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Sample records for 4-fold higher expression

  1. 4-fold photocurrent enhancement in ultrathin nanoplasmonic perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Boyuan; Peng, Yong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Gu, Min

    2015-11-30

    Although perovskite materials have been widely investigated for thin-film photovoltaic devices due to the potential for high efficiency, their high toxicity has pressed the development of a solar cell structure of an ultra-thin absorber layer. But insufficient light absorption could be a result of ultra-thin perovskite films. In this paper, we propose a new nanoplasmonic solar cell that integrates metal nanoparticles at its rear/front surfaces of the perovskite layer. Plasmon-enhanced light scattering and near-field enhancement effects from lumpy sliver nanoparticles result in the photocurrent enhancement for a 50 nm thick absorber, which is higher than that for a 300 nm thick flat perovskite solar cell. We also predict the 4-fold photocurrent enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite solar cell with the absorber thickness of 10 nm. Our results pave a new way for ultrathin high-efficiency solar cells with either a lead-based or a lead-free perovskite absorption layer.

  2. Evaluation of expressions involving higher order derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The local geometric properties of a nonlinear control system defined by vector fields E(sub 1),..., E(sub M) are determined by the algebraic properties of the iterated Lie brackets of the E(sub j)'s. The problem of rewriting expressions is examined involving the E(sub j)'s in terms of the D(sub mu)'s in such a way as to handle effectively any cancellation occurring due to commuting of the D(sub mu)'s. A data structure is introduced which allows us to organize the computation to take advantage of the symmetries in the expression and reduce the operation count.

  3. Gauge Theory and Calibrated Geometry for Calabi-Yau 4-folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yalong

    This thesis is devoted to the study of gauge theory and calibrated geometry for Calabi-Yau 4-folds. More specifically, our study is along the following five directions. 1. We develop Donaldson-Thomas type theory on Calabi-Yau 4-folds. Let X be a compact complex Calabi-Yau 4-fold. We define Donaldson-Thomas type deformation invariants (DT4 invariants) by studying moduli spaces of solutions to the Donaldson- Thomas equations on X. We also study sheaves counting problems on local Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We relate DT4 invariants of KY to the Donaldson-Thomas invariants of the associated Fano 3-fold Y. When the Calabi-Yau 4-fold is toric, we adapt the virtual localization formula to define the corresponding equivariant DT4 invariants. We also discuss the non-commutative version of DT4 invariants for quivers with relations. Finally, we compute DT4 invariants for certain Calabi-Yau 4-folds when moduli spaces are smooth and find a DT 4/GW correspondence for X. Examples of wall-crossing phenomenon in DT4 theory are also given. 2. Given a complex 4-fold X with an (Calabi-Yau 3-fold) anti-canonical divisor Y, we study relative Donaldson-Thomas invariants for this pair, which are elements in the Donaldson-Thomas cohomologies of Y. We also discuss gluing formulas which relate relative invariants and DT4 invariants for Calabi-Yau 4-folds. 3. We study orientability issues of moduli spaces from gauge theories on Calabi-Yau manifolds. Our results generalize and strengthen those for Donaldson-Thomas theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds of dimensions 3 and 4. We also prove a corresponding result in the relative situation which is relevant to the gluing formula in DT theory. 4. Motivated by Strominger-Yau-Zaslow's mirror symmetry proposal and Kontsevich's homological mirror symmetry conjecture, we study mirror phenomena (in A-model) of certain results from Donaldson-Thomas theory for Calabi-Yau 4-folds. More precisely, we study calibrated geometry in the sense of Harvey-Lawson and Lagrangian

  4. Crystalline structures of polymeric hydrocarbon with 3,4-fold helical chains.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Li, Han-Dong; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2015-01-12

    Molecular hydrocarbons are well-known to polymerize under pressure to form covalently bonded frameworks. Here we predict by ab initio calculations two distinct three-dimensional hydrocarbon crystalline structures composed of 3-fold and 4-fold helical CH chains in rhombohedral (R3) and tetragonal (I4₁/a) symmetry, respectively. Both structures with 1:1 stoichiometry are found to be energetically more favorable than solid acetylene and cubane, and even more stable than benzene II solid at high pressure. The calculations on vibrational, electronic, and optical properties reveal that the new chiral hydrocarbons are dynamically stable with large bulk moduli around 200 GPa, and exhibit a transparent insulating behavior with indirect band gaps of 5.9 ~ 6.7 eV and anisotropic adsorption spectra. Such forms of hydrocarbon, once synthesized, would have wide applications in mechanical, optoelectronic, and biological materials.

  5. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy study of recombinant T β4 folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Chin; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Chen, Peng-Jen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    Thymosin beta 4 (T β4) is a 43-amino acid small peptide, has been demonstrated that it can promote cardiac repair, wound repair, tissue protection, and involve in the proliferation of blood cell precursor stem cells of bone marrow. Moreover, T β4 has been identified as a multifunction intrinsically disordered protein, which is lacking the stable tertiary structure. Owing to the small size and disordered character, the T β4 protein degrades rapidly and the storage condition is critical. Therefore, it is not easy to reveal its folding mechanism of native T β4. However, recombinant T β4 protein (rT β4), which fused with a 5-kDa peptide in its amino-terminal, is stable and possesses identical function of T β4. Therefore, rT β4 can be used to study its folding mechanism. By using over-critical folding process, stable folding intermediates of rT β4 can be obtained. Structure analysis of folding intermediates by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and fluorescence spectroscopies indicate that rT β4 is a random coli major protein and its hydrophobic region becomes compact gradually. Moreover, the rT β4 folding is a two state transition. Thermal denaturation analysis indicates that rT β4 lacks stable tertiary structure. These results indicated that rT β4, similar to T β4, is an intrinsically disordered protein. Research is supported by MOST, Taiwan. MOST 103-2112-M-009-011-MY3. Corresponding author: Chia-Ching Chang; ccchang01@faculty.nctu.edu.tw.

  6. The sigma-1 receptor binds to the Nav1.5 voltage-gated Na+ channel with 4-fold symmetry.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; Stewart, Andrew P; Crottès, David; Borgese, Franck; Soriani, Olivier; Edwardson, J Michael

    2012-10-26

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is up-regulated in many human tumors and plays a role in the control of cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. At the molecular level, the Sig1R modulates the activity of various ion channels, apparently through a direct interaction. We have previously shown using atomic force microscopy imaging that the Sig1R binds to the trimeric acid-sensing ion channel 1A with 3-fold symmetry. Here, we investigated the interaction between the Sig1R and the Nav1.5 voltage-gated Na(+) channel, which has also been implicated in promoting the invasiveness of cancer cells. We show that the Sig1R and Nav1.5 can be co-isolated from co-transfected cells, consistent with an intimate association between the two proteins. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the co-isolated proteins revealed complexes in which Nav1.5 was decorated by Sig1Rs. Frequency distributions of angles between pairs of bound Sig1Rs had two peaks, at ∼90° and ∼180°, and the 90° peak was about twice the size of the 180° peak. These results demonstrate that the Sig1R binds to Nav1.5 with 4-fold symmetry. Hence, each set of six transmembrane regions in Nav1.5 likely constitutes a Sig1R binding site, suggesting that the Sig1R interacts with the transmembrane regions of its partners. Interestingly, two known Sig1R ligands, haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine, disrupted the Nav1.5/Sig1R interaction both in vitro and in living cells. Finally, we show that endogenously expressed Sig1R and Nav1.5 also functionally interact.

  7. A Neuroligin-4 Missense Mutation Associated With Autism Impairs Neuroligin-4 Folding and ER Export

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Milunsky, Jeff M.; Newton, Stephanie; Ko, Jaewon; Zhao, Geping; Maher, Tom A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Bolliger, Marc F.; S.Carter, Alice; Boucard, Antony; Powell, Craig M.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules essential for normal synapse function. Mutations in neuroligin-4 (NL4; gene symbol: NLGN4) have been reported in some patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental impairments. However, the low frequency of NL4 mutations, and the limited information about the affected patients and the functional consequences of their mutations, cast doubt on the causal role of NL4 mutations in these disorders. Here, we describe two brothers with classical ASD who carry a single amino acid substitution in NL4 (R87W). This substitution was absent from the brothers’ asymptomatic parents, suggesting that it arose in the maternal germline. R87 is conserved in all NL isoforms, and the R87W substitution is not observed in control individuals. At the protein level, the R87W-substitution impaired glycosylation processing of NL4 expressed in HEK293 and COS cells, destabilized NL4, caused NL4 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum in non-neuronal cells and neurons, and blocked NL4 transport to the cell-surface. As a result, the R87W-substitution inactivated the synapse-formation activity of NL4, and abolished the functional effect of NL4 on synapse strength. Viewed together, these observations suggest that a point mutation in NL4 can cause ASD by a loss-of-function mechanism. PMID:19726642

  8. A neuroligin-4 missense mutation associated with autism impairs neuroligin-4 folding and endoplasmic reticulum export.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Milunsky, Jeff M; Newton, Stephanie; Ko, Jaewon; Zhao, Geping; Maher, Tom A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Bolliger, Marc F; Carter, Alice S; Boucard, Antony A; Powell, Craig M; Südhof, Thomas C

    2009-09-02

    Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules essential for normal synapse function. Mutations in neuroligin-4 (NL4) (gene symbol: NLGN4) have been reported in some patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental impairments. However, the low frequency of NL4 mutations and the limited information about the affected patients and the functional consequences of their mutations cast doubt on the causal role of NL4 mutations in these disorders. Here, we describe two brothers with classical ASD who carry a single amino-acid substitution in NL4 (R87W). This substitution was absent from the brothers' asymptomatic parents, suggesting that it arose in the maternal germ line. R87 is conserved in all NL isoforms, and the R87W substitution is not observed in control individuals. At the protein level, the R87W substitution impaired glycosylation processing of NL4 expressed in HEK293 and COS cells, destabilized NL4, caused NL4 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum in non-neuronal cells and neurons, and blocked NL4 transport to the cell surface. As a result, the R87W substitution inactivated the synapse-formation activity of NL4 and abolished the functional effect of NL4 on synapse strength. Viewed together, these observations suggest that a point mutation in NL4 can cause ASD by a loss-of-function mechanism.

  9. A 4-fold-symmetry hexagonal ruthenium for magnetic heterostructures exhibiting enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and tunnel magnetoresistance.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenchao; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Furubayashi, Takao; Koo, Jungwoo; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji; Hadorn, Jason Paul; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-08

    A 4-fold-symmetry hexagonal Ru emerging in epitaxial MgO/Ru/Co2 FeAl/MgO heterostructures is reported, in which an approximately Ru(022¯3) growth attributes to the lattice matching between MgO, Ru, and Co2 FeAl. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the Co2 FeAl/MgO interface is substantially enhanced. The magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) incorporating this structure give rise to the largest tunnel magnetoresistance for perpendicular MTJs using low damping Heusler alloys.

  10. Higher brain BDNF gene expression is associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A.; Schneider, Julie A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We tested whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression levels are associated with cognitive decline in older adults. Methods: Five hundred thirty-five older participants underwent annual cognitive assessments and brain autopsy at death. BDNF gene expression was measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Linear mixed models were used to examine whether BDNF expression was associated with cognitive decline adjusting for age, sex, and education. An interaction term was added to determine whether this association varied with clinical diagnosis proximate to death (no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia). Finally, we examined the extent to which the association of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology with cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression. Results: Higher brain BDNF expression was associated with slower cognitive decline (p < 0.001); cognitive decline was about 50% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. This association was strongest in individuals with dementia. The level of BDNF expression was lower in individuals with pathologic AD (p = 0.006), but was not associated with macroscopic infarcts, Lewy body disease, or hippocampal sclerosis. BDNF expression remained associated with cognitive decline in a model adjusting for age, sex, education, and neuropathologies (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the effect of AD pathology on cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression such that the effect was strongest for high levels of AD pathology (p = 0.015); thus, in individuals with high AD pathology (90th percentile), cognitive decline was about 40% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. Conclusions: Higher brain BDNF expression is associated with slower cognitive decline and may also reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathology on cognitive decline. PMID:26819457

  11. Diabatic Molecular Orbitals, Potential Energies, and Potential Energy Surface Couplings by the 4-fold Way for Photodissociation of Phenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefei; Yang, Ke R; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-08-13

    Complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculations provide useful reference wave functions for configuration interaction or perturbation theory calculations of excited-state potential energy surfaces including dynamical electron correlation. However, the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs) of CASSCF calculations usually have mixed character in regions of strong interaction of two or more electronic states; therefore, they are unsuitable for diabatization using the configurational uniformity approach. Here, CASSCF diabatic MOs for phenol have been obtained by the 4-fold way, and comparison to the CASSCF canonical MOs shows that they are much smoother. Using these smooth CASSCF diabatic MOs, we performed direct diabatization calculations for the three low-lying states ((1)ππ, (1)ππ*, and (1)πσ*) and their diabatic (scalar) couplings at the dynamically correlated multiconfiguration quasidegenerate perturbation theory (MC-QDPT) level. We present calculations along the O-H stretching and C-C-O-H torsion coordinates for the nonadiabatic photodissociation of phenol to the phenoxyl radical and hydrogen atom. The seams of (1)ππ*/(1)πσ* and (1)ππ/(1)πσ* diabatic crossings are plotted as functions of these coordinates. We also present diabatization calculations for displacements along the out-of-plane ring distortion modes 16a and 16b of the phenyl group. The dominant coupling modes of the two conical intersections ((1)ππ*/(1)πσ* and (1)ππ/(1)πσ*) are discussed. The present diabatization method is confirmed to be valid even for significantly distorted ring structures by diabatization calculations along a reaction path connecting the planar equilibrium geometry of phenol to its strongly distorted prefulvenic form. The present work provides insight into the mode specificity of phenol photodissociation and shows that diabatization at the MC-QDPT level employing CASSCF diabatic MOs can be a good starting point for multidimensional dynamics

  12. Higher expression of somatic repair genes in long-lived ant queens than workers

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Eric R.; Privman, Eyal; Keller, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why organisms senesce is a fundamental question in biology. One common explanation is that senescence results from an increase in macromolecular damage with age. The tremendous variation in lifespan between genetically identical queen and worker ants, ranging over an order of magnitude, provides a unique system to study how investment into processes of somatic maintenance and macromolecular repair influence lifespan. Here we use RNAseq to compare patterns of expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair of age-matched queens and workers. There was no difference between queens and workers in 1-day-old individuals, but the level of expression of these genes increased with age and this up-regulation was greater in queens than in workers, resulting in significantly queen-biased expression in 2-month-old individuals in both legs and brains. Overall, these differences are consistent with the hypothesis that higher longevity is associated with increased investment into somatic repair. PMID:27617474

  13. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Decreased expression of Klotho in cardiac atria biopsy samples from patients at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Romano, Claudia; Agrawal, Pratik R; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Knight, Richard; Saravolatz, Louis; Narula, Jagat; Ferrari-Vivaldi, Mario; Flati, Vincenzo; Assanelli, Deodato; Dioguardi, Francesco S

    2016-01-01

    Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased. PMID:27781061

  15. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  16. Low-temperature perception leading to gene expression and cold tolerance in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Knight, Marc R; Knight, Heather

    2012-09-01

    Plant species exhibit a range of tolerances to low temperatures, and these constitute a major determinant of their geographical distribution and use as crops. When tolerance is insufficient, either chilling or freezing injuries result. A variety of mechanisms are employed to evade the ravages of extreme or sub-optimal temperatures. Many of these involve cold-responsive gene expression and require that the drop in temperature is first sensed by the plant. Despite intensive research over the last 100 yr or longer, we still cannot easily answer the question of how plants sense low temperature. Over recent years, genomic and post-genomic approaches have produced a wealth of information relating to the sequence of events leading from cold perception to appropriate and useful responses. However, there are also crucial and significant gaps in the pathways constructed from these data. We describe the literature pertaining to the current understanding of cold perception, signalling and regulation of low-temperature-responsive gene expression in higher plants, raising some of the key questions that still intrigue plant biologists today and that could be targets for future work. Our review focuses on the control of gene expression in the pathways leading from cold perception to chilling and freezing tolerance.

  17. CONSERVED HIGHER ORDER CHROMATIN REGULATES NMDA RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION AND COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J.; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica; Mitchell, Amanda; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Giakoumaki, Stella G.; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D.; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H.; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A.; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here, we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 megabase of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3’ intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a ‘cargo’ of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983

  18. SMARCA4 regulates gene expression and higher-order chromatin structure in proliferating mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Barutcu, A. Rasim; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Fritz, Andrew J.; McCord, Rachel P.; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; Dekker, Job; Stein, Gary S.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into chromatin plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and nuclear processes. Brahma-related gene-1 SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1), the essential ATPase subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosomes at target regions. Although the transcriptional role of SMARCA4 at gene promoters is well-studied, less is known about its role in higher-order genome organization. SMARCA4 knockdown in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells resulted in 176 up-regulated genes, including many related to lipid and calcium metabolism, and 1292 down-regulated genes, some of which encode extracellular matrix (ECM) components that can exert mechanical forces and affect nuclear structure. ChIP-seq analysis of SMARCA4 localization and SMARCA4-bound super-enhancers demonstrated extensive binding at intergenic regions. Furthermore, Hi-C analysis showed extensive SMARCA4-mediated alterations in higher-order genome organization at multiple resolutions. First, SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in clustering of intra- and inter-subtelomeric regions, demonstrating a novel role for SMARCA4 in telomere organization. SMARCA4 binding was enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, and SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in weakening of TAD boundary strength. Taken together, these findings provide a dynamic view of SMARCA4-dependent changes in higher-order chromatin organization and gene expression, identifying SMARCA4 as a novel component of chromatin organization. PMID:27435934

  19. Gene Expression and Regulation of Higher Plants Under Soil Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Fu-Tai; Chu, Li-Ye; Shao, Hong-Bo; Liu, Zeng-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Higher plants not only provide human beings renewable food, building materials and energy, but also play the most important role in keeping a stable environment on earth. Plants differ from animals in many aspects, but the important is that plants are more easily influenced by environment than animals. Plants have a series of fine mechanisms for responding to environmental changes, which has been established during their long-period evolution and artificial domestication. The machinery related to molecular biology is the most important basis. The elucidation of it will extremely and purposefully promote the sustainable utilization of plant resources and make the best use of its current potential under different scales. This molecular mechanism at least includes drought signal recognition (input), signal transduction (many cascade biochemical reactions are involved in this process), signal output, signal responses and phenotype realization, which is a multi-dimension network system and contains many levels of gene expression and regulation. We will focus on the physiological and molecular adaptive machinery of plants under soil water stress and draw a possible blueprint for it. Meanwhile, the issues and perspectives are also discussed. We conclude that biological measures is the basic solution to solving various types of issues in relation to sustainable development and the plant measures is the eventual way. PMID:19949548

  20. CD34 Over-Expression is Associated With Gliomas’ Higher WHO Grade

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Jun; Wei, Junji; Yao, Yong; Xu, Zhiqin; Dou, Wanchen; Lian, Wei; Su, Changbao; Ren, Zuyuan; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein that was first identified on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. CD34 is known as an optimum marker for microvascular density studies and it is positively stained in pathological and physiologic vessels. The use of CD34 for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of neoplasms has been increasingly discussed. The implications and utilities of CD34 in WHO grades of gliomas and its prognosis have been reported rarely. Also, the WHO grades and prognosis researches remains unclear and controversial. A meta-analysis is the best choice for drawing a convincing conclusion. Several databases were searched. We carefully assess the relevant articles and standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated in terms of the relationship between CD34 expression levels with gliomas’ WHO grades, patients’ ages and gender. We used the Galbraith figure, the I2 test, and Cochran Q test to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the pooled results’ stability. A Contour-enhanced funnel plot evaluation was made to assess potential publication bias. Ethics review and approval was not necessary because the meta-analysis did not involve any direct human trials or animal experiments. There were 12 eligible studies, including 684 patients who were considered in the present meta-analysis. All of them were conducted in China. CD34 overexpression in glioma tissues was associated closely, according to the pooled SMD, with higher WHO grade (III + IV) (SMD -1.503, 95% CI -1.685 to -1.321; P = 0.000). There were no significant associations between CD34 and age (SMD -0.223, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.156; P = 0.248) and CD34 and gender (SMD -0.059, 95% CI -0.439, 0.321; P = 0.761). No publication bias was detected according to Contour-enhanced funnel plot. Our results suggested that CD34 overexpression is associated with higher WHO

  1. Higher Expression of Proteins in IGF/IR Axes in Colorectal Cancer is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Li, Cong; Tang, Jie; Yi, Cheng; Liu, Ji-Yan; Qiu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    Preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (preDM) increases occurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). Insulin growth factor (IGF)/insulin receptor (IR) axes play an important role in the development of both diabetes and CRC. We aimed to explore the characteristics of proteins expression in IGF/IR axes in CRC tissues with preDM. Two hundred fifty CRC patients in West China hospital were included in analysis. Among them, 125 patients had history of diabetes matched by 125 CRC without diabetes at a 1:1 ratio. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of proteins in IGF/IR axis. More positive expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR were found in CRC group with diabetes than in non-diabetes group. No difference was detected in the expression of IR substrate-1, IR substrate-2, IGF-2, IGF binding protein 3, and mammalian target of rapamycin between two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes history was associated with all of the expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR, and higher T staging and lymph node metastasis were respectively independent factors of IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in CRC patients. Besides, IGF-1 expression was positively associated with IGF-1R and IR expression in all CRC tissues, and the association of IGF-1 and IR expression seemed to be closer in diabetes group than in non-diabetes group. Higher expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR proteins in CRC was associated with diabetes, suggesting IGF-1/IR signaling may play a special part in development of CRC in patients with diabetes.

  2. Unraveling of the E-helices and Disruption of 4-Fold Pores Are Associated with Iron Mishandling in a Mutant Ferritin Causing Neurodegeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Baraibar, Martin A.; Muhoberac, Barry B.; Garringer, Holly J.; Hurley, Thomas D.; Vidal, Ruben

    2010-03-12

    Mutations in the coding sequence of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene cause a neurodegenerative disease known as neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy, which is characterized by the presence of intracellular inclusion bodies containing the mutant FTL polypeptide and by abnormal accumulation of iron in the brain. Here, we describe the x-ray crystallographic structure and report functional studies of ferritin homopolymers formed from the mutant FTL polypeptide p.Phe167SerfsX26, which has a C terminus that is altered in amino acid sequence and length. The structure was determined and refined to 2.85 {angstrom} resolution and was very similar to the wild type between residues Ile-5 and Arg-154. However, instead of the E-helices normally present in wild type ferritin, the C-terminal sequences of all 24 mutant subunits showed substantial amounts of disorder, leading to multiple C-terminal polypeptide conformations and a large disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold axis pores. Functional studies underscored the importance of the mutant C-terminal sequence in iron-induced precipitation and revealed iron mishandling by soluble mutant FTL homopolymers in that only wild type incorporated iron when in direct competition in solution with mutant ferritin. Even without competition, the amount of iron incorporation over the first few minutes differed severalfold. Our data suggest that disruption at the 4-fold pores may lead to direct iron mishandling through attenuated iron incorporation by the soluble form of mutant ferritin and that the disordered C-terminal polypeptides may play a major role in iron-induced precipitation and formation of ferritin inclusion bodies in hereditary ferritinopathy.

  3. Higher-order JWKB expressions for the energy levels and the wavefunction at the origin

    SciTech Connect

    Pasupathy, J.; Singh, V.

    1980-09-01

    An exact quantization condition is derived for the energy levels of a particle in a radial potential assumed finite at the origin. This is used to derive corrections to the semiclassical JWKB quantization condition. The normalization integral of the wavefunction is further related to the energy derivative of wavefunction at origin and use this expression to derive the corrections to the semiclassical JWKB expressions for the wavefunction at origin. An application to upsilon leptonic decay width is also given.

  4. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was markedly higher than fibroadenoma, and associated with expression of ARHI, p53 and ER in infiltrating duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Xu; Li, Jia; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui; Li, Li-Liang; Xu, Hong-Fei; Shen, Yi-Wen; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhao, Zi-Qin

    2013-03-01

    Jumonji Domain Containing 2A (JMJD2A) may be a cancer-associated gene involved in human breast cancer. With a view to investigating expression of JMJD2A in human breast cancer and benign lesion tissues as well as relationship between JMJD2A and tumor related proteins, histological and immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma and fibroadenoma for JMJD2A and immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma for tumor related proteins (ARHI, p53, ER, PR and CerbB-2) were performed. Histological examination validated the clinical diagnosis. The JMJD2A positive rate of infiltrating duct carcinoma was significantly higher than fibroadenoma by immunohistochemical analysis. The mean optical density of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by western blot. JMJD2A mRNA level in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by quantitative real-time PCR. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from immunohistochemical results respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from quantitative real-time PCR results respectively. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher, and associated with ARHI, p53 and ER. The results may take JMJD2A as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in human breast cancer.

  5. Space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon α1b and screening of higher yielding strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Changting; Liu, Jinyi; Fang, Xiangqun; Xu, Chen; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon α1b. The genetically engineered bacteria expressing the recombinant interferon α1b were sent into outer space on the Chinese Shenzhou VIII spacecraft. After the 17 day space flight, mutant strains that highly expressed the target gene were identified. After a series of screening of spaceflight-treated bacteria and the quantitative comparison of the mutant strains and original strain, we found five strains that showed a significantly higher production of target proteins, compared with the original strain. Our results support the notion that the outer space environment has unique effects on the mutation breeding of microorganisms, including genetically engineered strains. Mutant strains that highly express the target protein could be obtained through spaceflight-induced mutagenesis.

  6. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  7. Differential contribution of cis-regulatory elements to higher order chromatin structure and expression of the CFTR locus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L.; Gosalia, Nehal; Neems, Daniel; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E.; Kosak, Steven T.; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromatin structure establishes domains that organize the genome and coordinate gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of individual loci within a topological domain (TAD) are not fully understood. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene provides a paradigm for investigating these mechanisms. CFTR occupies a TAD bordered by CTCF/cohesin binding sites within which are cell-type-selective cis-regulatory elements for the locus. We showed previously that intronic and extragenic enhancers, when occupied by specific transcription factors, are recruited to the CFTR promoter by a looping mechanism to drive gene expression. Here we use a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 editing of cis-regulatory elements and siRNA-mediated depletion of architectural proteins to determine the relative contribution of structural elements and enhancers to the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus. We found the boundaries of the CFTR TAD are conserved among diverse cell types and are dependent on CTCF and cohesin complex. Removal of an upstream CTCF-binding insulator alters the interaction profile, but has little effect on CFTR expression. Within the TAD, intronic enhancers recruit cell-type selective transcription factors and deletion of a pivotal enhancer element dramatically decreases CFTR expression, but has minor effect on its 3D structure. PMID:26673704

  8. Strategies for psbA gene expression in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants: from transcription to PSII repair.

    PubMed

    Mulo, Paula; Sakurai, Isamu; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    The Photosystem (PS) II of cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants is prone to light-induced inactivation, the D1 protein being the primary target of such damage. As a consequence, the D1 protein, encoded by the psbA gene, is degraded and re-synthesized in a multistep process called PSII repair cycle. In cyanobacteria, a small gene family codes for the various, functionally distinct D1 isoforms. In these organisms, the regulation of the psbA gene expression occurs mainly at the level of transcription, but the expression is fine-tuned by regulation of translation elongation. In plants and green algae, the D1 protein is encoded by a single psbA gene located in the chloroplast genome. In chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the psbA gene expression is strongly regulated by mRNA processing, and particularly at the level of translation initiation. In chloroplasts of higher plants, translation elongation is the prevalent mechanism for regulation of the psbA gene expression. The pre-existing pool of psbA transcripts forms translation initiation complexes in plant chloroplasts even in darkness, while the D1 synthesis can be completed only in the light. Replacement of damaged D1 protein requires also the assistance by a number of auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the nuclear genome in green algae and higher plants. Nevertheless, many of these chaperones are conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we describe the specific features and fundamental differences of the psbA gene expression and the regeneration of the PSII reaction center protein D1 in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Photosystem II.

  9. Expression of p-AKT characterizes adenoid cystic carcinomas of head and neck with a higher risk for tumor relapses

    PubMed Central

    Völker, Hans-Ullrich; Scheich, Matthias; Berndt, Annette; Haubitz, Imme; Metzger, Alexandra; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Schmidt, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Background Adenoid cystic carcinomas are rare tumors with an indolent clinical course, but frequent local relapses. The identification of tumors with a higher relapse risk seems to be interesting. Hence we investigated parameters of glucose metabolism, which were found associated with poor prognosis in other malignancies. Methods Specimen of 29 patients were investigated immunohistochemically with antibodies against p-AKT, TKTL-1 (transketolase-like 1), M2PK (M2 pyruvate kinase), and GLUT-1. Proliferation was investigated by staining with Ki67. The tumors were located at the major or minor salivary glands. Only the typical cribriform subtype was investigated. The initial tumor stage was pT1 or pT2. Results Expression of p-AKT was significantly (P = 0.036) associated with a higher relapse risk in multivariate analysis. Low expression of M2PK was non-significantly (P = 0.065) predictive for a higher risk. TKTL-1 and GLUT-1 were expressed in the majority of cases, albeit not associated with relapse risk. Conclusion Adenoid cystic carcinomas positive for p-AKT show a higher relapse risk. However, other parameters of glucose metabolism investigated here or proliferation (Ki67) were not predictive in this entity. Our findings demonstrate a possible background for therapeutic approaches targeting the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:19545368

  10. Conceptualizing Gender Performance in Higher Education: Exploring Regulation of Identity Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellabaum, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    While many higher education scholars have considered gender (e.g., Dawson-Threat & Huba, 1996; DeLucia-Waack, Gerrity, Taub, & Baldo, 2001; Jacobs, 1995; Knox, Zusman, & Mcneely, 2004; Lackland & De Lisi, 2001; Massey & Christensen, 1990), most of the literature uses modernistic theories to examine gender roles or gendered differences among…

  11. "A Delicate Balance...": Language as a Tool of Identity Expression for Incarcerated Men Pursuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Lila

    2014-01-01

    In the course of an initiative to provide higher education to adults in prison, incarcerated men enrolled in an undergraduate degree programme were offered the opportunity to participate in a series of writing workshops. This article examines the products of these workshops, specifically the ways that language chosen by the writers serves as a…

  12. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    PubMed

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level.

  13. Higher Expression of Toll-like Receptors 3, 7, 8, and 9 in Pityriasis Rosea

    PubMed Central

    El-Ela, Mostafa Abou; El-Komy, Mohamed; Hay, Rania Abdel; Hegazy, Rehab; Sharobim, Amin; Rashed, Laila; Amr, Khalda

    2017-01-01

    Background Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a common papulosquamous skin disease in which an infective agent may be implicated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in immune responses and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. Our aim was to determine the possible roles of TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 in the pathogenesis of PR. Methods Twenty-four PR patients and 24 healthy individuals (as controls) were included in this case control study. All recruits were subjected to routine laboratory investigations. Biopsies were obtained from one active PR lesion and from healthy skin of controls for the detection of TLR 3, 7, 8, and 9 gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results This study included 24 patients (8 females and 16 males) with active PR lesions, with a mean age of 28.62 years. Twenty four healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included as controls (8 females and 16 males, with a mean age of 30.83 years). The results of the routine laboratory tests revealed no significant differences between both groups. Significantly elevated expression of all studied TLRs were detected in PR patients relative to healthy controls (p < .001). Conclusions TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PR. PMID:28192646

  14. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee's susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions.

  15. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke; Grénman, Reidar; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Bussink, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was found between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.

  16. The crystal structure of ferritin from Chlorobium tepidum reveals a new conformation of the 4-fold channel for this protein family.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Townsend, Philip D; Brito, Christian; Marquez, Valeria; Marabolli, Vanessa; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Matias, Cata; Watt, Richard K; López-Castro, Juan D; Domínguez-Vera, José; Pohl, Ehmke; Yévenes, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    Ferritins are ubiquitous iron-storage proteins found in all kingdoms of life. They share a common architecture made of 24 subunits of five α-helices. The recombinant Chlorobium tepidum ferritin (rCtFtn) is a structurally interesting protein since sequence alignments with other ferritins show that this protein has a significantly extended C-terminus, which possesses 12 histidine residues as well as several aspartate and glutamic acid residues that are potential metal ion binding residues. We show that the macromolecular assembly of rCtFtn exhibits a cage-like hollow shell consisting of 24 monomers that are related by 4-3-2 symmetry; similar to the assembly of other ferritins. In all ferritins of known structure the short fifth α-helix adopts an acute angle with respect to the four-helix bundle. However, the crystal structure of the rCtFtn presented here shows that this helix adopts a new conformation defining a new assembly of the 4-fold channel of rCtFtn. This conformation allows the arrangement of the C-terminal region into the inner cavity of the protein shell. Furthermore, two Fe(III) ions were found in each ferroxidase center of rCtFtn, with an average FeA-FeB distance of 3 Å; corresponding to a diferric μ-oxo/hydroxo species. This is the first ferritin crystal structure with an isolated di-iron center in an iron-storage ferritin. The crystal structure of rCtFtn and the biochemical results presented here, suggests that rCtFtn presents similar biochemical properties reported for other members of this protein family albeit with distinct structural plasticity.

  17. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee’s susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions. PMID:26121358

  18. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress.

  19. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress. PMID:27460544

  20. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.; Yang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, p<0.001) and observed across all subtypes of MDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, p<0.001; Int-2+High, p=0.004). However, unstimulated T-cells from MDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (p<0.001) compared to controls. Other hTERT splice variants were lower in expression and not significantly different among cases and controls. Telomerase activity was positively correlated with total hTERT levels in MDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression. PMID:27655690

  1. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, p<0.001) and observed across all subtypes of MDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, p<0.001; Int-2+High, p=0.004). However, unstimulated T-cells from MDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (p<0.001) compared to controls. Other hTERT splice variants were lower in expression and not significantly different among cases and controls. Telomerase activity was positively correlated with total hTERT levels in MDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  2. Recombinant expression and purification of a MAP30-cell penetrating peptide fusion protein with higher anti-tumor bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiang; Yang, Xu-Zhong; Fu, Long-Yun; Lu, Yv-Ting; Lu, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Fu-Jun

    2015-07-01

    MAP30 (Momordica Antiviral Protein 30 Kd), a single-stranded type-I ribosome inactivating protein, possesses versatile biological activities including anti-tumor abilities. However, the low efficiency penetrating into tumor cells hampers the tumoricidal effect of MAP30. This paper describes MAP30 fused with a human-derived cell penetrating peptide HBD which overcome the low uptake efficiency by tumor cells and exhibits higher anti-tumor bioactivity. MAP30 gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of Momordica charantia and the recombinant plasmid pET28b-MAP30-HBD was established and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MAP30-HBD protein (rMAP30-HBD) was expressed in a soluble form after being induced by 0.5mM IPTG for 14h at 15°C. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The rMAP30-HBD protein not only has topological inactivation and protein translation inhibition activity but also showed significant improvements in cytotoxic activity compared to that of the rMAP30 protein without HBD in the tested tumor cell lines, and induced higher apoptosis rates in HeLa cells analyzed by Annexin V-FITC with FACS. This paper demonstrated a new method for improving MAP30 protein anti-tumor activity and might have potential applications in cancer therapy area.

  3. Newly paired zebra finches have higher dopamine levels and immediate early gene Fos expression in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sunayana B; Dias, Brian G; Crews, David; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Most birds are socially monogamous, yet little is known about the neural pathways underlying avian monogamy. Recent studies have implicated dopamine as playing a role in courtship and affiliation in a socially monogamous songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). In the present study, we sought to understand the specific contribution to pair formation in zebra finches of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that projects from the midbrain ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. We observed that paired birds had higher levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the ventral medial striatum, where the nucleus accumbens is situated, than unpaired birds. Additionally, we found that the percentage of dopaminergic neurons expressing immediate early gene Fos, a marker of neuronal activity, was higher in the ventral tegmental area of paired birds than in that of unpaired birds. These data are consistent with a role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway in pair formation in zebra finches, suggesting the possibility of a conserved neural mechanism of monogamy in birds and mammals.

  4. Resonant features of planar Faraday metamaterial with high structural symmetry. Study of properties of a 4-fold array of planar chiral rosettes placed on a ferrite substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polevoy, Sergey Y.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.; Tarapov, Sergey I.; Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2013-02-01

    The transmission of electromagnetic wave through a planar chiral structure, loaded with the gyrotropic medium being under an action of the longitudinal magnetic field, is studied. The frequency dependence of the metamaterial resonance and the angle of rotation of the polarization plane are obtained. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally a resonant enhancement of the Faraday rotation. The ranges of frequency and magnetic field strength are defined, where the angle of polarization plane rotation for the metamaterial is substantially higher than that one for a single ferrite slab.

  5. Chemically Assisted Enucleation Results in Higher G6PD Expression in Early Bovine Female Embryos Obtained by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clara Slade; Tetzner, Tatiane Almeida Drummond; de Lima, Marina Ragagnin; de Melo, Danilas Salinet; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite extensive efforts, low efficiency is still an issue in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The hypothesis of our study was that the use of cytoplasts produced by chemically assisted enucleation (EN) would improve nuclear reprogramming in nuclear transfer (NT)–derived embryos because it results in lower damage and higher cytoplasm content than conventional EN. For that purpose, we investigated the expression of two X-linked genes: X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In the first experiment, gene expression was assessed in day-7 female blastocysts from embryonic cell NT (ECNT) groups [conventional, ECNT conv; chemically assisted, ECNT deme (demecolcine)]. Whereas in the ECNT conv group, only one embryo (25%; n=4) expressed XIST transcripts, most embryos showed XIST expression (75%; n=4) in the ECNT deme group. However, no significant differences in transcript abundance of XIST and G6PD were found when comparing the embryos from all groups. In a second experiment using somatic cells as nuclear donors, we evaluated gene expression profiles in female SCNT-derived embryos. No significant differences in relative abundance (RA) of XIST transcripts were observed among the groups. Nonetheless, higher (p<0.05) levels of G6PD were observed in SCNT deme and in vitro–derived groups in comparison to SCNT conv. To know whether higher G6PD expression in embryos derived from SCNT chemically assisted EN indicates higher metabolism in embryos considered of superior quality or if the presence of higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels generated by the increased oxygen consumption triggers G6PD activation, the expression of genes related to stress response should be investigated in embryos produced by that technique. PMID:22908977

  6. Microarray Analysis Reveals Higher Gestational Folic Acid Alters Expression of Genes in the Cerebellum of Mice Offspring—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. PMID:25629700

  7. Production of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems: higher activity of R2 produced by eukaryotic cells related to higher iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarche, N; Matton, G; Massie, B; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; Dumas, F; Gaudreau, P; Langelier, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2 was overproduced with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant R2 purified by a two-step procedure exhibited a 3-fold higher activity when produced in eukaryotic cells. Precise quantification of the R2 concentration at each step of the purification indicated that the activity was not altered during the purification procedure. Moreover, we have observed that the level of R2 expression, in eukaryotic cells as well as in prokaryotic cells, did not influence R2 activity. Extensive characterization of the recombinant R2 purified from eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems has shown that both types of pure R2 preparations were similar in their 76 kDa dimer contents (more than 95%) and in their ability to bind the R1 subunit. However, we have found that the higher activity of R2 produced in eukaryotic cells is more probably related to a higher capability of binding the iron cofactor as well as a 3-fold greater ability to generate the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:8947477

  8. Directed evolution of G protein-coupled receptors in yeast for higher functional production in eukaryotic expression hosts

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marco; Schöppe, Jendrik; Sedlák, Erik; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Ehrenmann, Janosch; Klenk, Christoph; Egloff, Pascal; Kummer, Lutz; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent successes, many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remained refractory to detailed molecular studies due to insufficient production yields, even in the most sophisticated eukaryotic expression systems. Here we introduce a robust method employing directed evolution of GPCRs in yeast that allows fast and efficient generation of receptor variants which show strongly increased functional production levels in eukaryotic expression hosts. Shown by evolving three different receptors in this study, the method is widely applicable, even for GPCRs which are very difficult to express. The evolved variants showed up to a 26-fold increase of functional production in insect cells compared to the wild-type receptors. Next to the increased production, the obtained variants exhibited improved biophysical properties, while functional properties remained largely unaffected. Thus, the presented method broadens the portfolio of GPCRs accessible for detailed investigations. Interestingly, the functional production of GPCRs in yeast can be further increased by induced host adaptation. PMID:26911446

  9. KCTD11 expression in medulloblastoma is lower than in adult cerebellum and higher than in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zawlik, Izabela; Zakrzewska, Magdalena; Witusik, Monika; Golanska, Ewa; Kulczycka-Wojdala, Dominika; Szybka, Malgorzata; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Wozniak, Krystyna; Zakrzewski, Krzysztof; Papierz, Wielislaw; Liberski, Pawel P; Rieske, Piotr

    2006-10-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, and the most frequent associated genetic alteration is loss of heterozygosity on chromosome region 7p13. Two genes mapping to this region, KCTD11 (alias REN) and HIC1, have been proposed as involved in MB pathogenesis. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction in 20 tissue samples of primary MB to examine the transcriptional level of the two genes, with reference to two types of controls: adult cerebellum and fetal neural stem cells. A significant reduction of KCTD11 expression relative to adult normal cerebellum was detected in 14 of 20 (70%) of MB samples. Neural stem cells had even lower levels of KCTD11 expression than did MB. HIC1 gene expression was low ( approximately 100 times lower than KCTD11 expression) in MB, and low also in both adult cerebellum and neural stem cells. Hypermethylation of the 5'UTR or the central region of HIC1 (or both) was detected in a significant number of MB samples, as well as in cerebellum and neural stem cells. Our data suggest that KCTD11 may play an important role in MB tumorigenesis, but do not support the role of HIC1 in this tumor development. We argue that recognition of the gene or genes important in MB tumorigenesis depends in part on defining an appropriate control.

  10. MEIS1, PREP1, and PBX4 Are Differentially Expressed in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Association of MEIS1 Expression with Higher Proliferation and Chemotherapy Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Three-amino acid-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily of homeodomain-containing transcription factors have been implicated in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemogenesis and are important survival, differentiation, and apoptosis pathway modulators. In this work, we determined the expression levels of TALE genes in leukemic-derived cell lines, in blood samples of patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and in the blood samples of healthy donors. Results Here we show increased expression of MEIS1, MEIS2, and PREP1 genes in leukemia-derived cell lines compared with blood normal cells. High levels of MEIS1 and PREP1, and low levels of PBX4 expression were also founded in samples of patients with ALL. Importantly, silencing of MEIS1 decreases the proliferation of leukemia-derived cells but increases their survival after etoposide treatment. Etoposide-induced apoptosis induces down-regulation of MEIS1 expression or PREP1 up-regulation in chemotherapy-resistant cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that up-regulation of MEIS1 is important for sustaining proliferation of leukemic cells and that down-regulation of MEIS1 or up-regulation of PREP1 and PBX genes could be implicated in the modulation of the cellular response to chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis. PMID:22185299

  11. CD1d expression in renal cell carcinoma is associated with higher relapse rates, poorer cancer-specific and overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Tsung Wen; Goh, Fera Yiqian; Sim, Mei Yi; Huang, Hong Hong; Thike, Daw Aye Aye; Lim, Weng Khong; Teh, Bin Tean; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Aims We hypothesised that CD1d expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may play a role in modifying the host immune response. Our aims were to investigate the expression of CD1d and to correlate this with histopathology and clinical outcomes in a cohort study of patients with RCC. Methods Gene expression and tissue microarray studies on a panel of RCC tissue were performed. Clinicopathological correlation was analysed using χ2/Fisher's exact test. Relapse-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival were calculated for both CD1d high and low expressors. Survival outcomes were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using Cox regression analysis. Results Gene expression microarray showed significant expression of CD1d in RCC versus normal renal tissue. By immunohistochemistry, we found that CD1d expression significantly associated with tumour stage/grade, higher relapse rates, poorer cancer-specific and overall survival. Conclusions CD1d expression on RCC correlated with aggressive disease and poorer clinical outcomes. PMID:25477528

  12. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in bovine oviducts is higher in the postovulatory phase than during the oestrus and luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Asrafun; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-07-28

    Whether macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the bovine oviduct is important for early embryogenesis has not been well substantiated. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that bovine oviduct expresses higher levels of MIF during the post-ovulation phase. Both ampullary and isthmic samples were collected from Japanese black heifers during oestrus (Day 0; n=5), postovulation (Day 3; n=6) and luteal phase (Days 9-12; n=5). MIF mRNA and protein were extracted from the ampullary and isthmic samples and their levels measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis respectively. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry was performed on frozen ampullary and isthmic sections using antibodies against MIF. MIF mRNA and protein expression was higher in the postovulatory phase than during oestrus and the luteal phase (P<0.05). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry confirmed that in all phases of the oestrous cycle evaluated, the primary site of MIF expression in the ampulla and isthmus was the tunica mucosa. In conclusion, the bovine ampulla and isthmus have higher MIF expression during the postovulatory phase. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of MIF in bovine oviducts.

  13. Expression of constitutively active erythropoietin receptor in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus boosts higher cognitive functions in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are expressed in the developing brain and their transcription is upregulated in adult neurons and glia upon injury or neurodegeneration. We have shown neuroprotective effects and improved cognition in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases treated with EPO. However, the critical EPO targets in brain are unknown, and separation of direct and indirect effects has remained difficult, given the role of EPO in hematopoiesis and brain oxygen supply. Results Here we demonstrate that mice with transgenic expression of a constitutively active EPOR isoform (cEPOR) in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus exhibit enhancement of spatial learning, cognitive flexibility, social memory, and attentional capacities, accompanied by increased impulsivity. Superior cognitive performance is associated with augmented long-term potentiation of cEPOR expressing neurons in hippocampal slices. Conclusions Active EPOR stimulates neuronal plasticity independent of any hematopoietic effects and in addition to its neuroprotective actions. This property of EPOR signaling should be exploited for defining novel strategies to therapeutically enhance cognitive performance in disease conditions. PMID:21527022

  14. Expression of NKp46 Splice Variants in Nasal Lavage Following Respiratory Viral Infection: Domain 1-Negative Isoforms Predominate and Manifest Higher Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Kundu, Kiran; Shemesh, Avishai; Brusilovsky, Michael; Yossef, Rami; Meshesha, Mesfin; Solomon-Alemayehu, Semaria; Levin, Shai; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Campbell, Kerry S.; Porgador, Angel

    2017-01-01

    The natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor NKp46/NCR1 plays a critical role in elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells. The NCR1 gene can be transcribed into five different splice variants, but the functional importance and physiological distribution of NKp46 isoforms are not yet fully understood. Here, we shed light on differential expression of NKp46 splice variants in viral respiratory tract infections and their functional difference at the cellular level. NKp46 was the most predominantly expressed natural cytotoxicity receptor in the nasal lavage of patients infected with four respiratory viruses: respiratory syncytia virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, or influenza A. Expression of NKp30 was far lower and NKp44 was absent in all patients. Domain 1-negative NKp46 splice variants (i.e., NKp46 isoform d) were the predominantly expressed isoform in nasal lavage following viral infections. Using our unique anti-NKp46 mAb, D2-9A5, which recognizes the D2 extracellular domain, and a commercial anti-NKp46 mAb, 9E2, which recognizes D1 domain, allowed us to identify a small subset of NKp46 D1-negative splice variant-expressing cells within cultured human primary NK cells. This NKp46 D1-negative subset also showed higher degranulation efficiency in term of CD107a surface expression. NK-92 cell lines expressing NKp46 D1-negative and NKp46 D1-positive splice variants also showed functional differences when interacting with targets. A NKp46 D1-negative isoform-expressing NK-92 cell line showed enhanced degranulation activity. To our knowledge, we provide the first evidence showing the physiological distribution and functional importance of human NKp46 splice variants under pathological conditions. PMID:28261217

  15. Higher Dimensional Dust Cosmological Implications of a Decay Law for the Λ Term:. Expressions for Some Observable Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadekar, G. S.; Pradhan, Anirudh; Molaei, M. R.

    We have considered the multidimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for the Λ term that is proportional to β ä/a, where β is a constant and a is the scale factor of RW-space-time. We discuss the cosmological consequences of a model for the vanishing pressure for the case k = 0. It has been observed that such models are compatible with the result of recent observations and the cosmological term Λ gradually reduces as the universe expands. In this model, Λ varies as the inverse square of time, which matches its natural units. The proper distance, the luminosity distance-redshift, the angular diameter distance-redshift, and look back time-redshift for the model are presented in the framework of higher dimensional space-time. The model of the Freese et al. (Nucl. Phys. B 287, 797 (1987)) for n = 2 is retrieved for the particular choice of A0 and also the Einstein-de Sitter model is obtained for A0 =(2)/(3). This work has thus generalized to higher dimensions the well-known result in four-dimensional space-time. It is found that there may be a significant difference, in principle at least, to the analogous situation in four-dimensional space-time.

  16. Potential non-B DNA regions in the human genome are associated with higher rates of nucleotide mutation and expression variation.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiangjun; Gertz, E Michael; Wojtowicz, Damian; Zhabinskaya, Dina; Levens, David; Benham, Craig J; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Przytycka, Teresa M

    2014-11-10

    While individual non-B DNA structures have been shown to impact gene expression, their broad regulatory role remains elusive. We utilized genomic variants and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data to analyze genome-wide variation propensities of potential non-B DNA regions and their relation to gene expression. Independent of genomic location, these regions were enriched in nucleotide variants. Our results are consistent with previously observed mutagenic properties of these regions and counter a previous study concluding that G-quadruplex regions have a reduced frequency of variants. While such mutagenicity might undermine functionality of these elements, we identified in potential non-B DNA regions a signature of negative selection. Yet, we found a depletion of eQTL-associated variants in potential non-B DNA regions, opposite to what might be expected from their proposed regulatory role. However, we also observed that genes downstream of potential non-B DNA regions showed higher expression variation between individuals. This coupling between mutagenicity and tolerance for expression variability of downstream genes may be a result of evolutionary adaptation, which allows reconciling mutagenicity of non-B DNA structures with their location in functionally important regions and their potential regulatory role.

  17. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive. PMID:22472516

  18. Prostate cancer metastatic to bone has higher expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) than primary prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Brown, Edward; Farris, Alton B.; Sun, Shi-Yong; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the principal regulator of the secretion of parathyroid hormone and plays key roles in extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. It is also thought to participate in the development of cancer, especially bony metastases of breast and prostate cancer. However, the expression of CaSR has not been systematically analyzed in prostate cancer from patients with or without bony metastases. By comparing human prostate cancer tissue sections in microarrays, we found that the CaSR was expressed in both normal prostate and primary prostate cancer as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used two methods to analyze the expression level of CaSR. One was the pathological score read by a pathologist, the other was the positivity% obtained from the Aperio positive pixel count algorithm. Both of the methods gave consistent results. Metastatic prostate cancer tissue obtained from bone had higher CaSR expression than primary prostate cancer (P <0.05). The expression of CaSR in primary prostate cancers of patients with metastases to tissues other than bone was not different from that in primary prostate cancer of patients with or without bony metastases (P >0.05). The expression of CaSR in cancer tissue was not associated with the stage or status of differentiation of the cancer. These results suggest that CaSR may have a role in promoting bony metastasis of prostate cancer, hence raising the possibility of reducing the risk of such metastases with CaSR-based therapeutics. PMID:26065011

  19. Increased expression of X-linked genes in mammals is associated with a higher stability of transcripts and an increased ribosome density.

    PubMed

    Faucillion, Marie-Line; Larsson, Jan

    2015-03-18

    Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from the degeneration of one homolog of a pair of ancestral autosomes, the proto-Y. This resulted in a gene dose imbalance that is believed to be restored (partially or fully) through upregulation of gene expression from the single active X-chromosome in both sexes by a dosage compensatory mechanism. We analyzed multiple genome-wide RNA stability data sets and found significantly longer average half-lives for X-chromosome transcripts than for autosomal transcripts in various human cell lines, both male and female, and in mice. Analysis of ribosome profiling data shows that ribosome density is higher on X-chromosome transcripts than on autosomal transcripts in both humans and mice, suggesting that the higher stability is causally linked to a higher translation rate. Our results and observations are in accordance with a dosage compensatory upregulation of expressed X-linked genes. We therefore propose that differential mRNA stability and translation rates of the autosomes and sex chromosomes contribute to an evolutionarily conserved dosage compensation mechanism in mammals.

  20. Bacteroides induce higher IgA production than Lactobacillus by increasing activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression in B cells in murine Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Hosono, Akira; Oyama, Akihito; Tsuda, Masato; Hachimura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Kikuji; Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2009-02-01

    The gut mucosal immune system is crucial in host defense against infection by pathogenic microbacteria and viruses via the production of IgA. Previous studies have shown that intestinal commensal bacteria enhance mucosal IgA production. However, it is poorly understood how these bacteria induce IgA production and which genera of intestinal commensal bacteria induce IgA production effectively. In this study, we compared the immunomodulatory effects of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus on IgA production by Peyer's patches lymphocytes. IgA production by Peyer's patches lymphocytes co-cultured with Bacteroides was higher than with Lactobacillus. In addition, the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase increased in co-culture with Bacteroides but not with Lactobacillus. We found that intestinal commensal bacteria elicited IgA production. In particular, Bacteroides induced the differentiation of Peyer's patches B cell into IgA(+) B cells by increasing activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression.

  1. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  2. Association between higher expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and haplotype −353A/−251A/+678T of IL-8 gene with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Mao, Dongwei; Cai, Yan; Tan, Wenhua; Hao, Yanlan; Li, Lin; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preeclampsia (PE) is a common pregnancy-specific disorder associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was performed to investigate the role of a CXC chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), in the pathogenesis of PE. IL-8 expression levels were assessed in placental and serum samples from 160 pregnant women with PE (N = 68 severe, 92 mild) and 140 healthy donors. Results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the concentration of serum IL-8 in PE patients (180.27 ± 5.81 ng/L) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (41.57 ± 5.67 ng/L). Patients with severe PE had even higher serum IL-8 levels. Similar messenger RNA and protein expression patterns of IL-8 in placental tissues were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical assay (N = 30 each in the mild PE, severe PE, and control groups). In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-8 gene were detected with polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism/SSP. The frequency of IL-8-251A allele was significantly higher than that in controls (58.4% vs 48.9%, P < 0.05). The occurrence frequency of haplotype −353A/−251A/+678T (AAT) in PE subjects was 27.2% as compared to 21.9% in the control participants (P < 0.05). Our study reveals that IL-8 expression is positively associated with the severity of PE. Presence of haplotype AAT in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for PE. PMID:28033248

  3. FOXP3 mRNA expression at 6 months of age is higher in infants who develop atopic dermatitis, but is not affected by giving probiotics from birth.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Angie L; Hale, Jasmine; Hales, Belinda J; Dunstan, Janet A; Thomas, Wayne R; Prescott, Susan L

    2007-02-01

    Factors that influence immune regulation in early life may be implicated in the rise in allergic disease, including reduced microbial burden. The aim of the study was to examine the infant regulatory T-cell function in relation to (a) probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life and (b) the subsequent development of an early allergic phenotype. Two hundred and thirty-one allergic, pregnant women were recruited into a randomized, controlled trial. The infants received either a probiotic or placebo daily for the first 6 months of life. One hundred and seventy-eight children completed the study, with blood samples available from 118 (60 placebo; 58 probiotic). CD4(+)CD25(+)CTLA4(+)T-regulatory phenotype and allergen-induced FOXP3 mRNA expression were compared in relation to this intervention as well as according to evidence of early disease (atopic dermatitis). The administration of probiotics was not associated with any significant differences in the proportion of circulating CD4(+)CD25(+)CTLA4(+)cells, or in the resting expression of FOXP3. There were also no relationships between these parameters and patterns of gut colonization, and this probiotic did not reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis. Children who developed atopic dermatitis (n = 36/118) had significantly higher induced FOXP3 expression following stimulation with both house dust mite (HDM) (p = 0.017) and ovalbumin (OVA) allergens (p = 0.021) than those that did not develop atopic dermatitis. Although this relationship was seen in both the probiotic and placebo groups, it was more pronounced in the probiotic group. However, regression analysis demonstrated that higher allergen-induced FOXP3 expression was predicted by the presence of atopic dermatitis (p = 0.018) rather than probiotics supplementation (p = 0.217). The higher levels of allergen-induced FOXP3 in atopic dermatitis suggest activation of these compensatory mechanisms rather than a primary defect in this pathway. Probiotic

  4. Cell-specific expression of TLR9 isoforms in inflammation.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Kelly J; Highton, John; Hessian, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key pattern recognition receptors during an immune response. With five isoforms of human TLR9 described, we hypothesised that differential expression of TLR9 isoforms in different cell types would result in variable contributions to the overall input from TLR9 during inflammation. We assessed the molecular expression of the TLR9 isoforms, TLR9-A, -C and -D. In normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, B-lymphocytes express ∼100-fold more TLR9-A transcript than monocytes or T-lymphocytes, which predominantly express the TLR9-C transcript. Switches in isoform predominance accompany B-lymphocyte development. TLR9 protein expression in rheumatoid inflammatory lesions reflected the TLR9 isoform expression by immune cells. Herein we suggest that B-lymphocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute the ∼3-fold higher TLR9-A transcript levels observed in inflamed synovium when compared to subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules. In contrast, macrophages and T-lymphocytes contribute the ∼4-fold higher TLR9-C transcript levels seen in nodules, compared to synovia. From protein sequence, predictions of subcellular localisation suggest TLR9-B may locate to the mitochondria, whereas TLR9-D adopts an opposing orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Consistent with this, structure models raise the possibility of alternative ligands for the TLR9-B and TLR9-D variants. Our results highlight differences in the expression of human TLR9 isoforms in normal and inflamed tissues, with differing contributions to inflammation.

  5. Formation of higher-order nuclear Rad51 structures is functionally linked to p21 expression and protection from DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Raderschall, Elke; Bazarov, Alex; Cao, Jiangping; Lurz, Rudi; Smith, Avril; Mann, Wolfgang; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Sedivy, John M; Golub, Efim I; Fritz, Eberhard; Haaf, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    After exposure of mammalian cells to DNA damage, the endogenous Rad51 recombination protein is concentrated in multiple discrete foci, which are thought to represent nuclear domains for recombinational DNA repair. Overexpressed Rad51 protein forms foci and higher-order nuclear structures, even in the absence of DNA damage, in cells that do not undergo DNA replication synthesis. This correlates with increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21. Following DNA damage, constitutively Rad51-overexpressing cells show reduced numbers of DNA breaks and chromatid-type chromosome aberrations and a greater resistance to apoptosis. In contrast, Rad51 antisense inhibition reduces p21 protein levels and sensitizes cells to etoposide treatment. Downregulation of p21 inhibits Rad51 foci formation in both normal and Rad51-overexpressing cells. Collectively, our results show that Rad51 expression, Rad51 foci formation and p21 expression are interrelated, suggesting a functional link between mammalian Rad51 protein and p21-mediated cell cycle regulation. This mechanism may contribute to a highly effective recombinational DNA repair in cell cycle-arrested cells and protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals correlation between higher WRKY61 expression and reduced symptom severity in Turnip crinkle virus infected Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Liu, Peng; Yong, Yuhan; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a carmovirus that infects many Arabidopsis ecotypes. Most studies mainly focused on discovery of resistance genes against TCV infection, and there is no Next Generation Sequencing based comparative genome wide transcriptome analysis reported. In this study, RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis revealed that 238 (155 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated) significant differentially expressed genes with at least 15-fold change were determined. Fifteen genes (including upregulated, unchanged and downregulated) were selected for RNA-seq data validation using quantitative real-time PCR, which showed consistencies between these two sets of data. GO enrichment analysis showed that numerous terms such as stress, immunity, defence and chemical stimulus were affected in TCV-infected plants. One putative plant defence related gene named WRKY61 was selected for further investigation. It showed that WRKY61 overexpression plants displayed reduced symptoms and less virus accumulation, as compared to wild type (WT) and WRKY61 deficient lines, suggesting that higher WRKY61 expression level reduced TCV viral accumulation. In conclusion, our transcriptome analysis showed that global gene expression was detected in TCV-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. WRKY61 gene was shown to be negatively correlated with TCV infection and viral symptoms, which may be connected to plant immunity pathways. PMID:27086702

  7. Multi-tissue analysis of co-expression networks by higher-order generalized singular value decomposition identifies functionally coherent transcriptional modules.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaolin; Moreno-Moral, Aida; Rotival, Maxime; Bottolo, Leonardo; Petretto, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Recent high-throughput efforts such as ENCODE have generated a large body of genome-scale transcriptional data in multiple conditions (e.g., cell-types and disease states). Leveraging these data is especially important for network-based approaches to human disease, for instance to identify coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks) that can inform functional disease mechanisms and pathological pathways. Yet, genome-scale network analysis across conditions is significantly hampered by the paucity of robust and computationally-efficient methods. Building on the Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition, we introduce a new algorithmic approach for efficient, parameter-free and reproducible identification of network-modules simultaneously across multiple conditions. Our method can accommodate weighted (and unweighted) networks of any size and can similarly use co-expression or raw gene expression input data, without hinging upon the definition and stability of the correlation used to assess gene co-expression. In simulation studies, we demonstrated distinctive advantages of our method over existing methods, which was able to recover accurately both common and condition-specific network-modules without entailing ad-hoc input parameters as required by other approaches. We applied our method to genome-scale and multi-tissue transcriptomic datasets from rats (microarray-based) and humans (mRNA-sequencing-based) and identified several common and tissue-specific subnetworks with functional significance, which were not detected by other methods. In humans we recapitulated the crosstalk between cell-cycle progression and cell-extracellular matrix interactions processes in ventricular zones during neocortex expansion and further, we uncovered pathways related to development of later cognitive functions in the cortical plate of the developing brain which were previously unappreciated. Analyses of seven rat tissues identified a multi-tissue subnetwork of co-expressed

  8. Early weaning is associated with higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expressions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Younes-Rapozo, Viviane; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Barradas, Penha Cristina; Manhães, Alex C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

    2012-12-28

    The interruption of lactation for a short period, without the use of pharmacological substances or maternal separation, causes offspring malnutrition and hypoleptinaemia and programmes for metabolic disorders such as higher body weight and adiposity, hyperphagia, hyperleptinaemia and central leptin resistance in adulthood. Here, in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying the phenotype observed in adult early-weaned (EW) rats, we studied the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in different hypothalamic nuclei by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In the EW group, the teats of lactating rats were blocked with a bandage to interrupt lactation during the last 3 d, while control pups had free access to milk throughout the entire lactation period. At age 180 d, EW offspring showed higher NPY staining in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as NPY protein content (+68 %) in total hypothalamus than control ones. AgRP showed no changes in staining or Western blot. POMC content was not affected; however, its distribution pattern was altered. CART-positive cells of EW offspring had lower immunoreactivity associated with reduced cell number in the PVN and lower protein content ( - 38 %) in total hypothalamus. The present data indicate that precocious weaning can imprint the neuronal circuitry, especially in the PVN, and cause a long-term effect on the expression of specific orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as NPY and CART, that can be caused by leptin resistance and are coherent with the hyperphagia observed in these animals.

  9. A Higher Risk of Acute Rejection of Human Kidney Allografts Can Be Predicted from the Level of CD45RC Expressed by the Recipients’ CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Laurence; Bernard, Isabelle; Chabod, Marianne; Augusto, Jean-François; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Cristini, Christelle; Cuturi, Maria-Cristina; Subra, Jean-François; Saoudi, Abdelhadi

    2013-01-01

    Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC) on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RChigh T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients’ CD8 T cells. PMID:23894540

  10. Enhanced Production of Polysaccharide Through the Overexpression of Homologous Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Gene in a Submerged Culture of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ji, Sen-Lin; Liu, Rui; Ren, Meng-Fei; Li, Huan-Jun; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to improve polysaccharide production by engineering the biosynthetic pathway in Ganoderma lucidum through the overexpression of the homologous UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) gene. The effects of UGP gene overexpression on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, and transcription levels of 3 genes encoding the enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, including phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UGP, and α-1,3-glucan synthase (GLS), were investigated. The maximum IPS content and EPS production in G. lucidum overexpressing the UGP gene were 24.32 mg/100 mg dry weight and 1.66 g/L, respectively, which were higher by 42% and 36% than those of the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of PGM, UGP, and GLS were up-regulated by 1.6, 2.6, and 2.4-fold, respectively, in the engineered strain, suggesting that increased polysaccharide biosynthesis may result from a higher expression of those genes.

  11. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Mildenstein, Kurt; Hunter, Kordell; Tkachenko, Olena; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 exhibited higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases. The results suggest the hypothesis that the more aggressive behavior of Ly6a/Sca-1 expressing leukemias is due at least in part to greater capacity to degrade microenvironmental stroma and invade tissues. PMID:24586463

  12. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  13. Diacylglycerol Kinases Are Widespread in Higher Plants and Display Inducible Gene Expression in Response to Beneficial Elements, Metal, and Metalloid Ions.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Sepúlveda, Hugo F; Trejo-Téllez, Libia I; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Hidalgo-Contreras, Juan V; Gómez-Merino, Fernando C

    2017-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are pivotal signaling enzymes that phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to yield phosphatidic acid (PA). The biosynthesis of PA from phospholipase D (PLD) and the coupled phospholipase C (PLC)/DGK route is a crucial signaling process in eukaryotic cells. Next to PLD, the PLC/DGK pathway is the second most important generator of PA in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In eukaryotic cells, DGK, DAG, and PA are implicated in vital processes such as growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. A plethora of DGK isoforms have been identified so far, making this a rather large family of enzymes in plants. Herein we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of DGK isoforms in model and crop plants in order to gain insight into the evolution of higher plant DGKs. Furthermore, we explored the expression profiling data available in public data bases concerning the regulation of plant DGK genes in response to beneficial elements and other metal and metalloid ions, including silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and sodium (Na). In all plant genomes explored, we were able to find DGK representatives, though in different numbers. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that these enzymes fall into three major clusters, whose distribution depends on the composition of structural domains. The catalytic domain conserves the consensus sequence GXGXXG/A where ATP binds. The expression profiling data demonstrated that DGK genes are rapidly but transiently regulated in response to certain concentrations and time exposures of beneficial elements and other ions in different plant tissues analyzed, suggesting that DGKs may mediate signals triggered by these elements. Though this evidence is conclusive, further signaling cascades that such elements may stimulate during hormesis, involving the phosphoinositide signaling pathway and DGK genes and enzymes, remain to be elucidated.

  14. Diacylglycerol Kinases Are Widespread in Higher Plants and Display Inducible Gene Expression in Response to Beneficial Elements, Metal, and Metalloid Ions

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Sepúlveda, Hugo F.; Trejo-Téllez, Libia I.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Hidalgo-Contreras, Juan V.; Gómez-Merino, Fernando C.

    2017-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are pivotal signaling enzymes that phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to yield phosphatidic acid (PA). The biosynthesis of PA from phospholipase D (PLD) and the coupled phospholipase C (PLC)/DGK route is a crucial signaling process in eukaryotic cells. Next to PLD, the PLC/DGK pathway is the second most important generator of PA in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In eukaryotic cells, DGK, DAG, and PA are implicated in vital processes such as growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. A plethora of DGK isoforms have been identified so far, making this a rather large family of enzymes in plants. Herein we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of DGK isoforms in model and crop plants in order to gain insight into the evolution of higher plant DGKs. Furthermore, we explored the expression profiling data available in public data bases concerning the regulation of plant DGK genes in response to beneficial elements and other metal and metalloid ions, including silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and sodium (Na). In all plant genomes explored, we were able to find DGK representatives, though in different numbers. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that these enzymes fall into three major clusters, whose distribution depends on the composition of structural domains. The catalytic domain conserves the consensus sequence GXGXXG/A where ATP binds. The expression profiling data demonstrated that DGK genes are rapidly but transiently regulated in response to certain concentrations and time exposures of beneficial elements and other ions in different plant tissues analyzed, suggesting that DGKs may mediate signals triggered by these elements. Though this evidence is conclusive, further signaling cascades that such elements may stimulate during hormesis, involving the phosphoinositide signaling pathway and DGK genes and enzymes, remain to be elucidated. PMID:28223993

  15. Higher AgNOR Expression in Metaplastic and Dysplastic Airway Epithelial Cells Predicts the Risk of Developing Lung Cancer in Women Chronically Exposed to Biomass Smoke.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated AgNOR expression in airway epithelial cells (AECs) as a risk factor of lung carcinogenesis in 228 nonsmoking women exposed to biomass fuel (BMF). A total of 185 age-matched women who cooked with cleaner fuel (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) were enrolled as study controls. Compared with controls, Papanicolaou-stained sputum samples showed 4 and 8 times higher prevalence of metaplasia and dysplasia, respectively, in AECs of BMF users. AgNOR staining showed significantly larger numbers of dots and larger size and percentage of AgNOR-occupied nuclear area in normal AECs of BMF users than in controls. Interestingly, AgNOR parameters increased dramatically when the cells were transformed from normalcy to metaplasia and dysplasia. Compared with LPG users, BMF users showed a marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), indicating oxidative stress. Indoor air of BMF-using households had 2-5 times more particulate pollutants (PM10 and PM2.5), 73% more nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 4 times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], but no difference in sulfur dioxide was observed. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study estimated a 6-fold rise in benzene metabolite trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of BMF users. After controlling confounding factors using multivariate logistic regression, positive associations were observed between cellular changes, AgNOR parameters, and PM10, PM2.5, NO2, B(a)P, and t,t-MA levels, especially the concentration of B(a)P. In conclusion, cumulative exposure to biomass smoke causes oxidative stress and enhances AgNOR expression in precancerous metaplastic and dysplastic AECs and appears to be a risk factor for developing lung cancer.

  16. Macrophages From Irradiated Tumors Express Higher Levels of iNOS, Arginase-I and COX-2, and Promote Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-S.; Chen, F.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, H.-L.; Jung, Shih-Ming; Wu, C.-J.; Lee, C.-C.; McBride, William H.; Chiang, C.-S.; Hong, J.-H. . E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of single and fractionated doses of radiation on tumors and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and to elucidate the potential of TAMs to influence tumor growth. Methods and Materials: A murine prostate cell line, TRAMP-C1, was grown in C57Bl/6J mice to 4-mm tumor diameter and irradiated with either 25 Gy in a single dose, or 60 Gy in 15 fractions. The tumors were removed at the indicated times and assessed for a variety of markers related to TAM content, activation status, and function. Results: In tumors receiving a single radiation dose, arginase (Arg-I), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression increased as a small transient wave within 24 h and a larger persistent wave starting after 3 days. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was elevated only after 3 days and continued to increase up to 3 weeks. After fractionated irradiation, Arg-1 and COX-2 mRNA levels increased within 5 days, whereas iNOS was increased only after 10 fractions of irradiation had been given. Increased levels of Arg-I, COX-2, and, to a lesser extent, iNOS protein were found to associate with TAMs 1-2 weeks after tumor irradiation. Function of TAMs were compared by mixing them with TRAMP-C1 cells and injecting them into mice; TRAMP-C1 cells mixed with TAMs from irradiated tumors appeared earlier and grew significantly faster than those mixed with TAMs from unirradiated tumors or TRAMP-C1 alone. Conclusions: Tumor-associated macrophages in the postirradiated tumor microenvironment express higher levels of Arg-1, COX-2, and iNOS, and promote early tumor growth in vivo.

  17. Keratins 17 and 19 expression as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coelho, B A; Peterle, G T; Santos, M; Agostini, L P; Maia, L L; Stur, E; Silva, C V M; Mendes, S O; Almança, C C J; Freitas, F V; Borçoi, A R; Archanjo, A B; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-11-25

    Five-year survival rates for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are 30% and the mortality rate is 50%. Immunohistochemistry panels are used to evaluate proliferation, vascularization, apoptosis, HPV infection, and keratin expression, which are important markers of malignant progression. Keratins are a family of intermediate filaments predominantly expressed in epithelial cells and have an essential role in mechanical support and cytoskeleton formation, which is essential for the structural integrity and stability of the cell. In this study, we analyzed the expressions of keratins 17 and 19 (K17 and K19) by immunohistochemistry in tumoral and non-tumoral tissues from patients with OSCC. The results show that expression of these keratins is higher in tumor tissues compared to non-tumor tissues. Positive K17 expression correlates with lymph node metastasis and multivariate analysis confirmed this relationship, revealing a 6-fold increase in lymph node metastasis when K17 is expressed. We observed a correlation between K17 expression with disease-free survival and disease-specific death in patients who received surgery and radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that low expression of K17 was an independent marker for early disease relapse and disease-specific death in patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy, with an approximately 4-fold increased risk when compared to high K17 expression. Our results suggest a potential role for K17 and K19 expression profiles as tumor prognostic markers in OSCC patients.

  18. Differential viral levels and immune gene expression in three stocks of Apis mellifera induced by different numbers of Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; de Guzman, Lilia I; Tarver, Matthew R; Rinderer, Thomas E; Chen, Yanping; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    The viral levels and immune responses of Italian honey bees (IHB), Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL) deliberately infested with one or two foundress Varroa were compared. We found that the Deformed wing virus (DWV) level in IHB inoculated with one or two foundress Varroa increased to about 10(3) or 10(5) fold the levels of their uninfested brood. In contrast, POL (10(2) or 10(4) fold) and RHB (10(2) or l0(4) fold) supported a lower increase in DWV levels. The feeding of different stages of Varroa nymphs did not increase DWV levels of their pupal hosts. Analyses of their corresponding Varroa mites showed the same trends: two foundress Varroa yielded higher DWV levels than one foundress, and the addition of nymphs did not increase viral levels. Using the same pupae examined for the presence of viruses, 16 out of 24 genes evaluated showed significant differential mRNA expression levels among the three honey bee stocks. However, only four genes (Defensin, Dscam, PPOact and spaetzle), which were expressed at similar levels in uninfested pupae, were altered by the number of feeding foundress Varroa and levels of DWV regardless of stocks. This research provides the first evidence that immune response profiles of different honey bee stocks are induced by Varroa parasitism.

  19. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Goyal, Ravinder K; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotypexmulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit.

  20. The role of hepatocyte hemojuvelin in the regulation of bone morphogenic protein-6 and hepcidin expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Gao, Junwei; Koeberl, Dwight D; Enns, Caroline A

    2010-05-28

    Both hemojuvelin (HJV) and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP6) are essential for hepcidin expression. Hepcidin is the key peptide hormone in iron homeostasis, and is secreted predominantly by hepatocytes. HJV expression is detected in hepatocytes, as well as in skeletal and heart muscle. HJV binds BMP6 and increases hepcidin expression presumably by acting as a BMP co-receptor. We characterized the role of hepatocyte HJV in the regulation of BMP6 and hepcidin expression. In HJV-null (Hjv(-/-)) mice that have severe iron overload and marked suppression of hepcidin expression, we detected 4-fold higher hepatic BMP6 mRNA than in wild-type counterparts. These results indicate that Hjv(-/-) mice do not lack BMP6. Furthermore, iron depletion in Hjv(-/-) mice decreased hepatic BMP6 mRNA. Expression of HJV in hepatocytes of Hjv(-/-) mice using an AAV2/8 vector, increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA by 65-fold and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 in the liver by about 2.5-fold. However, no significant change in BMP6 mRNA was detected in either the liver or the small intestine of these animals. Our results revealed a close correlation of hepatic BMP6 mRNA expression with hepatic iron-loading. Together, our data indicate that the regulation of hepatic BMP6 expression by iron is independent of HJV, and that expression of HJV in hepatocytes plays an essential role in hepcidin expression by potentiating the BMP6-mediated signaling.

  1. Minicircle DNA Provides Enhanced and Prolonged Transgene Expression Following Airway Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Munye, Mustafa M.; Tagalakis, Aristides D.; Barnes, Josephine L.; Brown, Rachel E.; McAnulty, Robin J.; Howe, Steven J.; Hart, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis using non-viral, plasmid-based formulations has been the subject of intensive research for over two decades but a clinically viable product has yet to materialise in large part due to inefficient transgene expression. Minicircle DNA give enhanced and more persistent transgene expression compared to plasmid DNA in a number of organ systems but has not been assessed in the lung. In this study we compared minicircle DNA with plasmid DNA in transfections of airway epithelial cells. In vitro, luciferase gene expression from minicircles was 5–10-fold higher than with plasmid DNA. In eGFP transfections in vitro both the mean fluorescence intensity and percentage of cells transfected was 2–4-fold higher with minicircle DNA. Administration of equimolar amounts of DNA to mouse lungs resulted in a reduced inflammatory response and more persistent transgene expression, with luciferase activity persisting for 2 weeks from minicircle DNA compared to plasmid formulations. Transfection of equal mass amounts of DNA in mouse lungs resulted in a 6-fold increase in transgene expression in addition to more persistent transgene expression. Our findings have clear implications for gene therapy of airway disorders where plasmid DNA transfections have so far proven inefficient in clinical trials. PMID:26975732

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus transcriptome response to a higher temperature during the earliest steps of germination monitored using a new customized expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Sueiro-Olivares, Mónica; Fernandez-Molina, Jimena V; Abad-Diaz-de-Cerio, Ana; Gorospe, Eva; Pascual, Elisabeth; Guruceaga, Xabier; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Garaizar, Javier; Hernando, Fernando L; Margareto, Javier; Rementeria, Aitor

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is considered to be the most prevalent airborne pathogenic fungus and can cause invasive diseases in immunocompromised patients. It is known that its virulence is multifactorial, although the mechanisms of pathogenicity remain unclear. With the aim of improving our understanding of these mechanisms, we designed a new expression microarray covering the entire genome of A. fumigatus. In this first study, we analysed the transcriptomes of this fungus at the first steps of germination after being grown at 24 and 37 °C. The microarray data revealed that 1249 genes were differentially expressed during growth at these two temperatures. According to our results, A. fumigatus modified significantly the expression of genes related to metabolism to adapt to new conditions. The high percentages of genes that encoded hypothetical or unclassified proteins differentially expressed implied that many as yet unknown genes were involved in the establishment of A. fumigatus infection. Furthermore, amongst the genes implicated in virulence upregulated at 37 °C on the microarray, we found those that encoded proteins mainly related to allergens (Asp F1, Asp F2 and MnSOD), gliotoxin biosynthesis (GliP and GliZ), nitrogen (NiiA and NiaD) or iron (HapX, SreA, SidD and SidC) metabolism. However, gene expression in iron and nitrogen metabolism might be influenced not only by heat shock, but also by the availability of nutrients in the medium, as shown by the addition of fresh medium.

  3. Dietary withdrawal of phytoestrogens resulted in higher gene expression of 3-beta-HSD and ARO but lower 5-alpha-R-1 in male rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María F; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-09-01

    Removing dietary phytoestrogens causes obesity and diabetes in adult male rats. Based on the facts that hypothalamic food intake control is disrupted in phytoestrogen-deprived animals and that several steroids affect food intake, we hypothesized that phytoestrogen withdrawal alters the expression of hypothalamic steroidogenic enzymes. Male Wistar rats fed with a high-phytoestrogen diet from conception to adulthood were subjected to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding them a low-phytoestrogen diet or a high-phytoestrogen, high-fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and P450 aromatase gene expression and decreased those of 5α-reductase-1. This is a direct effect of the lack of dietary phytoestrogens and not a consequence of obesity, as it was not observed in high-fat-fed rats. Phytoestrogen withdrawal and high-fat diet intake reduced hypothalamic expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α correlated with low levels of ERα-O, ERα-OS, and ERα-OT transcripts. Variations in gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes may affect the content of neurosteroids. As neurosteroids are related to food intake control, the changes observed may be a novel mechanism in the regulation of energy balance in obese phytoestrogen-deprived animals. In rats, steroidogenesis and ER signaling appear to be altered by phytoestrogen withdrawal in the rat. The ubiquity of phytoestrogens in the diet and changing intakes or withdrawal suggest that aspects of human health could be affected based on the rat and warrant further research.

  4. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts, Obtained by Pressurized Water Extraction, on the Expression of Cholesterol Homeostasis Related Genes by Low-Density Array.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Marín, Francisco Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported.

  5. Development of an expression plasmid and its use in genetic manipulation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuya; Ji, Sen-Lin; He, Yi-Long; Ren, Meng-Fei; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the construction of a plasmid, pJW-EXP, designed for the expression of homologous and heterologous genes in Ganoderma lucidum. pJW-EXP was generated from the plasmid pMD19-T by inserting the G. lucidum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter, the G. lucidum iron-sulfur protein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase gene terminator and the homologous carboxin-resistance gene as selection marker. This expression plasmid can be efficiently transformed into Ganoderma through polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast transformation. Southern blot analysis showed that most of the integrated DNA appeared as multiple copies in the genome. The applicability of the constructed plasmid was tested by expression of the truncated G. lucidum 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene that encodes the catalytic domain of HMGR. Overexpression of the truncated HMGR gene, which is a key gene in the biosynthetic pathway of the antitumor compounds, ganoderic acids, increased the transcription of the HMGR gene and enhanced ganoderic acid accumulation. pJW-EXP can serve as a useful tool in the genetic improvement and metabolic engineering of Ganoderma.

  6. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  7. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  10. Higher FoxP3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of GAD65 or IA-2 autoantibody-positive compared with autoantibody-negative persons.

    PubMed

    Link, Maire; Salur, Liina; Kisand, Kai; Rajasalu, Tarvo; Tillmann, Vallo; Uibo, Raivo

    2008-10-01

    The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in type 1 diabetes has been studied extensively. The most prevalent way to define Tregs has been by their surface expression of CD4 and CD25. As currently the transcription factor FoxP3 and the low expression of CD127 are regarded to be the most specific markers of Tregs, we analysed the number of Tregs defined by these molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of diabetic patients and healthy controls. The gene expression of transforming growth factor beta and two isoforms of FoxP3 was measured as well. There were no significant differences between diabetic patients and healthy controls regarding the number of Tregs, or the expression of FoxP3 isoforms and TGFbeta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, we found significantly higher expression of both full-length and Delta2FoxP3 in study subjects, positive for either GAD65 or IA-2 autoantibodies. The ratio of the expression of different isoforms was not changed. This study shows the possible role of FoxP3 in the development of tissue characteristic humoral immunity in type 1 diabetes.

  11. The intellectual disability of trisomy 21: differences in gene expression in a case series of patients with lower and higher IQ.

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, André; Noguier, Florian; Stora, Samantha; Manchon, Laurent; Mircher, Clotilde; Bruno, Roman; Dorison, Nathalie; Pierrat, Fabien; Rethoré, Marie-Odile; Trentin, Bernadette; Ravel, Aimé; Morent, Marine; Lefranc, Gerard; Piquemal, David

    2013-11-01

    Trisomy 21 (T21), or Down syndrome (DS), is the most frequent and recognizable cause of intellectual disabilities. The level of disability, as evaluated by the intelligence quotient (IQ) test, varies considerably between patients independent of other factors. To determine the genetic or molecular basis of this difference, a high throughput transcriptomic analysis was performed on twenty T21 patients with high and low IQ, and 10 healthy controls using Digital Gene Expression. More than 90 millions of tags were sequenced in the three libraries. A total of 80 genes of potential interest were selected for the qPCR experiment validation, and three housekeeping genes were used for normalizing purposes. HLA DQA1 and HLA DRB1 were significantly downregulated among the patients with a low IQ, the values found in the healthy controls being intermediate between those noted in the IQ+ and IQ- T21 patients. Interestingly, the intergenic region between these genes contains a binding sequence for the CCCTC-binding factor, or CTCF, and cohesin (a multisubunit complex), both of which are essential for expression of HLA DQA1 and HLA DRB1 and numerous other genes. Our results might lead to the discovery of genes, or genetic markers, that are directly involved in several phenotypes of DS and, eventually, to the identification of potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  12. Differences in the action of lower and higher chlorinated polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners on estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line viability and apoptosis, and its correlation with Ahr and CYP1A1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L; Barć, Justyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-07-29

    There are data showing that exposition to PCNs mixture increased incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory neoplasms, but data regarding incidence of hormone-dependent cancer so far not shown. The objective was to determine if exposure to single lower and higher chlorinated PCN congeners is associated with altered proliferation and apoptosis of estrogen dependent breast cancer cells, and whether such effects are related to induction of AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression. MCF-7 cells were exposed to PCN 34, 39, 42, 46, 48, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73 and 74 at concentrations of 100-10,000pg/ml. We evaluated the action of these PCN congeners on cell proliferation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-8,-9 activity. AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression and CYP1A1 activity was evaluated at a concentration of 1000pg/ml. An opposite action of tri- to tetraCNs than of penta-to heptaCNs on cell proliferation and apoptosis was evident. Tetra PCNs increased cell proliferation, but had no effect on DNA fragmentation nor caspase activity. Fast induction of CYP1A1 protein expression under the influence of lower chlorinated PCNs suggests faster metabolism and a possible stimulatory action of locally formed metabolites on cell proliferation. None of the higher chlorinated PCNs affected cell proliferation but all higher chlorinated PCNs increased caspase-8 activity, and hexa PCNs also increased caspase-9 activity. The rapid activation of the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 protein expression by higher chlorinated PCNs point to their toxicity; however, it is not sufficient for potential carcinogenicity. Action of lower chlorinated naphthalenes metabolites should be explored.

  13. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These

  14. mRNA Distribution and Heterologous Expression of Orphan Cytochrome P450 20A1

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Katarina; Wu, Zhong-Liu; Bartleson, Cheryl J.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 20A1 is one of the so-called “orphan” P450s without assigned biological function. mRNA expression was detected in human liver and extrahepatic expression was noted in several human brain regions, including substantia nigra, hippocampus, and amygdala, using conventional polymerase chain reaction and RNA dot blot analysis. Adult human liver contained 3-fold higher overall mRNA levels than whole brain, although specific regions (i.e., hippocampus and substantia nigra) exhibited higher mRNA expression levels than liver. Orthologous full-length and truncated transcripts of P450 20A1 were transcribed and sequenced from rat liver, heart, and brain. In rat, the concentrations of full-length transcripts were 3–4 fold higher in brain and heart than liver. In situ hybridization of rat whole brain sections showed a similar mRNA expression pattern as observed for human P450 20A1, indicating expression in substantia nigra, hippocampus, and amygdala. A number of N-terminal modifications of the codon-optimized human P450 20A1 sequence were prepared and expressed in Escherichia coli, and two of the truncated derivatives showed characteristic P450 spectra (200–280 nmol P450/l). Although the recombinant enzyme system oxidized NADPH, no catalytic activity was observed with the heterologously expressed protein when a number of potential steroids and biogenic amines were surveyed as potential substrates. The function of P450 20A1 remains unknown; however, the sites of mRNA expression in human brain and the conservation among species may suggest possible neurophysiological function. PMID:18541694

  15. Differential Expression of Laccase Genes in Pleurotus ostreatus and Biochemical Characterization of Laccase Isozymes Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minsa; Kim, Minseek; Kim, Sinil; Ha, Byeongsuk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, transcriptome analysis of twelve laccase genes in Pleurotus ostreatus revealed that their expression was differentially regulated at different developmental stages. Lacc5 and Lacc12 were specifically expressed in fruiting bodies and primordia, respectively, whereas Lacc6 was expressed at all developmental stages. Lacc1 and Lacc3 were specific to the mycelial stage in solid medium. In order to investigate their biochemical characteristics, these laccases were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris using the pPICHOLI-2 expression vector. Expression of the laccases was facilitated by intermittent addition of methanol as an inducer and sole carbon source, in order to reduce the toxic effects associated with high methanol concentration. The highest expression was observed when the recombinant yeast cells were grown for 5 days at 15℃ with intermittent addition of 1% methanol at a 12-hr interval. Investigation of enzyme kinetics using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate revealed that the primordium-specific laccase Lacc12 was 5.4-fold less active than Lacc6 at low substrate concentration with respect to ABTS oxidation activity. The optimal pH and temperature of Lacc12 were 0.5 pH units and 5℃ higher than those of Lacc6. Lacc12 showed maximal activity at pH 3.5 and 50℃, which may reflect the physiological conditions at the primordiation stage. PMID:26539044

  16. Synthetic pillows contain higher levels of cat and dog allergen than feather pillows.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Hallam, C; Woodcock, H; Simpson, B; Houghton, N; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A

    2000-05-01

    The use of non-feather pillows has increased over the last few decades. Recently, we found significantly higher levels of dust mite allergens in synthetic pillows than in feather ones. This study investigated the levels of pet allergens in feather and synthetic pillows. Dust samples were collected from 14 pairs of pillows (consisting of one synthetic fibre-filled and one feather-filled). Each pair of pillows had been on the same bed for at least 2 years. The pillows were vacuumed for 1 min on each side through a 355-microm diameter mesh onto a 5-microm vinyl filter, producing a sample of fine dust. Samples were extracted, and cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens determined using monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were expressed both as total amount of allergen recovered and concentration of allergen per unit weight (ng/g). Total levels of pet allergens were significantly higher in the synthetic pillows (Fel d 1: 6.7-fold difference [95% CI 1.5-29.7], p=0.01; Can f 1: 8-fold difference [95% CI 1.6-39.5], p=0.01). Similarly, when the results were expressed as ng/g, synthetic pillows contained significantly more allergens than feather pillows (Fel d 1: 3.7-fold difference [95% CI 1.3-10.1], p=0.01); Can f 1: 4.4-fold difference [95% CI 1.5-13.2], p=0.01). We have therefore demonstrated that synthetic pillows contain significantly more pet allergens than feather pillows, supporting the view that tightly woven encasements surrounding feather pillows act as a barrier for allergens.

  17. Regulation of mdr2 P-glycoprotein expression by bile salts.

    PubMed Central

    Frijters, C M; Ottenhoff, R; van Wijland, M J; van Nieuwkerk, C M; Groen, A K; Oude Elferink, R P

    1997-01-01

    The phosphatidyl translocating activity of the mdr2 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the canalicular membrane of the mouse hepatocyte is a rate-controlling step in the biliary secretion of phospholipid. Since bile salts also regulate the secretion of biliary lipids, we investigated the influence of the type of bile salt in the circulation on mdr2 Pgp expression and activity. Male mice were led a purified diet to which either 0.1% (w/w) cholate or 0.5% (w/w) ursodeoxycholate was added. This led to a near-complete replacement of the endogenous bile salt pool (mainly tauromuricholate) by taurocholate or tauroursodeoxycholate respectively. The phospholipid secretion capacity was then determined by infusion of increasing amounts of tauroursodeoxycholate. Cholate feeding resulted in a 55% increase in maximal phospholipid secretion compared with that in mice on the control diet. Northern blotting revealed that cholate feeding increased mdr2 Pgp mRNA levels by 42%. Feeding with ursodeoxycholate did not influence the maximum rate of phospholipid output or the mdr2 mRNA content. Female mice had a higher basal mdr2 Pgp mRNA level than male mice, and this was also correlated with a higher phospholipid secretion capacity. This could be explained by the 4-fold higher basal cholate content in the bile of female compared with male mice. Our results suggest that the type of bile salts in the circulation influences the expression of the mdr2 gene. PMID:9020871

  18. Overexpression of HER-2 in MDA-MB-435/LCC6 Tumours is Associated with Higher Metabolic Activity and Lower Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dragowska, Wieslawa H.; Ginj, Mihaela; Kozlowski, Piotr; Yung, Andrew; Ruth, Thomas J.; Adam, Michael J.; Sossi, Vesna; Bally, Marcel B.; Yapp, Donald T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Overexpresssion of HER-2 in the MDA-MB-435/LCC6 (LCC6HER-2) tumour model is associated with significantly increased hypoxia and reduced necrosis compared to isogenic control tumours (LCC6Vector); this difference was not related to tumour size or changes in vascular architecture. To further evaluate factors responsible for HER-2-associated changes in the tumour microenvironment, small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) were used to measure tumour tissue perfusion and metabolism, respectively. The imaging data was further corroborated by analysis of molecular markers pertaining to energy homeostasis, and measurements of hypoxia and glucose consumption. The results showed a strong trend towards higher perfusion rates (~58% greater, p = 0.14), and significantly higher glucose uptake in LCC6HER-2 (~2-fold greater; p = 0.025), relative to control tumours. The expression of proteins related to energy stress (P-AMPK, P-ACC) and glucose transporters (GLUT1) were lower in LCC6HER-2 tumours (~2- and ~4-fold, respectively). The in vitro analysis showed that LCC6HER-2 cells become more hypoxic in 1% oxygen and utilise significantly more glucose in normoxia compared to LCC6Vectorcells (p < 0.005). Amalgamation of all the data points suggests a novel metabolic adaptation driven by HER-2 overexpression where higher oxygen and glucose metabolic rates produce rich energy supply but also a more hypoxic tumour mass. PMID:26727049

  19. Allele-specific gene expression patterns in primary leukemic cells reveal regulation of gene expression by CpG site methylation

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Lili; Lundmark, Anders; Nordlund, Jessica; Kiialainen, Anna; Flaegstad, Trond; Jonmundsson, Gudmundur; Kanerva, Jukka; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Gunderson, Kevin L.; Lönnerholm, Gudmar; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes that are regulated by cis-acting functional elements in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) we determined the allele-specific expression (ASE) levels of 2529 genes by genotyping a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms in RNA and DNA from bone marrow and blood samples of 197 children with ALL. Using a reproducible, quantitative genotyping method and stringent criteria for scoring ASE, we found that 16% of the analyzed genes display ASE in multiple ALL cell samples. For most of the genes, the level of ASE varied largely between the samples, from 1.4-fold overexpression of one allele to apparent monoallelic expression. For genes exhibiting ASE, 55% displayed bidirectional ASE in which overexpression of either of the two SNP alleles occurred. For bidirectional ASE we also observed overall higher levels of ASE and correlation with the methylation level of these sites. Our results demonstrate that CpG site methylation is one of the factors that regulates gene expression in ALL cells. PMID:18997001

  20. Dysregulated development of IL-17- and IL-21-expressing follicular helper T cells and increased germinal center formation in the absence of RORγt.

    PubMed

    Wichner, Katharina; Stauss, Dennis; Kampfrath, Branka; Krüger, Kerstin; Müller, Gerd; Rehm, Armin; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin 17-producing helper T (Th17) cells have been widely defined by the lineage transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt. Pathophysiologically, these cells play a crucial role in autoimmune diseases and have been linked to dysregulated germinal center (GC) reactions and autoantibody production. In this study, we used gene expression and flow cytometric analyses for the characterization of Rorγt(-/-) and Rorγt(-/-)Il21(RFP/+) mice to demonstrate a previously unknown transcriptional flexibility in the development of IL-17-producing Th-cell subsets. We found an accumulation of follicular Th (Tfh) cells by 5.2-fold, spontaneous 13-fold higher GC formation, decreased frequency of follicular Foxp3(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cells (50%), and a 3.4-fold increase in the number of proliferating follicular B cells in RORγt-deficient vs. wild-type mice. Dysregulated B-cell responses were associated with enhanced production of IL-17 (6.4-fold), IL-21 (2.2-fold), and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) (2-fold) and were partially rescued by adoptive transfer of Treg cells. In an unexpected finding, we detected RORγt-independent IL-17 expression in ICOS(+)CXCR5(+)Tfh and in ICOS(+)CXCR5(-)Th cells. Based on the observed high Irf4 and Batf gene expression, we suggest that CD4(+) T-cell transcription factors other than RORγt can cooperatively induce differentiation of IL-17-producing Th cells, including Th17-like Tfh-cell subsets. We conclude that the occurrence of aberrant Tfh and follicular Treg cells support spontaneous GC formation and dysregulated B-cell responses in RORγt-deficient mice.

  1. Up-expression of NapA and other oxidative stress proteins is a compensatory response to loss of major Helicobacter pylori stress resistance factors.

    PubMed

    Olczak, Adriana A; Wang, Ge; Maier, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    Twenty-six Helicobacter pylori targeted mutant strains with deficiencies in oxidative stress combating proteins, including 12 double mutant strains were analyzed via physiological and proteomic approaches to distinguish the major expression changes caused by the mutations. Mutations were introduced into both a Mtz(S) and a Mtz(R) strain background. Most of the mutations caused increased growth sensitivity of the strains to oxygen, and they all exhibited clear compensatory up-expression of oxidative stress resistance proteins enabling survival of the bacterium. The most frequent up-expressed oxidative stress resistance factor (observed in 16 of the mutants) was the iron-sequestering protein NapA, linking iron sequestration with oxidative stress resistance. The up-expression of individual proteins in mutants ranged from 2 to 10 fold that of the wild type strain, even when incubated in a low O(2) environment. For example, a considerably higher level of catalase expression (4 fold of that in the wild-type strain) was observed in ahpC napA and ahpC sodB double mutants. A Fur mutant up-expressed ferritin (Pfr) protein 20-fold. In some mutant strains the bacterial DNA is protected from oxidative stress damage apparently via overexpression of oxidative stress-combating proteins such as NapA, catalase or MdaB (an NADPH quinone reductase). Our results show that H. pylori has a variety of ways to compensate for loss of major oxidative stress combating factors.

  2. Expression-Enhanced Fluorescent Proteins Based on Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duwé, Sam; De Zitter, Elke; Gielen, Vincent; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Vandenberg, Wim; Grotjohann, Tim; Clays, Koen; Jakobs, Stefan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dedecker, Peter

    2015-10-27

    "Smart fluorophores", such as reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins, are crucial for advanced fluorescence imaging. However, only a limited number of such labels is available, and many display reduced biological performance compared to more classical variants. We present the development of robustly photoswitchable variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), named rsGreens, that display up to 30-fold higher fluorescence in E. coli colonies grown at 37 °C and more than 4-fold higher fluorescence when expressed in HEK293T cells compared to their ancestor protein rsEGFP. This enhancement is not due to an intrinsic increase in the fluorescence brightness of the probes, but rather due to enhanced expression levels that allow many more probe molecules to be functional at any given time. We developed rsGreens displaying a range of photoswitching kinetics and show how these can be used for multimodal diffraction-unlimited fluorescence imaging such as pcSOFI and RESOLFT, achieving a spatial resolution of ∼70 nm. By determining the first ever crystal structures of a negative reversibly switchable FP derived from Aequorea victoria in both the "on"- and "off"-conformation we were able to confirm the presence of a cis-trans isomerization and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the photochromism. Our work demonstrates that genetically encoded "smart fluorophores" can be readily optimized for biological performance and provides a practical strategy for developing maturation- and stability-enhanced photochromic fluorescent proteins.

  3. The Role of Hepatocyte Hemojuvelin in the Regulation of Bone Morphogenic Protein-6 and Hepcidin Expression in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Gao, Junwei; Koeberl, Dwight D.; Enns, Caroline A.

    2010-01-01

    Both hemojuvelin (HJV) and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP6) are essential for hepcidin expression. Hepcidin is the key peptide hormone in iron homeostasis, and is secreted predominantly by hepatocytes. HJV expression is detected in hepatocytes, as well as in skeletal and heart muscle. HJV binds BMP6 and increases hepcidin expression presumably by acting as a BMP co-receptor. We characterized the role of hepatocyte HJV in the regulation of BMP6 and hepcidin expression. In HJV-null (Hjv−/−) mice that have severe iron overload and marked suppression of hepcidin expression, we detected 4-fold higher hepatic BMP6 mRNA than in wild-type counterparts. These results indicate that Hjv−/− mice do not lack BMP6. Furthermore, iron depletion in Hjv−/− mice decreased hepatic BMP6 mRNA. Expression of HJV in hepatocytes of Hjv−/− mice using an AAV2/8 vector, increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA by 65-fold and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 in the liver by about 2.5-fold. However, no significant change in BMP6 mRNA was detected in either the liver or the small intestine of these animals. Our results revealed a close correlation of hepatic BMP6 mRNA expression with hepatic iron-loading. Together, our data indicate that the regulation of hepatic BMP6 expression by iron is independent of HJV, and that expression of HJV in hepatocytes plays an essential role in hepcidin expression by potentiating the BMP6-mediated signaling. PMID:20363739

  4. Enhanced gene expression in the brain following intravenous administration of lactoferrin-bearing polypropylenimine dendriplex.

    PubMed

    Somani, Sukrut; Robb, Gillian; Pickard, Benjamin S; Dufès, Christine

    2015-11-10

    The possibility of using gene therapy for the treatment of brain diseases such as brain cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, is currently hampered by the lack of gene delivery systems able to cross the blood-brain barrier and deliver DNA to the brain following intravenous administration. On the basis that lactoferrin can effectively reach the brain by using specific receptors for crossing the blood-brain barrier, we propose to investigate if a lactoferrin-bearing generation 3-diaminobutyric polypropylenimine (DAB) dendrimer would allow the transport of plasmid DNA to the brain after intravenous administration. In this work, we demonstrated that the conjugation of lactoferrin to the dendrimer led to an enhanced DNA uptake by 2.1-fold in bEnd.3 murine brain capillary endothelial cells compared to the unmodified dendriplex in vitro. In vivo, the intravenous administration of lactoferrin-bearing DAB dendriplex resulted in a significantly increased gene expression in the brain, by more than 6.4-fold compared to that of DAB dendriplex, while decreasing gene expression in the lung and the kidneys. Gene expression in the brain was significantly higher than in any other major organs of the body. Lactoferrin-bearing generation 3 polypropylenimine dendrimer is therefore a highly promising delivery system for systemic gene delivery to the brain.

  5. Increased expression of BDNF and proliferation of dentate granule cells after bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Simone C; Stadelmann, Christine; Spreer, Annette; Brück, Wolfgang; Nau, Roland; Gerber, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells is increased after bacterial meningitis. To identify endogenous factors involved in neurogenesis, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were infected by intracerebral injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were killed 30 hours later or treated with ceftriaxone and killed 4 days after infection. Hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels were increased 2.4-fold 4 days after infection (p = 0.026). Similarly, BDNF protein levels in the hippocampal formation were higher in infected mice than in control animals (p = 0.0003). This was accompanied by an elevated proliferation of dentate granule cells (p = 0.0002). BDNF protein was located predominantly in the hippocampal CA3/4 area and the hilus of the dentate gyrus. The density of dentate granule cells expressing the BDNF receptor TrkB as well as mRNA levels of TrkB in the hippocampal formation were increased 4 days after infection (p = 0.027 and 0.0048, respectively). Conversely, NGF mRNA levels at 30 hours after infection were reduced by approximately 50% (p = 0.004). No significant changes in GDNF expression were observed. In conclusion, increased synthesis of BDNF and TrkB suggests a contribution of this neurotrophic factor to neurogenesis after bacterial meningitis.

  6. Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

  7. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors.

  8. Engineering production of functional scFv antibody in E. coli by co-expressing the molecule chaperone Skp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongzhi; Xiang, Shuangshuang; Feng, Youjun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Mingshen; Wang, Shihua

    2013-01-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a class of engineered antibodies generated by the fusion of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins through a short polypeptide linker. ScFv play a critical role in therapy and diagnosis of human diseases, and may in fact also be developed into a potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent. However, the fact that current scFv antibodies have poor stability, low solubility, and affinity, seriously limits their diagnostic and clinical implication. Here we have developed four different expression vectors, and evaluated their abilities to express a soluble scFv protein. The solubility and binding activity of the purified proteins were determined using both SDS-PAGE and ELISA. Amongst the four purified proteins, the Skp co-expressed scFv showed the highest solubility, and the binding activity to antigen TLH was 3-4 fold higher than the other three purified scFv. In fact, this scFv is specific for TLH and does not cross-react with other TLH-associated proteins and could be used to detect TLH directly in real samples. These results suggest that the pACYC-Duet-skp co-expression vector might be a useful tool for the production of soluble and functional scFv antibody. PMID:24224158

  9. Growth temperature alters Salmonella Enteritidis heat/acid resistance, membrane lipid composition and stress/virulence related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yishan; Khoo, Wei Jie; Zheng, Qianwang; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-02-17

    The influence of growth temperature (10, 25, 37, and 42 °C) on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH=2.0) and during heat treatment (54, 56, 58, and 60 °C), on the membrane fatty acid composition, as well as on stress-/virulence-related gene expression was studied. Cells incubated at temperatures lower or higher than 37 °C did not increase their acid resistance, with the maximum D-value of 3.07 min in cells grown at 37 °C; while those incubated at higher temperature increased their heat resistance, with the maximum D60 °C-values of 1.4 min in cells grown at 42 °C. A decrease in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was observed as the growth temperature increased. Compared to the control cells grown at 37 °C, the expression of rpoS was 16.5- and 14.4-fold higher in cells cultivated at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; while the expression of rpoH was 2.9-fold higher in those cultivated at 42 °C. The increased expression of stress response gene rpoH and the decreased ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids correlated with the greater heat resistance of bacteria grown at 42 °C; while the decreased expression of stress response gene rpoS at 42 °C might contribute to the decrease in acid resistance. Virulence related genes-spvR, hilA, avrA-were induced in cells cultivated at 42 °C, except sefA which was induced in the control cells. This study indicates that environmental temperature may affect the virulence potential of S. Enteritidis, thus temperature should be well controlled during food storage.

  10. Human chorionic gonadotropin is expressed virtually in all intracranial germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Takami, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Shintaro; Fukuoka, Kohei; Suzuki, Tomonari; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Matsushita, Yuko; Nakamura, Taishi; Arita, Hideyuki; Mukasa, Akitake; Saito, Nobuhito; Kanamori, Masayuki; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Nagane, Motoo; Iuchi, Toshihiko; Tamura, Kaoru; Maehara, Taketoshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Nonaka, Masahiro; Yokogami, Kiyotaka; Takeshima, Hideo; Narita, Yoshitaka; Shibui, Soichiro; Nakazato, Yoichi; Nishikawa, Ryo; Ichimura, Koichi; Matsutani, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) production has been utilized as a diagnostic marker for germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGC) and choriocarcinoma. Elevated hCG in germinoma is considered to predict less favorable prognosis, and an intensive treatment strategy may accordingly be applied. However, there is some evidence that any germinoma may produce hCG to varying extent. We investigated mRNA expression of the hCG β subunit (hCGβ) using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 94 germ cell tumors (GCTs). Most (93.3 %) GCTs showed higher expression levels compared with that of normal brain tissue (1.09 × 10(0)-1.40 × 10(5) fold). The expression was the highest in GCTs which harbor choriocarcinoma or STGC components. The expression level of hCGβ in germinoma was highly variable (1.09 × 10(0)-5.88 × 10(4) fold) in linear but not bimodal distribution. hCG concentrations in serum and CSF correlated with gene expression, especially when GCTs with single histological component were analyzed separately. The expression was not significantly associated with recurrence in pure germinoma. These results suggest that the serum/CSF hCG levels may need to be interpreted with caution as most GCTs appear to have the capacity of producing hCG irrespective of their histology. The clinical significance of ubiquitous hCG expression in GCTs needs further investigation.

  11. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of sigma and omega glutathione S-transferases from Venerupis philippinarum to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linbao; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Leilei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping

    2012-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics, and also play important roles in antioxidant defense. We identified two glutathione S-transferase isoforms (VpGSTS, sigma GST; VpGSTO, omega GST) from Venerupis philippinarum by RACE approaches. The open reading frames of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were of 612 bp and 729 bp, encoding 203 and 242 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.88 and 27.94 kDa, respectively. The expression profiles of VpGSTS and VpGSTO responded to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were both rapidly up-regulated, however, they showed differential expression patterns to different toxicants. Cd displayed stronger induction of VpGSTS expression with an approximately 12-fold increase than that of VpGSTO with a maximum 6.4-fold rise. Cu exposure resulted in similar expression patterns for both VpGSTS and VpGSTO. For B[a]P exposure, the maximum induction of VpGSTO was approximately two times higher than that of VpGSTS. Altogether, these findings implied the involvement of VpGSTS and VpGSTO in host antioxidant responses, and highlighted their potential as a biomarker to Cd and B[a]P exposure.

  12. Vaccination with recombinant adenovirus expressing multi-stage antigens of Toxoplasma gondii by the mucosal route induces higher systemic cellular and local mucosal immune responses than with other vaccination routes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Yin, Huiquan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Lingxiao; Sun, Xiahui; Cong, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is a cause of congenital disease and abortion in humans and animals. Various vaccination strategies against toxoplasmosis in rodent models have been used in the past few decades; however, effective vaccines remain a challenge. A recombinant adenovirus vaccine expressing ubiquitin-conjugated multi-stage antigen segments (Ad-UMAS) derived from different life-cycle stages of T. gondii was constructed previously. Here, we compared the immune responses and protection effects in vaccination of mice with Ad-UMAS by five vaccination routes including intramuscular (i.m.), intravenous (i.v.), subcutaneous (s.c.), intraoral (i.o.), and intranasal (i.n.). Much higher levels of T. gondii-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in the sera of the intraoral and intranasal vaccination groups on day 49 compared with controls (p < 0.05). The percentages of CD8(+) T-cells in mice immunized intranasally and intraorally were larger than in mice immunized intramuscularly (p < 0.05). The highest level of IL-2 and IFN-γ was detected in the group with nasal immunization, and splenocyte proliferation activity was significantly enhanced in mice immunized via the oral and nasal routes. Furthermore, the higher survival rate (50%) and lower cyst numbers observed in the intraoral and intranasal groups all indicate that Ad-UMAS is far more effective in protecting mice against T. gondii infection via the mucosal route. Ad-UMAS could be an effective and safe mucosal candidate vaccine to protect animals and humans against T. gondii infection.

  13. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and α-tubulin ( α-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and α-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive α-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  14.  Differences in hepatic expression of iron, inflammation and stress-related genes in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Priya; Vemulakonda, Akhila L; Maliken, Bryan D; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki; Nelson, James E; Dhillon, Barjinder K; Hennessey, Kelly A; Gupta, Rohit; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V

     Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. We have previously shown that hepatic reticuloendothelial system (RES) iron deposition is associated with an advanced degree of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans. In this study, we aimed to determine differentially expressed genes related to iron overload, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways, with the goal of identifying factors associated with NASH progression. Seventy five patients with NAFLD were evaluated for their biochemical parameters and their liver tissue analyzed for NASH histological characteristics. Gene expression analysis of pathways related to iron homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress was performed using real-time PCR. Gene expression was compared between subjects based on disease status and presence of hepatic iron staining. We observed increased gene expression of hepcidin (HAMP) (2.3 fold, p = 0.027), transmembrane serine proteinase 6 (TMPRSS6) (8.4 fold, p = 0.003), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (5.5 fold, p = 0.004), proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1? (2.7 fold, p = 0.046) and TNF-? (3.8 fold, p = 0.001) in patients with NASH. TMPRSS6, a negative regulator of HAMP, is overexpressed in patients with NASH and HIF1? (hypoxia inducible factor-1) is downregulated. NAFLD patients with hepatic iron deposition exhibited higher hepcidin expression (3.1 fold, p = 0.04) but lower expression of cytokines. In conclusion, we observed elevated hepatic HAMP expression in patients with NASH and in NAFLD patients who had hepatic iron deposition, while proinflammatory cytokines displayed elevated expression only in patients with NASH, suggesting a regulatory role for hepcidin in NAFL to NASH transition and in mitigating inflammatory responses.

  15. Spanning high-dimensional expression space using ribosome-binding site combinatorics

    PubMed Central

    Zelcbuch, Lior; Antonovsky, Niv; Bar-Even, Arren; Levin-Karp, Ayelet; Barenholz, Uri; Dayagi, Michal; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Amram, Shira; Brandis, Alexander; Bareia, Tasneem; Yofe, Ido; Jubran, Halim; Milo, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Protein levels are a dominant factor shaping natural and synthetic biological systems. Although proper functioning of metabolic pathways relies on precise control of enzyme levels, the experimental ability to balance the levels of many genes in parallel is a major outstanding challenge. Here, we introduce a rapid and modular method to span the expression space of several proteins in parallel. By combinatorially pairing genes with a compact set of ribosome-binding sites, we modulate protein abundance by several orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our strategy by using a synthetic operon containing fluorescent proteins to span a 3D color space. Using the same approach, we modulate a recombinant carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli to reveal a diversity of phenotypes, each characterized by a distinct carotenoid accumulation profile. In a single combinatorial assembly, we achieve a yield of the industrially valuable compound astaxanthin 4-fold higher than previously reported. The methodology presented here provides an efficient tool for exploring a high-dimensional expression space to locate desirable phenotypes. PMID:23470993

  16. Chaperonin-enhanced Escherichia coli cell-free expression of functional CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2016-08-10

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases and disorders. Obtaining milligram quantities of functional receptors through the development of robust production methods are highly demanded to probe GPCR structure and functions. In this study, we analyzed synergies of the bacterial chaperonin GroEL-GroES and cell-free expression for the production of functionally folded C-X-C chemokine GPCR type 4 (CXCR4). The yield of soluble CXCR4 in the presence of detergent Brij-35 reached ∼1.1mg/ml. The chaperonin complex added was found to significantly enhance the productive folding of newly synthesized CXCR4, by increasing both the rate (∼30-fold) and the yield (∼1.3-fold) of folding over its spontaneous behavior. Meanwhile, the structural stability of CXCR4 was also improved with supplied GroEL-GroES, as was the soluble expression of biologically active CXCR4 with a ∼1.4-fold increase. The improved stability together with the higher ligand binding affinity suggests more efficient folding. The essential chaperonin GroEL was shown to be partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both GroEL and its co-chaperonin GroES were necessary. The method reported here should prove generally useful for cell-free production of large amounts of natively folded GPCRs, and even other classes of membrane proteins.

  17. microRNA 184 regulates expression of NFAT1 in umbilical cord blood CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, R. Patrick; Lesniewski, Mathew L.; Haviernik, Peter; Kadereit, Suzanne; Leahy, Patrick; Greco, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    The reduced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells-1 (NFAT1) protein in umbilical cord blood (UCB)–derived CD4+ T cells and the corresponding reduction in inflammatory cytokine secretion after stimulation in part underlies their phenotypic differences from adult blood (AB) CD4+ T cells. This muted response may contribute to the lower incidence and severity of high-grade acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) exhibited by UCB grafts. Here we provide evidence that a specific microRNA, miR-184, inhibits NFAT1 protein expression elicited by UCB CD4+ T cells. Endogenous expression of miR-184 in UCB is 58.4-fold higher compared with AB CD4+ T cells, and miR-184 blocks production of NFAT1 protein through its complementary target sequence on the NFATc2 mRNA without transcript degradation. Furthermore, its negative effects on NFAT1 protein and downstream interleukin-2 (IL-2) transcription are reversed through antisense blocking in UCB and can be replicated via exogenous transfection of precursor miR-184 into AB CD4+ T cells. Our findings reveal a previously uncharacterized role for miR-184 in UCB CD4+ T cells and a novel function for microRNA in the early adaptive immune response. PMID:19286996

  18. Different tumor necrosis factor-alpha-associated leptin expression in rats with dimethylnitrosamine and bile duct ligation-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih Yi; Chen, Wen Yin; Chiu, Yung Tsung; Lee, Wen Jane; Wu, Hurng Sheng; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2005-04-01

    Although serum leptin concentrations are reported by several studies to increase in patients with liver cirrhosis, the mechanisms underpinning this increase remain unclear. Circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations are also recognized to increase in liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, TNF-alpha administration to rodents results in increased expression and secretion of leptin from adipose tissue in a manner dependent on type 1 TNF-alpha receptor (TNF-RI). The present study was undertaken to examine adipose leptin expression and to explore potential relationships between leptin expression and TNF-alpha in subjects with liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration or by common bile duct ligation (BDL). Ad libitum and pair-fed animals constituted controls. Serum leptin and TNF-alpha concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Gene expression was determined by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Serum leptin values after adjustment of body fat mass in DMN-treated rats were significantly higher than in pair-fed or ad libitum groups. Leptin mRNA and protein levels in epididymal fat in DMN rats increased by 1.8-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively, as compared with ad libitum controls, and by 4-fold and 6-fold, respectively, as compared with the pair-fed group. Epididymal TNF-alpha and membranous TNF-RI (mTNF-RI) concentrations were both 2.3 times higher in DMN rats than in ad libitum controls but did not differ between ad libitum and pair-fed groups. Adipose leptin protein levels correlated directly with TNF-alpha and mTNF-RI concentrations in combined DMN, ad libitum, and pair-fed rats (r=0.64 and r=0.49, respectively; P<.05). In BDL-treated rats, however, serum and adipose leptin concentrations were identical to those in ad libitum controls despite 2.1-fold and 2.4-fold increase in epididymal TNF-alpha and m

  19. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chungui; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Zhuhua; Chen, Shicheng; Yang, Suping

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2, and ars3) in R. palustris. In this study, we investigated how arsenic multi-operons contributed to arsenic detoxification in R. palustris. The expression of ars2 or ars3 operons increased with increasing environmental arsenite (As(III)) concentrations (up to 1.0 mM) while transcript of ars1 operon was not detected in the middle log-phase (55 h). ars2 operon was actively expressed even at the low concentration of As(III) (0.01 μM), whereas the ars3 operon was expressed at 1.0 μM of As(III), indicating that there was a differential regulation mechanism for the three arsenic operons. Furthermore, ars2 and ars3 operons were maximally transcribed in the early log-phase where ars2 operon was 5.4-fold higher than that of ars3 operon. A low level of ars1 transcript was only detected at 43 h (early log-phase). Arsenic speciation analysis demonstrated that R. palustris could reduce As(V) to As(III). Collectively, strain CGA009 detoxified arsenic by using arsenic reduction and methylating arsenic mechanism, while the latter might occur with the presence of higher concentrations of arsenic. PMID:26441915

  20. Role of the large cytoplasmic loop of the alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in receptor expression and function.

    PubMed

    Valor, Luis M; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Ballesta, Juan J; Criado, Manuel

    2002-06-25

    The role of the large intracellular loop of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 subunit in the expression of functional channels was studied. For this purpose, systematic deletions and substitutions were made throughout the loop and the ability of the mutated alpha7 subunits to support expression of functional nAChRs at the Xenopus oocyte membrane was tested. Surface nAChR expression was abolished upon removal of sequences at two regions, a 29-amino acid segment close to the N-terminus of the loop (amino acids 297-325) and adjacent to the third transmembrane region and an 11-amino acid segment near the fourth transmembrane region. Some residues (amino acids 317-322) within the 29 amino acids N-terminal segment could be substituted by others but not deleted without loss of expression, suggesting that a certain structure, determined by the number of amino acids rather than by their identity, has to be maintained in this region. The contiguous sequence M323 K324 R325 did not tolerate deletions and substitutions. Removal of the rest of the cytoplasmic loop was not deleterious; even higher expression levels (2-4-fold) were obtained upon large deletions of the loop (Delta399-432 and Delta339-370). High expression levels were observed provided that a minimal sequence of three amino acids (E371, G372, and M373) was present. In addition, some electrophysiological properties of mutant nAChRs were modified. Substitution of the EGM sequence by other protein segments produced a variety of effects, but, in general, insertions were not well tolerated, suggesting the existence of tight structural restrictions in the large cytoplasmic region of the rat alpha7 subunit.

  1. Optimized Expression and Purification for High-Activity Preparations of Algal [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Yacoby, I.; Tegler, L. T.; Pochekailov, S.; Zhang, S.; King, P. W.

    2012-04-01

    Recombinant expression and purification of metallo-enzymes, including hydrogenases, at high-yields is challenging due to complex, and enzyme specific, post-translational maturation processes. Low fidelities of maturation result in preparations containing a significant fraction of inactive, apo-protein that are not suitable for biophysical or crystallographic studies. We describe the construction, overexpression and high-yield purification of a fusion protein consisting of the algal [2Fe2S]-ferredoxin PetF (Fd) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1. The maturation of Fd-HydA1 was optimized through improvements in culture conditions and media components used for expression. We also demonstrated that fusion of Fd to the N-terminus of HydA1, in comparison to the C-terminus, led to increased expression levels that were 4-fold higher. Together, these improvements led to enhanced HydA1 activity and improved yield after purification. The strong binding-affinity of Fd for DEAE allowed for two-step purification by ion exchange and StrepTactin affinity chromatography. In addition, the incorporation of a TEV protease site in the Fd-HydA1 linker allowed for the proteolytic removal of Fd after DEAE step, and purification of HydA1 alone by StrepTactin. In combination, this process resulted in HydA1 purification yields of 5 mg L{sup -1} of culture from E. coli with specific activities of 1000 U (U = 1 {micro}mol hydrogen evolved mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}). The [FeFe]-hydrogenases are highly efficient enzymes and their catalytic sites provide model structures for synthetic efforts to develop robust hydrogen activation catalysts. In order to characterize their structure-function properties in greater detail, and to use hydrogenases for biotechnological applications, reliable methods for rapid, high-yield expression and purification are required.

  2. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  3. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  4. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  8. Hypothermia Increases Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression and Decreases Post-Operative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Chang; Wang, Hsuan-Mao; Chou, Tzung-Hsin; Wu, Meng-Che; Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia during operation decreases postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. We sought to determine the most appropriate duration of hypothermia, and whether hypothermia affects the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods 80 male BALB/c mice weighing 25–30 g are randomized into one of five groups: adhesion model with infusion of 15°C saline for 15 minutes (A); 30 minutes (B); 45 minute (C); adhesion model without infusion of cold saline (D); and sham operation without infusion of cold saline (E). Adhesion scores and tPA levels in the peritoneum fluid levels were analyzed on postoperative days 1, 7, and 14. Results On day 14, the cold saline infusion groups (A, B, and C) had lower adhesion scores than the without infusion of cold saline group (D). However, only group B (cold saline infusion for 30 minutes) had a significantly lower adhesion scores than group D. Also, group B was found to have 3.4 fold, 2.3 fold, and 2.2 fold higher levels of tPA than group D on days 1, 7, and 14 respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that cold saline infusion for 30 minutes was the optimum duration to decrease postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. The decrease in the adhesion formations could be partly due to an increase in the level of tPA. PMID:27583464

  9. Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor in inflamed tissue is required for intrinsic peripheral opioid analgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, M; Mousa, S A; Zhang, Q; Carter, L; Stein, C

    1996-01-01

    Immune cell-derived opioid peptides can activate opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerves to inhibit inflammatory pain. The intrinsic mechanisms triggering this neuroimmune interaction are unknown. This study investigates the involvement of endogenous corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1). A specific stress paradigm, cold water swim (CWS), produces potent opioid receptor-specific antinociception in inflamed paws of rats. This effect is dose-dependently attenuated by intraplantar but not by intravenous alpha-helical CRF. IL-1 receptor antagonist is ineffective. Similarly, local injection of antiserum against CRF, but not to IL-1, dose-dependently reverses this effect. Intravenous anti-CRF is only inhibitory at 10(4)-fold higher concentrations and intravenous CRF does not produce analgesia. Pretreatment of inflamed paws with an 18-mer 3'-3'-end inverted CRF-antisense oligodeoxynucleotide abolishes CWS-induced antinociception. The same treatment significantly reduces the amount of CRF extracted from inflamed paws and the number of CRF-immunostained cells without affecting gross inflammatory signs. A mismatch oligodeoxynucleotide alters neither the CWS effect nor CRF immunoreactivity. These findings identify locally expressed CRF as the predominant agent to trigger opioid release within inflamed tissue. Endogenous IL-1, circulating CRF or antiinflammatory effects, are not involved. Thus, an intact immune system plays an essential role in pain control, which is important for the understanding of pain in immunosuppressed patients with cancer or AIDS. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8650225

  10. Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Abundance, but Not mRNA Expression, Correlates With Estrone-3-Sulfate Transport in Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Matthew D; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Transporter mRNA and protein expression data are used to extrapolate in vitro transporter kinetics to in vivo drug disposition predictions. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) possesses broad substrate specificity; therefore, understanding BCRP expression-activity relationships are necessary for the translation to in vivo. Bidirectional transport of estrone-3-sulfate (E-3-S), a BCRP probe, was evaluated with respect to relative BCRP mRNA expression and absolute protein abundance in 10- and 29-day cultured Caco-2 cells. BCRP mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR against a housekeeper gene, Cyclophilin A. The BCRP protein abundance in total membrane fractions was quantified by targeted proteomics, and [(3)H]-E-3-S bidirectional transport was determined in the presence or absence of Ko143, a potent BCRP inhibitor. BCRP mRNA expression was 1.5-fold higher in 29- versus 10-day cultured cells (n = 3), whereas a 2.4-fold lower (p < 0.001) BCRP protein abundance was observed in 29- versus 10-day cultured cells (1.28 ± 0.33 and 3.06 ± 0.22 fmol/μg protein, n = 6, respectively). This correlated to a 2.45-fold lower (p < 0.01) efflux ratio for E-3-S in 29- versus 10-day cultured cells (8.97 ± 2.51 and 3.32 ± 0.66, n = 6, respectively). Caco-2 cell BCRP protein abundance, but not mRNA levels, correlates with BCRP activity, suggesting that extrapolation strategies incorporating BCRP protein abundance-activity relationships may be more successful.

  11. Blocking the mitogen activated protein kinase-p38 pathway is associated with increase expression of nitric oxide synthase and higher production of nitric oxide by bovine macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-03-15

    This study evaluated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 pathway in the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages ingesting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms in vitro. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with MAP organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the MAPKp38 pathway and activation of the MAPKp38, interleukin - (IL) IL-10, IL-12, iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were evaluated. Incubation of macrophages with MAP organisms activates the MAPKp38 pathway at early time points post infection. Chemically inhibition of MAPKp38 before incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in increased expression of IL-12 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h, decreased expression of IL-10 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h and increased expression of iNOS mRNA at 2 and 6h. Nitric oxide was evaluated to indirectly determine the effects of MAPKp38 pathway on the anti-microbial activity of bovine macrophages. Incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in modest increased production of NO at 4 and 6h post infection. Pretreatment of bovine macrophages with the MAPKp38 inhibitor SB203580 before addition of MAP organisms resulted in increased production of NO at 2, 4, 6 and 24h post infection. This study expanded our knowledge of the importance of the MAPKp38 pathway in limiting an appropriate macrophage response to MAP and suggested how activation of MAPKp38 pathway may be a target of this organism to disrupt earlier antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages. These findings raises the interesting possibility that the cellular manipulation of MAPKp38 may be useful in designing novel vaccines against MAP.

  12. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  13. Disorders in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Clarence C.; Bolman, Frederick deW.

    Conditions affecting the moral and intellectual integrity of American colleges and universities are discussed in a series of papers collected from the 56th American Assembly on "The Integrity of Higher Education." An erosion of public confidence in higher education is noted and it is suggested that the expectations of higher education have not…

  14. Biotransformation of 4-halophenols to 4-halocatechols using Escherichia coli expressing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Coulombel, Lydie; Nolan, Louise C; Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Doyle, Evelyn M; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2011-03-01

    Escherichia coli cells, expressing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase, fully transformed 4-halogenated phenols to their equivalent catechols as single products in shaken flasks. 4-Fluorophenol was transformed at a rate 1.6, 1.8, and 3.4-fold higher than the biotransformation of 4-chloro-, 4-bromo-, and 4-iodo-phenol, respectively. A scale-up from shaken flask to a 5 L stirred tank bioreactor was undertaken to develop a bioprocess for the production of 4-substituted halocatechols at higher concentrations and scale. In a stirred tank reactor, the optimized conditions for induction of 4-HPA hydroxylase expression were at 37 °C for 3 h. The rate of biotransformation of 4-fluorophenol to 4-fluorocatechol by stirred tank bioreactor grown cells was the same at 1 and 4.8 mM (5.13 μmol/min/g CDW) once the ratio of biocatalyst (E. coli CDW) to substrate concentration (mM) was maintained at 2:1. At 10.8 mM 4-fluorophenol, the rate of 4-fluorocatechol formation decreased by 4.7-fold. However, the complete transformation of 1.3 g of 4-fluorophenol (10.8 mM) to 4-fluorocatechol was achieved within 7 h in a 1 L reaction volume. Similar to 4-fluorophenol, other 4-substituted halophenols were completely transformed to 4-halocatechols at 2 mM within a 1-2 h period. An increase in 4-halophenol concentration to 4.8 mM resulted in a 2.5-20-fold decrease in biotransformation efficiency depending on the substrate tested. Organic solvent extraction of the 4-halocatechol products followed by column chromatography resulted in the production of purified products with a final yield of between 33% and 38%.

  15. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2014-02-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection.

  16. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  17. Expression of RFC/SLC19A1 is associated with tumor type in bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; El-Zeiry, Maha I; Mahran, Laila G; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Rady, Mona H; Rohde, Jan; Mostageer, Marwa; Spahn-Langguth, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) ranks ninth in worldwide cancer. In Egypt, the pattern of bladder cancer is unique in that both the transitional and squamous cell types prevail. Despite much research on the topic, it is still difficult to predict tumor progression, optimal therapy and clinical outcome. The reduced folate carrier (RFC/SLC19A1) is the major transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. RFC is also the primary means of cellular uptake for antifolate cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, however, membrane transport of antifolates by RFC is considered as limiting to antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression level of RFC/SLC19A1 in urothelial and non-urothelial variants of bladder carcinomas. Quantification of RFC mRNA in the mucosa of 41 untreated bladder cancer patients was performed using RT-qPCR. RFC mRNA steady-state levels were ∼9-fold higher (N = 39; P<0.0001) in bladder tumor specimens relative to normal bladder mRNA. RFC upregulation was strongly correlated with tumor type (urothelial vs. non-urothelial; p<0.05) where median RFC mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the urothelial (∼14-fold) compared to the non-urothelial (∼4-fold) variant. This may account for the variation in response to antifolate-containing regimens used in the treatment of either type. RFC mRNA levels were not associated with tumor grade (I, II and III) or stage (muscle-invasive vs. non-muscle invasive) implying that RFC cannot be used for prognostic purposes in bladder carcinomas and its increased expression is an early event in human bladder tumors pathogenesis. Further, RFC can be considered as a potential marker for predicting response to antifolate chemotherapy in urothelial carcinomas.

  18. The Australopithecus Afarensis (Lucy) of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, John King

    1999-01-01

    Uses a fictitious character and story to express doubts about the use of business and marketing principles in American higher education. Asserts that higher education is profoundly different from other institutions, and that colleges and universities should be shielded from the vagaries of the market. (CAK)

  19. Heterophils isolated from chickens resistant to extra-intestinal Salmonella enteritidis infection express higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA following infection than heterophils from susceptible chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Pamela J.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Kaiser, Pete; Pevzner, Igal Y.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental (A > B) broilers and F1 reciprocal crosses (D > C). Our objectives were to (1) determine if in vitro variations translate to differences in resistance to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and (2) quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. One-day-old chicks were challenged and organs were cultured for SE. Chicks with efficient heterophils (A and D) were less susceptible to SE compared to chicks with inefficient heterophils (B and C). Heterophils were isolated from SE-infected chicks and cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was up-regulated in heterophils from SE-resistant chicks compared to susceptible chicks. This is the first report to quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. These data show a relationship between in vitro heterophil function, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, and increased resistance to SE in 1-day-old chicks. PMID:15635959

  20. Metformin Transport by a Newly Cloned Proton-Stimulated Organic Cation Transporter (Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter) Expressed in Human Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingyan; Xia, Li; Wang, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antihyperglycemic drug for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. The intestinal absorption of metformin is dose-dependent and involves an active, saturable uptake process. Metformin has been shown to be transported by the human organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (hOCT1–2). We recently cloned and characterized a novel proton-activated organic cation transporter, plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). We previously showed that PMAT transports many classic organic cations (e.g., monoamine neurotransmitters, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) in a pH-dependent manner and its mRNA is expressed in multiple human tissues. The goal of this study is to investigate whether metformin is a substrate of PMAT and whether PMAT plays a role in the intestinal uptake of metformin. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing human PMAT, we showed that metformin is avidly transported by PMAT, with an apparent affinity (Km = 1.32 mM) comparable to those reported for hOCT1–2. Interestingly, the concentration-velocity profile of PMAT-mediated metformin uptake is sigmoidal, with a Hill coefficient of 2.64. PMAT-mediated metformin transport is greatly stimulated by acidic pH, with the uptake rate being ~4-fold higher at pH 6.6 than at pH 7.4. Using a polyclonal antibody against PMAT, we showed that the PMAT protein (58 kDa) was expressed in human small intestine and concentrated on the tips of the mucosal epithelial layer. Taken together, our results suggest that PMAT transports metformin, is expressed in human intestine, and may play a role in the intestinal absorption of metformin and possibly other cationic drugs. PMID:17600084

  1. The Influence of Differentially Expressed Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Lisa CM; Nasa, Zeyad; Chung, JieYu; Niego, Be’eri; Tarlac, Volga; Ho, Heidi; Galle, Adam; Petratos, Steven; Lee, Jae Young; Alderuccio, Frank; Medcalf, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been implicated in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that levels of t-PA mRNA and activity are increased ~4 fold in the spinal cords of wild-type mice that are mice subjected to EAE. This was also accompanied with a significant increase in the levels of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (pro-MMP-9) and an influx of fibrinogen. We next compared EAE severity in wild-type mice, t-PA-/- mice and T4+ transgenic mice that selectively over-express (~14-fold) mouse t-PA in neurons of the central nervous system. Our results confirm that t-PA deficient mice have an earlier onset and more severe form of EAE. T4+ mice, despite expressing higher levels of endogenous t-PA, manifested a similar rate of onset and neurological severity of EAE. Levels of proMMP-9, and extravasated fibrinogen in spinal cord extracts were increased in mice following EAE onset regardless of the absence or over-expression of t-PA wild-type. Interestingly, MMP-2 levels also increased in spinal cord extracts of T4+ mice following EAE, but not in the other genotypes. Hence, while the absence of t-PA confers a more deleterious form of EAE, neuronal over-expression of t-PA does not overtly protect against this condition with regards to symptom onset or severity of EAE. PMID:27427941

  2. Expression of human membrane skeleton protein genes for protein 4.1 and betaIISigma2-spectrin assayed by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Harris, Pamela M; Felkin, Leanne E; Birks, Emma J; Franklin, Rodney C G; Yacoub, Magdi H; Baines, Anthony J; Barton, Paul J R; Pinder, Jennifer C

    2005-01-01

    The proteins, spectrin and 4.1 confer support and resilience to animal cell membranes, and promote assembly of multimeric, membrane-bound signalling complexes. Protein 4.1 also plays important roles in tumour suppression and the regulation of cell proliferation. To assess relative tissue expression of the four genes encoding human protein 4.1, we measured mRNA levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared 4.1 expression with that of a major splice variant of spectrin, betaIISigma2 that has a shortened C-terminus lacking a pleckstrin homology domain. mRNA for 4.1R is four-fold higher in bone marrow than in tissues with the next highest prevalence: cerebellum, lung, testis and thymus. 4.1G mRNA is highly expressed in brain, spinal cord and testis; 4.1N in brain, spinal cord and adrenal gland; 4.1B in testis, brain, spinal cord, and kidney. Thus, 4.1N, 4.1B and 4.1G all show high accumulation in nervous tissues. mRNA for betaIISigma2-spectrin is ubiquitous, but most abundant in cardiac and nervous tissues. Comparative transcript abundance was analysed in heart and brain. betaIISigma2-spectrin was the most abundant transcript in heart with levels 5 fold greater than 4.1G or 4.1N and at least 9 fold greater than 4.1B. In brain, 4.1N was the most abundant transcript, with levels 2.4 fold greater than 4.1B and at least 4 fold greater than 4.1G or betaIISigma2-spectrin. 4.1R abundance was very low in both tissues. Whilst we expected that 4.1 mRNAs would feature highly in muscle and nerve, we note their high abundance in testis, indicating previously unsuspected functions in reproduction.

  3. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  4. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  5. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  6. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  7. Chicanos in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3)…

  8. Higher Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  9. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  10. Higher Education's Caste System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  11. Comparative Higher Education: Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This comparative higher education bibliography from the graduate program in Higher Education at University of Texas at Austin provides references with publication dates through 1990 under the following categories: "General and Canada" (85); "Africa (Sub-Sahara)" (23); "Asia" (122); "Australia and New…

  12. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  13. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge…

  14. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent…

  15. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  16. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge,…

  17. Study and Implementation of the End-to-End Data Pipeline for the Virtis Imaging Spectrometer Onbaord Venus Express: "From Science Operations Planning to Data Archiving and Higher Lever Processing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesín Moinelo, Alejandro

    2010-04-01

    This PhD Thesis describes the activities performed during the Research Program undertaken for two years at the Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica in Rome, Italy, as active member of the VIRTIS Technical and Scientific Team, and one additional year at the European Space Astronomy Center in Madrid, Spain, as member of the Mars Express Science Ground Segment. This document will show a study of all sections of the Science Ground Segment of the Venus Express mission, from the planning of the scientific operations, to the generation, calibration and archiving of the science data, including the production of valuable high level products. We will present and discuss here the end-to-end diagram of the ground segment from the technical and scientific point of view, in order to describe the overall flow of information: from the original scientific requests of the principal investigator and interdisciplinary teams, up to the spacecraft, and down again for the analysis of the measurements and interpretation of the scientific results. These scientific results drive to new and more elaborated scientific requests, which are used as feedback to the planning cycle, closing the circle. Special attention is given here to describe the implementation and development of the data pipeline for the VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express. During the research program, both the raw data generation pipeline and the data calibration pipeline were developed and automated in order to produce the final raw and calibrated data products from the input telemetry of the instrument. The final raw and calibrated products presented in this work are currently being used by the VIRTIS Science team for data analysis and are distributed to the whole scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive. More than 20,000 raw data files and 10,000 calibrated products have already been generated after almost 4 years of mission. In the final part of the Thesis, we will also present some high level data

  18. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education (New York; Basic, 1970) by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. (DB)

  19. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  20. Colony-stimulating factor-1 and c-fms expression in human endometrial tissues and placenta during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kauma, S W; Aukerman, S L; Eierman, D; Turner, T

    1991-10-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), a growth factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, has been implicated in the functional regulation and growth of the murine placenta through the presence of the CSF-1 receptor, c-fms, found in this tissue. In this study we examined the tissue levels of CSF-1 by RIA and the relative expression of CSF-1 and c-fms mRNA by Northern blot analysis in human endometrial, decidual, and placental tissues during the normal menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. All endometrial, decidual, and placental tissues demonstrated extractable immunoreactive CSF-1 and expressed the 4.0-kilobase CSF-1 mRNA species. First trimester decidual tissue expressed higher levels of CSF-1 mRNA than proliferative (3.2-fold higher; P less than 0.01) or secretory (2.4-fold higher; P less than 0.01) endometrial tissues, whereas proliferative and secretory endometrial tissues expressed similar levels of CSF-1 mRNA. Tissue extractable levels of immunoreactive CSF-1 were 3.2-fold (P less than 0.05) higher in first trimester decidual tissue and 2.9-fold (P less than 0.05) higher in secretory endometrial tissue compared to levels in proliferative endometrial tissue, whereas first trimester decidua and secretory endometrial tissues had similar levels of immunoreactive CSF-1. There was expression of c-fms mRNA in all endometrial and first trimester decidual tissue samples, with little change during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. In placenta, there was a positive correlation of increasing CSF-1 and c-fms mRNA expression with increasing gestational age. These results suggest that there is increased local production of CSF-1 in tissues found at the maternal-fetal interface during the time of implantation and early pregnancy. This increased production of CSF-1 may play a role in decidual function and placental growth through the presence of c-fms in these tissues.

  1. DYSREGULATED SELECTIN EXPRESSION AND MONOCYTE RECRUITMENT DURING ISCHEMIA-RELATED VASCULAR REMODELING IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Chad L.; Qi, Yue; Davidson, Brian; Chadderdon, Scott; Jayaweera, Ananda R.; Belcik, J. Todd; Benner, Cameron; Xie, Aris; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with impaired ischemia-related vascular remodeling and also dysregulation of the inflammatory response. We sought to determine whether impaired selectin-mediated monocyte recruitment in ischemic tissues contributes to blunted ischemia-mediated angiogenesis in DM. Methods and Results Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging and molecular imaging of endothelial P-selectin expression in the proximal hindlimb were performed at 1,3, and 21 days after arterial ligation in wild-type and db/db mice. Ligation reduced muscle blood flow to ≈0.05 ml/min/g in both strains. Significant recovery of flow occurred only in wild-type mice (60–65% of baseline flow). On molecular imaging in db/db mice, baseline P-selectin signal was 4-fold higher in db/db compared to wild-type mice (p<0.01) but increased minimally in at day one after ischemia whereas signal increased approximately 10-fold in wild-type mice (p<0.01). Immunohistology of the hindlimb demonstrated severely reduced monocyte recruitment in db/db mice compared to wild-type mice. Local treatment with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) corrected the deficits in post-ischemic P-selectin expression and monocyte recruitment in db/d mice, and led to greater recovery in blood flow. Conclusions In DM, there is dysregulation of the selectin response to limb ischemia which leads to impaired monocyte recruitment, which may be mechanistically related to reduced vascular remodeling in limb ischemia. PMID:21885854

  2. Enhanced Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) expression from a novel Tn4401 deletion.

    PubMed

    Cheruvanky, Anita; Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Crook, Derrick W; Hoffman, Paul S; Weddle, Erin; Carroll, Joanne; Sifri, Costi D; Chai, Weidong; Barry, Katie; Ramakrishnan, Girija; Mathers, Amy J

    2017-04-03

    The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (blaKPC) is typically located within the mobile transposon Tn4401 Enhanced KPC expression has been associated with deletions in the putative promoter region upstream of blaKPC Illumina sequences from blaKPC-positive clinical isolates from a single institution were mapped to a Tn4401b reference sequence, which carries no deletions. The novel isoform Tn4401h (188bp deletion [lsqb]between istB and blaKPC[rsqb]) was present in 14% (39/281) clinical isolates. MICs for Escherichia coli strains containing plasmids with Tn4401a and Tn4401h were more resistant to meropenem (≥16, ≥16), ertapenem (≥8, 4) and cefepime (≥64, 4) than E. coli strains with Tn4401b (0.5, ≤0.5, ≤1). Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Tn4401a had a 16-fold and Tn4401h a 4-fold increase in blaKPC mRNA levels compared to the reference Tn4401b. A lacZ reporter plasmid was used to test the activity of the promoter regions from the different variants and showed that the Tn4401a and Tn4401h promoter sequences generated higher β-galactosidase activity than the corresponding Tn4401b sequence. Further dissection of the promoter region demonstrated that putative promoter P1 was not functional. Activity of the isolated promoter P2 was greatly enhanced by inclusion of the P1-P2 intervening sequence. These studies indicate that gene expression could be an important consideration in understanding resistance phenotypes predicted by genetic signatures in the context of sequencing-based rapid diagnostics.

  3. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Preface; 1. Higher than Everest; 2. Higher than that? - Other high peaks of Mars; 3. Descent into the Martian deep; 4. The cliffs of coprates; 5. A polar crossing; 6. The other Alps - climbing Mt. Blanc; 7. Pico peak - Monadnock of the moon; 8. The great Copernicus traverse; 9. Maxwell, mountains of mystery; 10. Volcanoes of Venus; 11. The cliff of discovery; 12. Descent into the maelstrom; 13. An Ionian adventure; 14. Mountain climbing in pizzaland; 15. Under the frozen sea; 16. Snowboarding through Saturn's rings; 17. Titan's tarry seas; 18. Climbing the cliff of Miranda; 19. The Yellowstone of the solar system; 20. All nine.

  4. Genetic modification of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic cells with human coagulation factor IX-expressing plasmids.

    PubMed

    Sam, Mohammad Reza; Azadbakhsh, Azadeh Sadat; Farokhi, Farrah; Rezazadeh, Kobra; Sam, Sohrab; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Haddad-Mashadrizeh, Aliakbar; Delirezh, Nowruz; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2016-05-01

    Ex-vivo gene therapy of hemophilias requires suitable bioreactors for secretion of hFIX into the circulation and stem cells hold great potentials in this regard. Viral vectors are widely manipulated and used to transfer hFIX gene into stem cells. However, little attention has been paid to the manipulation of hFIX transgene itself. Concurrently, the efficacy of such a therapeutic approach depends on determination of which vectors give maximal transgene expression. With this in mind, TF-1 (primary hematopoietic lineage) and rat-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were transfected with five hFIX-expressing plasmids containing different combinations of two human β-globin (hBG) introns inside the hFIX-cDNA and Kozak element and hFIX expression was evaluated by different methods. In BMSCs and TF-1 cells, the highest hFIX level was obtained from the intron-less and hBG intron-I,II containing plasmids respectively. The highest hFIX activity was obtained from the cells that carrying the hBG intron-I,II containing plasmids. BMSCs were able to produce higher hFIX by 1.4 to 4.7-fold increase with activity by 2.4 to 4.4-fold increase compared to TF-1 cells transfected with the same constructs. BMSCs and TF-1 cells could be effectively bioengineered without the use of viral vectors and hFIX minigene containing hBG introns could represent a particular interest in stem cell-based gene therapy of hemophilias.

  5. Higher Education in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.…

  6. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  7. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  8. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  9. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  10. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amano, Masako

    1997-01-01

    The high level of college admission of women in Japan is analyzed relative to changes in social and educational values, continuing evidence of gender tracking, persistent doubts regarding "appropriateness" of higher education for women, employment opportunities and related national legislation, and values held by Japanese women…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  12. Videoconferencing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Neil; Davidson, Kirsty; Goldfinch, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Describes examples of videoconferencing usage in higher education: project management, dissemination, lecture courses, keynote lectures, small groups, orals and interviews. Gives an account of staff and student experiences in each example, in the context of a collaborative project. Presents evaluation results, leading to a generally favorable…

  13. Futurism in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of "futurism" in higher education program planning, self-study and goal setting is taking on increasing significance. Two research techniques for "futures forecasting" are discussed: the Delphi and the Scenario. These techniques have been used successfully in institutional self-study and program evaluation.…

  14. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  15. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  16. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  17. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  18. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  19. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried,…

  20. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  1. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  2. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  3. Higher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    This study was commissioned to examine Minnesota's four public higher education systems to identify possible duplication and inefficiency in instructional programs. Study findings indicate that the two-year college systems offer a significant number of occupational programs with low student/teacher ratios, low graduate placement rates, or both.…

  4. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  5. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    Eight papers, arising from a June 1998 seminar on the professions and public life, examine issues related to the practice of public scholarship and the new connections that institutions of higher education are forging with the public. Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Academy and Public Life: Healing the Rift" (Scott…

  6. Corporatizing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Gerda

    2008-01-01

    The process of changing U.S. higher education institutions along a corporate model has been going on for several decades. It consists of changes, some open, some obscured, on various fronts: the erosion of tenure by attrition; the simultaneous increase in the use of contingent faculty; the rise in tuition; the dramatic decrease in federal and…

  7. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  8. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  9. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  10. Higher Education Exchange 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    A foreword and 11 articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The contents include: "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (1) "Public Scholarship: The Dissemination of Knowledge" (Jean Cameron) which maintains the public has claims on higher education as a creator and disseminator of knowledge; (2) "Daring to Be…

  11. Microcomputers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Robert S., Ed.; McLean, Ruth W., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the areas in which Ontario educators currently employ microcomputers in higher education are addressed in several articles, bibliographies, and book reviews. Various uses of computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology are outlined by Frank A. Ford. Microcomputer CAI…

  12. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  13. Development of sulfasalazine resistance in human T cells induces expression of the multidrug resistance transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) and augmented production of TNFα

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, J; de Jong, M C; Dijkmans, B; Lems, W; Oerlemans, R; Kathmann, I; Schalkwijk, C; Scheffer, G; Scheper, R; Jansen, G

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether overexpression of cell membrane associated drug efflux pumps belonging to the family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins contributes to a diminished efficacy of sulfasalazine (SSZ) after prolonged cellular exposure to this disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). Methods: A model system of human T cells (CEM) was used to expose cells in vitro to increasing concentrations of SSZ for a period of six months. Cells were then characterised for the expression of drug efflux pumps: P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). Results: Prolonged exposure of CEM cells to SSZ provoked resistance to SSZ as manifested by a 6.4-fold diminished antiproliferative effect of SSZ compared with parental CEM cells. CEM cells resistant to SSZ (CEM/SSZ) showed a marked induction of ABCG2/BCRP, Pgp expression was not detectable, while MRP1 expression was even down regulated. A functional role of ABCG2 in SSZ resistance was demonstrated by 60% reversal of SSZ resistance by the ABCG2 blocker Ko143. Release of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) was threefold higher in CEM/SSZ cells than in CEM cells. Moreover, twofold higher concentrations of SSZ were required to inhibit TNFα release from CEM/SSZ cells compared with CEM cells. Conclusion: Collectively, ABCG2 induction, augmented TNFα release, and less efficient inhibition of TNFα production by SSZ may contribute to diminished efficacy after prolonged exposure to SSZ. These results warrant further clinical studies to verify whether drug efflux pumps, originally identified for their roles in cytostatic drug resistance, can also be induced by SSZ or other DMARDs. PMID:14722201

  14. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  15. Combining stable insect cell lines with baculovirus-mediated expression for multi-HA influenza VLP production.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Daniela P; Correia, Ricardo; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Roldão, António; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M

    2017-03-10

    Safer and broadly protective vaccines are needed to cope with the continuous evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and promising approaches based on the expression of multiple hemagglutinins (HA) in a virus-like particle (VLP) have been proposed. However, expression of multiple genes in the same vector can lead to its instability due to tandem repetition of similar sequences. By combining stable with transient expression systems we can rationally distribute the number of genes to be expressed per platform and thus mitigate this risk. In this work, we developed a modular system comprising stable and baculovirus-mediated expression in insect cells for production of multi-HA influenza enveloped VLPs. First, a stable insect High Five cell population expressing two different HA proteins from subtype H3 was established. Infection of this cell population with a baculovirus vector encoding three other HA proteins from H3 subtype proved to be as competitive as traditional co-infection approaches in producing a pentavalent H3 VLP. Aiming at increasing HA expression, the stable insect cell population was infected at increasingly higher cell concentrations (CCI). However, cultures infected at CCI of 3×10(6)cells/mL showed lower HA titers per cell in comparison to standard CCI of 2×10(6)cells/mL, a phenomenon named "cell density effect". To lessen the negative impact of this phenomenon, a tailor-made refeed strategy was designed based on the exhaustion of key nutrients during cell growth. Noteworthy, cultures supplemented and infected at a CCI of 4×10(6)cells/mL showed comparable HA titers per cell to those of CCI of 2×10(6)cells/mL, thus leading to an increase of up to 4-fold in HA titers per mL. Scalability of the modular strategy herein proposed was successfully demonstrated in 2L stirred tank bioreactors with comparable HA protein levels observed between bioreactor and shake flasks cultures. Overall, this work demonstrates the suitability of combining stable

  16. Cloning of a thermostable xylanase from Actinomadura sp. S14 and its expression in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sriyapai, Thayat; Somyoonsap, Peechapack; Matsui, Kenji; Kawai, Fusako; Chansiri, Kosum

    2011-05-01

    A thermophilic xylan-degrading Actinomadura sp. S14 was isolated from compost in Thailand. Hemicellulase activities such as endo-1,4-β-xylanase, β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase were induced with xylan-containing agriculture wastes and oat spelt xylan. The gene encoding xylanase consisting of 687bp was cloned from Actinomadura sp. S14. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a signal peptide of 41 amino acids and a probable mature xylanase of 188 amino acids. An open reading frame (xynS14) corresponding to a mature xylanase was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The specific activity of purified XynS14 (P. pastoris) was 2.4-fold higher than XynS14 (E. coli). Both XynS14s showed the same basic properties such as optimal pH and temperature (pH 6.0 and 80°C) and stability in a broad pH range (pH 5.0-11.0) and at high temperatures up to 80°C. Both XynS14s showed approximately the same substrate specificity and K(m) values toward various xylans, but XynS14 (P. pastoris) showed higher V(max) and K(cat) than XynS14 (E. coli). Higher specific activities of XynS14 (P. pastoris) may be due to protein-folding in the host. Purified XynS14 showed more endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity on xylan and xylooligosaccharides than on xylotriose.

  17. cDNA microarray analysis of the effect of cantharidin on DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis-associated gene expression in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Te-Chun; Yu, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yu, Chun-Shu; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-07-01

    Cantharidin (CTD) induces cytotoxic effects in different types of human cancer cell; however, to date, there have been no studies on the effects of CTD on gene expression in human lung cancer cells and the potential associated signaling pathways. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how CTD affects the expression of key genes and functional pathways of human H460 lung cancer cells using complementary DNA microarray analysis. Human H460 lung cancer cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence or absence of 10 µM CTD; gene expression was then examined using microarray analysis. The results indicated that 8 genes were upregulated > 4-fold, 29 genes were upregulated >3-4-fold and 156 genes were upregulated >2-3-fold. In addition, 1 gene was downregulated >4 fold, 14 genes were downregulated >3-4-fold and 150 genes were downregulated >2-3 fold in H460 cells following exposure to CTD. It was found that CTD affected DNA damage genes, including DNIT3 and GADD45A, which were upregulated 2.26- and 2.60-fold, respectively, as well as DdiT4, which was downregulated 3.14-fold. In addition, the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle progression were altered, including CCND2, CDKL3 and RASA4, which were upregulated 2.72-, 2.19- and 2.72-fold, respectively; however, CDC42EP3 was downregulated 2.16-fold. Furthermore, apoptosis-associated genes were differentially expressed, including CARD6, which was upregulated 3.54-fold. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that CTD affected the expression of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer H460 cells.

  18. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta-selective agonist GC-1 inhibits proliferation but induces differentiation and TR beta mRNA expression in mouse and rat osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Beber, Eduardo H; Capelo, Luciane P; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Costa, Cristiane C; Lotfi, Claudimara F; Scanlan, Thomas S; Gouveia, Cecilia H A

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies showed anabolic effects of GC-1, a triiodothyronine (T3) analogue that is selective for both binding and activation functions of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta1 over TRalpha1, on bone tissue in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the responsiveness of rat (ROS17/2.8) and mouse (MC3T3-E1) osteoblast-like cells to GC-1. As expected, T3 inhibited cellular proliferation and stimulated mRNA expression of osteocalcin or alkaline phosphatase in both cell lineages. Whereas equimolar doses of T3 and GC-1 equally affected these parameters in ROS17/2.8 cells, the effects of GC-1 were more modest compared to those of T3 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Interestingly, we showed that there is higher expression of TRalpha1 than TRbeta1 mRNA in rat (approximately 20-90%) and mouse (approximately 90-98%) cell lineages and that this difference is even higher in mouse cells, which highlights the importance of TRalpha1 to bone physiology and may partially explain the modest effects of GC-1 in comparison with T3 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Nevertheless, we showed that TRbeta1 mRNA expression increases (approximately 2.8- to 4.3-fold) as osteoblastic cells undergo maturation, suggesting a key role of TRbeta1 in mediating T3 effects in the bone forming cells, especially in mature osteoblasts. It is noteworthy that T3 and GC-1 induced TRbeta1 mRNA expression to a similar extent in both cell lineages (approximately 2- to 4-fold), indicating that both ligands may modulate the responsiveness of osteoblasts to T3. Taken together, these data show that TRbeta selective T3 analogues have the potential to directly induce the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts.

  19. Higher Level Thinking Skills through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of drama in the classroom provides concrete opportunities to explore such higher-level thinking abilities as synthesis, evaluation, and divergent thinking. Suggested activities for use with upper elementary and secondary students involve pantomime, verbal improvisation, expressing emotions, and developing characters. (JDD)

  20. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  1. Semistrict higher gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Sämann, Christian; Wolf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Čech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Ševera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.

  2. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  3. Low molecular weight fucoidan prevents intimal hyperplasia in rat injured thoracic aorta through the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Hlawaty, Hanna; Suffee, Nadine; Sutton, Angela; Oudar, Olivier; Haddad, Oualid; Ollivier, Veronique; Laguillier-Morizot, Christelle; Gattegno, Liliane; Letourneur, Didier; Charnaux, Nathalie

    2011-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of low molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF), a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed was investigated on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and human vascular endothelial cell (HUV-EC-C) proliferation and migration in vitro and in a rat model of intimal hyperplasia. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to balloon injury in the thoracic aorta followed by two weeks' treatment with either LMWF (5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Morphological analysis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining at day 14 indicated that LMWF prevented intimal hyperplasia in rat thoracic aorta as compared with vehicle (neo-intima area, 3±0.50mm(2) versus 5±0.30mm(2), P<0.01). In situ zymography showed that LMWF significantly decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in the neo-intima compared to vehicle. The in vitro study demonstrated that 10μg/ml LMWF increased HUV-EC-C migration by 45±5% but reduced VSMC migration by 40±3%. LMWF also increased MMP-2 mRNA expression in HUV-EC-Cs and reduced it in VSMCs. MMP-2 level in the conditioned medium from cells incubated with 10μg/ml LMWF was 5.4-fold higher in HUV-EC-Cs, but 6-fold lower in VSMCs than in untreated control cells. Furthermore, decreasing MMP-2 expression in HUV-EC-Cs or VSMCs by RNA interference resulted in reduced LMWF-induced effects on cell migration. In conclusion, LMWF increased HUV-EC-C migration and decreased VSMC migration in vitro. In vivo, this natural compound reduced the intimal hyperplasia in the rat aortic wall after balloon injury. Therefore, LMWF could be of interest for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia.

  4. Improvement of in vitro-transcribed amber suppressor tRNAs toward higher suppression efficiency in wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Doi, Yasunori; Matsushita, Nobuto

    2011-12-21

    In vitro-transcribed, unmodified, and non-aminoacylated amber suppressor tRNAs that are recognized by natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase were improved toward higher suppression efficiency in batch-mode cell-free translation in wheat germ extract. The suppression efficiency of the suppressor obtained through four sequence optimization steps (anticodon alteration of natural tRNAs (the first generation); chimerization of the efficient suppressors in the first generation; investigation and optimization of the effective parts in the second generation; combination of the optimized parts in the third generation) and by the terminal tuning was approximately 60%, which was 2.4-fold higher than that of the best suppressor in the first generation. In addition, an eRF1 aptamer further increased the efficiency up to 85%. This highly efficient suppression system also functioned well in a dialysis-based large-scale protein synthesis.

  5. Gene Expression and Silencing Studies in Phytophthora infestans Reveal Infection-Specific Nutrient Transporters and a Role for the Nitrate Reductase Pathway in Plant Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ah-Fong, Audrey M. V.; Davis, Carol; Andreeva, Kalina; Judelson, Howard S.

    2016-01-01

    To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P. infestans were significantly up- or down-regulated, respectively, during early infection timepoints of leaves or tubers versus media. About 17 were up-regulated >4-fold in both leaves and tubers compared to media and expressed primarily in the biotrophic stage. The transcription pattern of many genes was host-organ specific. For example, the mRNA level of a nitrate transporter (NRT) was about 100-fold higher during mid-infection in leaves, which are nitrate-rich, than in tubers and three types of artificial media, which are nitrate-poor. The NRT gene is physically linked with genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), which mobilize nitrate into ammonium and amino acids. All three genes were coregulated. For example, the three genes were expressed primarily at mid-stage infection timepoints in both potato and tomato leaves, but showed little expression in potato tubers. Transformants down-regulated for all three genes were generated by DNA-directed RNAi, with silencing spreading from the NR target to the flanking NRT and NiR genes. The silenced strains were nonpathogenic on leaves but colonized tubers. We propose that the nitrate assimilation genes play roles both in obtaining nitrogen for amino acid biosynthesis and protecting P. infestans from natural or fertilization-induced nitrate and nitrite toxicity. PMID:27936244

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α expression induces alterations in cardiac myofilaments in a pressure-overload model of hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Karam, Chehade N; Warren, Chad M; Henze, Marcus; Banke, Natasha H; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Solaro, R John

    2017-04-01

    Although alterations in fatty acid (FA) metabolism have been shown to have a negative impact on contractility of the hypertrophied heart, the targets of action remain elusive. In this study we compared the function of skinned fiber bundles from transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress a relatively low level of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and nontransgenic (NTg) littermates. The mice (NTg-T and Tg-T) were stressed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and compared with shams (NTg-S and Tg-S). There was an approximate 4-fold increase in PPARα expression in Tg-S compared with NTg-S, but Tg-T hearts showed the same PPARα expression as NTg-T. Expression of PPARα did not alter the hypertrophic response to TAC but did reduce ejection fraction (EF) in Tg-T hearts compared with other groups. The rate of actomyosin ATP hydrolysis was significantly higher in Tg-S skinned fiber bundles compared with all other groups. Tg-T hearts showed an increase in phosphorylation of specific sites on cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) and β-myosin heavy chain isoform. These results advance our understanding of potential signaling to the myofilaments induced by altered FA metabolism under normal and pathological states. We demonstrate that chronic and transient PPARα activation during pathological stress alters myofilament response to Ca(2+) through a mechanism that is possibly mediated by MyBP-C phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain isoforms.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Data presented here demonstrate novel signaling to sarcomeric proteins by chronic alterations in fatty acid metabolism induced by PPARα. The mechanism involves modifications of key myofilament regulatory proteins modifying cross-bridge dynamics with differential effects in controls and hearts stressed by pressure overload.

  7. Gas Phase Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Dmso, Part II: Towards the Terahertz Observation of 4-FOLD Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.

    2013-06-01

    Benefiting of the exceptional properties of the AILES synchrotron beamline, the gas phase Far-IR spectrum of DMSO has been recorded and resolved. The rovibrational analysis allowed to discover a new rotational behaviour for a polyatomic molecule: the gyroscopic destabilization. In order to explain this phenomenon, we looked for four-fold energy clusters in the high resolution ground state THz spectrum of DMSO recorded with a sub-THz spectrometer based on a frequency multiplication chain. Pure rotational lines in the 5 lowest vibrationnally excited levels have been recorded below 700 GHz. With near 1000 rotational transitions assigned, high quantum numbers have been reached allowing to discover sequence of four-fold clusters in the out of plane bending mode of DMSO and to study the vibrational dependence of an unusual rotational dynamics. J. B. Brubach et al., AIP Conf. Proc., 1214, (81), 2010. A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii,Chem. Phys. Lett., 492,(30),2010 A. Cuisset, O. Pirali, D. Sadovskii,Phys. Rev. Lett., 109,(094101), 2012. G. Mouret, M. Guinet, A. Cuisset, L. Croizet, S. Eliet, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, IEEE Sensors Journal, 13, 1, 2013.

  8. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Du, Wen-Xian; Fregevu, Cécile; Kothary, Mahendra H; Harden, Leslie; McHugh, Tara H

    2014-12-31

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. The level of Pru du 4 in almond is low, and its expression in a soluble form in Escherichia coli required an expression tag. An MBP tag was used to enhance its expression and solubility. Sumo was used for the first time as a peptidase recognition site. The expression tag was removed with a sumo protease, and the resulting wild-type Pru du 4 was purified chromatographically. The stability of the allergen was investigated with chemical denaturation. The Gibbs free energy of Pru du 4 folding-unfolding transition was determined to be 5.4 ± 0.7 kcal/mol.

  9. Iron regulatory protein-2 knockout increases perihematomal ferritin expression and cell viability after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mai; Awe, Olatilewa O; Chen-Roetling, Jing; Regan, Raymond F

    2010-06-14

    Iron is deposited in perihematomal tissue after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may contribute to oxidative injury. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that enhancing ferritin expression by targeting iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity reduces cellular vulnerability to iron and hemoglobin. In order to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach after striatal ICH, the effect of IRP1 or IRP2 gene knockout on ferritin expression and injury was quantified. Striatal ferritin in IRP1 knockout mice was similar to that in wild-type controls 3 days after stereotactic injection of artificial CSF or autologous blood. Corresponding levels in IRP2 knockouts were increased by 11-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type. Protein carbonylation, a sensitive marker of hemoglobin neurotoxicity, was increased by 2.4-fold in blood-injected wild-type striata, was not altered by IRP1 knockout, but was reduced by approximately 60% by IRP2 knockout. Perihematomal cell viability in wild-type mice, assessed by MTT assay, was approximately half of that in contralateral striata at 3 days, and was significantly increased in IRP2 knockouts but not in IRP1 knockouts. Protection was also observed when hemorrhage was induced by collagenase injection. These results suggest that IRP2 binding activity reduces ferritin expression in the striatum after ICH, preventing an optimal response to elevated local iron concentrations. IRP2 binding activity may be a novel therapeutic target after hemorrhagic CNS injuries.

  10. Iron Regulatory Protein-2 Knockout Increases Perihematomal Ferritin Expression and Cell Viability after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mai; Awe, Olatilewa O.; Chen-Roetling, Jing; Regan, Raymond F.

    2010-01-01

    Iron is deposited in perihematomal tissue after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may contribute to oxidative injury. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that enhancing ferritin expression by targeting iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity reduces cellular vulnerability to iron and hemoglobin. In order to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach after striatal ICH, the effect of IRP1 or IRP2 gene knockout on ferritin expression and injury was quantified. Striatal ferritin in IRP1 knockout mice was similar to that in wild-type controls three days after stereotactic injection of artificial CSF or autologous blood. Corresponding levels in IRP2 knockouts were increased by 11-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type. Protein carbonylation, a sensitive marker of hemoglobin neurotoxicity, was increased by 2.4-fold in blood-injected wild-type striata, was not altered by IRP1 knockout, but was reduced by approximately 60% by IRP2 knockout. Perihematomal cell viability in wild-type mice, assessed by MTT assay, was approximately half of that in contralateral striata at three days, and was significantly increased in IRP2 knockouts but not in IRP1 knockouts. Protection was also observed when hemorrhage was induced by collagenase injection. These results suggest that IRP2 binding activity reduces ferritin expression in the striatum after ICH, preventing an optimal response to elevated local iron concentrations. IRP2 binding activity may be a novel therapeutic target after hemorrhagic CNS injuries. PMID:20399759

  11. Improvement of 1,3-propanediol production using an engineered cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus by optimization of the gene expression level of a synthetic metabolic pathway and production conditions.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Maki, Yuki; Hanai, Taizo

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of a synthetic metabolic pathway consisting of multiple genes derived from various organisms enables cyanobacteria to directly produce valuable chemicals from carbon dioxide. We previously constructed a synthetic metabolic pathway composed of genes from Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. This pathway enabled 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production from cellular DHAP via glycerol in the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The production of 1,3-PDO (3.79mM, 0.29g/l) directly from carbon dioxide by engineered S. elongatus PCC 7942 was successfully accomplished. However, the constructed strain accumulated a remarkable amount of glycerol (12.6mM, 1.16g/l), an intermediate metabolite in 1,3-PDO production. Notably, enhancement of latter reactions of synthetic metabolic pathway for conversion of glycerol to 1,3-PDO increases 1,3-PDO production. In this study, we aimed to increase the observed 1,3-PDO production titer. First, the weaker S. elongatus PCC 7942 promoter, PLlacO1, was replaced with a stronger promoter (Ptrc) to regulate genes involved in the conversion of glycerol to 1,3-PDO. Second, the induction timing for gene expression and medium composition were optimized. Promoter replacement resulted in higher 1,3-PDO production than glycerol accumulation, and the amount of products (1,3-PDO and glycerol) generated via the synthetic metabolic pathway increased with optimization of medium composition. Accordingly, we achieved the highest titer of 1,3-PDO (16.1mM, 1.22g/l) and this was higher than glycerol accumulation (9.46mM, 0.87g/l). The improved titer was over 4-fold higher than that of our previous study.

  12. The Case for Higher Education Marketing: Scouting the Higher Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of strategies marketing in higher education focuses on the social marketing approach, outlining a conceptual framework, and looking at specific concerns and costs. The issue of entrepreneurialism's effect on higher education institutions is considered. (MSE)

  13. Higher spin black holes with soft hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Pérez, Alfredo; Prohazka, Stefan; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent "soft Heisenberg hair"-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin- N , many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W 3 algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call "higher spin black flowers", are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W -algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.

  14. Prognostic Value and Daily Trend of Interleukin-6, Neutrophil CD64 Expression, C-Reactive Protein and Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Critically Ill Patients: Reliable Predictors of Outcome or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Dragan; Pejovic, Janko; Surbatovic, Maja; Jevdjic, Jasna; Radakovic, Sonja; Veljovic, Milic; Peric, Aneta; Andjelic, Tamara; Popovic, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Severe sepsis and/or trauma complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome are the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. The aim of this prospective single-centre study was to assess the prognostic value and daily trend of interleukin-6 (IL-6), neutrophil CD64 expression, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe trauma and/or severe sepsis. Outcome measure was hospital mortality. Methods One hundred and two critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a tertiary university hospital were enrolled in this prospective study. Blood samples were collected on admission (day 1), days 2 and 3. Results CD64 index was 1.6-fold higher on day 1 and 1.78-fold higher on day 2 in non-survivors (p<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for the CD64 index on day 1 for outcome was 0.727. At a cut-off level of 2.80 sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 65%. Patients with CD64 index level on day 1 higher than 2.80 had 2.4-fold higher probability of dying. Odds ratio is 2.40; 95% CI 0.60–9.67. Conclusions CD64 index on day 1 is a fairly good predictor of outcome. AUCs for IL-6, CRP and LBP were < 0.55, suggesting these biomarkers failed to predict outcome. PMID:28356852

  15. Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castilla, Angélica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Marrugo-Negrete, José

    2014-03-01

    Coal mining is a source of pollutants that impact on environmental and human health. This study examined the metal content and the transcriptional status of gene markers associated with oxidative stress, metal transport and DNA damage in livers of feral mice collected near coal-mining operations, in comparison with mice obtained from a reference site. Mus musculus specimens were caught from La Loma and La Jagua, two coal-mining sites in the north of Colombia, as well as from Valledupar (Cesar Department), a city located 100km north of the mines. Concentrations in liver tissue of Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As were determined by differential stripping voltammetry, and real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Compared with the reference group (Valledupar), hepatic concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in animals living near mining areas. In exposed animals, the mRNA expression of NQ01, MT1, SOD1, MT2, and DDIT3 was 4.2-, 7.3-, 2.5-, 4.6- and 3.4-fold greater in coal mining sites, respectively, than in animals from the reference site (p<0.05). These results suggest that activities related to coal mining may generate pollutants that could affect the biota, inducing the transcription of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress, metal exposure, and DNA damage. These changes may be in part linked to metal toxicity, and could have implications for the development of chronic disease. Therefore, it is essential to implement preventive measures to minimize the effects of coal mining on its nearby environment, in order to protect human health.

  16. Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Brad; And Others

    This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie)…

  17. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  18. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  19. State Intervention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.; Bowen, Frank M.

    State intervention in higher education is discussed, and state and federal regulations that affect higher education are discussed and contrasted. The structures and procedures by which states intervene in higher education are outlined, and the issue of institutional autonomy is considered. Policy areas through which the state can affect higher…

  20. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  1. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  2. Higher Education Finance Manual 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.; Mertins, Paul J.

    The Higher Education Finance Manual (HEFM) is intended to serve as a guide to higher education planners and managers in their understanding and use of institutional finance data. It addresses higher education finance data from the layman's perspective. The document includes definitions of accounting terms and descriptions of generally accepted…

  3. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kejian; Fuscoe, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs) whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age) in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples). Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene) of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination), RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics) or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors) may cause serious adverse effects. PMID:28125669

  4. Xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Fanny; Sulmon, Cécile; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan

    2012-06-01

    Anthropogenic changes and chemical pollution confront plant communities with various xenobiotic compounds or combinations of xenobiotics, involving chemical structures that are at least partially novel for plant species. Plant responses to chemical challenges and stimuli are usually characterized by the approaches of toxicology, ecotoxicology, and stress physiology. Development of transcriptomics and proteomics analysis has demonstrated the importance of modifications to gene expression in plant responses to xenobiotics. It has emerged that xenobiotic effects could involve not only biochemical and physiological disruption, but also the disruption of signalling pathways. Moreover, mutations affecting sensing and signalling pathways result in modifications of responses to xenobiotics, thus confirming interference or crosstalk between xenobiotic effects and signalling pathways. Some of these changes at gene expression, regulation and signalling levels suggest various mechanisms of xenobiotic sensing in higher plants, in accordance with xenobiotic-sensing mechanisms that have been characterized in other phyla (yeast, invertebrates, vertebrates). In higher plants, such sensing systems are difficult to identify, even though different lines of evidence, involving mutant studies, transcription factor analysis, or comparative studies, point to their existence. It remains difficult to distinguish between the hypothesis of direct xenobiotic sensing and indirect sensing of xenobiotic-related modifications. However, future characterization of xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants is likely to be a key element for determining the tolerance and remediation capacities of plant species. This characterization will also be of interest for understanding evolutionary dynamics of stress adaptation and mechanisms of adaptation to novel stressors.

  5. Gene expression in the adrenal glands of three spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains.

    PubMed

    Ashenagar, Mohammad S; Tabuchi, Masaki; Kinoshita, Kosho; Ooshima, Kana; Niwa, Atsuko; Watanabe, Yuko; Yoshida, Momoko; Shimada, Kazunori; Yasunaga, Teruo; Yamanishi, Hiromichi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression profiles in rat adrenal glands using genome-wide microarray technology. Gene expression levels were determined in four rat strains, including one normotensive strain [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] and three substrains derived from WKY rats: spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) and malignant SHRSP (M-SHRSP). This study represents the first attempt at using microarrays to compare gene expression profiles in SHR, SHRSP and M-SHRSP adrenal glands, employing WKY as controls. Expression measurements were made in these four rat strains at 6 and 9 weeks of age; 6 weeks of age covers the pre-hypertensive period in SHR and SHRSP, and 9 weeks of age is the period of rapidly rising blood pressure (BP). Since the aim of this study was to identify candidate genes involved in the genesis of hypertension in the SHR substrains, we identified genes that were consistently different in their expression, isolating 87 up-regulated genes showing a more than 4-fold increase and 128 down-regulated genes showing a less than 1/4-fold decrease in at least two different experiments. We classified all these up- or down-regulated genes by their expression profiles, and searched for candidate genes. At 6 weeks of age, several BP-regulating genes including sparc/osteonectin (Spock2), kynureninase (Kynu), regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (Rgs2) and gap junction protein α1 (Gja1) were identified as up-regulated, and urotensin 2 (Uts2), cytoplasmic epoxide hydrolase 2 (Ephx2), apelin (Apln), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) and angiotensin II receptor-associated protein (Agtrap) were identified as down-regulated. The Kynu and Ephx2 genes have previously been reported by other groups to be responsible for hypertension in SHR; however, our present approach identified at least seven new candidate genes.

  6. The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

  7. Exploring Higher Education Business Models ("If Such a Thing Exists")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    The global economic recession has caused students, parents, and policymakers to reevaluate personal and societal investments in higher education--and has prompted the realization that traditional higher ed "business models" may be unsustainable. Predicting a shakeout, most presidents expressed confidence for their own school's ability to…

  8. Temporal and spatial patterns of endogenous danger signal expression after wound healing and in response to lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Zampell, Jamie C; Yan, Alan; Avraham, Tomer; Andrade, Victor; Malliaris, Stephanie; Aschen, Seth; Rockson, Stanley G; Mehrara, Babak J

    2011-05-01

    While acute tissue injury potently induces endogenous danger signal expression, the role of these molecules in chronic wound healing and lymphedema is undefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the endogenous danger signals high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and heat shock protein (HSP)70 during wound healing and chronic lymphatic fluid stasis. In a surgical mouse tail model of tissue injury and lymphedema, HMGB1 and HSP70 expression occurred along a spatial gradient relative to the site of injury, with peak expression at the wound and greater than twofold reduced expression within 5 mm (P < 0.05). Expression primarily occurred in cells native to injured tissue. In particular, HMGB1 was highly expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (>40% positivity; twofold increase in chronic inflammation, P < 0.001). We found similar findings using a peritoneal inflammation model. Interestingly, upregulation of HMGB1 (2.2-fold), HSP70 (1.4-fold), and nuclear factor (NF)-κβ activation persisted at least 6 wk postoperatively only in lymphedematous tissues. Similarly, we found upregulation of endogenous danger signals in soft tissue of the arm after axillary lymphadenectomy in a mouse model and in matched biopsy samples obtained from patients with secondary lymphedema comparing normal to lymphedematous arms (2.4-fold increased HMGB1, 1.9-fold increased HSP70; P < 0.01). Finally, HMGB1 blockade significantly reduced inflammatory lymphangiogenesis within inflamed draining lymph nodes (35% reduction, P < 0.01). In conclusion, HMGB1 and HSP70 are expressed along spatial gradients and upregulated in chronic lymphatic fluid stasis. Furthermore, acute expression of endogenous danger signals may play a role in inflammatory lymphangiogenesis.

  9. Higher Education in the USSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyev, A. Y.; And Others

    This monograph describes the system of higher education in the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The preface points out that despite perestroika, two features of Soviet education persist, a high degree of unity and centralization and a close link between higher education and employers. Chapter 1, "Historical Overview," begins…

  10. Factors influencing the expression of endogenous reverse transcriptases and viral-like 30 elements in mouse NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tzavaras, Theodore; Eftaxia, Sofia; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Hatzi, Paraskevi; Angelidis, Charalambos

    2003-10-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a definite role in retroviral life cycle and is essential for the process of retrotransposition. We investigated the RNA expression of endogenous reverse transcriptases (enRTs) in the NIH3T3 mouse genome using, as a probe, a mixture of RT-PCR generated reverse transcriptase products potentially detecting a large number of RTs following treatment with different agents. We found that the expression of enRTs is induced approximately 500-fold following 5'-azacytidine-treatment. Amongst steroid hormones used such as estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, progesterone and dexamethasone only the latter was effective in inducing enRTs up to 4-fold at a concentration of 10(-7) M. Expression of a mouse dominant-negative form of p53 protein in cell clones resulted in induction of 20- to 50-fold, whereas C2-ceramide in a 4-fold induction at concentrations of 20-80 micro M. In a parallel analysis, the respective expression of the transposable viral-like 30 elements (VL30s) was also measured. Their expression was induced up to 50-fold by 5'-azacytidine, overexpression of the p53 gene and C2-ceramide at 80 micro M. It was also induced approximately 3- to 5-fold following estradiol, diethylstilbestrol or progesterone treatment and 30-fold by dexamethasone. Collectively, our results suggest that such stimuli inducing enRTs might play a role in the activation of transcription and retrotransposition of VL30.

  11. The Higher Education Research Archipelago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

  12. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  13. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  14. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  15. Directory of Higher Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This directory lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of members of higher education organizations in the state of Illinois. Included for the Illinois Board of Higher Education is an organization chart, list of board and staff members, and a list of members of the Illinois Century Network. Board members and administrative officers are…

  16. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  17. Latino Males in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  18. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities…

  19. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  20. Canuck-Do Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a…

  1. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  2. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  3. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  4. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  5. Innovation Processes in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Barbro; Ostergren, Bertil

    1979-01-01

    Innovation processes in the Swedish Higher Education System are described and related to a general theory of innovation. Using the theories of Kurt Lewin, characteristics of higher education as a social system and factors which determine the nature of the forces towards a certain type of change are defined. (JMF)

  6. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  7. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  8. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  9. Higher Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, R. A.

    There are two sectors of higher education in the Netherlands: the universities covered by the University Education Act and the vocationally-oriented colleges covered by the Further Education Act. Following a summary of the main elements of secondary education, higher or tertiary education is defined. Thirteen universities and non-university…

  10. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  11. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  12. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  13. Afrocentricity: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses some ideas about how Afrocentricity can be promoted and integrated in institutions of higher education in the United States. It argues that Afrocentricity offers an alternative to the more dominant Eurocentric view found in higher education and the world and states that the Eurocentric view subscribes to itself exclusive rights to…

  14. Strategy Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions educate those who are the most talented and best able to secure the future for the next generation. This study examines an efficient strategy process in higher education and emphasises the importance of sufficient dialogue during the process. The study describes the strategy process of the Turku University of Applied…

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

  16. Higher Education and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shirley M.

    1993-01-01

    Higher education has related asynchronously to recent cycles in social movements affecting school reform. Current efforts in Oregon illustrate this pattern in public colleges. Although higher education is not likely to overcome its skepticism of reform dynamics, there is both reason and potential for promising alliances with schools. (Author/MSE)

  17. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

  18. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  19. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  20. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  1. Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    In "Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education," Henry C. Eyring, a junior majoring in Economics at Brigham Young University-Idaho, argues that one way that the U.S. can compete globally in college attainment is to decrease cost-per-graduate. He explains how many stakeholders in higher education stand to benefit from unexploited…

  2. History of Higher Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. Institutions. The first paper is: "The Articulation of Secondary and Higher Education: Four Historical Models at the University of Georgia" (J. Patrick McCarthy), which discusses the efforts of…

  3. Who's Expressing in "Expressive Writing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Janine

    In an attempt to understand what expressive writing means to themselves and to their students, teachers should explore and reflect on various questions regarding expressive writing theories and practices. For many, self-expression is the basis of all serious writing and an important stage in any act of learning, so it is essential to uncover the…

  4. Symbiotic Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecky, Robert; Herhut, Stephan; Scholz, Sven-Bodo

    We introduce symbiotic expressions, a method for algebraic simplification within a compiler, in lieu of an SMT solver, such as Yices or the Omega Calculator. Symbiotic expressions are compiler-generated expressions, temporarily injected into a program's abstract syntax tree (AST). The compiler's normal optimizations interpret and simplify those expressions, making their results available for the compiler to use as a basis for decisions about further optimization of the source program. The expressions are symbiotic, in the sense that both parties benefit: an optimization benefits, by using the compiler itself to simplify expressions that have been attached, lamprey-like, to the AST by the optimization; the program being compiled benefits, from improved run-time in both serial and parallel environments.

  5. α-Phellandrene alters expression of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle, and apoptosis in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Jyh; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chang, Shu-Jen; Yu, Fu-Shun; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-08-01

    α-phellandrene (α-PA) is a cyclic monoterpene, present in natural plants such as Schinus molle L. α-PA promotes immune responses in mice in vivo. However, there is no available information on whether α-PA affects gene expression in leukemia cells. The present study determined effects of α-PA on expression levels of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptotic cell death in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells. WEHI-3 cells were treated with 10 μM α-PA for 24 h, cells were harvested and total RNA was extracted, and gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results indicated that α-PA up-regulated 10 genes 4-fold, 13 by over 3-fold and 175 by over 2-fold; 21 genes were down-regulated by over 4-fold, 26 genes by over 3-fold and expression of 204 genes was altered by at leas 2-fold compared with the untreated control cells. DNA damage-associated genes such as DNA damage-inducer transcript 4 and DNA fragmentation factor were up-regulated by 4-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; cell-cycle check point genes such as cyclin G2 and cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor 2D and IA (p21) were up-regulated by over 3-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; apoptosis-associated genes such as BCL2/adenovirus EIB interacting protein 3, XIAP-associated factor 1, BCL2 modifying factor, caspase-8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator were over 2-fold up-regulated. Furthermore, DNA damage-associated gene TATA box binding protein was over 4-fold down-regulated, and D19Ertd652c (DNA segment) over 2-fold down-regulated; cell cycle-associated gene cyclin E2 was over 2-fold down-regulated; apoptosis associated gene growth arrest-specific 5 was over 9-fold down-regulated, Gm5426 (ATP synthase) was over 3-fold down-regulated, and death box polypeptide 33 was over 2-fold down-regulated. Based on these observations, α-PA altered gene expression in WEHI-3 cells in vitro.

  6. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    PubMed

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (P<0.0001) expressions were influenced by a biotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds

  7. Expression of circadian gens in different rat tissues is sensitive marker of in vivo silver nanoparticles action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchenko, D. O.; Yavorovsky, O. P.; Zinchenko, T. O.; Komisarenko, S. V.; Minchenko, O. H.

    2012-09-01

    day after treatment of rats with silver nanoparticles. It was also shown that expression level of PFKFB4, a key enzyme of glycolysis regulation, gradually reduces in the brain from 1st to 14th day being up to 4 fold less on 14th day after treatment of animals with silver nanoparticles. Thus, the intratracheally instilled silver nanoparticles significantly affect the expression of PER1, PER2, ARNTL, and CLOCK genes which are an important molecular component of circadian clock system. This is because a disruption of the circadian processes leads to a development of various pathologic processes. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that circadian genes could be a sensitive test for detection of silver nanoparticles toxic action and suggest that more caution is needed in biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles as well as higher level of safety in silver nanoparticles production industry.

  8. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  9. Promoter/leader deletion analysis and plant expression vectors with the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) full length transcript (FLt) promoter containing single or double enhancer domains.

    PubMed

    Maiti, I B; Gowda, S; Kiernan, J; Ghosh, S K; Shepherd, R J

    1997-03-01

    The boundaries required for maximal expression from the promoter/leader region of the full length transcript of figwort mosaic virus (FLt promoter) coupled to reporter genes were defined by 5' and 3' deletion analyses. In transient expression assays using protoplasts of Nicotiana edwardsonii, a 314 bp FLt promoter fragment sequence (-249 to +65 from the transcription start site) was sufficient for strong expression activity. Plant expression vectors developed with modified FLt promoters were tested with GUS or CAT as reporter genes in transgenic plants. The FLt promoter is a strong constitutive promoter, with strength comparable to or greater than that of the CaMV 35S promoter. The FLt promoter with its double enhancer domain linked to GUS or CAT reporter genes provides an average 4-fold greater activity than the FLt promoter with a single enhancer domain (-55 to -249 bp upstream fragment) in tests with transgenic plants and in protoplast transient expression assays.

  10. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  11. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  12. Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The…

  13. Expression of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 is associated with prognosis of Wilms’ tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengyin; Li, Wenyi; Wang, Lie; Jiao, Changfeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study was undertaken to explore the clinical and prognostic value of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) expression in Wilms’ tumor. Methods Seventy-six patients with Wilms’ tumor in Qilu Hospital from January 2003 to July 2009 were enrolled in the study. Protein expression level of PRL-3 was examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between PRL-3 expression and histopathological parameters, clinical variables, and outcome of patients with Wilms’ tumor were analyzed. Results We found that 19% of patients with unfavorable histology had tumor recurrence and 16% of patients died following the operation. PRL-3 was expressed in 15 out of 76 tumors (19%) and expressed highly in unfavorable histology Wilms’ tumor (P=0.04). PRL-3 protein expression level was correlated to 2.5-fold increase in recurrence rate of Wilms’ tumor (P=0.06) without any statistically significant difference. However, in favorable histology Wilms’ tumor, PRL-3 expression was correlated to an increase of 3.4-fold in recurrence rate (P=0.03). Conclusion The expression of PRL-3 protein was correlated with an increased recurrence rate of favorable histology Wilms’ tumor. PRL-3 may serve as a promising biomarker for predicting patients with high risk of Wilms’ tumor. Further investigations are warranted to investigate the clinical function of PRL-3 in Wilms’ tumor. PMID:28138254

  14. Genes overexpressed in different human solid cancers exhibit different tissue-specific expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Lotem, Joseph; Sachs, Leo; Domany, Eytan

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed gene expression in different normal human tissues and different types of solid cancers derived from these tissues. The cancers analyzed include brain (astrocytoma and glioblastoma), breast, colon, endometrium, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, skin, and thyroid cancers. Comparing gene expression in each normal tissue to 12 other normal tissues, we identified 4,917 tissue-selective genes that were selectively expressed in different normal tissues. We also identified 2,929 genes that are overexpressed at least 4-fold in the cancers compared with the normal tissue from which these cancers were derived. The overlap between these two gene groups identified 1,340 tissue-selective genes that are overexpressed in cancers. Different types of cancers, including different brain cancers arising from the same lineage, showed differences in the tissue-selective genes they overexpressed. Melanomas overexpressed the highest number of brain-selective genes and this may contribute to melanoma metastasis to the brain. Of all of the genes with tissue-selective expression, those selectively expressed in testis showed the highest frequency of genes that are overexpressed in at least two types of cancer. However, colon and prostate cancers did not overexpress any testis-selective gene. Nearly all of the genes with tissue-selective expression that are overexpressed in cancers showed selective expression in tissues different from the cancers' tissue of origin. Cancers aberrantly expressing such genes may acquire phenotypic alterations that contribute to cancer cell viability, growth, and metastasis. PMID:17664417

  15. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  16. Expression and characterization of a histidine-rich protein, Hpn: potential for Ni2+ storage in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ruiguang; Watt, Rory M.; Sun, Xuesong; Tanner, Julian A.; He, Qing-Yu; Huang, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hongzhe

    2005-01-01

    Hpn is a small cytoplasmic protein found in Helicobacter pylori, which binds Ni2+ ions with moderate affinity. Consisting of 60 amino acids, the protein is rich in histidine (28 residues, 46.7%), as well as glutamate, glycine and serine residues (in total 31.7%), and contains short repeating motifs. In the present study, we report the detailed biophysical characterization of the multimeric status and Ni2+-binding properties of purified recombinant Hpn under physiologically relevant conditions. The protein exists as an equilibration of multimeric forms in solution, with 20-mers (approx. 136 kDa) being the predominant species. Using equilibrium dialysis, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma MS) and UV/visible spectroscopy, Hpn was found to bind five Ni2+ ions per monomer at pH 7.4, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 7.1 μM. Importantly, Ni2+ binding to Hpn is reversible: metal is released either in the presence of a chelating ligand such as EDTA, or at a slightly acidic pH (pH for half dissociation, pH1/2 ∼6.3). Ni2+ binding induces conformational changes within the protein, increasing β-sheet and reducing α-helical content, from 22% to 37%, and 20% to 10% respectively. Growth curves of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) both with and without the hpn gene performed under Ni2+ pressure clearly implied a role for Hpn to protect the cells from higher concentrations of external metal ions. Similarly, the accumulation of Ni2+ in these cells expressing Hpn from a plasmid was approx. 4-fold higher than in uninduced controls or control cultures that lacked the plasmid. Similarly, levels of Ni2+ in wild-type H. pylori 26695 cells were higher than those in H. pylori hpn-deletion mutant strains. Hpn may potentially serve multiple roles inside the bacterium: storage of Ni2+ ions in a ‘reservoir’; donation of Ni2+ to other proteins; and detoxification via sequestration of excess Ni2+. PMID:16164421

  17. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  18. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight. While known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. Three different doses of gamma radiation (50 mGy - 6.05 Gy) and a sham were administered to groups of 6 mice each, and after various intervals of recovery time, liver gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair enzymes. Results indicated approx.65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post-treatment. With 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, Cyp17a1 showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days.

  19. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  20. Best Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel, Richard T.; Nanjiani, Nader

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the best practices for distance learning programs in higher education. Highlights include the planning stage, including institutional mission, business planning and financial issues, needs assessment, collaboration with other schools and businesses, and technology feasibility; and the implementation stages, including faculty support,…

  1. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  2. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  3. Leveraging Philanthropy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Frederic J.

    2007-01-01

    Looking at potential sources of funding for education reform, Frederic Fransen outlines the dynamics in play as a pragmatist might calculate the worthiness of a cause for his philanthropy. Preeminent is bang for the buck, of course. And though the way to reinvigorate the insatiable blob of higher education isn't readily apparent to Dr. Fransen,…

  4. Higher Education and Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Noella

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the feelings of displacement and alienation suffered by members of aboriginal groups who must leave their communities to attend institutions of higher education. Notes specific problems encountered by these individuals and suggests some solutions that can ameliorate the lack of cultural support in urban areas. (DSK)

  5. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  6. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  7. Spirituality and Contemporary Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Though religion played a central role in the founding of U.S. higher education, over the centuries, its influence was diluted by competing secular emphases. In recent decades, religion has seen a resurgence in academic and co-curricular attention on campuses. In addition, a spirituality not based on religion has gained increasing attention. The…

  8. Faculty Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for retaining or firing a highly qualified faculty in higher education in many cases are vague and unclear. This situation is neither a comfortable, nor a healthy, both for the faculty and the administration. Stakeholders have enough reason to blame each other in the absence of transparent mechanism. This paper proposes a transparent…

  9. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  10. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  11. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  12. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  13. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  14. Elevating the Higher Education Beat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    1998-01-01

    Problems in media coverage of higher education in New England are examined, noting high turnover in journalists covering colleges and universities and journalists' lack of time to visit campuses. What coverage there is appears to be focused heavily on a few prestigious institutions and state colleges where news is easily gathered from bureaucrats…

  15. Public Perceptions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, T. Brooke

    1993-01-01

    States that the importance of higher education on Great Britain's economic and social fortunes is appreciated by academics but not by the general public. Reviews public relations efforts by universities in France, Germany, and the United States and recommends more effective public relations efforts by British universities. (CFR)

  16. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  17. Higher Education and Governmental Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manahan, Richard A.

    1978-01-01

    Legislators and higher education leaders need to recognize that there will probably always be conflict and tension between them, but both must attempt to keep this conflict and tension under control and direct it so as to provide a constructive relationship. (Author/IRT)

  18. Social Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric; Jackson, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past half century, scholars in a variety of fields have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between higher education and social stratification. We review this literature, highlighting complementarities and inconsistencies. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We situate our review of the…

  19. Cleanliness & Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jeffrey L.; Bigger, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 APPA published a seminal work titled "Custodial Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities." The work was based on a concept that was in the embryonic stage in 1986 and then grew in momentum through 1988 when the APPA Board of Directors commissioned a task force to address custodial staffing issues at institutions of higher education.…

  20. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  1. Higher Education Law: The Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskanzer, Steven G.

    Legal requirements and lawsuits have become an established part of the U.S. higher education. This book was written to help faculty and administrators navigate critical legal issues pertaining to faculty activities and avoid potential legal pitfalls. The chapters are: (1) The Lay of the Land; (2) Scholarship; (3) In the Classroom; (4) Faculty as…

  2. Student Influence and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juola, Arvo E.

    Since 1965, student views and feelings have influenced great changes in higher education, sometimes to the detriment of long-term interests in academic institutions and colleges. One conspicuous recent trend is the desire of college students for more influence, impact, or power. Other prevalent attitudes may be characterized as a desire to be…

  3. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  4. Aptitude Tests for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two research studies reported in the three publications discussed in this article had their origins in discussions of the Robbins Committee prior to 1963. Two of the Committee's recommendations related to possible changes in the selection of students for higher education. (Author/RK)

  5. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  6. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  7. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  8. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  9. Art in American Higher Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.

    This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…

  10. The Governors and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, L. Edward, Ed.; Beyle, Thad L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between higher education and governors and state government is explored in eight articles. Brief introductions are provided by Samuel K. Gove of the University of Illinois and Governor Lamar Alexander, who served as a National Governors' Association chairman. An overview of the 1985 Wingspread Conference, which focused on the…

  11. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  12. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manvelyan, Ruben; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-05-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  13. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  14. Women in Higher Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

  15. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the…

  16. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  17. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  18. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  19. Higher Education Space: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

  20. Social Justice and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Massification of higher education has not been able to solve societal issues in the UK to the extent originally envisaged. Whilst universities have achieved increased student numbers and widened participation from various societal groups, those coming from socially disadvantaged groups can still often have a very different experience of university…

  1. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  2. Systems Applications in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schure, Alexander

    This paper discusses the application of computers for higher education and describes a philosophy and initial application of an accountability system that can aid in coping with the problems of occupationally related schools. Discussed are: (1) the role of computers in systems application; (2) the need for systems related information: the…

  3. History of Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This annual publication presents six articles on historical aspects of higher education. The first article is "The Urban Catholic University in the Early Twentieth Century: A Social Profile of DePaul, 1898-1940" by John L. Rury. It traces student characteristics during this period from primarily the sons (and later daughters) of European…

  4. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study…

  5. Digital Resilience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

  6. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  7. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  8. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  9. What's Ahead for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, William H.

    Forces that will greatly affect higher education in the 1980s are described, and trends during the 1970s are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on educational finance. During the 1970s, the number of students increased by 24.3 percent, total educational and general revenues more than doubled, the state's proportion of these revenues rose by 5.2…

  10. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Legislative actions pertaining to Washington public higher education during the last two years are described. The reports list the major resolutions passed, laws enacted, and legislative appropriations. State legislation dealt with: establishment of the Washington library network; retirement systems; bookkeeping transactions; travel expenses; bond…

  11. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  12. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues"…

  13. Higher Education: A Global Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranton, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Although college faculty cope with changing higher education (technological innovation, larger classes, student needs, preparation for the workplace), they are also being challenged to pay more attention to teaching. Developing an international perspective can help, by promoting an understanding that those in other cultures face similar issues and…

  14. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at…

  15. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  16. Equity, Envy, and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandra R.; Schwartz, Saul

    1986-01-01

    Develops and tests an empirical measure of fairness and envy over access to higher education for 12,000 high school students. Results suggest that, given the existence of current government subsidies, financial barriers do not prevent a significant number of high school graduates from attending college. (Author/TRS)

  17. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

  18. Wanted: Successful Higher Education Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, Maryann; Grills, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an expert roundtable's list of desirable qualities for higher education managers: strong leadership, ability to teach others, ability to develop a cadre of people who can carry out the mission, partnering well with outsiders, managing well, adaptability, being a change agent, understanding the competition, and having an entrepreneurial…

  19. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  20. SU(2) WZW theory at higher genera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawędzki, Krzysztof

    1995-05-01

    We compute, by free field techniques, the scalar product of the SU(2) Chern-Simons states on genus >1 surfaces. The result is a finite-dimensional integral over positions of “screening charges” and one complex modular parameter. It uses an effective description of the CS states closely related to the one worked out by Bertram [1]. The scalar product formula allows to express the higher genus partition functions of the WZW conformal field theory by finite-dimensional integrals. It should provide the hermitian metric preserved by the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard connection describing the variations of the CS states under the change of the complex structure of the surface.

  1. Higher order correlations of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Szapudi, Istvan; Szalay, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    The higher order irreducible angular correlation functions are derived up to the eight-point function, for a sample of 4654 IRAS galaxies, flux-limited at 1.2 Jy in the 60 microns band. The correlations are generally found to be somewhat weaker than those for the optically selected galaxies, consistent with the visual impression of looser clusters in the IRAS sample. It is found that the N-point correlation functions can be expressed as the symmetric sum of products of N - 1 two-point functions, although the correlations above the four-point function are consistent with zero. The coefficients are consistent with the hierarchical clustering scenario as modeled by Hamilton and by Schaeffer.

  2. Hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Song, Q.H.

    2010-04-16

    Angiogenesis and apoptosis are reciprocal processes in endothelial cells. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, has been found to have angiogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion mouse model was used and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Bcl-2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner in response to hypoxia from 2 to 72 h. Peak expression occurred at 12 h (3- to 4-fold, p < 0.05). p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression, whereas PKC, ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors did not. Knockdown of Bcl-2 resulted in decreased HAECs' proliferation and migration. Over-expression of Bcl-2 increased HAECs' tubule formation, whereas knockdown of Bcl-2 inhibited this process. In this model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, Bcl-2 expression was increased and was associated with increased p38 MAPK activation. Our results showed that hypoxia induces Bcl-2 expression in HAECs via p38 MAPK pathway.

  3. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  4. Charged gravastars in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Rahaman, F.; Guha, B. K.; Ray, Saibal

    2017-04-01

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell space-time. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar [1,2] have been observed as a competent alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. The outer region of the charged gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner-Nordström black hole. In connection to this junction conditions, therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical features. However, overall observational survey of the results also provide probable indication of non-applicability of higher dimensional approach for construction of a gravastar with or without charge from an ordinary 4-dimensional seed as far as physical ground is concerned.

  5. Topologically massive higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2011-10-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the presence of a non-trivial trace and its logarithmic partner at the chiral point. The trace modes carry energy opposite in sign to the traceless modes. The logarithmic partner of the traceless mode carries negative energy indicating an instability at the chiral point. We make several comments on the asymptotic symmetry and its possible deformations at this chiral point and speculate on the higher spin generalisation of LCFT2 dual to the spin-3 massive gravity at the chiral point.

  6. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.

  7. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part I: A Cross-Laboratory Comparison of Transporter-Protein Abundances and Relative Expression Factors in Human Intestine and Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Matthew D; Achour, Brahim; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Russell, Matthew R; Carlson, Gordon; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 5 years the quantification of transporter-protein absolute abundances has dramatically increased in parallel to the expanded use of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK)-linked models, for decision-making in pharmaceutical company drug development pipelines and regulatory submissions. Although several research groups have developed laboratory-specific proteomic workflows, it is unclear if the large range of reported variability is founded on true interindividual variability or experimental variability resulting from sample preparation or the proteomic methodology used. To assess the potential for methodological bias on end-point abundance quantification, two independent laboratories, the University of Manchester (UoM) and Bertin Pharma (BPh), employing different proteomic workflows, quantified the absolute abundances of Na/K-ATPase, P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the same set of biologic samples from human intestinal and Caco-2 cell membranes. Across all samples, P-gp abundances were significantly correlated (P = 0.04, Rs = 0.72) with a 2.4-fold higher abundance (P = 0.001) generated at UoM compared with BPh. There was a systematically higher BCRP abundance in Caco-2 cell samples quantified by BPh compared with UoM, but not in human intestinal samples. Consequently, a similar intestinal relative expression factor (REF), derived from distal jejunum and Caco-2 monolayer samples, between laboratories was found for P-gp. However, a 2-fold higher intestinal REF was generated by UoM (2.22) versus BPh (1.11). We demonstrate that differences in absolute protein abundance are evident between laboratories and they probably result from laboratory-specific methodologies relating to peptide choice.

  8. Epithelial but not stromal expression of collagen alpha-1(III) is a diagnostic and prognostic indicator of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qing; Tang, Zu-Xiong; Yu, Dong; Cui, Shu-Jian; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2016-02-23

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in males and the second in females worldwide with very poor prognosis. Collagen alpha-1(III) (COL3A1) gene, encoding an extracellular matrix protein, is upregulated in human cancers. Here, we revealed that COL3A1 was increased in CRC by analysis of five Oncomine gene expression datasets (n = 496). Immunohistochemistry analysis of a tissue microarray (n = 90) demonstrated that cancer epithelial but not stromal COL3A1 was significantly upregulated comparing with the normal counterparts. High COL3A1 mRNA and/or protein expression was accompanied with high stage, T stage, Dukes stage, grade and older age, as well as smoking and recurrence status. Upregulated COL3A1 predicted poor overall (p = 0.003) and disease-free (p = 0.025) survival. Increased epithelial but not stromal COL3A1 protein predicted worse outcome (p = 0.03). Older patients (age>65) with high COL3A1 had worse survival than younger (age≤65) with high COL3A1. Plasma COL3A1 was increased in CRC patients (n = 86) by 5.4 fold comparing with healthy individuals, enteritis and polyps patients. Plasma COL3A1 had an area under curve (AUC) of 0.92 and the best sensitivity/specificity of 98.8%/69.1%. While plasma CEA had a poorer prediction power (AUC = 0.791, sensitivity/selectivity = 70.2%/73.0%). Older patients (age≥60) had higher plasma COL3A1 than younger patients. The epithelial COL3A1 protein had an AUC of 0.975 and the best sensitivity/specificity of 95.2%/91.1%. Silencing of COL3A1 suppressed CRC cell proliferation in in vitro MTT assay and in in vivo Zebra fish xenograft model by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and WNT signaling. COL3A1 was a novel diagnosis and prognosis marker of CRC.

  9. Regulation of cell division in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant's essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  10. Opportunities for IPY Higher Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.

    2007-12-01

    A very rich network for higher education and outreach during the fourth International Polar Year (IPY) exists through the University of the Arctic (UArctic, www.uarctic.org), a collaborative consortium of more than ninety institutions e.g. universities, colleges, and other organizations committed to higher education and research in the North, as well as eighteen other projects submitted as Expression of Intents to the IPY Joint Committee formed into an IPY cluster. The coordination office for this UArctic IPY education outreach efforts is located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (www.uaf.edu and www.alaska.edu/ipy). The education outreach programs reflect a continuum of learning as a lifelong process that targets different audiences and approaches: 1) primary and secondary students through teacher professional development workshops on science teaching and research; 2) undergraduate students via education and research experience; 3) graduate students through integrated education and research; 4) early career scientists/university faculty via professional development; and 5) communities/ general public via continuing education/adult education either through formal or informal ways. Additionally there are organizations such as the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) and the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) including a newly formed group on tertiary education to nurture the next generation of polar and non-polar scientists and foster the leadership of the next IPY.

  11. Slug Expression during Melanoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Stephanie H.; Greene, Victoria R.; Duncan, Lyn M.; Torres Cabala, Carlos A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Kusewitt, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest. A role for Slug in the EMT-like loss of cell adhesion and increased cell motility exhibited during melanoma progression has also been proposed. Our immunohistochemical studies of melanoma arrays, however, revealed that Slug expression was actually higher in nevi than in primary or metastatic melanomas. Moreover, Slug expression in melanomas was not associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, the canonical Slug target in EMT. Comparisons of endogenous Slug and E-cadherin expression in cultured normal human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines supported our immunohistochemical findings. Expression of exogenous Slug in melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro, however, suppressed E-cadherin expression, enhanced N-cadherin expression, and stimulated cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, both in tumors and cultured cell lines, there was a clear relationship between expression of Slug and MITF, a transcription factor known to regulate Slug expression during development. Taken together, our findings suggest that Slug expression during melanomagenesis is highest early in the process and that persistent Slug expression is not required for melanoma progression. The precise role of Slug in melanomagenesis remains to be elucidated and may be related to its interactions with other drivers of EMT, such as Snail. PMID:22503751

  12. Adult Students in Higher Education: Classroom Experiences and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panacci, Adam G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores commonly expressed classroom experiences and needs of adult students who are participating in higher education primarily for career-related reasons while having other major responsibilities and roles. I will identify factors that affect their classroom experiences and needs and discuss implications for supporting their…

  13. Teachers' Conceptions of Student Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Isa; Haertel, Tobias; Wildt, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is one of the important skills of the twenty-first century and central to higher education (HE). When we look closer into research on creativity in HE, however, it is not clear how university teachers conceptualise student creativity. How do teachers grasp, observe and express student creativity? Different methods such as interviews and…

  14. Comparing Course Assessments: When Lower is Higher and Higher, Lower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dave; Dobele, Tony; Greber, Myles; Roberts, Tim

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an exercise in determining the cognitive difficulty of the assessment tasks in six computing courses within an Information Technology (IT) degree, importing Bloom's taxonomy from the field of educational psychology as an analytical framework. Three of the six courses comprise a Programming stream and three a Data Communications and Networking stream. Bloom's taxonomy is described and we present other studies within computer science based on it. Next, we introduce the courses that were selected for the study and describe the process of analysis. The aggregated results are then presented and some inferences made. The results indicate that the programming courses required a relatively higher cognitive level in assessment tasks compared to the data communications and networking courses. This outcome suggests the need for alternative approaches to assessment.

  15. Canonical bifurcation in higher derivative, higher spin, theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Ertl, S.; Grumiller, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present a non-perturbative canonical analysis of the D = 3 quadratic-curvature, yet ghost-free, model to exemplify a novel, ‘constraint bifurcation’, effect. Consequences include a jump in excitation count: a linearized level gauge variable is promoted to a dynamical one in the full theory. We illustrate these results with their concrete perturbative counterparts. They are of course mutually consistent, as are perturbative findings in related models. A geometrical interpretation in terms of propagating torsion reveals the model’s relation to an (improved) version of Einstein-Weyl gravity at the linearized level. Finally, we list some necessary conditions for triggering the bifurcation phenomenon in general interacting gauge systems. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  16. Higher-order uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, A.

    2006-07-01

    Using the non-negativity of Gram determinants of arbitrary order, we derive higher-order uncertainty relations for the symmetric uncertainty matrices of corresponding order n?>?2 to n Hermitean operators (n?=?2 is the usual case). The special cases of third-order and fourth-order uncertainty relations are considered in detail. The obtained third-order uncertainty relations are applied to the Lie groups SU(1,1) with three Hermitean basis operators (K1,K2,K0) and SU(2) with three Hermitean basis operators (J1,J2,J3) where, in particular, the group-coherent states of Perelomov type and of Barut Girardello type for SU(1,1) and the spin or atomic coherent states for SU(2) are investigated. The uncertainty relations for the determinant of the third-order uncertainty matrix are satisfied with the equality sign for coherent states and this determinant becomes vanishing for the Perelomov type of coherent states for SU(1,1) and SU(2). As an example of the application of fourth-order uncertainty relations, we consider the canonical operators (Q1,P1,Q2,P2) of two boson modes and the corresponding uncertainty matrix formed by the operators of the corresponding mean deviations, taking into account the correlations between the two modes. In two mathematical appendices, we prove the non-negativity of the determinant of correlation matrices of arbitrary order and clarify the principal structure of higher-order uncertainty relations.

  17. Roles for N-terminal extracellular domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) β3 subunits in enhanced functional expression of mouse α6β2β3- and α6β4β3-nAChRs.

    PubMed

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Li, Ming D; Lukas, Ronald J

    2014-10-10

    Functional heterologous expression of naturally expressed mouse α6*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mα6*-nAChRs; where "*" indicates the presence of additional subunits) has been difficult. Here we expressed and characterized wild-type (WT), gain-of-function, chimeric, or gain-of-function chimeric nAChR subunits, sometimes as hybrid nAChRs containing both human (h) and mouse (m) subunits, in Xenopus oocytes. Hybrid mα6mβ4hβ3- (∼ 5-8-fold) or WT mα6mβ4mβ3-nAChRs (∼ 2-fold) yielded higher function than mα6mβ4-nAChRs. Function was not detected when mα6 and mβ2 subunits were expressed together or in the additional presence of hβ3 or mβ3 subunits. However, function emerged upon expression of mα6mβ2mβ3(V9'S)-nAChRs containing β3 subunits having gain-of-function V9'S (valine to serine at the 9'-position) mutations in transmembrane domain II and was further elevated 9-fold when hβ3(V9'S) subunits were substituted for mβ3(V9'S) subunits. Studies involving WT or gain-of-function chimeric mouse/human β3 subunits narrowed the search for domains that influence functional expression of mα6*-nAChRs. Using hβ3 subunits as templates for site-directed mutagenesis studies, substitution with mβ3 subunit residues in extracellular N-terminal domain loops "C" (Glu(221) and Phe(223)), "E" (Ser(144) and Ser(148)), and "β2-β3" (Gln(94) and Glu(101)) increased function of mα6mβ2*- (∼ 2-3-fold) or mα6mβ4* (∼ 2-4-fold)-nAChRs. EC50 values for nicotine acting at mα6mβ4*-nAChR were unaffected by β3 subunit residue substitutions in loop C or E. Thus, amino acid residues located in primary (loop C) or complementary (loops β2-β3 and E) interfaces of β3 subunits are some of the molecular impediments for functional expression of mα6mβ2β3- or mα6mβ4β3-nAChRs.

  18. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  19. Zinc pyrithione induces apoptosis and increases expression of Bim.

    PubMed

    Mann, J J; Fraker, P J

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate herein that zinc pyrithione can induce apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations. Zinc pyrithione was a potent inducer of cell death causing greater than 40-60% apoptosis among murine thymocytes, murine splenic lymphocytes and human Ramos B and human Jurkat T cells. Conversely, the addition of a zinc chelator protected thymocytes against zinc pyrithione induced apoptosis indicating these responses were specific for zinc. Zinc-induced apoptosis was dependent on transcription and translation which suggested possible regulation by a proapoptotic protein. Indeed, zinc induced a 1.9 and 3.4 fold increase respectively in expression of the BimEL and BimL isoforms and also stimulated production of the most potent isoform, BimS. This increase in Bim isoform expression was dependent on transcription being blocked by treatment with actinomycin D. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL provided substantial protection of Ramos B and Jurkat T cells against zinc-induced apoptosis. Zinc also activated the caspase cascade demonstrated by cleavage of caspase 9. Addition of specific inhibitors for caspase 9 and caspase 3 also blocked zinc-induced apoptosis. The data herein adds to the growing evidence that free or unbound zinc could be harmful to cells of the immune system.

  20. Grand unification in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2003-07-01

    We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory— SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin 2θw=0.2313±0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M c≃5×10 14 GeV and M s≃1×10 17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10 34 years is expected with a variety of final states such as e+π0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating μ→ e and τ→ μ transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068, and hep-ph/0205067 [1-3].

  1. Higher order multipole magnet tolerances

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Lee, M.J.; Morton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to field impurities in the magnets in a storage ring or circular accelerator the values of the betatron frequencies for a given particle in a beam are dependent upon the energy and betatron amplitude of the particle as well as the values of the energy dispersion and betatron functions at the magnets. A method has been developed for finding the values of the betatron frequencies for any particle with given field impurities. This method has been used to study the quality of several preliminary designs of some of the quadrupole magnets in PEP by comparing the variations of the betatron frequencies over the maximum expected range of values of the particle energy and betatron amplitude. The expressions for the values of betatron frequencies as functions of the various beam and machine parameters are derived. Some of the results for the evaluation of two types of the PEP magnets are also presented. A discussion of these results is given as well. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Silicon transporters in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Feng

    2010-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exerts beneficial effects on plant growth and production by alleviating both biotic and abiotic stresses including diseases, pests, lodging, drought and nutrient imbalance. Silicon is taken up by the roots in the form ofsilicic acid, a noncharged molecule. Recently both influx (Lsil) and efflux (Lsi2) transporters for silicic acid have been identified in gramineous plants including rice, barley and maize. Lsil and its homologs are influx Si transporters, which belong to a Nod26-like major intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily in the aquaporin protein family. They are responsible for the transport of Si from the external solution to the root cells. On the other hand, Lsi2 and its homologs are efflux Si transporters, belonging to putative anion transporters and are responsible for the transport of Si out of the cells toward the xylem. All influx transporters show polar localization at the distal side. Among efflux transporters, Lsi2 in rice shows polar localization at the proximal side, but that in barley and maize does not show polar localization. The cell-specificity of localization of Si transporters and expression patterns are different between species. Rice Si transporters are also permeable to arsenite.

  3. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Markey, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  4. Effects of Argonaute on Gene Expression in Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Daan C.; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Westra, Edze R.; Schaap, Peter J.; van der Oost, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins mediate RNA-guided RNA interference, allowing both regulation of host gene expression and defense against invading mobile genetic elements. Recently, it has become evident that prokaryotic Argonaute homologs mediate DNA-guided DNA interference, and play a role in host defense. Argonaute of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtAgo) targets invading plasmid DNA during and after transformation. Using small interfering DNA guides, TtAgo can cleave single and double stranded DNAs. Although TtAgo additionally has been demonstrated to cleave RNA targets complementary to its DNA guide in vitro, RNA targeting by TtAgo has not been demonstrated in vivo. Methods To investigate if TtAgo also has the potential to control RNA levels, we analyzed RNA-seq data derived from cultures of four T. thermophilus strain HB27 variants: wild type, TtAgo knockout (Δago), and either strain transformed with a plasmid. Additionally we determined the effect of TtAgo on expression of plasmid-encoded RNA and plasmid DNA levels. Results In the absence of exogenous DNA (plasmid), TtAgo presence or absence had no effect on gene expression levels. When plasmid DNA is present, TtAgo reduces plasmid DNA levels 4-fold, and a corresponding reduction of plasmid gene transcript levels was observed. We therefore conclude that TtAgo interferes with plasmid DNA, but not with plasmid-encoded RNA. Interestingly, TtAgo presence stimulates expression of specific endogenous genes, but only when exogenous plasmid DNA was present. Specifically, the presence of TtAgo directly or indirectly stimulates expression of CRISPR loci and associated genes, some of which are involved in CRISPR adaptation. This suggests that TtAgo-mediated interference with plasmid DNA stimulates CRISPR adaptation. PMID:25902012

  5. NEWS: Higher education looks to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    Early this year UK universities and colleges were urged to prepare themselves for the 21st century and to meet the challenges of globalization and the knowledge economy. A major project to harness new technology in the provision of high quality teaching and learning, both in the UK and overseas, along with the introduction of the `Foundation degree' as a new vocationally focused route into higher education were both announced by the government's Education and Employment Secretary. The Higher Education Funding Council for England is to bring forward proposals for a new collaborative virtual venture: a consortium of `e-Universities'. This partnership between universities and the private sector will develop a novel means of distance learning through exploiting the information and communication technologies. Meanwhile, the new two-year Foundation degrees should enable more young people to benefit from higher education by the age of 30, particularly at the intermediate skills level. Courses could be offered in areas ranging from IT and finance to the creative industries, appealing to a wide range of students, and with the opportunity to progress to an honours degree with only a further 1.3 years of extra study. A HEFCE consultation paper setting out the background and objectives for the e-University project was sent to all institutions, inviting them to submit information on relevant current activities to the project's Steering Group. By July it is intended to publish a detailed programme for the e-University, with a full specification by the autumn, along with expressions of interest and a call for tenders. The formulation of the e-University partnership is intended for early in 2001. These activities have coincided with a cautionary announcement from the Association of University Teachers drawing attention to the lack of younger staff being recruited to posts in UK higher education. Almost a third of UK academics are aged over 50, with the figure in the `old

  6. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition

  7. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  8. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  9. Higher medical training in venereology.

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, C B

    1982-01-01

    In a review of the organisation of higher medical training in Britain leading to accreditation for those intending to specialize in venereology within the National Health Service suggestions are made for improving the present system. These include the enrollment of trainees in general medicine as well as in venereology to ensure a broad general experience of medicine. The establishment of an agreed curriculum in venereology for trainees is thought desirable. Improvement in undergraduate education in venereology is necessary if recruitment of trainees to the specialty is to be increased. The diploma courses in venereology are mainly attended by foreign graduates; the numbers are likely to be reduced by the recent heavy increases in fees. Although adequate practical experience of the tropical venereal diseases cannot be provided, these courses give a good general experience of venereology as ideally practised, much of which is relevant to the conditions under which the overseas trainees will have to work on return to their own countries. Secondment of our own trainees work in centres in developing countries as an approved part of their training would benefit both them and their hosts. PMID:6896008

  10. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  11. Quantization of higher spin fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

    2009-11-15

    In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

  12. Gene expression profiling of precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma identifies oncogenic pathways that are potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Wei; Aplan, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the gene expression pattern of thymic tumors from precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (pre-T LBL) that arose in transgenic mice which over-expressed SCL, LMO1, or NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) with that of thymocytes from normal littermates. Only two genes, Ccl8 and Mrpl38, were consistently more than 4-fold over-expressed in pre-T LBL from all three genotypes analyzed, and a single gene, Prss16 was consistently under-expressed. However, we identified a number of genes, such as Cfl1, Tcra, Tcrb, Pbx3, Eif4a, Eif4b, and Cox8b that were over or under-expressed in pre-T LBL that arose in specific transgenic lines. Similar to the situation seen with human pre-T LBL, the SCL/LMO1 leukemias displayed an expression profile consistent with mature, late cortical thymocytes, whereas the NHD13 leukemias displayed an expression profile more consistent with immature thymocytes. We evaluated two of the most differentially regulated genes as potential therapeutic targets. Cfl1 was specifically over-expressed in SCL-LMO1 tumors; inactivation of Cfl1 using Okadaic acid resulted in suppression of leukemic cell growth. Overexpression of Ccl8 was a consistent finding in all 3 transgenic lines, and an antagonist for the Ccl8 receptor induced death of leukemic cell lines, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:17429429

  13. ApoE suppresses atherosclerosis by reducing lipid accumulation in circulating monocytes and the expression of inflammatory molecules on monocytes and vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Gaudreault, Nathalie; Kumar, Nikit; Posada, Jessica M.; Stephens, Kyle B.; de Mochel, Nabora Soledad Reyes; Eberle, Delphine; Olivas, Victor R.; Kim, Roy Y.; Harms, Matthew J.; Johnson, Amy; Messina, Louis M.; Rapp, Joseph H.; Raffai, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated atheroprotective properties of apoE beyond its ability to lower plasma cholesterol. We hypothesized that apoE reduces atherosclerosis by decreasing lipid accumulation in circulating monocytes and the inflammatory state of monocytes and the vascular endothelium. Methods and Results We developed mice with spontaneous hyperlipidemia with and without plasma apoE: Hypomorphic apoE mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor (Apoeh/hLdlr–/–) were compared to Apoe–/–Ldlr–/– mice. Despite 4-fold more plasma apoE than WT mice, Apoeh/hLdlr–/– mice displayed similar plasma cholesterol as Apoe–/–Ldlr–/– mice but developed 4-fold less atherosclerotic lesions by 5 months of age. The aortic arch of Apoeh/hLdlr–/– mice showed decreased endothelial expression of ICAM-1, PECAM-1, and JAM-A. In addition, Apoeh/hLdlr–/– mice had less circulating leukocytes and pro-inflammatory Ly6Chigh monocytes. These monocytes had decreased neutral lipid content and reduced surface expression of ICAM-1, VLA-4, and L-Selectin. Apoeh/hLdlr–/– mice displayed increased levels of apoA1-rich HDL that were potent in promoting cellular cholesterol efflux. Conclusions Our findings suggest that apoE reduces atherosclerosis in the setting of hyperlipidemia by increasing plasma apoA1-HDL that likely contribute to reduce intracellular lipid accumulation and thereby the activation of circulating leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. PMID:22053073

  14. Overexpression of membrane proteins from higher eukaryotes in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Emmerstorfer, Anita; Wriessnegger, Tamara; Hirz, Melanie; Pichler, Harald

    2014-09-01

    Heterologous expression and characterisation of the membrane proteins of higher eukaryotes is of paramount interest in fundamental and applied research. Due to the rather simple and well-established methods for their genetic modification and cultivation, yeast cells are attractive host systems for recombinant protein production. This review provides an overview on the remarkable progress, and discusses pitfalls, in applying various yeast host strains for high-level expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins. In contrast to the cell lines of higher eukaryotes, yeasts permit efficient library screening methods. Modified yeasts are used as high-throughput screening tools for heterologous membrane protein functions or as benchmark for analysing drug-target relationships, e.g., by using yeasts as sensors. Furthermore, yeasts are powerful hosts for revealing interactions stabilising and/or activating membrane proteins. We also discuss the stress responses of yeasts upon heterologous expression of membrane proteins. Through co-expression of chaperones and/or optimising yeast cultivation and expression strategies, yield-optimised hosts have been created for membrane protein crystallography or efficient whole-cell production of fine chemicals.

  15. An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.

  16. Higher Education Literature Revisited: Citation Patterns Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Magnuson, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The discourse of the field of higher education is complex, as is its analysis. Citation analysis is means of examining communicative processes. This study investigates citations in the papers of three core journals in higher education, "Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education," and "Journal of Higher Education." The results…

  17. Increased expression of the diabetes gene SOX4 reduces insulin secretion by impaired fusion pore expansion

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stephan C.; Do, Hyun Woong; Hastoy, Benoit; Hugill, Alison; Adam, Julie; Chibalina, Margarita V.; Galvanovskis, Juris; Godazgar, Mahdieh; Lee, Sheena; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Salehi, Albert; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Rosengren, Anders H.; Cox, Roger; Rorsman, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox4 has been proposed to underlie the increased type-2 diabetes risk linked to an intronic SNP in CDKAL1. In a mouse model expressing a mutant form of Sox4, glucose-induced insulin secretion is reduced by 40% despite normal intracellular Ca2+ signalling and depolarization-evoked exocytosis. This paradox is explained by a 4-fold increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis (as determined by single-granule exocytosis measurements), in which the fusion pore connecting the granule lumen to the exterior only expands to a diameter of 2 nm that does not allow the exit of insulin. Microarray analysis indicated that this correlated with an increased expression of the exocytosis-regulating protein Stxbp6. In a large collection of human islet preparations (n=63), STXBP6 expression and GIIS correlated positively and negatively with SOX4 expression, respectively. Overexpression of SOX4 in the human insulin-secreting cell EndoC-βH2 interfered with granule emptying and inhibited hormone release, the latter effect was reversed by silencing of STXBP6. These data suggest that increased SOX4 expression inhibits insulin secretion and increased diabetes risk by upregulation of STXBP6 and an increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis at the expense of full fusion. We propose that pharmacological interventions promoting fusion pore expansion may be effective in diabetes therapy. PMID:26993066

  18. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J; Downs, Kevin P; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj<0.05) were identified as responsive to UVB. The molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus skin to UVB exposure permitted assessment of; (1) the basal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure.

  19. Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, M.J.; Stoltzfus, L.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Lawn, R.M.

    1994-03-15

    The atherogenic macromolecule lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has resisted in vivo analyses partly because it is found in a limited number of experimental animals. Although transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)] have previously been described, they failed to assemble Lp(a) particles because of the inability of human apo(a) to associate with mouse apolipoprotein B (apoB). The authors isolated a 90-kilobase P1 phagemid containing the human apoB gene and with this DNA generated 13 lines of transgenic mice of which 11 expressed human apoB. The human apoB transcript was expressed and edited in the liver of the transgenic mice. Plasma concentrations of human apoB, as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL), were related to transgene copy number; the transgenic line with the most copies of human apoB had a >4-fold increase in LDL cholesterol compared with nontransgenics and a lipoprotein profile similar to that of humans. When human apoB and apo(a) transgenic mice were bred together, plasma apo(a) in mice expressing both human proteins was tightly associated with lipoproteins in the LDL density region. These studies demonstrate the successful expression of human apoB and the efficient assembly of Lp(a) in mice.

  20. "Second Chance" Routes into Higher Education: Sweden, Norway and Germany Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Dominic; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Widening access to higher education is clearly part of the European policy agenda. Higher education ministers in the Bologna countries, as well as the European Commission, have all expressed a wish to make higher education more representative of national populations. This policy objective has been echoed at national level. One approach to widening…

  1. Funding in Higher Education and Economic Growth in France and the United Kingdom, 1921-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The UK 2004 Higher Education Act generated important debates about the relationships between higher education (HE), economic growth and social progress. The range of positions expressed in relation to the increase of annual tuition fees raises crucial questions about the public and private funding of higher education and its individual and social…

  2. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions.

  3. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions. PMID:27073904

  4. Gene Expression Profiling in the Type 1 Diabetes Rat Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    van Lunteren, Erik; Moyer, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Respiratory muscle contractile performance is impaired by diabetes, mechanisms of which included altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and changes in membrane electrophysiology. The present study examined to what extent these cellular perturbations involve changes in gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Diaphragm muscle from streptozotocin-diabetic rats was analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Diaphragm from diabetic rats had 105 genes with at least ±2-fold significantly changed expression (55 increased, 50 decreased), and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis using DAVID software. There was increased expression of genes involved in palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity (a component of lipid metabolism) (P = 0.037, n = 2 genes, fold change 4.2 to 27.5) and reduced expression of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism (P = 0.000061, n = 8 genes, fold change −2.0 to −8.5). Other gene ontology groups among upregulated genes were protein ubiquitination (P = 0.0053, n = 4, fold change 2.2 to 3.4), oxidoreductase activity (P = 0.024, n = 8, fold change 2.1 to 6.0), and morphogenesis (P = 0.012, n = 10, fold change 2.1 to 4.3). Other downregulated gene groups were extracellular region (including extracellular matrix and collagen) (P = 0.00032, n = 13, fold change −2.2 to −3.7) and organogenesis (P = 0.032, n = 7, fold change −2.1 to −3.7). Real-time PCR confirmed the directionality of changes in gene expression for 30 of 31 genes tested. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that in diaphragm muscle type 1 diabetes increases expression of genes involved in lipid energetics, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination, decreases expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and has little effect on expression of ion channel genes. Reciprocal changes in expression of genes involved in

  5. Aspects of general higher-order gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.; Min, Vincent S.; Visser, Manus R.

    2017-02-01

    We study several aspects of higher-order gravities constructed from general contractions of the Riemann tensor and the metric in arbitrary dimensions. First, we use the fast-linearization procedure presented in [P. Bueno and P. A. Cano, arXiv:1607.06463] to obtain the equations satisfied by the metric perturbation modes on a maximally symmetric background in the presence of matter and to classify L (Riemann ) theories according to their spectrum. Then, we linearize all theories up to quartic order in curvature and use this result to construct quartic versions of Einsteinian cubic gravity. In addition, we show that the most general cubic gravity constructed in a dimension-independent way and which does not propagate the ghostlike spin-2 mode (but can propagate the scalar) is a linear combination of f (Lovelock ) invariants, plus the Einsteinian cubic gravity term, plus a new ghost-free gravity term. Next, we construct the generalized Newton potential and the post-Newtonian parameter γ for general L (Riemann ) gravities in arbitrary dimensions, unveiling some interesting differences with respect to the four-dimensional case. We also study the emission and propagation of gravitational radiation from sources for these theories in four dimensions, providing a generalized formula for the power emitted. Finally, we review Wald's formalism for general L (Riemann ) theories and construct new explicit expressions for the relevant quantities involved. Many examples illustrate our calculations.

  6. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  7. Expression and Regulation of PIWIL-Proteins and PIWI-Interacting RNAs in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pleštilová, Lenka; Neidhart, Michel; Russo, Giancarlo; Frank-Bertoncelj, Mojca; Ospelt, Caroline; Ciurea, Adrian; Kolling, Christoph; Gay, Renate E.; Michel, Beat A.; Vencovský, Jiří; Gay, Steffen; Jüngel, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective The PIWIL (P-element induced wimpy testis like protein) subfamily of argonaute proteins is essential for Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis and their function to silence transposons during germ-line development. Here we explored their presence and regulation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The expression of PIWIL genes in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissues and synovial fibroblasts (SF) was analysed by Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. The expression of piRNAs was quantified by next generation small RNA sequencing (NGS). The regulation of PIWI/piRNAs, proliferation and methylation of LINE-1 after silencing of PIWIL genes were studied. Results PIWIL2 and 4 mRNA were similarly expressed in synovial tissues and SF from RA and OA patients. However, on the protein level only PIWIL4 was strongly expressed in SF. Using NGS up to 300 piRNAs were identified in all SF without significant differences in expression levels between RA and OASF. Of interest, the analysis of the co-expression of the detected piRNAs revealed a less tightly regulated pattern of piRNA-823, -4153 and -16659 expression in RASF. In RASF and OASF, stimulation with TNFα+IL1β/TLR-ligands further significantly increased the expression levels of PIWIL2 and 4 mRNA and piRNA-16659 was significantly (4-fold) induced upon Poly(I:C) stimulation. Silencing of PIWIL2/4 neither affect LINE-1 methylation/expression nor proliferation of RASF. Conclusion We detected a new class of small regulatory RNAs (piRNAs) and their specific binding partners (PIWIL2/4) in synovial fibroblasts. The differential regulation of co-expression of piRNAs in RASF and the induction of piRNA/Piwi-proteins by innate immune stimulators suggest a role in inflammatory processes. PMID:27893851

  8. Optimal expression condition of recombinant RAP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Bi, Hao; Liu, Zhiguo; Guo, Jianli; Qu, Shen

    2007-02-01

    In order to construct the expression recombinant of human receptor associated protein (RAP), optimize its expression condition and obtain the recombinant protein after expression with high efficiency, two prokaryotic expression vectors-pT7-PL and pET-28a(+) were used to construct the expression recombinant containing RAP cDNA, and the expression efficiency of two kinds of expression E. coli of BL21 strains was compared. The effect of different induction conditions on the expression of recombinant RAP was observed. After recombinant protein was purified with Ni(+) -nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni(+) -NTA) affinity chromatogram, its binding ability with microphage was observed. The results showed that two recombinant plasmids both obtained high expression of RAP. The expression levels of RAP in plasmid pT7-PL-RAP in BL21 (DE3, plysS) strain were significantly higher than in BL21 (DE3) strain. The expression of pT7-PL-RAP in the presence of chloramphenicol was higher than in the absence of chloramphenicol, and most of the inducible expressed RAP was soluble. The RAP which was purified by Ni(+) -NTA resin could strongly bind with the RAW264.7 cells rich in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family receptors. It was concluded that the expression condition of recombinant RAP was optimized and functional RAP was obtained, which offered a good foundation for the further production of RAP as research tool.

  9. Rescue of splicing-mediated intron loss maximizes expression in lentiviral vectors containing the human ubiquitin C promoter.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Aaron R; Lill, Georgia R; Gschweng, Eric H; Kohn, Donald B

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors almost universally use heterologous internal promoters to express transgenes. One of the most commonly used promoter fragments is a 1.2-kb sequence from the human ubiquitin C (UBC) gene, encompassing the promoter, some enhancers, first exon, first intron and a small part of the second exon of UBC. Because splicing can occur after transcription of the vector genome during vector production, we investigated whether the intron within the UBC promoter fragment is faithfully transmitted to target cells. Genetic analysis revealed that more than 80% of proviral forms lack the intron of the UBC promoter. The human elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1A1) promoter fragment intron was not lost during lentiviral packaging, and this difference between the UBC and EEF1A1 promoter introns was conferred by promoter exonic sequences. UBC promoter intron loss caused a 4-fold reduction in transgene expression. Movement of the expression cassette to the opposite strand prevented intron loss and restored full expression. This increase in expression was mostly due to non-classical enhancer activity within the intron, and movement of putative intronic enhancer sequences to multiple promoter-proximal sites actually repressed expression. Reversal of the UBC promoter also prevented intron loss and restored full expression in bidirectional lentiviral vectors.

  10. Altered expression of G1/S regulatory genes occurs early and frequently in lung carcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-beta1 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang; Ozbun, Laurent L; Angdisen, Jerry; Moody, Terry W; Prentice, Margaret; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Jakowlew, Sonia B

    2002-07-01

    We developed the AJBL6 transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) heterozygous (HT) mouse by mating A/J mice with C57BL/6 TGF-beta1 HT mice that shows increased carcinogen-induced lung lesions with decreased latency to examine progressive events in lung tumorigenesis. Mouse cDNA macroarrays were used to identify cell cycle genes that are differentially regulated in ethyl carbamate-induced lung adenocarcinomas compared with normal lung tissue in AJBL6 TGF-beta1 HT mice using probes that were generated from tissues isolated using laser capture microdissection. While expression of the genes for cyclin D1, CDK4, and E2F1 increased in lung adenocarcinomas relative to normal lung, expression of p15(Ink4b), p16(Ink4a), p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2), and pRb genes decreased in comparison. Competitive RT-PCR showed that the levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 mRNAs were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, in lung adenocarcinomas than in normal lung, while the mRNAs for p15(Ink4b), p16(Ink4a), p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and pRb were 3- to 4-fold lower in adenocarcinomas than in normal lung, thus validating the macroarray findings. Competitive RT-PCR of microdissected lesions also showed that the levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 mRNAs increased significantly, while the mRNAs for p15(Ink4b) and p27(Kip1) decreased significantly as lung tumorigenesis progressed. Immunohistochemical staining for cyclin D1 and CDK4 showed staining in >80% of nuclei in adenocarcinomas compared with fewer than 20% of nuclei staining positively in normal lung. In contrast, while >60% of normal lung cells showed immunostaining for p15(Ink4b), p16(Ink4a), p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and pRb, staining for these proteins decreased in hyperplasias, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. These data show that multiple components of the cyclin D1/CDK4/p16(Ink4a)/pRb signaling pathway are frequently altered early in lung lesions of AJBL6 TGF-beta1 HT mice that are induced by ethyl carbamate as a function of progressive lung

  11. Humanistic Invention in Expressive Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipes, Wilson Currin

    The humanistic value of expressive discourse should form the basis for reinstating composition in the curricula of higher education. Educators must realize that the process of thinking that goes on before an assertion or statement of purpose is written is related to the familiar prewriting concept; that approaches to invention are as various as…

  12. On Advanced Knowledge and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongjie

    2009-01-01

    Advanced knowledge is the basis for higher education, but less research on higher education deals with it. The essay elaborates on the major point in several ways: first, the practice-oriented higher education research tends to ignore advanced knowledge; secondly, higher education shall never turn a blind eye to advanced knowledge due to their…

  13. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in…

  14. Regional Profiles of Higher Education, 2001. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This is the third annual edition of the regional profiles of higher education. As in previous editions, this report sets out a range of data on the pattern of higher education in each of the nine regions of England. The regional dimension of higher education continues to grow in importance. Higher education in England retains its core academic and…

  15. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  16. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  17. Illinois Higher Education Annual Report, May 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report presents information about the state of higher education in Illinois. Higher education entered the year 2000 with a full agenda and ended it as the top-rated system of higher education in a new national report card, "Measuring Up 2000" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education). Illinois received "A's in…

  18. Enhancement in gastric mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor expression by sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Piotrowski, J; Czajkowski, A; Murty, V L; Majka, J; Slomiany, A

    1994-05-01

    The effect of intragastric administration of sulglycotide, a cytoprotective sulfated glycopeptide, on the expression of gastric mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor was investigated. The experiments were conducted with groups of rats, one receiving twice daily for 5 consecutive days a dose of 200mg/kg sulglycotide, and the other only vehicle. Mucosal cell membranes were isolated from the stomachs at 16, 40 and 88h after the last dose, and used for EGF receptor assays. The binding assays revealed a marked increase in mucosal EGF receptor expression with sulglycotide. Compared to the controls, the sulglycotide-treated group showed a 4-fold increase in the EGF receptor expression at 16h after the last dose of sulglycotide, a 4.7-fold increase in the EGF receptor was observed by the 40h, and a 4.2-fold increase was still evident at 88h following the treatment. The results demonstrate that sulglycotide exhibits remarkable ability to enhance the gastric mucosal expression of EGF receptor.

  19. Cloning and characterization of a gibberellin-induced RNase expressed in barley aleurone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.W.; Rogers, J.C. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1999-04-01

    The authors cloned a cDNA for a gibberellin-induced ribonuclease (RNase) expressed in barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone and the gene for a second barley RNase expressed in leaf tissue. The protein encoded by the cDNA is unique among RNases described to date in that it contains a novel 23-amino acid insert between the C2 and C3 conserved sequences. Expression of the recombinant protein in tobacco (Ncotiana tabacum) suspension-cultured protoplasts gave an active RNase of the expected size, confirming the enzymatic activity of the protein. Analyses of hormone regulation of re-expression of mRNA for the aleurone RNase revealed that, like the pattern for [alpha]-amylase, mRNA levels increased in the presence of gibberellic acid, and its antagonist abscisic acid prevented this effect. Quantitative studies at early times demonstrated that cycloheximide treatment of aleurone layers increased mRNA levels 4-fold, whereas a combination of gibberellin plus cycloheximide treatment was required to increase [alpha]-amylase mRNA levels to the same extent. These results are consistent with loss of repression as an initial effect of gibberellic acid on transcription of those genes, although the regulatory pathways for the two genes may differ.

  20. Leptin receptor expression and Gln223Arg polymorphism as prognostic markers in oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P R S; Maia, L L; Santos, M; Peterle, G T; Alves, L U; Takamori, J T; Souza, R P; Barbosa, W M; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-11-25

    The leptin gene product is released into the blood stream, passes through the blood-brain barrier, and finds the leptin receptor (LEPR) in the central nervous system. This hormone regulates food intake, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, differentiation, and cell proliferation. The LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism has been reported to alter receptor function and expression, both of which have been related with prognostics in several tumor types. Furthermore, several studies have shown a relationship between the Gln223Arg polymorphism and tumor development, and its role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is now well understood. In this study, 315 DNA samples were used for LEPR Gln223Arg genotyping and 87 primary oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas were used for immunohistochemical expression analysis, such that a relationship between these and tumor development and prognosis could be established. Homozygous LEPR Arg223 was found to be associated with a 2-fold reduction in oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk. In contrast, the presence of the Arg223 allele in tumors was associated with worse disease-free and disease-specific survival. Low LEPR expression was found to be an independent risk factor, increasing the risk for lymph node metastasis 4-fold. In conclusion, the Gln223Arg polymorphism and LEPR expression might be valuable markers for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, suggesting that LEPR might serve as a potential target for future therapies.

  1. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  2. Directed evolution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for improved folding and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Hackel, Benjamin J; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2014-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system function and has therapeutic potential. Microbial production of BDNF has resulted in a low-fidelity protein product, often in the form of large, insoluble aggregates incapable of binding to cognate TrkB or p75 receptors. In this study, employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae display and secretion systems, it was found that BDNF was poorly expressed and partially inactive on the yeast surface and that BDNF was secreted at low levels in the form of disulfide-bonded aggregates. Thus, for the purpose of increasing the compatibility of yeast as an expression host for BDNF, directed-evolution approaches were employed to improve BDNF folding and expression levels. Yeast surface display was combined with two rounds of directed evolution employing random mutagenesis and shuffling to identify BDNF mutants that had 5-fold improvements in expression, 4-fold increases in specific TrkB binding activity, and restored p75 binding activity, both as displayed proteins and as secreted proteins. Secreted BDNF mutants were found largely in the form of soluble homodimers that could stimulate TrkB phosphorylation in transfected PC12 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that a particularly important mutational class involved the introduction of cysteines proximal to the native cysteines that participate in the BDNF cysteine knot architecture. Taken together, these findings show that yeast is now a viable alternative for both the production and the engineering of BDNF.

  3. Ca2+ homeostasis and fast-type sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in L6 muscle cells. Role of thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Muller, A; van Hardeveld, C; Simonides, W S; van Rijn, J

    1992-05-01

    The effect of thyroid hormone (L-tri-iodothyronine; T3) on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in L6 myotubes was studied at rest and during activation to explore the possible mediating role of [Ca2+]i in the T3-induced net synthesis of fast-type sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase. The mean [Ca2+]i at rest was approx. 115 nM in myoblasts, control myotubes and T3-treated myotubes. Therefore it is unlikely that the T3-induced elevation of Ca(2+)-ATPase levels is mediated by [Ca2+]i changes. To investigate the influence of the 4-fold higher Ca(2+)-ATPase levels in T3-treated myotubes (compared with controls) on [Ca2+]i, interventions with caffeine (10 mM) and a high extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) (30 mM) were applied which initially mobilize Ca2+ predominantly from the SR. The results showed a lower (caffeine) or not significantly different (high [K+]o) increase in [Ca2+]i in T3-treated myotubes compared with controls. No rise in [Ca2+]i was found in myoblasts with caffeine or high [K+]o. The role of [Ca2+]i in the regulation of Ca(2+)-ATPase levels was investigated by varying [Ca2+]i through exposure of cells to different concentrations of extracellular Ca2+ (0.2-1.8 mM) and ionomycin (0.1-0.25 microM). At subnormal [Ca2+]i (55 nM) the T3-induced net synthesis of Ca(2+)-ATPase was virtually abolished, and at supranormal [Ca2+]i (195 nM) it was greatly depressed. Intermediate stimulation of net Ca(2+)-ATPase synthesis was found at [Ca2+]i of 95 and 165 nM, with an optimum at approx. 125 nM. Similar but less pronounced effects were found for the basal Ca(2+)-ATPase levels. In contracting primary rat myotubes, Ca(2+)-ATPase levels were significantly lower than in tetrodotoxin-arrested myotubes. The same results were obtained in the presence of T3. Since the mean [Ca2+]i in contracting cells is higher than in resting cells, these data agree with those obtained in the L6 cells with ionomycin. A major conclusion of this study is the existence of

  4. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  5. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  6. Time course of gene expression in rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Haruo; Abe, Satoru; Hayashi, Manabu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kaori; Shiono, Takaaki; Fuse, Koichi; Ito, Masahiro; Tachikawa, Hitoshi; Kashimura, Takeshi; Okura, Yuji; Kato, Kiminori; Kodama, Makoto; Maruyama, Seitaro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2002-12-01

    Genetic responses that characterize experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) have not yet been determined. To investigate gene expression in the myocardium of EAM, absolute copy numbers of 44 mRNA species [calcium-handling proteins, contractile proteins, natriuretic peptides (NPs), cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system, endothelins (ETs) and extracellular matrix] in synthesized cDNA from a fixed quantity of total heart RNA were assessed using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR at days 0, 14, 21 and 28 after immunization. alpha-Cardiac myosin showed a 26.3-fold decrease and beta-cardiac myosin a 3.75-fold increase at day 14. Atrial NP and brain NP increased 47.7- and 6.35-fold at days 21 and 14 respectively. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme and ET1 increased 22.3-fold at day 21, 6.30-fold at day 21 and 16.8-fold at day 14 respectively. Aldosterone receptor decreased 2.15-fold at day 14, but aldosterone synthetase was detected only at days 14 and 21. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, interferon-gamma and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 increased 9.08-fold at day 14, 398-fold at day 21, 43.1-fold at day 14 and 142-fold at day 14 respectively. Collagen type 3, collagen type 1 and fibronectin increased 34.6-, 1.74- and 44.4-fold respectively at day 21. Interestingly, osteopontin showed a 4540-fold increase and it was the highest mRNA of all at day 14. An isoform of cardiac myosin and NP are dramatically changed in EAM. RAA system and ET expressions are changed differently during the EAM time course. Cytokine, chemokine and extracellular matrix greatly increase and, in particular, large numbers of osteopontin mRNA are expressed in early EAM.

  7. Basal expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene is dependent on protein kinase A activity.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, R A; Matthews, R P; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1995-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a Cl- channel that becomes activated after phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). We demonstrate that PKA also plays a crucial role in maintaining basal expression of the CFTR gene in the human colon carcinoma cell line T84. Inhibition of PKA activity by expression of a dominant-negative regulatory subunit or treatment with the PKA-selective inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89) caused a complete suppression of CFTR gene expression without affecting other constitutively active genes. Basal expression of a 2.2-kb region of the CFTR promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene (CFTR-luc) exhibited the same dependence on PKA. The ability of cAMP to induce CFTR over basal levels is cell-type specific. In T84 cells, both the endogenous CFTR gene and CFTR-luc exhibited only a modest inducibility (approximately 2-fold), whereas in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3, CFTR-luc could be induced at least 4-fold. A variant cAMP-response element is present at position -48 to -41 in the CFTR promoter, and mutation of this sequence blocks basal expression. We conclude that cAMP, acting through PKA, is an essential regulator of basal CFTR gene expression and may mediate an induction of CFTR in responsive cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7543684

  8. Have the explosive HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa been driven by higher community viral load?

    PubMed Central

    ABU-RADDAD, Laith J.; BARNABAS, Ruanne V.; JANES, Holly; WEISS, Helen A.; KUBLIN, James G.; LONGINI, Ira M.; WASSERHEIT, Judith N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The HIV epidemic has carved contrasting trajectories around the world with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) being most affected. We hypothesized that mean HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads (VL) are higher in SSA than other areas, and that these elevated levels may contribute to the scale of epidemics in this region. Design and Methods To evaluate this hypothesis, we constructed a database of means of 71,668 VL measurements from 44 cohorts in seven regions of the world. We used linear regression statistical models to estimate differences in VL between regions. We also constructed and analyzed a mathematical model to describe the impact of the regional VL differences on HIV epidemic trajectory. Results We found substantial regional VL heterogeneity. The mean VL in SSA was 0.58 log10 copies/mL higher than in North America (95% CI: 0.45 to 0.71); this represents about a 4-fold increase. The highest mean VLs were found in Southern and East Africa, while in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America, mean VLs were comparable. Mathematical modeling indicated that conservatively 14% of HIV infections in a representative population in Kenya could be attributed to the enhanced infectiousness of subjects with heightened VL. Conclusion We conclude that community VL appears to be higher in SSA than in other regions and this may be a central driver of the massive HIV epidemics in this region. The elevated VLs in SSA may reflect, among other factors, the high burden of co-infections or the preponderance of HIV-1 subtype C infection. PMID:23196933

  9. Simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation for bioconversion of cyclohexanone by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Kyungmoon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts cyclic ketones into optically pure lactones, which have been used as building blocks in organic synthesis. A recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pMM4 expressing CHMO originated from Acinetobacter sp. NCIB 9871 was used to produce epsilon-caprolactone through a simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (SPO) process. A fed-batch process was designed to obtain high cell density for improving production of epsilon-caprolactone. The fed-batch SPO process gave the best results, 10.2 g/L of epsilon-caprolactone and 0.34 g/(L.h) of productivity, corresponding to a 10.5- and 3.4-fold enhancement compared with those of the batch SPO, respectively.

  10. KISS1 expression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, Ioannis D; Agrogiannis, George; Vaiopoulos, Aristeidis G; Mylona, Eleni; Patsouris, Efstratios; Kouraklis, Gregory; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptins, the products of the KISS1 gene, are involved in cancer invasion, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis, while they induce apoptosis in various cancers. Herein, we studied KISS1 expression in colorectal cancer. We analyzed KISS1 expression using immunohistochemistry and image analysis in normal and malignant tissue samples from 60 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. The results correlated with various clinicopathological parameters. The expression of KISS1 was much higher in normal than in malignant colonic mucosa. However, among malignant tissues, KISS1 expression was higher in larger tumors (>4 cm) than in smaller ones (≤4 cm) and in stages III and IV than in stages I and II. In addition, it was higher in patients with lymph node metastases. Moreover, KISS1 levels in the normal mucosa and their difference from those in the malignant mucosa were higher in the right part of the large intestine than in the left one. KISS1 expression is reduced during the malignant transformation of the colonic mucosa and there is a difference in the expression pattern between the right and the left part of the large intestine. However, larger and advanced colorectal tumors express higher KISS1 levels than smaller and localized ones.

  11. Generation of a two-center overlap integral over Slater orbitals of higher principal quantum numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.

    1992-01-01

    The expressions for two-center overlap integrals between angular s, p, and d Slater orbitals of arbitrary, higher principal quantum number are explicitly listed. The expressions obtained are extremely compact and independent of the coordinate system. It is further shown that the numerical values of the integrals obtained in this way are free from any numerical instability.

  12. The Crisis of Polish Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasek, Ryszard; Vaughan, Michalina

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of recent declining enrollment in Polish higher education looks at the underlying demographic, economic, social, and policy factors causing changes in higher education in general, in specific institutions and faculties, and in women's participation. (MSE)

  13. Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

  14. Measuring Competencies of Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jim; Ramaekers, Ger; van der Velden, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes a new conceptual model for measuring competencies of higher education graduates. The proposed instrument can become a valuable tool for higher education quality management, policy evaluation, and scientific research. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  16. Colleges and the Governance of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    The governance of higher education in colleges and college sectors that offer other types of education and training is distinctive in four main respects. First, governance structures are frequently separate and different for higher education and for other segments of tertiary education. Second, the size and scope of the higher-level education…

  17. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  18. Higher Education Accountability Report 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is one of several efforts designed to monitor outcomes in Washington's higher education system, and fulfills the biennial requirement that the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) inform the higher education and fiscal committees of the legislature of progress toward goals. The portrait that emerges from this review of…

  19. The Changing Nature of China's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing nature of China's higher education by turning to the changes that happened to China's higher education system brought about by implementing different government policies of higher education. The implementation of the policies, the restructuring of universities and independent colleges in 1952, the enrolling of…

  20. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  1. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  2. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  3. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  4. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  5. Guidelines for Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth E.; Acero, Herman D.

    Guidelines for planning in higher education (which might have an application in Colombia) are described. Chapter 1 provides an expanded definition of higher education that includes noncollege channels to lifelong education and embraces all viable postsecondary education. Chapter 2 addresses current problems facing higher education, such as lack of…

  6. Evaluating Public Higher Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to ensure accountability, and in order to prepare students for a globalised world, the higher education sector in Mexico is seeking to implement an evaluation of public higher education. Higher education institutions (HEIs) need to balance this goal against the need to protect their autonomy. This would be preserved if each…

  7. Resources and Higher Education. SRHE Monograph 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alfred, Ed.; Sizer, John, Ed.

    Resource allocation for higher education in England is addressed in 11 papers from a l982 Leverhulme seminar of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Major seminar questions include the following: whether higher education institutions should become less dependent upon public funds; the extent to which funds should flow through grants to…

  8. The Public Stake in Independent Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lawrence

    The importance of higher education in providing the skilled labor force needed to respond to changing technologies; the cost-efficiency of independent higher education; and implications for government, industry, and independent higher education are considered. The most readily changing technologies include computers and electronics, satellite…

  9. Higher Education Leadership Graduate Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sydney, Jr.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Newton, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Graduate programs in higher education administration and leadership have sought to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and competencies for higher education leadership; that is, to prepare globally minded leaders who can navigate the internal and external demands of, and for, higher education. With the use of the Lattuca and Stark model of…

  10. Illinois Directory of Higher Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This directory of higher education in Illinois includes information on the Illinois Board of Higher Education, state public colleges and universities, independent institutions, and other state agencies and educational organizations. The section on the Illinois Board of Higher Education lists board members and staff, and includes an organization…

  11. Branding Canadian Higher Education. CBIE Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilbash, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The branding of national higher education systems is a global trend that has become increasingly common over the last decade. One of the main motives driving this trend is the view that branding a national higher education system will increase that country's market share of international students. This is evident as national higher education…

  12. Student Volunteering in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…

  13. State Higher Education Appropriations, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers Association.

    This report contains data on state funding for higher education for the 1997-1998 school year. State funding for higher education continued to grow in FY98 for the fifth straight year, increasing 6%, or $2.8 billion, over the prior fiscal year. The amount of support for higher education exceeded $49 billion, and the 1-year and 2-year percentage…

  14. Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.; Valenti, Mark S.; Ricciarini, Sylvana; Bender, Stephen O.; Alleyne, Nicole; Di Grappa, Michael; Duart, Josep M.; Lupianez, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel Angel Ehrenzweig

    2005-01-01

    The OECD Programme on Educational Building, together with the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) and the OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, organised an international conference on the planning, design and management of facilities for higher education institutions on April 24-27, 2005. The…

  15. Twenty Years of Higher Education in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Gordon K.

    This report on Virginia higher education briefly reviews the impact of economic recession, slashed budgets, increased tuition, and increasing politicization upon the state's higher education system, and then looks ahead to issues critical to the higher education's future in the state. The report proposes action in three areas: (1) adequate funding…

  16. Higher Education Research Institutes in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Nian Cai

    2014-01-01

    Initially emerged in 1978, higher education research institutes (HERIs) in Mainland China have experienced rapid expansion and have become a major force in higher education reform in the last three decades. The development of these research institutes is closely related to the substantive growth of the higher education system itself as well as…

  17. Higher Education Management in Today's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, T. H.

    A few key trends in higher education and the current federal philosophy of support to higher education are addressed. It is noted that higher education is becoming increasingly accessible to all segments of the population and that increasing numbers of students put priority on learning skills they need for employment rather than on a general…

  18. Higher Education's Cultural Obligations: Views and Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John Y., Ed.

    Perspectives on the cultural obligations of higher education are presented in this collection of papers. Higher education's possible and probable cultural function is addressed from the perspective of business, the arts, education, and religion. Also discussed is the role of institutions of higher education in establishing a system of values,…

  19. Expatriate Workers in International Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.

    2015-01-01

    With Western higher education practices being adopted and adapted in emerging higher education centers around the world, expatriate workers from the West are frequently used as consultants, employees, and trainers to help build capacity in new institutions where higher education opportunity has previously been scarce. For those who choose to take…

  20. Higher Education in Poland: Four Years After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzelak, Janusz

    1993-01-01

    Successes and failures in Polish higher education reform since the fall of communism are outlined. Successes include legal support for reform, access to higher education, new schools, international collaboration, enhancement of academic careers. Problems include inadequate structure for science, little structural change in higher education,…

  1. Colorado Higher Education Financing Study. Executive Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Commission initiated a funding to review national funding models for higher education led by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS). Each institution contributed to the cost of the study and participated in the effort. NCHEMS' key recommendation is to move the funding discussions for higher education away from a…

  2. Innovation in Access to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Robert M.; And Others

    Three essays are collected in this study of access to higher education in other countries: "Part-Time Undergraduate Studies in Ontario," by Robert M. Pike; "Access to Higher Education in England and Wales," by Naomi E. S. McIntosh; and "Strategies for a Broader Enrollment in Swedish Higher Education," by Urban…

  3. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  4. Toward an Ethic of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadish, Mortimer R.

    This book presents an alternative ethic of higher education and considers policy choices of higher education resulting from this ethic. This alternative ethic asserts that higher education constitutes a primary social means for the forming of selves capable of participating widely and effectively in the affairs of a modern complex world. This…

  5. Higher Education Active Community Fund: Proposals. Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This document outlines proposals for a Higher Education Active Community Fund (HEACF) in England to enhance the key role played by higher education institutions in the community. The initiative follows from the objectives of the Higher Education Reach-Out to Business and the Community Fund and proposals from the British Department of the…

  6. Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members of…

  7. Swedish Research on Higher Education in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Eskil

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter reproduces a discussion between Eskil Bjorklund, former director of The Council for Studies of Higher Education in Sweden and his successor, Thorsten Nybom, concerning the Swedish Research on Higher Education Program. This program was established in 1968 to direct the organization of research on higher education and award research…

  8. The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

  9. Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Vernon L.

    2010-01-01

    Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

  10. Measuring Institutional Performance in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This collection of seven essays from the Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures focuses on how downsizing, quality management, and reengineering have are affecting higher education. An introductory paper, "Introduction: Change in Higher Education: Its Effect on Institutional Performance," (Joel W. Meyerson and Sandra L. Johnson)…

  11. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  12. NEJHE's Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemer, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, featuring 64 tables and charts exploring New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher education financing, and university research.…

  13. Higher-Order Superposition for Dependent Types,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proofs for Higher-Order Rewrite Systems, J. Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in...Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci., Vol 816, Springer Verlag, 1994, pp. 305-325

  14. Hispanics in Higher Education: On the Move!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennen, Estela Marin

    2005-01-01

    The American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) is a new national organization "dedicated to improving the quality of higher education." The AAHHE believes higher education institutions can, and should, do a better job of "meeting the needs of a changing US demography." AAHHE's roots lie in the Hispanic Caucus of the now-defunct…

  15. Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

  16. The Virginia Plan for Higher Education, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    The Council of Higher Education, in this state-mandated biennial plan, sets four goals for Virginia's state-supported system of higher education to achieve: access, excellence, accountability, and placement among the best systems of higher education in the United States. The plan concentrates on the 84 degree-granting institutions that have been…

  17. National Focus on Postmodernism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monica G.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of postmodernism in higher education is a widely debated issue. Critics of postmodernism in higher education hold the position that postmodernism breeds an unruliness of knowledge. Academicians in higher education often choose to educate students through means of prescription rather than implementing innovation in classroom…

  18. New Directions in Professional Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom, Ed.; Katz, Tim, Ed.; Watson, David, Ed.

    This collection contains a series of analytical case studies of developing practices that respond to the challenges to higher education in the United Kingdom at the start of the new millennium. Chapters addressing important themes in developing professional higher education are: (1) "Lifelong Learning and Professional Higher Education"…

  19. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Peters, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    -treatment. Not all recovered completely by the final time point tested: with 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, there were other genes whose expression was altered and remained relatively constant through the 7 day period we tested. One examples is Cyp17a1, which showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days after the last treatment. Spaceflight samples evaluated with similar methods and comparisons will be made between the radiation-treated groups and the spaceflight samples. CONCLUSION It seems likely that radiation exposure triggers homeostatic mechanisms, which could include alterations of gene expression. Better understanding of these pathways could aid in optimizing medications doses given to crewmembers who require treatment and eventually, to development of new countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent radiation-induced damage to cells and tissues.

  20. Higher income and uninsured: common or rare?

    PubMed

    Kuttner, Hanns; Rutledge, Matthew S

    2007-01-01

    Massachusetts plans to penalize those who do not have health insurance, targeting higher-income people. Are higher-income Americans a small or substantial share of the uninsured? The U.S. Census Bureau reports that one in three Americans without health insurance lived in a household with income greater than $50,000 in 2005. Many of these higher-income uninsured people do not fit the profile of free-riders who have the money but are unwilling to buy coverage. A majority have lower incomes but live with others; only together are they higher income. For others, higher income or lack of insurance is transient.

  1. Artemin growth factor increases nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit expression and activity in nociceptive sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemin (Artn), a member of the glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) family, supports the development and function of a subpopulation of peptidergic, TRPV1-positive sensory neurons. Artn (enovin, neublastin) is elevated in inflamed tissue and its injection in skin causes transient thermal hyperalgesia. A genome wide expression analysis of trigeminal ganglia of mice that overexpress Artn in the skin (ART-OE mice) showed elevation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, suggesting these ion channels contribute to Artn-induced sensitivity. Here we have used gene expression, immunolabeling, patch clamp electrophysiology and behavioral testing assays to investigate the link between Artn, nicotinic subunit expression and thermal hypersensitivity. Results Reverse transcriptase-PCR validation showed increased levels of mRNAs encoding the nAChR subunits α3 (13.3-fold), β3 (4-fold) and β4 (7.7-fold) in trigeminal ganglia and α3 (4-fold) and β4 (2.8-fold) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of ART-OE mice. Sensory ganglia of ART-OE mice had increased immunoreactivity for nAChRα3 and exhibited increased overlap in labeling with GFRα3-positive neurons. Patch clamp analysis of back-labeled cutaneous afferents showed that while the majority of nicotine-evoked currents in DRG neurons had biophysical and pharmacological properties of α7-subunit containing nAChRs, the Artn-induced increase in α3 and β4 subunits resulted in functional channels. Behavioral analysis of ART-OE and wildtype mice showed that Artn-induced thermal hyperalgesia can be blocked by mecamylamine or hexamethonium. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) inflammation of paw skin, which causes an increase in Artn in the skin, also increased the level of nAChR mRNAs in DRG. Finally, the increase in nAChRs transcription was not dependent on the Artn-induced increase in TRPV1 or TRPA1 in ART-OE mice since nAChRs were elevated in ganglia of TRPV1/TRPA1 double knockout mice. Conclusions

  2. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation.

  3. Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor-9 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Sethi, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, healthy male Swiss albino mice (n=30) aging 8-10 weeks were used to evaluate TLR-9 expression in lungs of mice following indoxacarb exposure with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indoxacarb was administered orally dissolved in groundnut oil at 4 and 2 mg/kg/day for 90 days. On day 91, five animals from each group were challenged with LPS/normal saline solution at 80 µg/animal. The lung tissues were processed for real time and immunohistochemical studies. Results: LPS resulted increase in fold change m-RNA expression level of TLR-9 as compare to control, while indoxacarb (4 mg/kg) alone and in combination with LPS resulted 16.21-fold change and 29.4-fold change increase in expression of TLR-9 m-RNA, respectively, as compared to control. Similarly, indoxacarb (2 mg/kg) alone or in combination with LPS also altered TLR-9 expression. Further at protein level control group showed minimal expression of TLR-9 in lungs as compare to other groups, however, LPS group showed intense positive staining in bronchial epithelium as well as in alveolar septal cells. Indoxacarb at both doses individually showed strong immuno-positive reaction as compare to control, however when combined with LPS resulted intense staining in airway epithelium as compare to control. Conclusion: Chronic oral administration of indoxacarb for 90 days (4 and 2 mg/kg) alters expression of TLR-9 at m-RNA and protein level and co-exposure with LPS exhibited synergistic effect. PMID:27956782

  4. ACE expression in monocytes is induced by cytokines, phorbol ester and steroid

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, D.; Lanzillo, J.; Fanburg, B. )

    1991-03-15

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels are elevated in the serum and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) of patients with granulomatous diseases. However, the role of ACE in (Mo) physiology and the regulation of the inflammatory response is not well understood. Since Mo can be stimulated to form giant cells using phorbol esters, glucocorticoids or certain inflammatory cytokines, the authors examined production of ACE protein by normal PBM, a Mo-like cell line, THP-1, and a macrophage-like cell line, U937 following stimulation with these agents. Using a sensitive ELISA assay, they found that in U937 cells, expression of ACE protein increased by 3.4 fold with dexamethasone, 3.7. fold with phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA), and 5.8 fold with the two agents combined. The cytokines IL-4 and GM-CSF substantially increased ACE expression, by 7.6 and 7.7 fold respectively, with maximal effect at 0.01 U/ml, while IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} had little effect. Similar results were found with PBM and THP-1 cells. The combination of dexamethasone and PMA also induced homotypic cluster formation in PBM, suggesting a correlation between cell adhesion and ACE production. The authors conclude that ACE expression in monocytes and macrophages is stimulated by low concentration of glucocorticoids and certain inflammatory cytokines. ACE may participate in the initiation and propagation of granulomatous inflammatory processes.

  5. Expression of Pitx2 in stromal cells is required for normal hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kieusseian, Aurélie; Chagraoui, Jalila; Kerdudo, Cécile; Mangeot, Philippe-Emmanuel; Gage, Philip J; Navarro, Nicole; Izac, Brigitte; Uzan, Georges; Forget, Bernard G; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2006-01-15

    Although the expression of Pitx2, a bicoid family homeodomain transcription factor, is highly regulated during hematopoiesis, its function during this process was not documented; we thus studied hematopoiesis in Pitx2-null mice. We found that Pitx2(-/-) embryos display hypoplastic livers with reduced numbers of hematopoietic cells, but these cells had normal hematopoietic potential, as evidenced by colony-forming assays, immature progenitor cell assays, and long-term repopulation assays. Because the microenvironment is also crucial to the development of normal hematopoiesis, we established Pitx2(-/-) and Pitx2(+/+) stromas from fetal liver and studied their hematopoietic supportive capacity. We showed that the frequency of cobblestone area-forming cells was 4-fold decreased when using Pitx2(-/-) stromal cells compared with Pitx2(+/+) stromal cells, whatever the Pitx2 genotype of hematopoietic cells tested in this assay. This defect was rescued by expression of Pitx2 into Pitx2(-/-) fetal liver stromal cells, demonstrating a major and direct role of Pitx2 in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver stroma. Finally, we showed a reduced capacity of MS5 stromal cells expressing Pitx2 RNAi to support human hematopoiesis. Altogether these data showed that Pitx2 has major functions in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver and adult bone marrow stromal cells.

  6. Expression of Pitx2 in stromal cells is required for normal hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kieusseian, Aurélie; Chagraoui, Jalila; Kerdudo, Cécile; Mangeot, Philippe-Emmanuel; Gage, Philip J.; Navarro, Nicole; Izac, Brigitte; Uzan, Georges; Forget, Bernard G.; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Although the expression of Pitx2, a bicoid family homeodomain transcription factor, is highly regulated during hematopoiesis, its function during this process was not documented; we thus studied hematopoiesis in Pitx2-null mice. We found that Pitx2–/– embryos display hypoplastic livers with reduced numbers of hematopoietic cells, but these cells had normal hematopoietic potential, as evidenced by colony-forming assays, immature progenitor cell assays, and long-term repopulation assays. Because the microenvironment is also crucial to the development of normal hematopoiesis, we established Pitx2–/– and Pitx2+/+ stromas from fetal liver and studied their hematopoietic supportive capacity. We showed that the frequency of cobblestone area-forming cells was 4-fold decreased when using Pitx2–/– stromal cells compared with Pitx2+/+ stromal cells, whatever the Pitx2 genotype of hematopoietic cells tested in this assay. This defect was rescued by expression of Pitx2 into Pitx2–/– fetal liver stromal cells, demonstrating a major and direct role of Pitx2 in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver stroma. Finally, we showed a reduced capacity of MS5 stromal cells expressing Pitx2 RNAi to support human hematopoiesis. Altogether these data showed that Pitx2 has major functions in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver and adult bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:16195330

  7. Academic Faith Integration: Introduction to a New Section within "Christian Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaak, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The following article lays out the rationale and vision for a new section of "Christian Higher Education" focused on academic faith integration. The section editor provides a brief history of this central aspect of Christian higher education, including some of the opportunities, challenges, and critiques expressed within the scholarly…

  8. Higher Education's "Accountability" Imperative: How the University System of Maryland Responded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, William E.

    2007-01-01

    A crucial national dialogue is under way about higher education and its role in securing America's future. Last fall, a blue-ribbon panel on higher education, established by Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings, issued a report expressing concerns that the United States could be losing its status as the world leader in postsecondary…

  9. Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 50, Number 36, May 14, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This May 14, 2004 issue of "Chronicle for Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "The Gorgeous Order of Things, Infinitely Expressed" (Jackson, William J.);…

  10. Using Aptitude Testing to Diversify Higher Education Intake--An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Australian higher education is currently entering a new phase of growth. Within the remit of this expansion is an express commitment to widen participation in higher education among under-represented groups--in particular those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper argues that one key mechanism for achieving this goal should be the…

  11. Creating an Integrated Curriculum--The 'Higher' In Higher Education. 1981 Current Issues in Higher Education, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    Perspectives on creating an integrated college curriculum are presented in four papers. In "What is 'Higher' About Higher Education?" Harlan Cleveland suggests that colleges and universities should promote a global view and understanding of problems on society and international interdependence and should develop the capacity to analyze…

  12. Scattering Via Conformal Higher Spin Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, A. A.

    We consider a model of massless scalars interacting (via bilinear conserved currents) with conformal higher spin fields in flat space. We compute the tree-level four-scalar scattering amplitude using a natural prescription for summation over an infinite set of conformal higher spin exchanges and find that it vanishes. Independently, we show that the vanishing of the scalar scattering amplitude is, in fact, implied by the global conformal higher spin symmetry of this model.

  13. Higher order mechanics on graded bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew James; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler-Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler-Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids.

  14. The Interactions of Aquaporins and Mineral Nutrients in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ding, Lei; Gao, Limin; Li, Yingrui; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-07-29

    Aquaporins, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) present in the plasma and intracellular membranes, facilitate the transport of small neutral molecules across cell membranes in higher plants. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of aquaporin subcellular localization, transport selectivity, and gating properties. Although the role of aquaporins in maintaining the plant water status has been addressed, the interactions between plant aquaporins and mineral nutrients remain largely unknown. This review highlights the roles of various aquaporin orthologues in mineral nutrient uptake and transport, as well as the regulatory effects of mineral nutrients on aquaporin expression and activity, and an integrated link between aquaporins and mineral nutrient metabolism was identified.

  15. The Interactions of Aquaporins and Mineral Nutrients in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Ding, Lei; Gao, Limin; Li, Yingrui; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) present in the plasma and intracellular membranes, facilitate the transport of small neutral molecules across cell membranes in higher plants. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of aquaporin subcellular localization, transport selectivity, and gating properties. Although the role of aquaporins in maintaining the plant water status has been addressed, the interactions between plant aquaporins and mineral nutrients remain largely unknown. This review highlights the roles of various aquaporin orthologues in mineral nutrient uptake and transport, as well as the regulatory effects of mineral nutrients on aquaporin expression and activity, and an integrated link between aquaporins and mineral nutrient metabolism was identified. PMID:27483251

  16. The "resurrection method" for modification of specific proteins in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji

    2005-11-07

    We describe a new method designated "the resurrection method" by which a modified protein is expressed in higher plants in place of the original protein. The modified gene constructed by introducing synonymous codon substitutions throughout the original gene to prevent the sequence-specific degradation of its mRNA during RNA silencing is expressed while the expression of the original gene is suppressed. Here, we report the successful alteration of the biochemical properties of green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting that this method could be useful for gene control in living plants.

  17. Optimization of sunflower oil expression

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.S.; Farsaie, A.; Stewart, L.E.

    1983-12-01

    Models to predict input energy for sunflower oil extraction were developed for four seed types. Input energy was found to be the lowest in case of whole seed at low seed moisture content (up to 7%), whereas, at higher moisture content, coarsely ground seed required the minimum input energy. Maximum net energy was obtained for coarsely ground seed with 8% moisture content, heated to 35/sup 0/C and expressed at 28 MPa for 5.5 minutes.

  18. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  19. Expression of Tropodithietic Acid Biosynthesis Is Controlled by a Novel Autoinducer▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The interactions between marine prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms are crucial to many biological and biogeochemical processes in the oceans. Often the interactions are mutualistic, as in the symbiosis between phytoplankton, e.g., the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the Roseobacter taxonomic lineage. It is hypothesized that an important component of this symbiosis is bacterial production of tropodithietic acid (TDA), a biologically active tropolone compound whose synthesis requires the expression of tdaABCDEF (tdaA-F), as well as six additional genes (cysI, malY, paaIJK, and tdaH). The factors controlling tda gene expression are not known, although growth in laboratory standing liquid cultures drastically increases TDA levels. In this report, we measured the transcription of tda genes to gain a greater understanding of the factors controlling their expression. While the expression of tdaAB was constitutive, tdaCDE and tdaF mRNA increased significantly (3.7- and 17.4-fold, respectively) when cells were grown in standing liquid broth compared to their levels with shaking liquid culturing. No transcription of tdaC was detected when a tdaCp::lacZ transcriptional fusion was placed in 11 of the 12 Tda− mutant backgrounds, with cysI being the sole exception. The expression of tdaC could be restored to 9 of the remaining 11 Tda− mutants—tdaA and tdaH failed to respond—by placing wild-type (Tda+) strains in close proximity or by supplying exogenous TDA to the mutant, suggesting that TDA induces tda gene expression. These results indicate that TDA acts as an autoinducer of its own synthesis and suggest that roseobacters may use TDA as a quorum signal. PMID:20601479

  20. Expression of tropodithietic acid biosynthesis is controlled by a novel autoinducer.

    PubMed

    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert

    2010-09-01

    The interactions between marine prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms are crucial to many biological and biogeochemical processes in the oceans. Often the interactions are mutualistic, as in the symbiosis between phytoplankton, e.g., the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the Roseobacter taxonomic lineage. It is hypothesized that an important component of this symbiosis is bacterial production of tropodithietic acid (TDA), a biologically active tropolone compound whose synthesis requires the expression of tdaABCDEF (tdaA-F), as well as six additional genes (cysI, malY, paaIJK, and tdaH). The factors controlling tda gene expression are not known, although growth in laboratory standing liquid cultures drastically increases TDA levels. In this report, we measured the transcription of tda genes to gain a greater understanding of the factors controlling their expression. While the expression of tdaAB was constitutive, tdaCDE and tdaF mRNA increased significantly (3.7- and 17.4-fold, respectively) when cells were grown in standing liquid broth compared to their levels with shaking liquid culturing. No transcription of tdaC was detected when a tdaCp::lacZ transcriptional fusion was placed in 11 of the 12 Tda(-) mutant backgrounds, with cysI being the sole exception. The expression of tdaC could be restored to 9 of the remaining 11 Tda(-) mutants-tdaA and tdaH failed to respond-by placing wild-type (Tda(+)) strains in close proximity or by supplying exogenous TDA to the mutant, suggesting that TDA induces tda gene expression. These results indicate that TDA acts as an autoinducer of its own synthesis and suggest that roseobacters may use TDA as a quorum signal.

  1. Dexamethasone-induced expression of the glucocorticoid response gene lipocalin 2 in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Owen, H C; Roberts, S J; Ahmed, S F; Farquharson, C

    2008-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs, but long-term use can result in marked growth retardation in children due to their actions on growth plate chondrocytes. To gain an insight into the mechanisms involved in GC-induced growth retardation, we performed Affymetrix microarray analysis of the murine chondrogenic cell line ATDC5, incubated with 10(-6) M dexamethasone (Dex) for 24 h. Downregulated genes included secreted frizzled-related protein and IGF-I, and upregulated genes included serum/GC-regulated kinase, connective-tissue growth factor, and lipocalin 2. Lipocalin 2 expression increased 40-fold after 24-h Dex treatment. Expression increased further after 48-h (75-fold) and 96-h (84-fold) Dex treatment, and this response was Dex concentration dependent. Lipocalin 2 was immunolocalized to both proliferating and hypertrophic growth plate zones, and its expression was increased by Dex in primary chondrocytes at 6 h (3-fold, P < 0.05). The lipocalin 2 response was blocked by the GC-receptor antagonist RU-486 and was increased further by the protein synthesis blocker cycloheximide. Proliferation in lipocalin 2-overexpressing cells was less than in control cells (49%, P < 0.05), and overexpression caused an increase in collagen type X expression (4-fold, P < 0.05). The effects of lipocalin 2 overexpression on chondrocyte proliferation (64%, P < 0.05) and collagen type X expression (8-fold, P < 0.05) were further exacerbated with the addition of 10(-6) M Dex. This synergistic effect may be explained by a further increase in lipocalin 2 expression with Dex treatment of transfected cells (45%, P < 0.05). These results suggest that lipocalin 2 may mediate Dex effects on chondrocytes and provides a potential novel mechanism for GC-induced growth retardation.

  2. Expression and localization of caveolins during postnatal development in rat heart: implication of thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Philippe; Oliviéro, Patricia; Marotte, Françoise; Kolar, Frantisek; Ostadal, Bohuslav; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2005-07-01

    Caveolins modulate signaling pathways involved in cardiac development. Caveolin-1 exists in two isoforms: the beta-isoform derivates from an alternative translational start site that creates a protein truncated by 31 amino acids, mainly expressed in endothelial cells, whereas caveolin-3 is present in muscle cells. Our aim was to define caveolin distribution and expression during cardiac postnatal development using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Caveolin-3 sarcolemmal labeling appeared as dotted lines from days 1 to 5 and as continuous lines after 14 days of age. Caveolin-3 expression, low at birth, increased (4-fold) to reach a maximum (P < 0.05) by day 5 and then decreased to stabilize in adults. Total caveolin-1 and its alpha-isoform were codistributed at birth in endothelial and smooth muscle cells; afterward, only the caveolin-1alpha labeling became limited to endothelium. Quantitative analysis indicated a similar temporal pattern of both total caveolin-1 and caveolin-1alpha expression, suggesting that caveolin-1alpha and -1beta are coregulated; the caveolin-1alpha levels increased fourfold by day 5 to reach a maximum by day 14 (P < 0.05). Tyrosine-14-caveolin-1 phosphorylation, low at birth, increased suddenly around day 14 (8-fold vs. day 1) and returning afterward to basal level. Because the T3/T4 level is maximal by day 14, caveolin-1 expression/phosphorylation profiles were analyzed in hypothyroid heart. The levels of caveolin-1alpha and consequently tyrosine-14-caveolin-1 phosphorylation, but not that of caveolin-3, decreased (50%) in hypothyroid 14-day-old rats. Our data demonstrate that, during postnatal cardiac growth, 1) caveolins are distinctly regulated, and 2) thyroid hormones are involved in caveolin-1alpha expression.

  3. AAVPG: A vigilant vector where transgene expression is induced by p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Medrano, Ruan F.V.; Carvalho, Anna Carolina P.V.; Strauss, Bryan E.

    2013-12-15

    Using p53 to drive transgene expression from viral vectors may provide on demand expression in response to physiologic stress, such as hypoxia or DNA damage. Here we introduce AAVPG, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector where a p53-responsive promoter, termed PG, is used to control transgene expression. In vitro assays show that expression from the AAVPG-luc vector was induced specifically in the presence of functional p53 (1038±202 fold increase, p<0.001). The AAVPG-luc vector was an effective biosensor of p53 activation in response to hypoxia (4.48±0.6 fold increase in the presence of 250 µM CoCl{sub 2}, p<0.001) and biomechanical stress (2.53±0.4 fold increase with stretching, p<0.05). In vivo, the vigilant nature of the AAVPG-luc vector was revealed after treatment of tumor-bearing mice with doxorubicin (pre-treatment, 3.4×10{sup 5}±0.43×10{sup 5} photons/s; post-treatment, 6.6×10{sup 5}±2.1×10{sup 5} photons/s, p<0.05). These results indicate that the AAVPG vector is an interesting option for detecting p53 activity both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • AAV vector where transgene expression is controlled by the tumor suppressor p53. • The new vector, AAVPG, shown to function as a biosensor of p53 activity, in vitro and in vivo. • The p53 activity monitored by the AAVPG vector is relevant to cancer and other diseases. • AAVPG reporter gene expression was activated upon DNA damage, hypoxia and mechanical stress.

  4. Discipline and Theory in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is, by its nature, rather an introspective field of study. It is also highly dispersed within and beyond the academy: inherently, therefore, it is a multidisciplinary field of study. An analysis of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals in 2010 demonstrates both the breadth of interest in higher…

  5. Higher Education Funding: The New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Like the rest of the economy, higher education is suffering the effects of this recession. This article shows year-to-year changes in higher education budgets over the last forty years, a cycle that can be fairly called a roller coaster. In separate work, the authors modeled the shape of this cycle and found that budget analyst Harold Hovey's…

  6. Church Related Higher Education. Perceptions and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonage, Robert Rue, Ed.

    A two-year study and subsequent conference held in November 1977, sponsored by the National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., focused on the role of church-related colleges in higher education, and on their distinctive contribution to the churches, higher education, and the quality of life in America. In this report, a number of…

  7. Progressing Professional Careers in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This paper arises out of a study conducted for the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education on "Professional Managers in UK Higher Education: Preparing for Complex Futures," and focuses on those aspects relating to professional and career development. The author reviewed understandings in the literature about the roles and identities…

  8. Change and Higher Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Torraco, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Higher education now finds itself in a new era and environment in which it is confronted with an array of challenges and forces for change. This paper identifies the key forces for change in higher education, assesses these forces using an established change model (the action research model), and illustrates how change literature from management,…

  9. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  10. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  11. Marketing Mismanagement in Higher Education. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Eugene H.

    The usefulness of marketing functions as they relate to higher education enrollment and financial problems is addressed, and proven marketing principles that have been violated by higher education decision-makers are considered. It is suggested that a college or university operation can be examined within the same context as any product…

  12. Positive Steps for Marketing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Eugene H.

    The potential value of marketing principles to help solve educational problems in higher education is addressed. Four variables that are within the decision power of those in higher education and those in the commercial world are the product, distribution, promotion, and price. The marketing concept demands that policies be built on a base of…

  13. Making Knowledge Services Work in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Lefrere, Paul; Mason, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Over the past three years, knowledge-based practices in higher education have advanced, driving the development of low/no-cost, mass-market tools for knowledge sharing and reducing some barriers to change. New investors in higher education are developing strategies to exploit the knowledge-driven value propositions. Existing institutions, anxious…

  14. Higher Education Alumni Associations and Political Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchli, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Political advocacy is comprised of speaking on the behalf of a cause or participating as part of a political action group (Weerts, Cabrera, & Sanford, 2010). Because state financial support for public higher education has not been maintained at previous levels, higher education (HE) institutions have been recruiting alumni in an attempt to win…

  15. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  16. Chinese Higher Education Enters a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Xin-Ran

    2003-01-01

    New trends in Chinese higher education are attracting the attention of global educators. Since the establishment of Western-oriented modern universities at the end of nineteenth century, Chinese higher education has continued to evolve. Over the past two decades, however, tremendous economic development in China has stimulated reforms in higher…

  17. Management Mechanisms and Financing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Hans-Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the manner in which different models for financing higher education can contribute to the management of higher education in Germany. Includes discussions of the management of student distribution within a given university and the development of systems for performance analysis. (SLD)

  18. In Defense of American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection assert that radical alterations to the practices that have established and upheld the excellence of higher education in the United States must be considered carefully. They reflect on the failings of higher education, but note its many strengths. The chapters are: (1) "The American Academic Model in Comparative…

  19. Is Higher Education in "Really" "Internationalising"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Nigel M.

    2008-01-01

    It is a widely accepted maxim that, like business generally, higher education is globalising. For many countries, higher education is now an important export sector, with university campuses attracting international students from around the world. Licensing production, in the form of franchising degree provision to international partners, is…

  20. Transfer and Articulation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report fulfills the biennial requirements of RCW 28B.76.250, which directs the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) "to submit a progress report on the development of transfer associate degrees to the higher education committees of the House of Representatives and Senate each odd-numbered year." The HECB report monitors…