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates. Our large-scale calculations included the following set of configurations: 4f14 5 s , 4f14 5 p , 4f13 5s2 , 4f13 5p2 , 4f13 5 s 5 p , 4f12 5s2 5 p , and 4f12 5 s 5p2 in Pm-like Ir16+ ; 4f14 , 4f13 5 s , 4f13 5 p , 4f12 5s2 , 4f12 5 s 5 p , and 4f12 5p2 in Nd-like Ir17+; and 4f13 , 4f12 5 s , 4f12 5 p , 4f11 5s2 , and 4f11 5 s 5 p in Pr-like Ir18+. The 5 s - 5 p transitions are illustrated by the synthetic spectra in the 180 - 200 Å range. Large contributions of magnetic-dipole transitions to lifetimes of low-lying states in the region 2.5 Ry.

  14. Design of a dynamic dual-foveated imaging system.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyu; Chang, Jun; Zhang, Yunqiang; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Bochuan; Gao, Lei; Xiao, Liping

    2015-10-01

    A new kind of dynamic dual-foveated imaging system in the infrared band is designed and optimized in this paper. Dual-foveated imaging refers to the variation in spatial resolution at the two selected fields across the image. Such variable resolution imaging system is suitable for a variety of applications including monitoring, recognition, and remote operation of unmanned aerial vehicle. In this system, a transmissive spatial light modulator (SLM) is used as an active optical element which is located near the image plane instead of pupil plane creatively in order to divide the two selected fields. PMID:26480118

  15. A translational registration system for LANDSAT image segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Erthal, G. J.; Velasco, F. R. D.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of satellite images obtained from various dates is essential for crop forecast systems. In order to make possible a multitemporal analysis, it is necessary that images belonging to each acquisition have pixel-wise correspondence. A system developed to obtain, register and record image segments from LANDSAT images in computer compatible tapes is described. The translational registration of the segments is performed by correlating image edges in different acquisitions. The system was constructed for the Burroughs B6800 computer in ALGOL language.

  16. The Tile and General Research Imaging System (TIGRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.J.; Al-Rawi, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Tile and General Research Imaging System (TIGRIS) is a UNIX-based image software system implemented in, and strictly conforming to, UNIX, C/ANSI C, and X11 Window standards. The TIGRIS design and implementation emulates UNIX at the user, application, and system levels. The TIGRIS Application Programmer Interface (API) provides a convenient way to create divers image processing and analysis applications. TIGRIS has been used primarily to support satellite remote sensing, global change research, and operational activities. Numerous applications related to specific remote sensing issues (e.g., cloud detection, noise reduction in AVHRR Channel 3 data, oceanic transport) are included in the application layer. In addition, a number of powerful general purpose imaging applications (e.g., image algebra, morphological operations, textural analysis) are provided which support general image processing, analysis, interactive visualization, and noninteractive image product generation. Use of TIGRIS to accomplish a few complex image analysis tasks is demonstrated.

  17. Video Imaging System Particularly Suited for Dynamic Gear Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broughton, Howard (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A digital video imaging system that captures the image of a single tooth of interest of a rotating gear is disclosed. The video imaging system detects the complete rotation of the gear and divide that rotation into discrete time intervals so that each tooth of interest of the gear is precisely determined when it is at a desired location that is illuminated in unison with a digital video camera so as to record a single digital image for each tooth. The digital images are available to provide instantaneous analysis of the tooth of interest, or to be stored and later provide images that yield a history that may be used to predict gear failure, such as gear fatigue. The imaging system is completely automated by a controlling program so that it may run for several days acquiring images without supervision from the user.

  18. The design of a distributed image processing and dissemination system

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, P.; Hower, L.

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of a distributed image processing and dissemination system was undertaken and accomplished as part of a prototype communication and intelligence (CI) system, the contingency support system (CSS), which is intended to support contingency operations of the Tactical Air Command. The system consists of six (6) Sun 3/180C workstations with integrated ITEX image processors and three (3) 3/50 diskless workstations located at four (4) system nodes (INEL, base, and mobiles). All 3/180C workstations are capable of image system server functions where as the 3/50s are image system clients only. Distribution is accomplished via both local and wide area networks using standard Defense Data Network (DDN) protocols (i.e., TCP/IP, et al.) and Defense Satellite Communication Systems (DSCS) compatible SHF Transportable Satellite Earth Terminals (TSET). Image applications utilize Sun's Remote Procedure Call (RPC) to facilitate the image system client and server relationships. The system provides functions to acquire, display, annotate, process, transfer, and manage images via an icon, panel, and menu oriented Sunview{trademark} based user interface. Image spatial resolution is 512 {times} 480 with 8-bits/pixel black and white and 12/24 bits/pixel color depending on system configuration. Compression is used during various image display and transmission functions to reduce the dynamic range of image data of 12/6/3/2 bits/pixel depending on the application. Image acquisition is accomplished in real-time or near-real-time by special purpose Itex image hardware. As a result all image displays are highly interactive with attention given to subsecond response time. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Lensless imaging system to quantify cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinjimore Kesavan, S.; Allier, C. P.; Navarro, F.; Mittler, F.; Chalmond, B.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Owing to its simplicity, lensless imaging system is adept at continuous monitoring of adherent cells inside the incubator. The setup consists of a CMOS sensor with pixel pitch of 2.2 μm and field of view of 24 mm2, LED with a dominating wavelength of 525 nm, along with a pinhole of 150 μm as the source of illumination. The in-line hologram obtained from cells depends on the degree of cell-substrate adhesion. Drastic difference is observed between the holographic patterns of floating and adherent cells. In addition, the well-established fact of reduction of cell-substrate contact during cell division is observed with our system based on corresponding spontaneous transition in the holographic pattern. Here, we demonstrate that by recognizing this specific holographic pattern, number of cells undergoing mitosis in a cell culture with a population of approximately 5000 cells, can be estimated in real-time. The method is assessed on comparison with Edu-based proliferation assay. The approach is straightforward and it eliminates the use of markers to estimate the proliferation rate of a given cell culture. Unlike most proliferation assays, the cells are not harvested enabling continuous monitoring of cell culture.

  20. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo Fuente, Alberto; Del Val Puente, Lara; Villacorta Calvo, Juan J.; Raboso Mateos, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced. PMID:24616643

  1. Optimization of a biometric system based on acoustic images.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo Fuente, Alberto; Del Val Puente, Lara; Villacorta Calvo, Juan J; Raboso Mateos, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  2. Monitoring dynamic systems with multiparameter fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Felekyan, Suren; Woźniak, Anna K; König, Marcelle; Sandhagen, Carl; Kühnemuth, Ralf; Seidel, Claus A M; Oesterhelt, Filipp

    2007-01-01

    A new general strategy based on the use of multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) to register and quantitatively analyse fluorescence images is introduced. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging (MFDi) uses pulsed excitation, time-correlated single-photon counting and a special pixel clock to simultaneously monitor the changes in the eight-dimensional fluorescence information (fundamental anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence intensity, time, excitation spectrum, fluorescence spectrum, fluorescence quantum yield, distance between fluorophores) in real time. The three spatial coordinates are also stored. The most statistically efficient techniques known from single-molecule spectroscopy are used to estimate fluorescence parameters of interest for all pixels, not just for the regions of interest. Their statistical significance is judged from a stack of two-dimensional histograms. In this way, specific pixels can be selected for subsequent pixel-based subensemble analysis in order to improve the statistical accuracy of the parameters estimated. MFDi avoids the need for sequential measurements, because the registered data allow one to perform many analysis techniques, such as fluorescence-intensity distribution analysis (FIDA) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), in an off-line mode. The limitations of FCS for counting molecules and monitoring dynamics are discussed. To demonstrate the ability of our technique, we analysed two systems: (i) interactions of the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 110 inside and outside of a glutathione sepharose bead, and (ii) microtubule dynamics in live yeast cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe using a fusion protein of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with Minichromosome Altered Loss Protein 3 (Mal3), which is involved in the dynamic cycle of polymerising and depolymerising microtubules. PMID:17160654

  3. Non-uniform system response detection for hyperspectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorena, Juan; Morrison, Jason; Paliwal, Jitendra; Erkinbaev, Chyngyz

    2015-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has established itself as a powerful non-destructive tool for the chemical analysis of heterogeneous samples. However, one of the main disadvantages of NIR HSI is that the technique suffers from instrumentation-related problems, which in turn affect the acquired images. In general, focal plane array (FPA) based hyperspectral systems are affected by spatial and spectral non-uniform response, the presence of defective sensors (e.g. dead or saturated sensors), and temporal and spatial (e.g. dark current) noise. Another issue is each new camera system needs to be calibrated to assess its specific responses to light. To correct for these issues, we used known standards to measure the response of the sensors and capture the location of the field of view and defective sensors using linear and quadratic models. The parameters of these models were then used as input features for classification of sensor responses using a k-means algorithm. The results conclude that linear models are insufficiently precise for calibration but estimate sufficiently accurately the system's response and functionality. Specifically, it was shown that the classification method discriminates non-responsive regions effectively.

  4. Imaging through turbulence with temporally and spatially multiplexed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, Gleb; Soloviev, Oleg; Loktev, Mikhail; Savenko, Slava

    2011-11-01

    Based on the analysis of factors that influence atmospheric imaging over long turbulent horizontal paths, we consider a number of practical configurations of opto-electronic surveillance systems with optimized performance. Our approach is based on simultaneous quasi real-time processing of a number of images obtained through uncorrelated atmospheric paths, using either temporal or spatial multiplexing. Practical results obtained on a 4.25 km imaging path using newly developed imaging system, based on temporal multiplexing, combined with image restoration based on projection on convex sets, are reported. Potential applications include optical and IR long-range security and military surveillance, unmanned aircraft imaging systems and naval optical imaging and warning systems.

  5. Integrating medical imaging analyses through a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E. Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-03-01

    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists.

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigations of four 3d-4f butterfly single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua-Hong; Sheng, Liang-Bing; Liang, Fu-Pei; Chen, Zi-Lu; Zhang, Yi-Quan

    2015-11-14

    The syntheses, structures, and characterization of four 3d-4f butterfly clusters are described. With different polyhydroxy Schiff-base ligands 2-(((2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylene)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (H4L1) and 2-(2,3-dihydroxpropyliminomethyl)-6-methoxyphenol (H3L2), three heterotetranuclear NiLn complexes (NiDy-L1 (1), NiTb-L2 (2), NiDy-L2 (3)) and one heterohexanuclear CoDy complex (4) were obtained. The three heterotetranuclear NiLn complexes display a central planar butterfly topology. The heterohexanuclear complex was built from butterfly CoDy clusters and two Dy(III) ions by the bridging of pivalate. The vertices of the body positions of the butterfly are occupied by transition metal ions in all four complexes. Magnetic analyses indicate that the complexes exhibit typical single-molecule magnet behaviour with anisotropy barriers of 33.7 cm(-1), 60.3 cm(-1), 39.6 cm(-1), and 18.4 cm(-1) for 1-4, respectively. Ab initio calculations were performed on these complexes, and the low lying electronic structure of each Ln(III) (Ln = Dy, Tb) ion and the magnetic interactions were determined. It was found that the two Ln ions may have much more contribution to the total relaxation barrier through the stronger 3d-4f exchange couplings compared to weak Ln-Ln interactions.

  7. Sub-molecular modulation of a 4f driven Kondo resonance by surface-induced asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Seibt, Philipp; Prüser, Henning; Caciuc, Vasile; Waters, Michael; Fisher, Andrew J.; Blügel, Stefan; van Slageren, Joris; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling between a magnetic impurity and an external bath can give rise to many-body quantum phenomena, including Kondo and Hund's impurity states in metals, and Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in superconductors. While advances have been made in probing the magnetic properties of d-shell impurities on surfaces, the confinement of f orbitals makes them difficult to access directly. Here we show that a 4f driven Kondo resonance can be modulated spatially by asymmetric coupling between a metallic surface and a molecule containing a 4f-like moment. Strong hybridization of dysprosium double-decker phthalocyanine with Cu(001) induces Kondo screening of the central magnetic moment. Misalignment between the symmetry axes of the molecule and the surface induces asymmetry in the molecule's electronic structure, spatially mediating electronic access to the magnetic moment through the Kondo resonance. This work demonstrates the important role that molecular ligands have in mediating electronic and magnetic coupling and in accessing many-body quantum states. PMID:27666413

  8. Investigations on Pva:. NH4F: ZrO2 Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, K. P.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Karthikeyan, S.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2013-07-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes have been prepared using Poly (vinyl alcohol), ammonium fluoride, nanofiller ZrO2 by solution casting technique. The amorphous nature of the composite polymer electrolyte has been confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirms the complex formation among the polymer, salt and nanofiller. The maximum ionic conductivity for 85 PVA:15 NH4F has been found to be 6.9 × 10-6 Scm-1 at ambient temperature. In the present work, the addition of 2 mol% nanofilller ZrO2 to the electrolyte 85PVA:15NH4F enhances the conductivity to 3.4 × 10-5 Scm-1. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of composite polymer electrolytes obeys Arrhenius relation. In the modulus spectra, there is a long tail at low frequencies which is an evidence for large capacitance associated with the electrodes. In the high frequency region, ∈'(ω) value saturates and giving rise to the dielectric constant of the material.

  9. Monolacunary Keggin polyoxometalates connected to ten 4d or 4f metal atoms.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haijun; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Peng, Jun; Ma, Huiyuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Wu, Qingyin

    2013-12-21

    The rational self-assembly of mono-lacunary Keggin clusters with 4d and 4f metal salts via a conventional method has yielded two novel polyoxometalate-based 4d-4f heterometallic compounds containing lacunary Keggin anions connected to ten metal atoms: {[Ag{Ag2(H2O)4}{Ln(H2O)6}2H ⊂ {SiW11Ln(H2O)4O39}2]·nH2O (Ln = Ce and n = 7 for 1, Ln = Pr and n = 3 for 2). Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. A structural feature in 1 and 2 is that each [SiW11O39](8-) cluster (SiW11) is connected to ten metals (five Ag(+) and five Ln(3+) cations), representing the highest number of connected metal atoms to any mono-lacunary Keggin anion to date. This large connectivity leads to a structure with a purely inorganic 3D framework with two kinds of channels along the [100] and [010] directions. The magnetic properties of both compounds show the expected magnetic moments (0.8 and 1.6 amu K mol(-1) per Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ion, respectively) and confirm the presence of isolated Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ions.

  10. Sub-molecular modulation of a 4f driven Kondo resonance by surface-induced asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Seibt, Philipp; Pruser, Henning; Caciuc, Vasile; Waters, Michael; Fisher, Andrew J.; Blugel, Stefan; van Slageren, Joris; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    Coupling between a magnetic impurity and an external bath can give rise to many-body quantum phenomena, including Kondo and Hund's Impurity states in metals, and Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in superconductors. While advances have been made in probing the magnetic properties of d-shell impurities on surfaces, the confinement of f orbitals makes them much more difficult to access directly. Here we show that a 4f driven Kondo resonance can be modulated spatially by asymmetric coupling between a metallic surface and a molecule containing a 4f-like moment. Strong hybridisation of dysprosium double-decker phthalocyanine (DyPc2) with Cu(001) induces Kondo screening of the central magnetic moment. Misalignment between the symmetry axes of the molecule and the surface induces asymmetry in the molecule's electronic structure, spatially mediating electronic access to the magnetic moment through the Kondo resonance. This work demonstrates the important role that molecular ligands play in mediating electronic and magnetic coupling and in accessing many-body quantum states.

  11. Monolacunary Keggin polyoxometalates connected to ten 4d or 4f metal atoms.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haijun; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Peng, Jun; Ma, Huiyuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Wu, Qingyin

    2013-12-21

    The rational self-assembly of mono-lacunary Keggin clusters with 4d and 4f metal salts via a conventional method has yielded two novel polyoxometalate-based 4d-4f heterometallic compounds containing lacunary Keggin anions connected to ten metal atoms: {[Ag{Ag2(H2O)4}{Ln(H2O)6}2H ⊂ {SiW11Ln(H2O)4O39}2]·nH2O (Ln = Ce and n = 7 for 1, Ln = Pr and n = 3 for 2). Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. A structural feature in 1 and 2 is that each [SiW11O39](8-) cluster (SiW11) is connected to ten metals (five Ag(+) and five Ln(3+) cations), representing the highest number of connected metal atoms to any mono-lacunary Keggin anion to date. This large connectivity leads to a structure with a purely inorganic 3D framework with two kinds of channels along the [100] and [010] directions. The magnetic properties of both compounds show the expected magnetic moments (0.8 and 1.6 amu K mol(-1) per Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ion, respectively) and confirm the presence of isolated Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ions. PMID:24067933

  12. The 4f-5d luminescence transitions in cerium-doped LuF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerbous, L.; Krachni, O.

    Emission and excitation spectra of the Ce3+ ion in LuF3 single crystal were measured at 77 K. The broad bands observed in these spectra were attributed to the parity-allowed electric-dipole 4f ← 5d transitions within Ce3+ ion. No zero-phonon lines were observed, which is indicative of a strong electron-phonon coupling in this host. It is shown that Ce3+ 5d excited configuration splits into five crystal-field components in LuF3. The influence of the crystalline environment on the position of the lowest Ce3+ 5d level is investigated. The energy of the lowest level of the 4fN-15d excited configuration was predicted for all the trivalent rare earth ions embedded in LuF3. Positions of crystal field spitting levels of 4fN-15d configuration relative to the host electronic bands were discussed.

  13. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid

  14. Image capture and printing system for digitally generated medical-diagnostic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Barry; Bronkalla, Mark D.

    1990-08-01

    The printing of digitally generated images from medical diagnostic equipment has typically been done on analog systems after D to A conversion. Newer digital printing systems do not generally yield optimum results since they re-sample the incoming video signal according to their own internal pixel matrix. This leads to a loss of contrast and resolution plus the introduction of aliasing artifacts into the image. Using the method of synchronous sampling of the incoming video signal an almost perfect digitization of the original image can be achieved. Starting with the known display pixel matrix the pixel display clock can be regenerated by a precision phase locked frequency synthesizer. Quantizing levels are duplicated through calibration of the system. Sampling phase error is adjusted out such that each pixel is sampled at its center. Comparison with non-synchronous techniques and multi-generation performance of this system will be demonstrated. The images are then transferred digitally on disk for storage and later printing by a CRT based slow scan camera system. Image parameter files saved with the image allow the camera to generate a gamma correction look-up table for printing. The film image will then precisely and consistently match the CRT image viewed by the system operator. The system is capable of digitizing and printing up to 10242 images with the same high quality as the original displayed image.

  15. Considerations for imaging system implementation in a networked environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Information storage and retrieval systems that utilize raster images are increasing in popularity on a wide variety of platforms. Image systems typically involve the transmission of data files in the 100 KiloByte to 1 MegaByte range to users on specialized workstations who expect retrieval in a matter of seconds. The results of the pilot study outlines the potential for the sharing of image information among various platforms and systems, and sets expectations regarding the level of integration.

  16. Considerations for imaging system implementation in a networked environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.J.

    1991-12-31

    Information storage and retrieval systems that utilize raster images are increasing in popularity on a wide variety of platforms. Image systems typically involve the transmission of data files in the 100 KiloByte to 1 MegaByte range to users on specialized workstations who expect retrieval in a matter of seconds. The results of the pilot study outlines the potential for the sharing of image information among various platforms and systems, and sets expectations regarding the level of integration.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the features of continuous wave doppler-effect technology with pulsed-echo effect technology and is intended...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560 Section 892.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560 Section 892.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project...

  2. Resolution-enhancement for an orthographic-view image display in an integral imaging microscope system

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ki-Chul; Jeong, Ji-Seong; Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Piao, Yan-Ling; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Nam

    2015-01-01

    Due to the limitations of micro lens arrays and camera sensors, images on display devices through the integral imaging microscope systems have been suffering for a low-resolution. In this paper, a resolution-enhanced orthographic-view image display method for integral imaging microscopy is proposed and demonstrated. Iterative intermediate-view reconstructions are performed based on bilinear interpolation using neighborhood elemental image information, and a graphics processing unit parallel processing algorithm is applied for fast image processing. The proposed method is verified experimentally and the effective results are presented in this paper. PMID:25798299

  3. De novo facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy defined by DNA probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1).

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, P E; Koch, M C; Lunt, P W; Maynard, J; Bathke, K D; Harper, P S; Upadhyaya, M

    1994-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant condition with variable age of onset and severity. Identification of a de novo DNA fragment by probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1) established the diagnosis of new mutation FSHD in 27 of 31 sporadic cases. The clinical data for these certain new mutation cases were as follows: 13 boys, 14 girls; mean age of onset 6.8 years; significant leg weakness in 19/27 (70%) (8/27 (30%) used wheelchairs at a mean age of 17.7 years); high tone sensorineural deafness in 10/27; visual acuity and direct ophthalmoscopy were normal. Congenital facial diplegia and sensorineural deafness in three children suggest that infantile FSHD is not a genetically separate disorder from FSHD. Ascertainment bias may explain the difference in severity between this group and typical familial cases. Molecular analysis for FSHD should be considered in children with either congenital or early onset facial weakness or diplegia. Images PMID:7979495

  4. Counter sniper: a localization system based on dual thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuqing; Liu, Feihu; Wu, Zheng; Jin, Weiqi; Du, Benfang

    2010-11-01

    Sniper tactics is widely used in modern warfare, which puts forward the urgent requirement of counter sniper detection devices. This paper proposed the anti-sniper detection system based on a dual-thermal imaging system. Combining the infrared characteristics of the muzzle flash and bullet trajectory of binocular infrared images obtained by the dual-infrared imaging system, the exact location of the sniper was analyzed and calculated. This paper mainly focuses on the system design method, which includes the structure and parameter selection. It also analyzes the exact location calculation method based on the binocular stereo vision and image analysis, and give the fusion result as the sniper's position.

  5. Visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak based on multielement image fiber bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Chektybayev, B. Shapovalov, G.; Kolodeshnikov, A.

    2015-05-15

    In the paper, new visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak is described. The system has been designed to observe processes inside of plasma and the processes occurring due to plasma-wall interactions through the long equatorial port. Imaging system is designed based on special image fiber bundle and entrance wide angle lens, which provide image of large section of the vacuum chamber, both poloidal half-section and divertor through the sufficiently long equatorial port. The system also consists of two video cameras: slow and fast with image intensifier. Commercial equipment had been used in design of the system that allowed reducing the cost and time for research and development. The paper also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system in comparison with conventional endoscopes based on a lens system and considers its promising utilization in future tokamaks and future steady state fusion reactors.

  6. Visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak based on multielement image fiber bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chektybayev, B.; Shapovalov, G.; Kolodeshnikov, A.

    2015-05-01

    In the paper, new visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak is described. The system has been designed to observe processes inside of plasma and the processes occurring due to plasma-wall interactions through the long equatorial port. Imaging system is designed based on special image fiber bundle and entrance wide angle lens, which provide image of large section of the vacuum chamber, both poloidal half-section and divertor through the sufficiently long equatorial port. The system also consists of two video cameras: slow and fast with image intensifier. Commercial equipment had been used in design of the system that allowed reducing the cost and time for research and development. The paper also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system in comparison with conventional endoscopes based on a lens system and considers its promising utilization in future tokamaks and future steady state fusion reactors.

  7. Visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak based on multielement image fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Chektybayev, B; Shapovalov, G; Kolodeshnikov, A

    2015-05-01

    In the paper, new visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak is described. The system has been designed to observe processes inside of plasma and the processes occurring due to plasma-wall interactions through the long equatorial port. Imaging system is designed based on special image fiber bundle and entrance wide angle lens, which provide image of large section of the vacuum chamber, both poloidal half-section and divertor through the sufficiently long equatorial port. The system also consists of two video cameras: slow and fast with image intensifier. Commercial equipment had been used in design of the system that allowed reducing the cost and time for research and development. The paper also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system in comparison with conventional endoscopes based on a lens system and considers its promising utilization in future tokamaks and future steady state fusion reactors.

  8. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System description and user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, K.A.; Batishko, C.R.

    1988-06-01

    A Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS) was designed and constructed. The system was developed for use in imaging and quantitative analysis of very low light level chemiluminescent phenomena. The luminescent reactions are imaged via microchannel plate image intensifier coupled to a newvicon video camera. The video record of the reaction can be stored on video tape or digitally captured by an image processing system which is integral to a host computer controller. Since the particular experimental conditions for which the QLIS was designed necessitate that the chemiluminescent reaction take place in an rf flux within a waveguide, the system includes a coherent fiber optic image transfer system which allows the video hardware to be mounted externally to the rf waveguide.

  10. Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast. PMID:21052482

  11. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25192317

  12. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  13. Episode image analysis for wearable daily life recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Masashi; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Kawashima, Toshio

    2003-06-01

    Now we are developing a wearable recording system which can capture images from user"s view point in user"s everyday life automatically. The user refers to the images which is acquired using this system later, and these images support a user"s activity, such as human memory and human thoughts. Amount images which are acquired becomes so huge that it is difficult for the user to refer them. So the mechanism for viewing effectively is very important, such as summary. In this research, we describe the concept for summary mechanism of everyday life images.

  14. HOPIS: Hybrid Omnidirectional and Perspective Imaging System for Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huei-Yung.; Wang, Min-Liang.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25192317

  15. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO Telescopes Detect a Strange-Looking Object Summary Using the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers [1] have discovered a dusty and opaque disk surrounding a young solar-type star in the outskirts of a dark cloud in the Milky Way. It was found by chance during an unrelated research programme and provides a striking portrait of what our Solar System must have looked like when it was in its early infancy. Because of its striking appearance, the astronomers have nicknamed it the "Flying Saucer" . The new object appears to be a perfect example of a very young star with a disk in which planets are forming or will soon form, and located far away from the usual perils of an active star-forming environment . Most other young stars, especially those that are born in dense regions, run a serious risk of having their natal dusty disks destroyed by the blazing radiation of their more massive and hotter siblings in these clusters. The star at the centre of the "Flying Saucer", seems destined to live a long and quiet life at the centre of a planetary system , very much like our own Sun. This contributes to making it a most interesting object for further studies with the VLT and other telescopes. The mass of the observed disk of gas and dust is at least twice that of the planet Jupiter and its radius measures about 45 billion km, or 5 times the size of the orbit of Neptune. PR Photo 12a/02 : The "Flying Saucer" object photographed with NTT/SOFI. PR Photo 12b/02 : VLT/ISAAC image of this object. PR Photo 12c/02 : Enlargement of VLT/ISAAC image . Circumstellar Disks and Planets Planets form in dust disks around young stars. This is a complex process of which not all stages are yet fully understood but it begins when small dust particles collide and stick to each other. For this reason, observations of such dust disks, in particular those that appear as extended structures (are "resolved"), are very important for our

  16. Multilanthanide Systems for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeremiah D.; Allen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecules containing multiple lanthanide ions have unique potential in applications for medical imaging including the areas of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoresence imaging. The study of multilanthanide complexes as contrast agents for MRI and as biologically responsive fluorescent probes has resulted in an improved understanding of the structural characteristics that govern the behavior of these complexes. This review will survey the last five years of progress in multinuclear lanthanide complexes with a specific focus on the structural parameters that impact potential medical imaging applications. The patents cited in this review are from the last five years and describe contrast agents that contain multiple lanthanide ions. PMID:23543789

  17. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  18. Dual energy imaging using a clinical on-board imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggarth, M. A.; Luce, J.; Syeda, F.; Bray, T. S.; Block, A.; Nagda, S.; Roeske, J. C.

    2013-06-01

    Dual energy (DE) imaging consists of obtaining kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images at two different diagnostic energies and performing a weighted subtraction of these images. A third image is then produced that highlights soft tissue. DE imaging has been used by radiologists to aid in the detection of lung malignancies. However, it has not been used clinically in radiotherapy. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of performing DE imaging using a commercial on-board imaging system. Both a simple and an anthropomorphic phantom were constructed for this analysis. Planar kV images of the phantoms were obtained using varied imaging energies and mAs. Software was written to perform DE subtraction using empirically determined weighting factors. Tumor detectability was assessed quantitatively using the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Overall DE subtraction suppressed high density objects in both phantoms. The optimal imaging technique, providing the largest SDNR with a dose less than our reference technique was 140 kVp, 1.0 mAs and 60 kVp, 3.2 mAs. Based on this analysis, DE subtraction imaging is feasible using a commercial on-board imaging system and may improve the visualization of tumors in lung cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy.

  19. [Design of hyperspectral imaging system based on LCTF].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-ying; Hong, Jin; Tang, Wei-ping; Yang, Wei-feng; Luo, Jun; Qiao, Yan-li; Zhang, Xie

    2008-10-01

    A new compact lightweight imaging system for hyperspectral imaging is described. The system can be thought of as the substitute for traditional mechanical filter-wheel sensor. The system is based on different techniques. It uses an electronic controlled LCTF(liquid crystal tunable filter) which provided rapid and vibrationless selection of any wavelength in the visible to IR range. The imaging system consisted of an optic lens, a CRI VariSpec LCTF and a Dalsa 1M30 camera. First the outline of this system setup is presented, then the optics designed is introduced, next the working principle of LCTF is described in details. A field experiment with the imaging system loaded on an airship was carried out and collected hyperspectral solid image. The images obtained had higher spectral and spatial resolution. Some parts of the 540-600 nm components of the 16-band image cube were also shown. Finally, the data acquired were rough processed to get reflection spectrum(from 420 to 720 nm) of three targets. It is concluded that the experiment has proved that the imaging system is effective in obtaining hyperspectral data. The image captured by the system can be applied to spectral estimation, spectra based classification and spectral based analysis. PMID:19123429

  20. An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors. PMID:25599423

  1. An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-15

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors.

  2. An Image Stabilization Optical System Using Deformable Freeform Mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors. PMID:25599423

  3. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  4. The neutron imaging system fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittinghoff, D. N.; Atkinson, D. P.; Bower, D. E.; Drury, O. B.; Dzenitis, J. M.; Frank, M.; Liddick, S. N.; Moran, M. J.; Roberson, G. P.; Weiss, P. B.; Grim, G. P.; Aragonez, R. J.; Archuleta, T. N.; Batha, S. H.; Clark, D. D.; Clark, D. J.; Danly, C. R.; Day, R. D.; Fatherley, V. E.; Finch, J. P.; Garcia, F. P.; Gallegos, R. A.; Guler, N.; Hsu, A. H.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Loomis, E. N.; Mares, D.; Martinson, D. D.; Merrill, F. E.; Morgan, G. L.; Munson, C.; Murphy, T. J.; Oertel, J. A.; Polk, P. J.; Schmidt, D. W.; Tregillis, I. L.; Valdez, A. C.; Volegov, P. L.; Wang, T. F.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilke, M. D.; Wilson, D. C.; Buckles, R. A.; Cradick, J. R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Lutz, S. S.; Malone, R. M.; Traille, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n') reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system is presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system is presented. We also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  5. The Neutron Imaging System Fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; Atkinson, D P; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P B; Grim, G P; Aragonez, R J; Archuleta, T N; Batha, S H; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Danly, C R; Day, R D; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Hsu, A H; Jaramillo, S A; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Oertel, J A; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Buckles, R A; Cradick, J R; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A

    2011-10-24

    We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n') reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system will be presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system will be presented. We will also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  6. A Wide Spectral Range Reflectance and Luminescence Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, Tapani; Penttinen, Niko; Hauta–Kasari, Markku; Sorjonen, Mika; Peiponen, Kai–Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we introduce a wide spectral range (200–2500 nm) imaging system with a 250 μm minimum spatial resolution, which can be freely modified for a wide range of resolutions and measurement geometries. The system has been tested for reflectance and luminescence measurements, but can also be customized for transmittance measurements. This study includes the performance results of the developed system, as well as examples of spectral images. Discussion of the system relates it to existing systems and methods. The wide range spectral imaging system that has been developed is however highly customizable and has great potential in many practical applications. PMID:24233075

  7. Time-delay compensation for stabilization imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueting; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Feng, Huajun

    2014-05-01

    The spatial resolution of imaging systems for airborne and space-borne remote sensing are often limited by image degradation resulting from mechanical vibrations of platforms during image exposure. A straightforward way to overcome this problem is to actively stabilize the optical axis or drive the focal plane synchronous to the motion image during exposure. Thus stabilization imaging system usually consists of digital image motion estimation and micromechanical compensation. The performance of such kind of visual servo system is closely related to precision of motion estimation and time delay. Large time delay results in larger phase delay between motion estimation and micromechanical compensation, and leads to larger uncompensated residual motion and limited bandwidth. The paper analyzes the time delay caused by image acquisition period and introduces a time delay compensation method based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) motion prediction. The main idea to cancel the time delay is to predict the current image motion from delayed measurements. A support vector machine based method is designed to predict the image motion. A prototype of stabilization imaging system has been implemented in the lab. To analyze the influences of time delay on system performance and to verify the proposed time delay cancelation method, comparative experiments over various frequencies of vibration are taken. The experimental results show that, the accuracy of motion compensation and the bandwidth of the system can be significantly improved with time delay cancelation.

  8. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis. PMID:27526188

  9. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  10. [Advances in infrared spectrum zoom imaging system research].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Ting-wen; Jiang, Ya-dong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the infrared spectrum fixed focal length system and infrared spectrum dual-zoom system, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system which has continuous variational field of view can track targets sequentially, so it is a research direction in infrared spectrum imaging technology. Some new technologies are presented overseas in order to improve the detection performance, reduce cost and have good athermalized performance in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system. Infrared material, infrared detector and variable aperture, those new technologies are su mmarized and the idiographic application of those new technologies in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system are presented in the paper, for example athermalization of an infrared spectrum zoom lens system with new infrared material for target detection, dual band infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with high ratio, nfrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with dual F/number. It is useful for the development of chinese infrared continuous zoom imaging system.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging system combining vision and ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wykes, Catherine; Chou, Tsung N.

    1994-11-01

    Vision systems are being applied to a wide range of inspection problems in manufacturing. In 2D systems, a single video camera captures an image of the object and application of suitable image processing techniques enables information about dimension, shape and the presence of features and flaws to be extracted from the image. This can be used to recognize, inspect and/or measure the part. 3D measurement is also possible with vision systems but requires the use of either two or more cameras, or structured lighting (i.e. stripes or grids) and the processing of such images is necessarily considerably more complex, and therefore slower and more expensive than 3D imaging. Ultrasonic imaging is widely used in medical and NDT applications to give 3D images; in these systems, the ultrasound is propagated into a liquid or a solid. Imaging using air-borne ultrasound is much less advanced, mainly due to the limited availability of suitable sensors. Unique 2D ultrasonic ranging systems using in-house built phased arrays have been developed in Nottingham which enable both the range and bearing of targets to be measured. The ultrasonic/vision system will combine the excellent lateral resolution of a vision system with the straightforward range acquisition of the ultrasonic system. The system is expected to extend the use of vision systems in automation, particularly in the area of automated assembly where it can eliminate the need for expensive jigs and orienting part-feeders.

  12. [Research on Spectral Polarization Imaging System Based on Static Modulation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-bo; Li, Huan; Lin, Xu-ling; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    The main disadvantages of traditional spectral polarization imaging system are: complex structure, with moving parts, low throughput. A novel method of spectral polarization imaging system is discussed, which is based on static polarization intensity modulation combined with Savart polariscope interference imaging. The imaging system can obtain real-time information of spectral and four Stokes polarization messages. Compared with the conventional methods, the advantages of the imaging system are compactness, low mass and no moving parts, no electrical control, no slit and big throughput. The system structure and the basic theory are introduced. The experimental system is established in the laboratory. The experimental system consists of reimaging optics, polarization intensity module, interference imaging module, and CCD data collecting and processing module. The spectral range is visible and near-infrared (480-950 nm). The white board and the plane toy are imaged by using the experimental system. The ability of obtaining spectral polarization imaging information is verified. The calibration system of static polarization modulation is set up. The statistical error of polarization degree detection is less than 5%. The validity and feasibility of the basic principle is proved by the experimental result. The spectral polarization data captured by the system can be applied to object identification, object classification and remote sensing detection. PMID:26197616

  13. The liquid-vapor equilibria of TIP4P/2005 and BLYPSP-4F water models determined through direct simulations of the liquid-vapor interface.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyi; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the surface tension and critical properties for the TIP4P/2005 and BLYPSP-4F models are reported. A clear dependence of surface tension on the van der Waals cutoff radius (rvdw) is shown when van der Waals interactions are modeled with a simple cutoff scheme. A linear extrapolation formula is proposed that can be used to determine the infinite rvdw surface tension through a few simulations with finite rvdw. A procedure for determining liquid and vapor densities is proposed that does not require fitting to a profile function. Although the critical temperature of water is also found to depend on the choice of rvdw, the dependence is weaker. We argue that a rvdw of 1.75 nm is a good compromise for water simulations when long-range van der Waals correction is not applied. Since the majority of computational programs do not support rigorous treatment of long-range dispersion, the establishment of a minimal acceptable rvdw is important for the simulation of a variety of inhomogeneous systems, such as water bubbles, and water in confined environments. The BLYPSP-4F model predicts room temperature surface tension marginally better than TIP4P/2005 but overestimates the critical temperature. This is expected since only liquid configurations were fit during the development of the BLYPSP-4F potential. The potential is expected to underestimate the stability of vapor and thus overestimate the region of stability for the liquid.

  14. ARPES in strongly correlated 4f and 5f systems: Comparison to the Periodic Anderson Model

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Cox, L.E.

    1997-12-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow, nearly temperature independent bands (i.e., no spectral weight loss or transfer with temperature). A small dispersion of the f-bands above the Kondo temperature is easily measurable so that a Kondo resonance, as defined by NCA, is not evident. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the Periodic Anderson Model captures some of the essential physics. Angle-integrated resonant photoemission results on {delta}-Pu indicate a narrow 5f feature at E{sub F}, similar in width to f-states in Ce and U compounds, but differing in that cross-section behavior of the near-E{sub F} feature suggests substantial 6D admixture.

  15. Ascorbic acid decomposition into oxalate ions: a simple synthetic route towards oxalato-bridged heterometallic 3d-4f clusters.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Alina S; Shova, Sergiu; Ion, Adrian E; Maxim, Catalin; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Andruh, Marius

    2015-04-28

    Two types of oxalato-bridged heterometallic 3d-4f dodeca- and hexanuclear compounds have been obtained by connecting six bi- and, respectively, trinuclear moieties through oxalato bridges arising from the slow decomposition of the L-ascorbic acid.

  16. Kingfisher: a system for remote sensing image database management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzo, Michele; Giordano, Ferdinando; Dellepiane, Silvana G.

    2003-04-01

    At present retrieval methods in remote sensing image database are mainly based on spatial-temporal information. The increasing amount of images to be collected by the ground station of earth observing systems emphasizes the need for database management with intelligent data retrieval capabilities. The purpose of the proposed method is to realize a new content based retrieval system for remote sensing images database with an innovative search tool based on image similarity. This methodology is quite innovative for this application, at present many systems exist for photographic images, as for example QBIC and IKONA, but they are not able to extract and describe properly remote image content. The target database is set by an archive of images originated from an X-SAR sensor (spaceborne mission, 1994). The best content descriptors, mainly texture parameters, guarantees high retrieval performances and can be extracted without losses independently of image resolution. The latter property allows DBMS (Database Management System) to process low amount of information, as in the case of quick-look images, improving time performance and memory access without reducing retrieval accuracy. The matching technique has been designed to enable image management (database population and retrieval) independently of dimensions (width and height). Local and global content descriptors are compared, during retrieval phase, with the query image and results seem to be very encouraging.

  17. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An accessory for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  18. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

  19. A laser imaging system for helicopter avoidance obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, WeiRan; Yuan, HongChun; Jin, Yuan

    2006-09-01

    Rotorcraft flying in low-altitude is endangered by power lines or telephone wires. The development of automated tools that can detect obstacles in the flight path and warn the crew would significantly reduce the workload of pilot and increase the safety. Detection and warning are rudimental demand and desire for Helicopter Avoidance Obstacle System (HAOS). And that, An advanced HAOS may be capable of classifying thin obstacles and enhanced vision with distances of obstacles. A laser 3D imaging system for helicopter avoidance obstacle (HAO) had been developed successfully. The laser 3D imaging helicopter avoidance obstacle system can not only detect thin obstacles but also catch more information of all objects of the area in front of the helicopter as possible. Then the information is transformed into intuitionist 3D image modality. In this paper, special features and characteristic of the laser imaging system for HAO are analyzed and discussed. Several design gist for this system are proposed. Especially, the developed zero backlash imaging technology and real-time dynamic imaging synchronizing with radar space scanning are described. The technique implementation problem and the system structure are given as well. Finally, the results of system ground test are presented. The ground test of the developed laser imaging system has demonstrated that the developed imaging system performance can achieve and satisfy commendably the requirements of the mission to prevent "wire strike".

  20. Data management in pattern recognition and image processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data management considerations are important to any system which handles large volumes of data or where the manipulation of data is technically sophisticated. A particular problem is the introduction of image-formatted files into the mainstream of data processing application. This report describes a comprehensive system for the manipulation of image, tabular, and graphical data sets which involve conversions between the various data types. A key characteristic is the use of image processing technology to accomplish data management tasks. Because of this, the term 'image-based information system' has been adopted.

  1. Fourier domain OCT imaging of American cockroach nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.

  2. Data delivery system for MAPPER using image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jeehong; Savari, Serap A.

    2013-03-01

    The data delivery throughput of electron beam lithography systems can be improved by applying lossless image compression to the layout image and using an electron beam writer that can decode the compressed image on-the-fly. In earlier research we introduced the lossless layout image compression algorithm Corner2, which assumes a somewhat idealized writing strategy, namely row-by-row with a raster order. The MAPPER system has electron beam writers positioned in a lattice formation and each electron beam writer writes a designated block in a zig-zag order. We introduce Corner2-MEB, which redesigns Corner2 for MAPPER systems.

  3. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments.

    PubMed

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers. PMID:26090324

  4. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  5. Optical Evidence of Itinerant-Localized Crossover of 4f Electrons in Cerium Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Kwon, Yong Seung; Matsumoto, Yuji; Aoki, Haruyoshi; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Cerium (Ce)-based heavy-fermion materials have a characteristic double-peak structure (mid-IR peak) in the optical conductivity [σ(ω)] spectra originating from the strong conduction (c)-f electron hybridization. To clarify the behavior of the mid-IR peak at a low c-f hybridization strength, we compared the σ(ω) spectra of the isostructural antiferromagnetic and heavy-fermion Ce compounds with the calculated unoccupied density of states and the spectra obtained from the impurity Anderson model. With decreasing c-f hybridization intensity, the mid-IR peak shifts to the low-energy side owing to the renormalization of the unoccupied 4f state, but suddenly shifts to the high-energy side owing to the f-f on-site Coulomb interaction at a slight localized side from the quantum critical point (QCP). This finding gives us information on the change in the electronic structure across QCP.

  6. Subjective image position in stereoscopic TV systems: considerations on comfortable stereoscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuhashi, Tetsuo

    1994-05-01

    In stereoscopic picture systems, the image should be reproduced in a psychologically proper position that allows comfortable stereoscopic perception. Position matching in observer space between the stereoscopic image and a small marker was successfully adopted to measure the subjective image position. The subjective image position was measured for geometric figures and actual scenes while varying the resolution, contrast, brightness, and color between the L- and R-pictures. The image moves closer to the screen in proportion to the increase in resolution difference. A pair of color and darker monochrome pictures can reproduce acceptable stereoscopic images without conspicuous color rivalry. Mental fatigue is also an important factor in comfortable stereoscopic image viewing. The CFF is discussed together with other factors such as accommodation characteristics, picture quality, and viewing conditions that relate to future stereoscopic TV systems that allow comfortable viewing.

  7. Numerical simulations of the thermoacoustic computed tomography breast imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, William Lester, Jr.

    A thermoacoustic wave is produced when an object absorbs energy and experiences a subsequent thermal expansion. We have developed a Thermoacoustic Computed Tomography (TACT) breast imaging system to exploit the thermoacoustic phenomena as a method of soft tissue imaging. By exposing the breast to short pulses of 434 MHz microwaves, ultrasonic pulses are generated and detected with a hemispherical transducer array submersed in a water bath. Filtering and back projecting the transducer signals generates a 3-D image that maps the localized microwave absorption properties of the breast. In an effort to understand the factors limiting image quality, the TACT system was numerically simulated. The simulations were used to generate the transducer signals that would be collected by the TACT system during a scan of an object. These simulated data streams were then fed into the system image reconstruction software to provide images of simulated phantoms. The effects of transducer diameter, transducer response, transducer array geometry and stimulating pulse width on the spatial and contrast resolution of the system were quantified using the simulations. The spatial resolution was highly dependent upon location in the imaging volume. This was due to the off axis response of transducers of finite aperture. Simulated data were compared with experimental data, obtained by imaging a parallel-piped resolution phantom, to verify the accuracy of the simulation code. A contrast-detail phantom was numerically simulated to determine the ability of the system to image spheres of diameters <1 cm with absorption values on the order of physiologic saline, when located in a background of noise. The results of the contrast-detail analysis were dependent on the location of the spheres in the imaging volume and the diameter of the simulated transducers. This work sets the foundation for the initial image quality studies of the TACT system. Improvements to the current imaging system, based on

  8. Digital document imaging systems: An overview and guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is an aid to NASA managers in planning the selection of a Digital Document Imaging System (DDIS) as a possible solution for document information processing and storage. Intended to serve as a manager's guide, this document contains basic information on digital imaging systems, technology, equipment standards, issues of interoperability and interconnectivity, and issues related to selecting appropriate imaging equipment based upon well defined needs.

  9. Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Umeno, Marc M.

    2011-09-13

    A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.

  10. Automatic image registration performance for two different CBCT systems; variation with imaging dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, J.; Sykes, J. R.; Holloway, L.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    The performance of an automatic image registration algorithm was compared on image sets collected with two commercial CBCT systems, and the relationship with imaging dose was explored. CBCT images of a CIRS Virtually Human Male Pelvis phantom (VHMP) were collected on Varian TrueBeam/OBI and Elekta Synergy/XVI linear accelerators, across a range of mAs settings. Each CBCT image was registered 100 times, with random initial offsets introduced. Image registration was performed using the grey value correlation ratio algorithm in the Elekta XVI software, to a mask of the prostate volume with 5 mm expansion. Residual registration errors were calculated after correcting for the initial introduced phantom set-up error. Registration performance with the OBI images was similar to that of XVI. There was a clear dependence on imaging dose for the XVI images with residual errors increasing below 4mGy. It was not possible to acquire images with doses lower than ~5mGy with the OBI system and no evidence of reduced performance was observed at this dose. Registration failures (maximum target registration error > 3.6 mm on the surface of a 30mm sphere) occurred in 5% to 9% of registrations except for the lowest dose XVI scan (31%). The uncertainty in automatic image registration with both OBI and XVI images was found to be adequate for clinical use within a normal range of acquisition settings.

  11. Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Arreola, M; Franco, J; Molina, N; Alvarez, B; Azorín, C G; Casian, G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation.

  12. Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Arreola, M; Franco, J; Molina, N; Alvarez, B; Azorín, C G; Casian, G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation. PMID:23938078

  13. 4f metals (compounds) under High Pressure (and Temperature): f-electron Correlation Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipp, Magnus; Jenei, Zsolt; Cynn, Hyunchae; Evans, William; Physics Division Team

    The physics of 4f-electron correlation governs the behavior of the most interesting group in the periodic table, the rare-earth elements. Arguably the most celebrated example is cerium with its iso-structural (fcc) volume collapse (VC) from the γ- to the α-phase ending in a critical point. Close to the VC cerium is even auxetic since its Poisson's ratio becomes negative. Radiography tells us that both phases continue on into the melt, possibly separated by a first order transition. The presence of the f-electron can be interrogated via X-ray emission spectroscopy of the satellite intensity of the L γ radiation. Across the VC it experiences a step-like drop which could be interpreted as a discontinuous decrease of the 4f-moment or occupancy. The theoretical models (Hubbard-Mott or Kondo) explain these phenomena with the behavior of the f-electrons themselves or their spin but the contribution of the lattice-phonons also plays an important part. However, its share in the entropy change across the VC decreases with temperature. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The X-ray studies were performed at HPCAT (Sector 16), APS/ANL. HPCAT is supported by CIW, CDAC, UNLV and LLNL through funding from DOE-NNSA, DOE-BES and NSF. APS is supported by DOE-BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Surface and bulk 4f-photoemission spectra of CeIn{sub 3} and CeSn{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.; Tjernberg, O.; Chiaia, G.; Kumigashira, H.; Takahashi, T.; Duo, L.; Sakai, O.; Kasaya, M.; Lindau, I.

    1997-07-01

    Resonant photoemission spectroscopy was performed on CeIn{sub 3} and CeSn{sub 3} at the 4d-4f and 3d-4f core thresholds. Using the different surface sensitivity between the two photon energies, surface and bulk 4f-photoemission spectra were derived for both compounds. With the noncrossing approximation of the Anderson impurity model, the 4d-4f resonant spectra together with the surface and bulk spectra were self-consistently analyzed to obtain the microscopic parameters such as the 4f-electron energy and the hybridization strength with conduction electrons. The result shows a substantial difference in these parameters between the surface and the bulk, indicating that it is important to take into account the surface effect in analyzing photoemission spectra of Ce compounds. It is also found that the 4f surface core-level shift is different between CeIn{sub 3} and CeSn{sub 3}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Command Line Image Processing System (CLIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleagle, S. R.; Meyers, G. L.; Kulinski, R. G.

    1985-06-01

    An interactive image processing language (CLIPS) has been developed for use in an image processing environment. CLIPS uses a simple syntax with extensive on-line help to allow even the most naive user perform complex image processing tasks. In addition, CLIPS functions as an interpretive language complete with data structures and program control statements. CLIPS statements fall into one of three categories: command, control,and utility statements. Command statements are expressions comprised of intrinsic functions and/or arithmetic operators which act directly on image or user defined data. Some examples of CLIPS intrinsic functions are ROTATE, FILTER AND EXPONENT. Control statements allow a structured programming style through the use of statements such as DO WHILE and IF-THEN - ELSE. Utility statements such as DEFINE, READ, and WRITE, support I/O and user defined data structures. Since CLIPS uses a table driven parser, it is easily adapted to any environment. New commands may be added to CLIPS by writing the procedure in a high level language such as Pascal or FORTRAN and inserting the syntax for that command into the table. However, CLIPS was designed by incorporating most imaging operations into the language as intrinsic functions. CLIPS allows the user to generate new procedures easily with these powerful functions in an interactive or off line fashion using a text editor. The fact that CLIPS can be used to generate complex procedures quickly or perform basic image processing functions interactively makes it a valuable tool in any image processing environment.

  16. Analysis of imaging quality under the systematic parameters for thermal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Jin, Weiqi

    2009-07-01

    The integration of thermal imaging system and radar system could increase the range of target identification as well as strengthen the accuracy and reliability of detection, which is a state-of-the-art and mainstream integrated system to search any invasive target and guard homeland security. When it works, there is, however, one defect existing of what the thermal imaging system would produce affected images which could cause serious consequences when searching and detecting. In this paper, we study and reveal the reason why and how the affected images would occur utilizing the principle of lightwave before establishing mathematical imaging model which could meet the course of ray transmitting. In the further analysis, we give special attentions to the systematic parameters of the model, and analyse in detail all parameters which could possibly affect the imaging process and the function how it does respectively. With comprehensive research, we obtain detailed information about the regulation of diffractive phenomena shaped by these parameters. Analytical results have been convinced through the comparison between experimental images and MATLAB simulated images, while simulated images based on the parameters we revised to judge our expectation have good comparability with images acquired in reality.

  17. Improving performance of real-time multispectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time multispectral imaging system can be a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. For the implementation of this imaging system at commercial poultry processing plant, false positive errors must be removed. For doing this, we tested and imp...

  18. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  19. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOEpatents

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  20. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOEpatents

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  1. A miniature wearable optical imaging system for guiding surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mela, Christopher A.; Patterson, Carrie L.; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Image guidance can result in improved surgical outcomes, shorter operating times as well as a reduced likelihood of requiring a follow-up surgery for various medical interventions. Many intraoperative imaging systems utilize 2D computer monitors, making it difficult to correlate the surgical landscape with the displayed functional information as well as potentially distracting the surgeon. To address this issue, a miniature, wearable Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging system entitled Stereoscopic Optical Imaging Goggle is developed. The system is made up of two imaging sensors affixed to a wearable stereoscopic display, providing the surgeon with functional data in 3 dimensions with depth perception. We have characterized the system's optical properties and fluorescent detection limits. In addition, we have demonstrated the efficacy of the system during surgical studies in chicken. We have found that the system can resolve fluorescent structures down to 0.25mm. The system was successfully guided the excision of fluorescent tissue from a chicken. To the best of our knowledge, the Stereoscopic Optical Imaging Goggle is the first wearable wide-field fluorescence imaging system that offers stereoscopic imaging capability and 3D depth perception.

  2. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  3. Method and system to synchronize acoustic therapy with ultrasound imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Neil (Inventor); Bailey, Michael R. (Inventor); Hossack, James (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Interference in ultrasound imaging when used in connection with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is avoided by employing a synchronization signal to control the HIFU signal. Unless the timing of the HIFU transducer is controlled, its output will substantially overwhelm the signal produced by ultrasound imaging system and obscure the image it produces. The synchronization signal employed to control the HIFU transducer is obtained without requiring modification of the ultrasound imaging system. Signals corresponding to scattered ultrasound imaging waves are collected using either the HIFU transducer or a dedicated receiver. A synchronization processor manipulates the scattered ultrasound imaging signals to achieve the synchronization signal, which is then used to control the HIFU bursts so as to substantially reduce or eliminate HIFU interference in the ultrasound image. The synchronization processor can alternatively be implemented using a computing device or an application-specific circuit.

  4. The Development of Sun-Tracking System Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Dar; Huang, Hong-Cheng; Yeh, Hong-Yih

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the development of an image-based sun position sensor and the algorithm for how to aim at the Sun precisely by using image processing. Four-quadrant light sensors and bar-shadow photo sensors were used to detect the Sun's position in the past years. Nevertheless, neither of them can maintain high accuracy under low irradiation conditions. Using the image-based Sun position sensor with image processing can address this drawback. To verify the performance of the Sun-tracking system including an image-based Sun position sensor and a tracking controller with embedded image processing algorithm, we established a Sun image tracking platform and did the performance testing in the laboratory; the results show that the proposed Sun tracking system had the capability to overcome the problem of unstable tracking in cloudy weather and achieve a tracking accuracy of 0.04°. PMID:23615582

  5. Partial iterated function system-based fractal image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhou; Yu, Ying Lin

    1996-06-01

    A recent trend in computer graphics and image processing has been to use iterated function system (IFS) to generate and describe images. Barnsley et al. presented the conception of fractal image compression and Jacquin was the first to propose a fully automatic gray scale still image coding algorithm. This paper introduces a generalization of basic IFS, leading to a conception of partial iterated function system (PIFS). A PIFS operator is contractive under certain conditions and when it is applied to generate an image, only part of it is actually iteratedly applied. PIFS provides us a flexible way to combine fractal coding with other image coding techniques and many specific algorithms can be derived from it. On the basis of PIFS, we implement a partial fractal block coding (PFBC) algorithm and compare it with basic IFS based fractal block coding algorithm. Experimental results show that coding efficiency is improved and computation time is reduced while image fidelity does not degrade very much.

  6. Toward the development of an image quality tool for active millimeter wave imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Weatherall, James C.; Greca, Joseph; Smith, Barry T.

    2015-05-01

    Preliminary design considerations for an image quality tool to complement millimeter wave imaging systems are presented. The tool is planned for use in confirming operating parameters; confirmation of continuity for imaging component design changes, and analysis of new components and detection algorithms. Potential embodiments of an image quality tool may contain materials that mimic human skin in order to provide a realistic signal return for testing, which may also help reduce or eliminate the need for mock passengers for developmental testing. Two candidate materials, a dielectric liquid and an iron-loaded epoxy, have been identified and reflection measurements have been performed using laboratory systems in the range 18 - 40 GHz. Results show good agreement with both laboratory and literature data on human skin, particularly in the range of operation of two commercially available millimeter wave imaging systems. Issues related to the practical use of liquids and magnetic materials for image quality tools are discussed.

  7. An information gathering system for medical image inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Bajcsy, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We present an information gathering system for medical image inspection that consists of software tools for capturing computer-centric and human-centric information. Computer-centric information includes (1) static annotations, such as (a) image drawings enclosing any selected area, a set of areas with similar colors, a set of salient points, and (b) textual descriptions associated with either image drawings or links between pairs of image drawings, and (2) dynamic (or temporal) information, such as mouse movements, zoom level changes, image panning and frame selections from an image stack. Human-centric information is represented by video and audio signals that are acquired by computer-mounted cameras and microphones. The short-term goal of the presented system is to facilitate learning of medical novices from medical experts, while the long-term goal is to data mine all information about image inspection for assisting in making diagnoses. In this work, we built basic software functionality for gathering computer-centric and human-centric information of the aforementioned variables. Next, we developed the information playback capabilities of all gathered information for educational purposes. Finally, we prototyped text-based and image template-based search engines to retrieve information from recorded annotations, for example, (a) find all annotations containing the word "blood vessels", or (b) search for similar areas to a selected image area. The information gathering system for medical image inspection reported here has been tested with images from the Histology Atlas database.

  8. Image Information Mining System Evaluation Using Information-Theoretic Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschiel, Herbert; Datcu, Mihai

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade, the exponential increase of multimedia and remote sensing image archives, the fast expansion of the world wide web, and the high diversity of users have yielded concepts and systems for successful content-based image retrieval and image information mining. Image data information systems require both database and visual capabilities, but there is a gap between these systems. Database systems usually do not deal with multidimensional pictorial structures and vision systems do not provide database query functions. In terms of these points, the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems became a focus of research interest. One can find several system evaluation approaches in literature, however, only few of them go beyond precision-recall graphs and do not allow a detailed evaluation of an interactive image retrieval system. Apart from the existing evaluation methodologies, we aim at the overall validation of our knowledge-driven content-based image information mining system. In this paper, an evaluation approach is demonstrated that is based on information-theoretic quantities to determine the information flow between system levels of different semantic abstraction and to analyze human-computer interactions.

  9. Implementation of a foveated image coding system for image bandwidth reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortum, Philip; Geisler, Wilson S.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a preliminary version of a foveated imaging system, implemented on a general purpose computer, which greatly reduces the transmission bandwidth of images. The system is based on the fact that the spatial resolution of the human eye is space variant, decreasing with increasing eccentricity from the point of gaze. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to create an image that is almost perceptually indistinguishable from a constant resolution image, but requires substantially less information to code it. This is accomplished by degrading the resolution of the image so that it matches the space-variant degradation in the resolution of the human eye. Eye movements are recorded so that the high resolution region of the image can be kept aligned with the high resolution region of the human visual system. This system has demonstrated that significant reductions in bandwidth can be achieved while still maintaining access to high detail at any point in an image. The system has been tested using 256 by 256 8 bit gray scale images with a 20 degree field-of-view and eye-movement update rates of 30 Hz (display refresh was 60 Hz). users of the system have reported minimal perceptual artifacts at bandwidth reductions of up to 94.7% (a factor of 18.8). Bandwidth reduction factors of over 100 are expected once lossless compression techniques are added to the system.

  10. Programmable Real-time Clinical Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesu; Park, Sara; Jung, Yuhan; Chang, Sunyeob; Park, Jinyong; Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has attracted interest for its capacity to capture functional spectral information with high spatial and temporal resolution in biological tissues. Several photoacoustic imaging systems have been commercialized recently, but they are variously limited by non-clinically relevant designs, immobility, single anatomical utility (e.g., breast only), or non-programmable interfaces. Here, we present a real-time clinical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system which consists of an FDA-approved clinical ultrasound system integrated with a portable laser. The system is completely programmable, has an intuitive user interface, and can be adapted for different applications by switching handheld imaging probes with various transducer types. The customizable photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system is intended to meet the diverse needs of medical researchers performing both clinical and preclinical photoacoustic studies. PMID:27731357

  11. Imaging systems and methods for obtaining and using biometric information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Kennedy, Mike O [Richland, WA

    2010-11-30

    Disclosed herein are exemplary embodiments of imaging systems and methods of using such systems. In one exemplary embodiment, one or more direct images of the body of a clothed subject are received, and a motion signature is determined from the one or more images. In this embodiment, the one or more images show movement of the body of the subject over time, and the motion signature is associated with the movement of the subject's body. In certain implementations, the subject can be identified based at least in part on the motion signature. Imaging systems for performing any of the disclosed methods are also disclosed herein. Furthermore, the disclosed imaging, rendering, and analysis methods can be implemented, at least in part, as one or more computer-readable media comprising computer-executable instructions for causing a computer to perform the respective methods.

  12. System and method for progressive band selection for hyperspectral images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems, methods, and non-transitory computer-readable storage media for progressive band selection for hyperspectral images. A system having module configured to control a processor to practice the method calculates a virtual dimensionality of a hyperspectral image having multiple bands to determine a quantity Q of how many bands are needed for a threshold level of information, ranks each band based on a statistical measure, selects Q bands from the multiple bands to generate a subset of bands based on the virtual dimensionality, and generates a reduced image based on the subset of bands. This approach can create reduced datasets of full hyperspectral images tailored for individual applications. The system uses a metric specific to a target application to rank the image bands, and then selects the most useful bands. The number of bands selected can be specified manually or calculated from the hyperspectral image's virtual dimensionality.

  13. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  14. An improved optical identity authentication system with significant output images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Liu, Ming-tang; Yao, Shu-xia; Xin, Yan-hui

    2012-06-01

    An improved method for optical identity authentication system with significant output images is proposed. In this method, a predefined image is digitally encoded into two phase-masks relating to a fixed phase-mask, and this fixed phase-mask acts as a lock to the system. When the two phase-masks, serving as the key, are presented to the system, the predefined image is generated at the output. In addition to simple verification, our method is capable of identifying the type of input phase-mask, and the duties of identity verification and recognition are separated and, respectively, assigned to the amplitude and phase of the output image. Numerical simulation results show that our proposed method is feasible and the output image with better image quality can be obtained.

  15. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Lemaster, Daniel A

    2011-07-18

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided. PMID:21934823

  16. Detection performance of laser range-gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaofeng; Luo, Jijun; Zhang, Shengxiu; Xu, Yibin

    2010-10-01

    Laser radar is rapidly developing towards very capable sensors for number of applications such as military sensing and guidance, auto collision avoidance, robotic vision and atmospheric sensing. In this paper, the detection performance of non-scanned Laser Rang-gated (LRG) imaging system is studied. In order to compute the detection range of laser active imaging system, the range equation is derived by using laser illuminating model and considering factors which affect system imaging quality. According to the principle of laser radar and the characters of objects and the detectors in special applied setting, it mainly deduced the non-scanned laser radar range equation of the range-gated system, meanwhile, the SNR model of non-scanned LRG imaging system is set up. Then, relationship of the detection probability, the false alarm probability and the signal-to-noise ratio in the non-scanned LRG imaging system are analyzed, the influence factors of system's performance are pointed out, and the solution is proposed. The detection performance simulation software of non-scanned LRG imaging system is designed with MATLAB and the performance of the imaging system is simulated.

  17. Multimodal tissue perfusion imaging using multi-spectral and thermographic imaging systems applied on clinical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Nelisse, Martin; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Noordmans, Herke Jan

    2013-03-01

    Clinical interventions can cause changes in tissue perfusion, oxygenation or temperature. Real-time imaging of these phenomena could be useful for surgical strategy or understanding of physiological regulation mechanisms. Two noncontact imaging techniques were applied for imaging of large tissue areas: LED based multispectral imaging (MSI, 17 different wavelengths 370 nm-880 nm) and thermal imaging (7.5 to 13.5 μm). Oxygenation concentration changes were calculated using different analyzing methods. The advantages of these methods are presented for stationary and dynamic applications. Concentration calculations of chromophores in tissue require right choices of wavelengths The effects of different wavelength choices for hemoglobin concentration calculations were studied in laboratory conditions and consequently applied in clinical studies. Corrections for interferences during the clinical registrations (ambient light fluctuations, tissue movements) were performed. The wavelength dependency of the algorithms were studied and wavelength sets with the best results will be presented. The multispectral and thermal imaging systems were applied during clinical intervention studies: reperfusion of tissue flap transplantation (ENT), effectiveness of local anesthetic block and during open brain surgery in patients with epileptic seizures. The LED multispectral imaging system successfully imaged the perfusion and oxygenation changes during clinical interventions. The thermal images show local heat distributions over tissue areas as a result of changes in tissue perfusion. Multispectral imaging and thermal imaging provide complementary information and are promising techniques for real-time diagnostics of physiological processes in medicine.

  18. Star sensor image acquisition and preprocessing hardware system based on CMOS image sensor and FGPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuetao; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2003-09-01

    Star Sensor is an avionics instrument used to provide the absolute 3-axis attitude of a spacecraft utilizing star observations. It consists of an electronic camera and associated processing electronics. As outcome of advancing state-of-the-art, new generation star sensor features faster, lower cost, power dissipation and size than the first generation star sensor. This paper describes a star sensor anterior image acquisition and pre-processing hardware system based on CMOS image-sensor and FPGA technology. Practically, star images are produced by a simple simulator on PC, acquired by CMOS image sensor, pre-processed by FPGA, saved in SRAM, read out by EPP protocol and validated by an image process software on PC. The hardware part of system acquires images thought CMOS image-sensor controlled by FPGA, then processes image data by a circuit module of FPGA, and save images to SRAM for test. Basic image data for star recognition and attitude determination of spacecrafts are provided by it. As an important reference for developing star sensor prototype, the system validates the performance advantages of new generation star sensor.

  19. Image compression system and method having optimized quantization tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakar, Viresh (Inventor); Livny, Miron (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A digital image compression preprocessor for use in a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression device is provided. The preprocessor includes a gathering mechanism for determining discrete cosine transform statistics from input digital image data. A computing mechanism is operatively coupled to the gathering mechanism to calculate a image distortion array and a rate of image compression array based upon the discrete cosine transform statistics for each possible quantization value. A dynamic programming mechanism is operatively coupled to the computing mechanism to optimize the rate of image compression array against the image distortion array such that a rate-distortion-optimal quantization table is derived. In addition, a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression device and a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression and decompression system are provided. Also, a method for generating a rate-distortion-optimal quantization table, using discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression, and operating a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression and decompression system are provided.

  20. Application of signal detection theory to assess optoacoustic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yang; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    The hybrid nature of optoacoustic tomography (OAT) brings together the advantages of both optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, making it a promising tool for breast cancer imaging. It is advocated in the modern imaging science literature to utilize objective, or task-based, measures of system performance to guide the optimization of hardware design and image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we investigate this approach to assess the performance of OAT breast imaging systems. In particular, we apply principles from signal detection theory to compute the detectability of a simulated tumor at different depths within a breast, for two different system designs. The signal-to-noise ratio of the test statistic computed by a numerical observer is employed as the task-specific summary measure of system performance. A numerical breast model is employed that contains both slowly varying background and vessel structures as the background model, and superimpose a deterministic signal to emulate a tumor. This study demonstrates how signal detection performance of a numerical observer will vary as a function of signal depth and imaging system characteristics. The described methodology can be employed readily to systematically optimize other OAT imaging systems for tumor detection tasks.

  1. A simultaneous multimodal imaging system for tissue functional parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous and quantitative assessment of skin functional characteristics in different modalities will facilitate diagnosis and therapy in many clinical applications such as wound healing. However, many existing clinical practices and multimodal imaging systems are subjective, qualitative, sequential for multimodal data collection, and need co-registration between different modalities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a multimodal imaging system for quantitative, non-invasive, and simultaneous imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion parameters. The imaging system integrated multispectral and laser speckle imaging technologies into one experimental setup. A Labview interface was developed for equipment control, synchronization, and image acquisition. Advanced algorithms based on a wide gap second derivative reflectometry and laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) were developed for accurate reconstruction of tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion respectively. Quantitative calibration experiments and a new style of skinsimulating phantom were designed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the imaging system. The experimental results were compared with a Moor tissue oxygenation and perfusion monitor. For In vivo testing, a post-occlusion reactive hyperemia (PORH) procedure in human subject and an ongoing wound healing monitoring experiment using dorsal skinfold chamber models were conducted to validate the usability of our system for dynamic detection of oxygenation and perfusion parameters. In this study, we have not only setup an advanced multimodal imaging system for cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion parameters but also elucidated its potential for wound healing assessment in clinical practice.

  2. Analog and digital systems of imaging in roentgenodiagnostics.

    PubMed

    Oborska-Kumaszyńska, Dominika; Wiśniewska-Kubka, Sylwia

    2010-04-01

    In the recent years, we have been witnessing a very dynamic development of diagnostic methods of imaging. In contemporary radiology, the carrier of the diagnostic information is the image, obtained as a result of an X-ray beam transmitted through the patient's body, with modulation of intensity, and processing of data collected by the detector. Depending on the diagnostic method used, signals can be detected with analog (x-ray film) or digital systems (CR, DR and DDR). Each of these methods of image acquisition, due to its own technological solutions, determines a different quality of imaging (diagnostic data). The introduction of digital image receptors, instead of conventional SF systems, increased the patient dose, as a result of a gradually increasing exposure. This followed from the fact that in digital systems, the increased radiation dose reduces image noise and improves image quality, and that is owing to the data capacity of these systems (impossible in SF systems with a limited data capacity of the image detector). The availability of the multitude of imaging systems, each characterized by disparate qualitative and quantitative parameters, implies the problem of evaluation and enforcement of a proper efficiency from manufacturers of these systems.At the same time, there is a legal problem present in our country, i.e. the lack of laws and regulations regarding standards of the scope of quality control (parameters) and measurement methodology for the systems of digital image acquisition. In the European countries, the scope and standards of control are regulated by the manufacturers and European Guidelines, whereas in the United States, AAPM Reports have been introduced, that specifically describe methods of tests performance, their frequency, as well as target values and limits. This paper is a review of both, the scope of quality control parameters of image detectors in analog and digital systems of imaging, and the measurement methodology. The parameters

  3. Analog and digital systems of imaging in roentgenodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Oborska-Kumaszyńska, Dominika; Wiśniewska-Kubka, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the recent years, we have been witnessing a very dynamic development of diagnostic methods of imaging. In contemporary radiology, the carrier of the diagnostic information is the image, obtained as a result of an X-ray beam transmitted through the patient’s body, with modulation of intensity, and processing of data collected by the detector. Depending on the diagnostic method used, signals can be detected with analog (x-ray film) or digital systems (CR, DR and DDR). Each of these methods of image acquisition, due to its own technological solutions, determines a different quality of imaging (diagnostic data). The introduction of digital image receptors, instead of conventional SF systems, increased the patient dose, as a result of a gradually increasing exposure. This followed from the fact that in digital systems, the increased radiation dose reduces image noise and improves image quality, and that is owing to the data capacity of these systems (impossible in SF systems with a limited data capacity of the image detector). The availability of the multitude of imaging systems, each characterized by disparate qualitative and quantitative parameters, implies the problem of evaluation and enforcement of a proper efficiency from manufacturers of these systems. At the same time, there is a legal problem present in our country, i.e. the lack of laws and regulations regarding standards of the scope of quality control (parameters) and measurement methodology for the systems of digital image acquisition. In the European countries, the scope and standards of control are regulated by the manufacturers and European Guidelines, whereas in the United States, AAPM Reports have been introduced, that specifically describe methods of tests performance, their frequency, as well as target values and limits. This paper is a review of both, the scope of quality control parameters of image detectors in analog and digital systems of imaging, and the measurement methodology. The

  4. Comparison of analog and digital transceiver systems for MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We critically evaluated analog and digital transceivers for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems under identical experimental conditions to identify and compare their advantages and disadvantages. MR imaging experiments were performed using a 4.74-tesla vertical-bore superconducting magnet and a high sensitivity gradient coil probe. We acquired 3-dimensional spin echo images of a kumquat with and without using a gain-stepping scan technique to extend the dynamic range of the receiver systems. The acquired MR images clearly demonstrated nearly identical image quality for both transceiver systems, but DC and ghosting artifacts were obtained for the analog transceiver system. We therefore concluded that digital transceivers have several advantages over the analog transceivers.

  5. Comparison of analog and digital transceiver systems for MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We critically evaluated analog and digital transceivers for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems under identical experimental conditions to identify and compare their advantages and disadvantages. MR imaging experiments were performed using a 4.74-tesla vertical-bore superconducting magnet and a high sensitivity gradient coil probe. We acquired 3-dimensional spin echo images of a kumquat with and without using a gain-stepping scan technique to extend the dynamic range of the receiver systems. The acquired MR images clearly demonstrated nearly identical image quality for both transceiver systems, but DC and ghosting artifacts were obtained for the analog transceiver system. We therefore concluded that digital transceivers have several advantages over the analog transceivers. PMID:25167877

  6. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on CMOS imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    CMOS image sensors now become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor, analogue circuitry, and digital processing functions. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on cmos imager that can record field situation when unusual circumstance happened is described in this paper. The monitoring system is based on a CMOS imager (OV7120), which can output digital image data through parallel pixel data port. The system consists of a CMOS image sensor, a large capacity NAND FLASH ROM, a USB interface chip and a micro controller (AT90S8515). The structure of whole system and the test data is discussed and analyzed in detail.

  7. Comparative 4f-4f absorption spectral study for the interactions of Nd(III) with some amino acids: Preliminary thermodynamics and kinetic studies of interaction of Nd(III):glycine with Ca(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaienla, T.; Bendangsenla, N.; David Singh, Th.; Sumitra, Ch.; Rajmuhon Singh, N.; Indira Devi, M.

    2012-02-01

    Spectral analysis of Nd(III) complexes with some amino acids viz.; glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid in the presence and absence of Ca 2+ was carried out in some organic solvents; CH 3OH, CH 3CN, DMF and dioxane using comparative absorption spectra of 4f-4f transitions. The study was carried out by evaluating various energy interaction parameters like Slator-Condon ( Fk), Lande factor ( ξ4f), nephelauxetic ratio ( β), bonding parameter ( b1/2), percent-covalency ( δ) by applying partial and multiple regression analysis. The values of oscillator strength ( Pobs) and Judd-Ofelt electric dipole intensity parameter Tλ ( λ = 2, 4, 6) for different 4f-4f transitions have been calculated. On analysis of the variation of the various energy interaction parameters as well as the changes in the oscillator strength ( Pobs) and Tλ values, reveal the mode of binding with the different ligands. Kinetic studies for the complexation of Nd(III):glycine:Ca(II) have also been discussed at different temperatures in DMF medium and from it the values of activation energy ( Ea) and thermodynamic parameters like Δ H°, Δ S° and Δ G° for the complexation are evaluated.

  8. Use of the 4F Roesch Inferior Mesenteric Catheter in Embolization Procedures in the Pelvis: A Review of 300 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kroencke, Thomas J. Kluner, Claudia; Hamm, Bernd; Gauruder-Burmester, Annett

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of a 4F Roesch inferior mesenteric (RIM) catheter for pelvic embolization procedures. Between October 2000 and January 2006, 364 patients (357 female, 7 male; age: 23-67 years) underwent embolization of various pathologies [uterine fibroids (n = 324), pure adenomyosis of the uterus (n = 19), postpartum hemorrhage (n =1), traumatic or postoperative hemorrhage (n = 9), bleeding related to cervical cancer (n =7), AV malformation of the uterus (n = 2) and high-flow priapism (n = 2)] at a single institution. In all cases, bilateral catheterization was primarily attempted with the use of a 4F hook-shaped braided endhole catheter (Roesch-Inferior-Mesenteric, RIM-Catheter, Cordis, Miami, FL). Frequency of initial failure to catheterize the vascular territory of interest and carry out the embolization were recorded and the types of difficulty encountered were noted. Catherization of the main stem of the vessel territory of interest with the use of a unilateral femoral approach and the 4F RIM catherer was successful in 334/364 (91.8%) the embolization cases. Bilateral catheterization of the internal iliac arteries using a single common femoral artery access and the 4F RIM catheter was achieved in 322/364 (88.5%) patients. In 12/364 (3.3%) patients, a contralateral puncture was performed and the same 4F catheter was used. In 28/364 (7.7%) cases the 4F RIM catheter was exchanged for a catheter with a cobra-shaped or sidewinder configuration. The 4F RIM catheter is a simple and valuable alternative to catheters and techniques commonly employed for pelvic artery embolization.

  9. Altered leukotriene B4 metabolism in CYP4F18-deficient mice does not impact inflammation following renal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Valeria; Vaivoda, Rachel; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Dombkowski, David; Douaidy, Karim; Stark, Christopher; Drake, Justin; Guilliams, Evin; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Preffer, Frederic; Stoilov, Ivaylo; Christmas, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory responses to infection and injury must be restrained and negatively regulated to minimize damage to host tissue. One proposed mechanism involves enzymatic inactivation of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4, but it is difficult to dissect the roles of various metabolic enzymes and pathways. A primary candidate for a regulatory pathway is omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, presumptively by CYP4F3A in humans and CYP4F18 in mice. This pathway generates ω, ω-1, and ω-2 hydroxylated products of leukotriene B4, depending on species. We created mouse models targeting exons 8 and 9 of the Cyp4f18 allele that allows both conventional and conditional knockouts of Cyp4f18. Neutrophils from wild-type mice convert leukotriene B4 to 19-hydroxy leukotriene B4, and to a lesser extent 18-hydroxy leukotriene B4, whereas these products were not detected in neutrophils from conventional Cyp4f18 knockouts. A mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was used to investigate the consequences of loss of CYP4F18 in vivo. There were no significant changes in infiltration of neutrophils and other leukocytes into kidney tissue as determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, or renal injury as assessed by histological scoring and measurement of blood urea nitrogen. It is concluded that CYP4F18 is necessary for omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, and is not compensated by other CYP enzymes, but loss of this metabolic pathway is not sufficient to impact inflammation and injury following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice.

  10. A MoS2 coating strategy to improve the comprehensive electrochemical performance of LiVPO4F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaomeng; Peng, Wenjie; Shih, Kaimin; Wang, Jiexi; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Yan, Guochun; Li, Xinhai; Song, Liubin

    2016-05-01

    To improve the electrochemical performance of LiVPO4F at room and elevated temperature focusing on the stability of LiVPO4F electrode/electrolyte interface, for the first time, MoS2 nanosheets are introduced to modify LiVPO4F/C composites. The coating of MoS2 layers on the surface of LiVPO4F/C nanoparticles is realized via a solution method followed by low-temperature calcination. Morphological observations present that the MoS2 sheets are homogeneously wrapped around the LiVPO4F/C particles. When employed as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MoS2-modified LiVPO4F/C composites exhibit superior high-rate capability and greatly improved cycle ability compared to bare one, and the sample coated with 1.75 wt% MoS2 (2M-LVPF) delivers the best electrochemical performance. In particular, it maintains the capacity retention of 91.7% in 100 cycles at 2.0C and delivers a reversible specific capacity of 112 mAh g-1 at a high rate of 8.0C under room temperature. More importantly, it shows greatly improved cycling stability at elevated temperature (55 °C), maintaining 88.1% of its initial capacity at 0.5C after 50 cycles. The reasons for such improvement lie in the MoS2 coating layer acting as a physical barrier between electrode and electrolyte, as well as electronic/ionic conducting framework for LiVPO4F particles.

  11. Altered Leukotriene B4 metabolism in CYP4F18-deficient mice does not impact inflammation following renal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Valeria; Vaivoda, Rachel; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Dombkowski, David; Douaidy, Karim; Stark, Christopher; Drake, Justin; Guilliams, Evin; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Preffer, Frederic; Stoilov, Ivaylo; Christmas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory responses to infection and injury must be restrained and negatively regulated to minimize damage to host tissue. One proposed mechanism involves enzymatic inactivation of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4, but it is difficult to dissect the roles of various metabolic enzymes and pathways. A primary candidate for a regulatory pathway is omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, presumptively by CYP4F3A in humans and CYP4F18 in mice. This pathway generates ω, ω-1, and ω-2 hydroxylated products of leukotriene B4, depending on species. We created mouse models targeting exons 8 and 9 of the Cyp4f18 allele that allows both conventional and conditional knockout of Cyp4f18. Neutrophils from wild-type mice convert leukotriene B4 to 19-hydroxy leukotriene B4, and to a lesser extent 18-hydroxy leukotriene B4, whereas these products were not detected in neutrophils from conventional Cyp4f18 knockouts. A mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was used to investigate the consequences of loss of CYP4F18 in vivo. There were no significant changes in infiltration of neutrophils and other leukocytes into kidney tissue as determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, or renal injury as assessed by histological scoring and measurement of blood urea nitrogen. It is concluded that CYP4F18 is necessary for omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, and is not compensated by other CYP enzymes, but loss of this metabolic pathway is not sufficient to impact inflammation and injury following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice. PMID:24632148

  12. A design of camera simulator for photoelectric image acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guanghui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xin

    2015-02-01

    In the process of developing the photoelectric image acquisition equipment, it needs to verify the function and performance. In order to make the photoelectric device recall the image data formerly in the process of debugging and testing, a design scheme of the camera simulator is presented. In this system, with FPGA as the control core, the image data is saved in NAND flash trough USB2.0 bus. Due to the access rate of the NAND, flash is too slow to meet the requirement of the sytsem, to fix the problem, the pipeline technique and the High-Band-Buses technique are applied in the design to improve the storage rate. It reads image data out from flash in the control logic of FPGA and output separately from three different interface of Camera Link, LVDS and PAL, which can provide image data for photoelectric image acquisition equipment's debugging and algorithm validation. However, because the standard of PAL image resolution is 720*576, the resolution is different between PAL image and input image, so the image can be output after the resolution conversion. The experimental results demonstrate that the camera simulator outputs three format image sequence correctly, which can be captured and displayed by frame gather. And the three-format image data can meet test requirements of the most equipment, shorten debugging time and improve the test efficiency.

  13. Integrating Medical Imaging Analyses through a High-throughput Bundled Resource Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists. PMID:21841899

  14. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  15. Orbit of an image under iterated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. L.; Mishra, S. N.; Jain, Sarika

    2011-03-01

    An orbital picture depicts the path of an object under semi-group of transformations. The concept initially given by Barnsley [3] has utmost importance in image compression, biological modeling and other areas of fractal geometry. In this paper, we introduce superior iterations to study the role of linear and nonlinear transformations on the orbit of an object. Various characteristics of the computed figures have been discussed to indicate the usefulness of study in mathematical analysis. Modified algorithms are given to compute the orbital picture and V-variable orbital picture. An algorithm to calculate the distance between images makes the study motivating. A brief discussion about the proof of the Cauchy sequence of images is also given.

  16. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  17. Deep trap, laser activated image converting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Receiving an optical image on the surface of a photoconducting semiconductor is presented, storing the image in deep traps of the semiconductor, and later scanning the semiconductor with a laser beam to empty the deep traps, thereby producing a video signal. The semiconductor is illuminated with photons of energy greater than the band gap producing electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor which subsequently fill traps in energy from the band edges. When the laser beam of low energy photons excites the trapped electrons and holes out of the traps into the conduction and valence bands, a photoconductivity can be observed.

  18. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  19. Lock-In Imaging System for Detecting Disturbances in Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Dimarcantonio, Albert L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A lock-in imaging system is configured for detecting a disturbance in air. The system includes an airplane, an interferometer, and a telescopic imaging camera. The airplane includes a fuselage and a pair of wings. The airplane is configured for flight in air. The interferometer is operatively disposed on the airplane and configured for producing an interference pattern by splitting a beam of light into two beams along two paths and recombining the two beams at a junction point in a front flight path of the airplane during flight. The telescopic imaging camera is configured for capturing an image of the beams at the junction point. The telescopic imaging camera is configured for detecting the disturbance in air in an optical path, based on an index of refraction of the image, as detected at the junction point.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.