Science.gov

Sample records for 4-h animal science

  1. Life Skill Development Related to Participation in 4-H Animal Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carol Knowlton

    1996-01-01

    Alumni of 4-H animal science programs in New Jersey were surveyed (n=52). Participation had a positive influence on life skill development, especially "accepting responsibility." Experience with shows and judging was beneficial to public speaking/job interview skills. Although many were not in animal science careers, they enjoyed related hobbies.…

  2. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  3. A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Katie C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

  4. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  5. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed…

  6. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  7. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  8. 4-H Participation and Science Interest in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Katherine; Carlos, Ramona M.; Barnett, Cynthia; Smith, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the impacts of participation in 4-H on young people's interest and participation in science. Survey data were collected from relatively large and ethnically diverse samples of elementary and high school-aged students in California. Results indicated that although elementary-grade 4-H members are not more…

  9. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  10. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  11. Sewing Skills Progress Chart. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This document, which was developed for use by Pennsylvania 4-H Club leaders and members, is a chart that can be used to help club members determine and document those sewing skills they already have and those they need to learn as they complete one or more 4-H Club sewing projects. The document begins with a note to club leaders and parents that…

  12. Fashion Revue. 4-H Textile Science Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This publication was developed to help students participating in Fashion Review, a 4-H event in which students model a clothing outfit and accessories and are judged on their modeling ability, their presentation, and how well the clothing and accessory choices complement the students' skin tones, hair color, figure or physique, personality, and…

  13. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  14. 4-H Chickquest: Connecting Agri-Science with STEM Standards in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Robert L.; Krieger, Jackie; Halasa, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    While young students are more capable of scientific inquiry than previously believed, elementary school teachers are often inexperienced in and lack confidence with teaching science. ChickQuest is a 4-H-created embryology curriculum for third-graders that meets Ohio state science standards, teaches STEM skills, and promotes ongoing interaction…

  15. Animal Science. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum package is designed to prepare students with highly technical information that will lead to success in the animal science field. It contains 19 units that highlight many of the specialist areas and teach students how to apply these skills. The units cover the following topics: safety, careers, private and government programs,…

  16. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  17. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  18. [Nebraska 4-H Wheat Science School Enrichment Project, Teacher/Leader Guides 213-222 and 227.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…

  19. A laboratory animal science pioneer.

    PubMed

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, DVM, PhD, is Head of Laboratory Animal Facilities and Designated Veterinarian, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Dr. Kostomitsopoulos discusses his successes in implementing laboratory animal science legislation and fostering collaboration among scientists in Greece. PMID:25333597

  20. Impact of a Middle School 4-H Science Camp on College Aspirations of Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia D.; Galloway, Robin; Arnold, Mary; Nott, Brooke D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an alumni study of middle school participants in a university-based science camp; at the time of the study the youth were completing their junior or senior year of high school. The science- and technology-intensive program was set in an intentionally designed positive youth development context. The camp was free to youth…

  1. Linguistics, Cognitive Science and Liberal Education. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heny, Frank

    The goals of liberal education are to deepen the understanding of the nature of humankind and of the human condition. In the last half century, fundamental changes have occurred in perceptions of how the human species relates to the rest of the universe, due to developments in science and the creation of the cognitive sciences. There is now the…

  2. Abstracts in Journal of Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Journal of Animal Science (JAS) is the leading international journal for animal science research. The American Society of Animal Science publishes JAS to support its mission, “To discover, disseminate, and apply knowledge for sustainable use of animals for food and other human needs.” Thus, JAS cont...

  3. Curriculum and Professional Development for OST Science Education: Lessons Learned from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of out-of-school time (OST) programs across the U.S. offer science education opportunities that cover many scientific disciplines and use diverse pedagogical practices (National Research Council [NRC], 2009). However, to improve youth's scientific literacy, OST educators need to "have the disposition and repertoire of…

  4. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: companion animals.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, J S J

    2005-08-01

    Human history reveals that the way in which humans treat animals is based on their views of themselves as well as of the living environment around them. These views may vary from an assumption of human superiority to one of equality between humans and animals. Recent trends affecting companion-animal welfare are: modern philosophies on animal issues, the specialised and varied roles that companion animals play in modern societies, new results from animal neuroscience, human-animal interaction studies and the new profession of companion animal ethology. This paper concludes that applied ethology could provide science-based criteria to assess companion-animal welfare. Due to the integral part that companion animals play in human societies, the paper is divided into an animal component that deals with the animal's basic needs and its ability to adapt, and a human component assessing the living environment of animals as provided by humans and responsible companion-animal ownership. The greatest challenge for future research is to find ways to disseminate knowledge of companion animal ethology to companion animal owners. PMID:16358503

  5. Centennial Paper: Proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we wil...

  6. Introduction to Animal Science. Unit A-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in the college animal science curriculum. It is intended to be used for 20 hours of instruction for freshmen as an introduction to animal science. It explores the livestock industry and builds a foundation for livestock selection. The unit's objectives are to help the student develop an understanding…

  7. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  8. Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Lisa C.

    2005-01-01

    "Science, Medicine, and Animals" explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying "Teacher's Guide" is available to help teachers of middle and high…

  9. Animal science departments of the future.

    PubMed

    Britt, J H; Aberle, E D; Esbenshade, K L; Males, J R

    2008-11-01

    Departments of animal science were established in agricultural colleges of public universities just over 100 yr ago, shortly before the founding of today's American Society of Animal Science. These departments and colleges have been remarkably resilient, changing little structurally. Yet, the future portends significant changes in these departments and colleges in response to shifts in how public higher education is financed and how society views the roles of animals in providing food and companionship. Funding for public higher education will continue to decline as a percentage of government appropriations. Public universities will garner more funding from gifts, endowments, grants, contracts, and tuition but will be held more accountable than today by public officials. Departments of animal science will retain strong constituencies and will be major units of most agricultural colleges; however, their students and faculty will be more diverse. Departments of animal science will focus on more species of animals and on a greater role of animals in society. Disciplines of faculty members in departments of animal science will become broader, and research projects will be more complex and have longer horizons, ultimately focused more on sustainability. Departments will share more resources across state and national boundaries, and there will be less duplication of effort regionally. Departments of animal science will continue to be important academic units of universities into the 22nd century. PMID:18599667

  10. Kindergarten Science Unit on Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Seven activities designed to teach kindergarten students about animals are offered in this unit. Instructions for each activity include a behavioral objective, materials needed, step-by-step procedures, and an evaluation suggestion. Topics of the activities are: (1) characteristics that distinguish animals from other living organisms (including…

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Commitment Concerning Evidence-Based Prevention Programs: Differences between Family and Consumer Sciences and 4-H Youth Development Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of a study designed to assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards evidence-based and other prevention programs among county Extension educators. We examined differences across educators from Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) and 4-H Youth Development. Analyses based on a multi-state sample of educators revealed…

  12. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  13. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  14. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  15. Ethics and the science of animal minds.

    PubMed

    Allen, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Ethicists have commonly appealed to science to bolster their arguments for elevating the moral status of nonhuman animals. I describe a framework within which I take many ethicists to be making such appeals. I focus on an apparent gap in this framework between those properties of animals that are part of the scientific consensus, and those to which ethicists typically appeal in their arguments. I will describe two different ways of diminishing the appearance of the gap, and argue that both of them present challenges to ethicists seeking a firm scientific basis for their claims about the moral status of animals. I argue that more clarity about the role of appeals to science by applied ethicists leads to questions about the effectiveness of such appeals, and that these questions might best be pursued empirically. PMID:16906348

  16. Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

  17. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural Iowa teacher and…

  18. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  19. A history of animal welfare science.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made. PMID:21347723

  20. Teaching animal science: education or indoctrination?

    PubMed

    Schillo, K K

    1997-04-01

    Traditional animal science curricula ignore sociological aspects of scientific research and therefore portray scientific knowledge as value-free. This view gives rise to a teaching method that involves imparting lists of scientific facts that are to be accepted by students without critical evaluation. This amounts to little more than indoctrination and misrepresents science as a system of knowledge. An alternative approach is based on the view that science is a creative human activity that reflects the values and biases of its practitioners. The goal of this approach is to teach students to think analytically and to make independent judgments about scientific claims. This requires a scientific literacy: an understanding of principal scientific theories, the nature of scientific research, and the relationship between science and society. To achieve this goal, a teacher must become less of an authority figure, whose role is to simply pass on information, and more of a facilitator, whose role is to promote questioning, exploration, and synthesis. This requires a learning community in which students feel comfortable taking risks and develop the courage to make and defend judgments. This teaching approach enhances the intellectual and ethical development of students, allowing them to serve themselves and society in responsible ways. PMID:9110206

  1. Incorporating Laptop Technologies into an Animal Sciences Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birrenkott, Glenn; Bertrand, Jean A.; Bolt, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Teaching animal sciences, like most agricultural disciplines, requires giving students hands-on learning opportunities in remote and often computer-unfriendly sites such as animal farms. How do faculty integrate laptop use into such an environment?

  2. Vocational Agriculture Teachers' Opinions Relative to Selected Animal Science Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Larry G.; Groves, Ramsey

    1986-01-01

    The attitudes of 107 vocational agriculture teachers toward animal science competencies were compared to those of respondents to the National Agriculture Occupations Competency Study. The areas of disagreement indicate a need for increased cooperation between agricultural education and animal science departments in teacher preparation. (SK)

  3. Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

  4. The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

  5. Animals in Education: Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes and Science Fairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGiffin, Heather, Ed.; Brownley, Nancie, Ed.

    Proceedings of the conference, "The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes and Science Fairs," held in September of 1979 are presented. Sixteen articles reflect the views of educators, psychologists, and veterinarians on various perspectives of the controversial topic of using animals in elementary and secondary school science classrooms.…

  6. Twenty years on--changes in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Seamer, J

    1994-10-01

    Changes in laboratory animal science in the 20 years since George Porter's death are reviewed, with particular emphasis on animal welfare. The need for a generally acceptable definition of animal welfare is emphasized and a new definition is propounded. The concept of stewardship as a basis for human-animal relationships is explored. This involves Man accepting his responsibility for his relationship with, and care of, animals while simultaneously accepting a moral responsibility to God, or others, for that care and relationship. PMID:7830369

  7. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  8. Computer Animations a Science Teaching Aid: Contemplating an Effective Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannu, Kirti

    2008-01-01

    To improve quality of science education, the author suggests use of entertaining and exciting technique of animation for better understanding of scientific principles. Latest technologies are being used with more vigour to spread venomous superstitions. Better understanding of science may help students to better their scientific temper. Keeping…

  9. Teaching Advanced Life Sciences in an Animal Context: Agricultural Science Teacher Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balschweid, Mark; Huerta, Alexandria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine agricultural science teacher comfort with a new high school Advanced Life Science: Animal course and determine their perceptions of student impact. The advanced science course is eligible for college credit. The teachers revealed they felt confident of their science background in preparation…

  10. Text mining in livestock animal science: introducing the potential of text mining to animal sciences.

    PubMed

    Sahadevan, S; Hofmann-Apitius, M; Schellander, K; Tesfaye, D; Fluck, J; Friedrich, C M

    2012-10-01

    In biological research, establishing the prior art by searching and collecting information already present in the domain has equal importance as the experiments done. To obtain a complete overview about the relevant knowledge, researchers mainly rely on 2 major information sources: i) various biological databases and ii) scientific publications in the field. The major difference between the 2 information sources is that information from databases is available, typically well structured and condensed. The information content in scientific literature is vastly unstructured; that is, dispersed among the many different sections of scientific text. The traditional method of information extraction from scientific literature occurs by generating a list of relevant publications in the field of interest and manually scanning these texts for relevant information, which is very time consuming. It is more than likely that in using this "classical" approach the researcher misses some relevant information mentioned in the literature or has to go through biological databases to extract further information. Text mining and named entity recognition methods have already been used in human genomics and related fields as a solution to this problem. These methods can process and extract information from large volumes of scientific text. Text mining is defined as the automatic extraction of previously unknown and potentially useful information from text. Named entity recognition (NER) is defined as the method of identifying named entities (names of real world objects; for example, gene/protein names, drugs, enzymes) in text. In animal sciences, text mining and related methods have been briefly used in murine genomics and associated fields, leaving behind other fields of animal sciences, such as livestock genomics. The aim of this work was to develop an information retrieval platform in the livestock domain focusing on livestock publications and the recognition of relevant data from

  11. The science behind animal-assisted therapy.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Dawn A

    2013-04-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a complementary medicine intervention, typically utilizing dogs trained to be obedient, calm, and comforting. Several studies have reported significant pain relief after participating in therapy dog visits. Objective reports of reduced pain and pain-related symptoms are supported by studies measuring decreased catecholamines and increased endorphins in humans receiving friendly dog visits. Mirror neuron activity and disease-perception through olfactory ability in dogs may also play important roles in helping dogs connect with humans during therapeutic encounters. This review will explore a variety of possible theories that may explain the therapeutic benefits that occur during therapy dog visits. PMID:23430707

  12. Animal clocks: when science meets nature.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Bloch, Guy; Schwartz, William J

    2013-08-22

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'), with the alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizing (entraining) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle. Our knowledge of the circadian system of animals at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organismal levels is remarkable, and we are beginning to understand how each of these levels contributes to the emergent properties and increased complexity of the system as a whole. For the most part, these analyses have been carried out using model organisms in standard laboratory housing, but to begin to understand the adaptive significance of the clock, we must expand our scope to study diverse animal species from different taxonomic groups, showing diverse activity patterns, in their natural environments. The seven papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B take on this challenge, reviewing the influences of moonlight, latitudinal clines, evolutionary history, social interactions, specialized temporal niches, annual variation and recently appreciated post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms. The papers emphasize that the complexity and diversity of the natural world represent a powerful experimental resource. PMID:23825215

  13. Animal clocks: when science meets nature

    PubMed Central

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Bloch, Guy; Schwartz, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian ‘clock’), with the alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizing (entraining) these rhythms to the natural day–night cycle. Our knowledge of the circadian system of animals at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organismal levels is remarkable, and we are beginning to understand how each of these levels contributes to the emergent properties and increased complexity of the system as a whole. For the most part, these analyses have been carried out using model organisms in standard laboratory housing, but to begin to understand the adaptive significance of the clock, we must expand our scope to study diverse animal species from different taxonomic groups, showing diverse activity patterns, in their natural environments. The seven papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B take on this challenge, reviewing the influences of moonlight, latitudinal clines, evolutionary history, social interactions, specialized temporal niches, annual variation and recently appreciated post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms. The papers emphasize that the complexity and diversity of the natural world represent a powerful experimental resource. PMID:23825215

  14. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals. PMID:26216717

  15. Diversity in laboratory animal science: issues and initiatives.

    PubMed

    Alworth, Leanne; Ardayfio, Krystal L; Blickman, Andrew; Greenhill, Lisa; Hill, William; Sharp, Patrick; Talmage, Roberta; Plaut, Victoria C; Goren, Matt

    2010-03-01

    Since diversity in the workplace began receiving scholarly attention in the late 1980s, many corporations and institutions have invested in programs to address and manage diversity. We encourage laboratory animal science to address the challenges and to build on the strengths that personal diversity brings to our field and workplaces. Diversity is already becoming increasingly relevant in the workplace and the laboratory animal science field. By addressing issues related to diversity, laboratory animal science could benefit and potentially fulfill its goals more successfully. To date, diversity has received minimal attention from the field as a whole. However, many individuals, workplaces, and institutions in industry, academia, and the uniformed services that are intimately involved with the field of laboratory animal science are actively addressing issues concerning diversity. This article describes some of these programs and activities in industry and academia. Our intention is that this article will provide useful examples of inclusion-promoting activities and prompt further initiatives to address diversity awareness and inclusion in laboratory animal science. PMID:20353686

  16. Diversity in Laboratory Animal Science: Issues and Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne; Ardayfio, Krystal L; Blickman, Andrew; Greenhill, Lisa; Hill, William; Sharp, Patrick; Talmage, Roberta; Plaut, Victoria C; Goren, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    Since diversity in the workplace began receiving scholarly attention in the late 1980s, many corporations and institutions have invested in programs to address and manage diversity. We encourage laboratory animal science to address the challenges and to build on the strengths that personal diversity brings to our field and workplaces. Diversity is already becoming increasingly relevant in the workplace and the laboratory animal science field. By addressing issues related to diversity, laboratory animal science could benefit and potentially fulfill its goals more successfully. To date, diversity has received minimal attention from the field as a whole. However, many individuals, workplaces, and institutions in industry, academia, and the uniformed services that are intimately involved with the field of laboratory animal science are actively addressing issues concerning diversity. This article describes some of these programs and activities in industry and academia. Our intention is that this article will provide useful examples of inclusion-promoting activities and prompt further initiatives to address diversity awareness and inclusion in laboratory animal science. PMID:20353686

  17. Video: Animals; Electric Current; Force; Science Activities. Learning in Science Project. Working Papers 51-54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley; And Others

    Four papers to be used in conjunction with video-tapes developed by the Learning in Science Project are presented. Topic areas of the papers focus on: (1) animals; (2) electric current; (3) force; and (4) science activities. The first paper presents transcripts of class discussions focusing on the scientific meaning of the word animal. The second…

  18. Embracing Scientific and Engineering Practices in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The 4-H Science Initiative has renewed efforts to strengthen 4-H programmatic and evaluation efforts in science and engineering education. A fundamental component of this initiative is to provide opportunities to youth to aid in their development of science process skills; however, emerging research stresses the importance of engaging youth in…

  19. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science.

    PubMed

    Forni, M

    2007-08-01

    The contribution of animal experimentation to biomedical research is of undoubted value, nevertheless the real usefulness of animal models is still being hotly debated. Laboratory Animal Science is a multidisciplinary approach to humane animal experimentation that allows the choice of the correct animal model and the collection of unbiased data. Refinement, Reduction and Replacement, the "3Rs rule", are now widely accepted and have a major influence on animal experimentation procedures. Refinement, namely any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to animals, has been today extended to the entire lives of the experimental animals. Reduction of the number of animals used to obtain statistically significant data may be achieved by improving experimental design and statistical analysis of data. Replacement refers to the development of validated alternative methods. A Laboratory Animal Science training program in biomedical degrees can promote the 3Rs and improve the welfare of laboratory animals as well as the quality of science with ethical, scientific and economic advantages complying with the European requirement that "persons who carry out, take part in, or supervise procedures on animals, or take care of animals used in procedures, shall have had appropriate education and training". PMID:17682845

  20. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  1. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare. PMID:21216980

  2. Sex Differences in Science Learning: Closing the Gap through Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Males traditionally outperform females on measures of both visuospatial ability and science achievement. This experiment directly tests a manipulation designed to compensate for such differences through the presentation of relevant illustrations or animations to support the construction of understanding of a specific scientific phenomenon. Males…

  3. Discovering Animal Ways, Elementary School Science, Level Three, Teaching Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Helen E.

    This pilot teaching unit is one of a series developed for use in elementary school science programs. This unit is designed to promote children's natural curiosity and to help those who show a reluctance to work with animals to overcome some of their fears. The student activities employ important scientific processes, such as observation,…

  4. Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

    2010-01-01

    Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

  5. Public Supported Instruction in Animal Science in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Windol Lee

    This study was initiated to determine the content and emphasis in animal science instruction by local vocational agriculture departments, extension services, and post-secondary schools in Iowa and to investigate the effects of leaders' characteristics and the geographic and economic areas on the content. From a total population of 75 counties, 75…

  6. V.A. I Animal Science Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains two units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in an animal science course in vocational agriculture. Unit A on breeds and selection of livestock and poultry includes 13 topics covering beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, horses, goats, sheep, and poultry. Unit B on…

  7. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  8. The use of genetically-engineered animals in science: perspectives of Canadian Animal Care Committee members.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Dale, Julie; Griffin, Gilly

    2013-05-01

    The genetic engineering of animals for their use in science challenges the implementation of refinement and reduction in several areas, including the invasiveness of the procedures involved, unanticipated welfare concerns, and the numbers of animals required. Additionally, the creation of genetically-engineered animals raises problems with the Canadian system of reporting animal numbers per Category of Invasiveness, as well as raising issues of whether ethical limits can, or should, be placed on genetic engineering. A workshop was held with the aim of bringing together Canadian animal care committee members to discuss these issues, to reflect on progress that has been made in addressing them, and to propose ways of overcoming any challenges. Although previous literature has made recommendations with regard to refinement and reduction when creating new genetically-engineered animals, the perception of the workshop participants was that some key opportunities are being missed. The participants identified the main roadblocks to the implementation of refinement and reduction alternatives as confidentiality, cost and competition. If the scientific community is to make progress concerning the implementation of refinement and reduction, particularly in the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals, addressing these roadblocks needs to be a priority. PMID:23781934

  9. An overview of animal science research 1945-2011 through science mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, A; Cobo, M J; Lopez-Pujalte, C; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2015-12-01

    The conceptual structure of the field of Animal Science (AS) research is examined by means of a longitudinal science mapping analysis. The whole of the AS research field is analysed, revealing its conceptual evolution. To this end, an automatic approach to detecting and visualizing hidden themes or topics and their evolution across a consecutive span of years was applied to AS publications of the JCR category 'Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science' during the period 1945-2011. This automatic approach was based on a coword analysis and combines performance analysis and science mapping. To observe the conceptual evolution of AS, six consecutive periods were defined: 1945-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Research in AS was identified as having focused on ten main thematic areas: ANIMAL-FEEDING, SMALL-RUMINANTS, ANIMAL-REPRODUCTION, DAIRY-PRODUCTION, MEAT-QUALITY, SWINE-PRODUCTION, GENETICS-AND-ANIMAL-BREEDING, POULTRY, ANIMAL-WELFARE and GROWTH-FACTORS-AND-FATTY-ACIDS. The results show how genomic studies gain in weight and integrate with other thematic areas. The whole of AS research has become oriented towards an overall framework in which animal welfare, sustainable management and human health play a major role. All this would affect the future structure and management of livestock farming. PMID:25365916

  10. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  11. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  12. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  13. Recruiting 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Four-H Club Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to assist 4-H Club extension workers in recruiting volunteer adult and youth leaders. It discusses: why volunteers serve (organizational identity, desire to serve, involvement of other family members, future opportunities and obligations, community status, self interest, and public opinion); how to recruit (person-to-person…

  14. Socialization of Youth: Role of the 4-H Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freebern, John Robert

    Many professional 4-H staff members lack a sufficient background in the social sciences, fail to understand the complexity of the socialization task, and are not aware of the changes made by other socialization agents in the community. This paper is designed to help the professional 4-H adult worker improve his role as a socialization agent.…

  15. Responsible Use of Live Animals and Dissection in the Science Classroom. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), led by a panel of K-12 science teachers, has developed a new position statement, "Responsible Use of Live Animals and Dissection in the Science Classroom." This statement examines the issues surrounding the integration of animals into the K-12 science curriculum and highlights key considerations that…

  16. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  17. Animal board invited review: advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences.

    PubMed

    Almeida, A M; Bassols, A; Bendixen, E; Bhide, M; Ceciliani, F; Cristobal, S; Eckersall, P D; Hollung, K; Lisacek, F; Mazzucchelli, G; McLaughlin, M; Miller, I; Nally, J E; Plowman, J; Renaut, J; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Staric, J; Turk, R

    2015-01-01

    Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for a variety of reasons and in contrast to disciplines such as plant sciences or human biomedicine, such potential is only now being tapped. To counter such limited usage, 6 years ago we created a consortium dedicated to the applications of Proteomics to APH, specifically in the form of a Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, termed FA1002--Proteomics in Farm Animals: www.cost-faproteomics.org. In 4 years, the consortium quickly enlarged to a total of 31 countries in Europe, as well as Israel, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This article has a triple purpose. First, we aim to provide clear examples on the applications and benefits of the use of proteomics in all aspects related to APH. Second, we provide insights and possibilities on the new trends and objectives for APH proteomics applications and technologies for the years to come. Finally, we provide an overview and balance of the major activities and accomplishments of the COST Action on Farm Animal Proteomics. These include activities such as the organization of seminars, workshops and major scientific conferences, organization of summer schools, financing Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) and the generation of scientific literature. Overall, the Action has attained all of the proposed objectives and has made considerable difference by putting proteomics on the global map for animal and veterinary researchers in general and by contributing significantly to reduce the East-West and North-South gaps

  18. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  19. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  20. The Association between Preservice Elementary Teacher Animal Attitude and Likelihood of Animal Incorporation in Future Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between United States K-4 preservice teacher's attitudes toward specific animals and the likelihood that the preservice elementary teachers would incorporate these specific animals in their future science curriculum. A strong statistically significant association was found between the…

  1. ASAS Centennial Paper: The future of teaching and research in companion animal biology in departments of animal sciences.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J P

    2009-01-01

    Departments of animal sciences must be relevant to a society in which a small number of people can raise almost all the food animal products needed. The declining number of people involved in animal agriculture has decreased enrollment of students interested in food animals in many departments of animal science. However, several departments welcomed students from a diverse background and began research on animals other than food animals. In many states, the undergraduate enrollment is made up primarily of students interested only in companion animals. A benefit of this is that we have recruited new students into animal agriculture and they have gone on to excellent careers. We have a new challenge now: how to maintain and expand the efforts in teaching, research, and outreach of companion animal science. Departments wishing to expand in teaching have examples of successful courses and curricula from other departments. Some departments have expanded their teaching efforts across their own university to teach about pets to a wider audience than their own majors; other departments can follow. In research, a small number of faculty have been able to establish extramurally funded projects on pets, including horses. But it will be difficult for more than a handful of departments to have a serious research effort in dogs, cats, birds, fish, or exotic animals. Departments will have to make a concerted effort to invest in such endeavors; joint ventures with other universities and colleges of veterinary medicine (or medicine) will probably be required. Funding sources for "traditional" efforts in nutrition, reproduction, and physiology are small and inconsistent; however, with the progress of the equine, canine, and feline genome projects, there should be opportunities from federal funding sources aimed at using animal models for human health. In addition, efforts in animal behavior and welfare can be expanded, perhaps with some funding from private foundations or animal

  2. Science Teachers to Ban Testing Harmful to Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Marjorie

    1980-01-01

    This article reports the adoption of new policies to restrict experiments on animals in the elementary or secondary school classroom. The controversy involving animal welfare groups is discussed as it relates to animal abuse by students. (SA)

  3. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  4. Animal Needs. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Life in Action. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. All animals need food, water, and shelter to grow, reproduce, and survive. Students learn about the needs of animals and how, over time, if…

  5. Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The way an animal acts or behaves helps it get what it needs to survive. Students find out why some animal behaviors are instinctive while…

  6. Animals in Science Education--Ethics and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes the animal rights argument that objects to the use or killing of animals for educational purposes. Reviews and evaluates alternative approaches that include the nonanimal options of videotaped experiments, self-experimentation, and computer simulations. (MDH)

  7. Alternatives To Animal Dissection in School Science Classes. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Until recently, one of the most expected and accepted experiences among students in biology classrooms of the United States has been the dissection of vertebrate animals, from frogs and mice to cats and fetal pigs. However, resistance to animal dissection has grown during the past decade with concerns ranging from inhumane treatment of animals by…

  8. Responsible Use of Live Animals and Dissection in the Science Classroom. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has revised a position statement published in June 2005. This revised statement examines the issues surrounding the integration of animals into the K-12 science curriculum and highlights key considerations that should be addressed when deciding to introduce live animals in the classroom and involve…

  9. Animal Science Technology. An Experimental Developmental Program. Volume II, Curriculum Course Outlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Herman G.

    This volume, the second of a two part evaluation report, is devoted exclusively to the presentation of detailed course outlines representing an Animal Science Technology curriculum. Arranged in 6 terms of study (2 academic years), outlines are included on such topics as: (1) Introductory Animal Science, (2) General Microbiology, (3) Zoonoses, (4)…

  10. Animal Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 3 [and] Volume 28, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Andy; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain 4 units that include 30 lessons for a course in animal science for 11th- and 12th-grade agriculture science students. The units cover nutrition, genetics, reproduction, and animal health. The instructor's guide contains the following: objectives, competencies, motivational…

  11. Selected References and Aids for Teaching Animal Science to Students of Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The resource guide for animal science education is divided into six subject areas: general animal science, beef, dairy, poultry, sheep, and swine. Within each of these areas, the guide provides bibliographic and availability data for relevant materials in the following forms: bulletins and circulars; textbooks; films, filmstrips, and slides; and…

  12. Revising and Updating the Animal Science Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in teaching Connecticut's revised animal science curriculum at regional vocational agriculture centers. Like its predecessor, this curriculum includes exploratory (intended for grades 9 and 10) and specialized (intended for grades 11 and 12) animal science units and is based on the following major areas of…

  13. Assessing the Attitudes and Beliefs of Preservice Middle School Science Teachers toward Biologically Diverse Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between United States (US) preservice middle school science teacher characteristics, their attitude toward a specific animal and their belief concerning the likelihood of incorporating information about that specific animal into their future science classroom. The study participants…

  14. Acceptance of animal research in our science community.

    PubMed

    Bergmeister, Konstantin; Podesser, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Animal research is debated highly controversial, as evident by the "Stop Vivi-section" initiative in 2015. Despite widespread protest to the initiative by researchers, no data is available on the European medical research community's opinion towards animal research. In this single-center study, we investigated this question in a survey of students and staff members at the Medical University of Vienna. A total of 906 participants responded to the survey, of which 82.8% rated the relevance of animal research high and 62% would not accept a treatment without prior animals testing. Overall, animal research was considered important, but its communication to the public considered requiring improvement. PMID:27239274

  15. A training course on laboratory animal science: an initiative to implement the Three Rs of animal research in India.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Kunal; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2016-03-01

    There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys. PMID:27031601

  16. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  17. The use of animals in agriculture and science: historical context, international considerations and future direction.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, A C D

    2005-08-01

    As the final contribution to this important World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) publication, this paper provides some relevant background and contextual information and identifies a number of strategically significant international activities that will influence the future direction of animal welfare internationally. The assumption of an animal welfare leadership role by the OIE, with the full support of its 167 Member Countries, is an international development of major strategic significance. As an inter-governmental organisation, the OIE is committed to a science-based approach to the development of animal welfare guidelines and standards and to working closely with all stakeholders. This paper covers the use of animals in both agriculture and science, reflecting the OIE's dual remit for both animal health and animal welfare and the importance of animal-based research and testing to the OIE's animal health and reference laboratory roles. PMID:16358528

  18. Animals. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderman, Winifred Ho; Booth, Gerald

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

  19. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  20. Engaging Library Partners in 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Nia Imani; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    When most people think about 4-H, they remember county fairs, livestock programs, and agricultural education. While these programs are still prominent, 4-H has grown in order to meet the growing demands of today's youth. The organization has expanded services and programs to serve rural, suburban, and urban youth in every state in the U.S. 4-H is…

  1. Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The stages of life that animals pass through--birth, growth, maturation, reproduction, and death--make up the life cycle. Students learn…

  2. Animal Adaptations. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. As animals adapt to new environments, their bodies and life cycles may change over thousands of years. In this video, students find out about…

  3. Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…

  4. Animal, Plant, Living: Notes for Teachers. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley

    The Learning in Science Project investigated the proportion of students at different ages who considered a horse, person, dolphin, worm, and spider to be animals. Although scientists would agree that they are indeed animals, findings indicate that many students of varying ages did not consider them to be animals; similar findings were reported for…

  5. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    The use of live animals for experiments plays an important role in many forms of research. This gives rise to an ethical dilemma. On the one hand, most of the animals used are sentient beings who may be harmed by the experiments. The research, on the other hand, may be vital for preventing, curing or alleviating human diseases. There is no consensus on how to tackle this dilemma. One extreme is the view taken by adherents of the so-called animal rights view. According to this view, we are never justified in harming animals for human purposes - however vital these purposes may be. The other extreme is the ruthless view, according to which animals are there to be used at our discretion. However, most people have a view situated somewhere between these two extremes. It is accepted that animals may be used for research - contrary to the animal rights view. However, contrary to the ruthless view, that is only accepted under certain conditions. The aim of this presentation is to present different ethical views which may serve as a foundation for specifying the circumstances under which it is acceptable to use animals for research. Three views serving this role are contractarianism, utilitarianism and a deontological approach. According to contractarianism, the key ethical issue is concern for the sentiments of other human beings in society, on whose co-operation those responsible for research depend. Thus it is acceptable to use animals as long as most people can see the point of the experiment and are not offended by the way it is done. According to utilitarianism, the key ethical issue is about the consequences for humans and animals. Thus it is justified to use animals for research if enough good comes out of it in terms of preventing suffering and creating happiness, and if there is no better alternative. In the deontological approach the prima facie duty of beneficence towards human beings has to be weighed against the prima facie duties not to harm animals and to

  6. Science 101: How Do Animals Navigate during Migration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Migrating animals do amazing things. Homing pigeons can find their way "home" across hundreds of miles; salmon return to their spawning location thousands of miles away; turtles travel over eight thousand miles to lay their eggs in the spot where they originally hatched. Scientists have studied how animals navigate around the globe and have…

  7. Animal Structures and Functions, Science (Experimental): 5314.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Barbara A.

    This unit of instruction was designed to introduce the student to the relationship between structure and function in the animal kingdom, with emphasis given to: (1) the evolution of physiological systems in the major animal phyla, (2) the complementarity of structure and function, and (3) the concept of homeostasis. The booklet lists the relevant…

  8. Acceptance of animal research in our science community

    PubMed Central

    Bergmeister, Konstantin; Podesser, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Animal research is debated highly controversial, as evident by the “Stop Vivi-section” initiative in 2015. Despite widespread protest to the initiative by researchers, no data is available on the European medical research community’s opinion towards animal research. In this single-center study, we investigated this question in a survey of students and staff members at the Medical University of Vienna. A total of 906 participants responded to the survey, of which 82.8% rated the relevance of animal research high and 62% would not accept a treatment without prior animals testing. Overall, animal research was considered important, but its communication to the public considered requiring improvement. PMID:27239274

  9. Learning about Animals. Superific Science Book III. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to arouse interest in students about animals, this document was developed to provide teachers with a variety of information and teaching activities. The booklet is intended to enable students to become knowledgeable about science concepts relating to animals without the use of expensive equipment. The teaching activities deal with: (1)…

  10. Science Education in Primary Schools: Is an Animation Worth a Thousand Pictures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Miri; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-10-01

    Science teaching deals with abstract concepts and processes that very often cannot be seen or touched. The development of Java, Flash, and other web-based applications allow teachers and educators to present complex animations that attractively illustrate scientific phenomena. Our study evaluated the integration of web-based animated movies into primary schools science curriculum. Our goal was to examine teachers' methods for integrating animated movies and their views about the role of animations in enhancing young students' thinking skills. We also aimed at investigating the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes. Applying qualitative and quantitative tools, we conducted informal discussions with science teachers (N = 15) and administered pre- and post-questionnaires to 4th (N = 641) and 5th (N = 694) grade students who were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group students studied science while using animated movies and supplementary activities at least once a week. The control group students used only textbooks and still-pictures for learning science. Findings indicated that animated movies support the use of diverse teaching strategies and learning methods, and can promote various thinking skills among students. Findings also indicated that animations can enhance scientific curiosity, the acquisition of scientific language, and fostering scientific thinking. These encouraging results can be explained by the fact that the students made use of both visual-pictorial and auditory-verbal capabilities while exploring animated movies in diverse learning styles and teaching strategies.

  11. Endangered & Extinct Animals. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Due to environmental factors and human interference, many of Earth's creatures have ceased to exist or are on the verge of extinction. In…

  12. Animal Classification. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. They learn what the terms "kingdom", "phylum", and "order" mean, and discover how the 3.5 million-plus organisms found on Earth fit into…

  13. Animation and Grammar in Science Education: Learners' Construal of Animated Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Goran

    2010-01-01

    This case study reports on how students, working collaboratively, interpret and construct a written report of the events described in animated educational software. The analysis is based on video recordings of two upper-secondary-school students while they are endeavouring to construe an animated sequence of the mouldering process. How the…

  14. Animals, science, and ethics -- Section I. Ethical theory and the moral status of animals.

    PubMed

    Russow, Lilly-Marlene

    1990-01-01

    Section I discusses the moral status of animals as conceived from several theoretical and ethical perspectives. Though any one perspective might not be finally adequate, the juxtaposition of several ethical positions widens and deepens our understanding of the moral status of animals and of the responsibilities this complex status engenders. PMID:11650365

  15. Audiotutorial Teaching of Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, J. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This audiotutorial course consists of 35 minicourses including biology, husbandry, and diseases of the common laboratory animals. Each minicourse includes an audiocassette tape recording and visual and written materials. The course is available for distribution. (Author/LBH)

  16. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity, background information,…

  17. The use of animals in national high school student science fair projects in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller-Spiegel, Crystal

    2004-06-01

    Science fair projects can provide a sound opportunity to teach students the value of scientific methodology without relying on the routine and unnecessary use of animals. Unfortunately, students are often encouraged to use animals in an expendable manner that both duplicates previous experiments and neglects the opportunity to "think outside the box" in order to generate new hypotheses/theories about human health, physiological processes or basic biological concepts. Although at least one national science fair sponsor has changed its policy regarding students' utilisation of vertebrate animals, others continue to encourage the more traditional in vivo experimental projects. This paper will review the guidelines of two major national science fairs in the USA; types of projects conducted that involve animals; numbers of animals involved; interview responses by some student finalists who used vertebrates in their projects; successful initiatives by animal advocates in the USA to eliminate the use of animals in science fairs; and potential areas of outreach to science educators, science fair sponsors, high schools and students. PMID:23581124

  18. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  19. Advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal production and health (APH) are important sectors to the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the EU and in other continents. APH are highly competitive sectors with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit country to country variations, on s...

  20. Animals from the Outside In, Science (Experimental): 5314.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, David Z.

    Presented is an outline of a basic course (low level) in biology for students whose interest and background are very limited. The study and dissection of earthworm, crayfish, perch, and bird are included. A detailed study of the frog is undertaken as a representative of the animal kingdom. Performance objectives are presented, as well as a course…

  1. Evaluation of Audiotutorial Lessons in Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; McPherson, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-five audiotutorial lessons in laboratory animal medicine were evaluated by students enrolled in courses at six schools of veterinary medicine. Results indicate that the lessons are an effective learning resource, that prior knowledge did not significantly influence final test scores, and that subjective qualities did not affect learning.…

  2. Community Development: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheneman, C. Stephen

    State progress reports on the 4-H/Community Development program, a 1973 nationwide Federally sponsored program facilitating youth in community decision-making processes, indicate that the program appears to be evolving into a viable and integral part of the total 4-H program. Although the report describes unique program features of various States,…

  3. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  4. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  5. Science Education in Primary Schools: Is an Animation Worth a Thousand Pictures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-01-01

    Science teaching deals with abstract concepts and processes that very often cannot be seen or touched. The development of Java, Flash, and other web-based applications allow teachers and educators to present complex animations that attractively illustrate scientific phenomena. Our study evaluated the integration of web-based animated movies into…

  6. Distance Education Teaching Methods and Student Responses in the Animal Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Jada Quinome

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of this dissertation is to observe whether or not an Anatomy & Physiology Distance Education (DistEd) course offered in the Animal Science Department will prove to be valuable in the learning process for students. Study 1 was conducted to determine whether gross anatomy of animals could be taught effectively at the…

  7. Classroom Learning Centers: Animals, Levels E-I. A Supplementary Approach for Teaching Science and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Ted G.; Richiger, Georgina M.

    This publication includes curriculum materials on animals for grades 4-6. The major purposes of this publication are to foster individualized and interdisciplinary science and art activities within elementary classrooms and to provide pupils and teachers with suggestions to encourage the use of zoos, animal parks, and natural history museums.…

  8. Multimedia Application with Animated Cartoons for Teaching Science in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalacosta, K.; Kamariotaki-Paparrigopoulou, M.; Palyvos, J. A.; Spyrellis, N.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports research findings on the use of animated cartoons in a multimedia application meant to evaluate their effectiveness in supporting teaching and learning in science. The researchers have developed a cartoon-style multimedia application whereas animated cartoons where designed from scratch using appropriate programs. The study was…

  9. Animals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to encourage people to keep animals of all kinds in the classroom and to use them in teaching language arts, mathematics, and social studies, as well as science and nature study. The booklet is divided into four sections. The first section contains an account of a year with desert animals in an ungraded classroom of six- to…

  10. Classroom Learning Centers: Animals, Levels A-D. A Supplementary Approach for Teaching Science and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Ted G.; Richiger, Georgina M.

    This publication includes curriculum materials on animals for grades K-4. The major purposes of this publication are to foster individualized and interdisciplinary science and art activities within elementary classrooms and to provide pupils and teachers with suggestions to encourage the use of zoos, animal parks, and natural history museums.…

  11. Interview with a Wild Animal: Integrating Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Using a unit on earthworms, this article shows how science and language arts can be successfully integrated in a middle school classroom through hands-on observation, interviewing, and writing exercises. The integration process engages students, uses class time more efficiently, encourages dialog, and improves outcomes and appreciation of the…

  12. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

  13. Science Teachers and the Dissection Debate: Perspectives on Animal Dissection and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Ontario science and biology teachers' practices and attitudes toward animal dissection and dissection alternatives. The data was collected through a mixed methods approach involving online surveys (n = 153) and subsequent telephone interviews (n = 9) with secondary school science and biology teachers. The findings indicate…

  14. Students' Reactions to the Use of Animals as Instructional Tools for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzau, Vickie Anne

    2013-01-01

    Teaching science to students with special needs requires different approaches. A program at the study site supplemented packaged science kits with animal-assisted instruction, but such an approach was never evaluated. The purpose of this study was to provide a formative program evaluation documenting students' reactions to the use of animals…

  15. Building Transnational Bodies: Norway and the International Development of Laboratory Animal Science, ca. 1956–1980

    PubMed Central

    Druglitrø, Tone; Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Argument This article adopts a historical perspective to examine the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, an auxiliary field which formed to facilitate the work of the biomedical sciences by systematically improving laboratory animal production, provision, and maintenance in the post Second World War period. We investigate how Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine co-developed at the local level (responding to national needs and concerns) yet was simultaneously transnational in orientation (responding to the scientific need that knowledge, practices, objects and animals circulate freely). Adapting the work of Tsing (2004), we argue that national differences provided the creative “friction” that helped drive the formation of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine as a transnational endeavor. Our analysis engages with the themes of this special issue by focusing on the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine in Norway, which both informed wider transnational developments and was formed by them. We show that Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine can only be properly understood from a spatial perspective; whilst it developed and was structured through national “centers,” its orientation was transnational necessitating international networks through which knowledge, practice, technologies, and animals circulated. More and better laboratory animals are today required than ever before, and this demand will continue to rise if it is to keep pace with the quickening tempo of biological and veterinary research. The provision of this living experimental material is no longer a local problem; local, that is, to the research institute. It has become a national concern, and, in some of its aspects . . . even international. (William Lane-Petter 1957, 240) PMID:24941794

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  17. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  18. Animal minds and neuroimaging--bridging the gap between science and ethics?

    PubMed

    Buller, Tom

    2014-04-01

    As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics. By adopting this perspective, we can see how advances in neuroimaging regarding (1) research into the neurobiology of pain, (2) "brain reading," and (3) the minimally conscious state may enable us to identify properties that help bridge the gap between science and ethics, and hence help further the debate about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals. PMID:24495745

  19. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described. PMID:25635647

  20. Keeping science in environmental regulations: the role of the animal scientist.

    PubMed

    Powers, W J

    2003-04-01

    Environmental issues continue to be one of the biggest challenges faced by livestock producers. Whereas issues of the past have focused on manure nutrient impacts on water quality with some regulatory activity addressing odors, emerging issues are more diverse. To address emerging air quality issues, such as ammonia emissions, antibiotic transfer, human health impacts of emissions from animal agriculture, and estrogens in the environment, scientists with expertise in physiology, genetics, animal management, and nutrition will need to be enlisted. The objectives of this review are to highlight some of the prominent environmental regulatory activity that has occurred nationally in the past few years, to outline some of the emerging environmental issues, and to move members of the animal science profession toward thinking about what they can contribute toward addressing these issues. Animal scientists are uniquely qualified to engage in environmental research, education, and policymaking because of our comprehensive understanding of the complexity of whole-farm management and the interactions between animal management and manure management. Animal science departments have the opportunity to train students to be leaders in addressing environmental issues related to animal production, provided departments incorporate environmental education into curricula. Animal scientists can contribute greatly to the many areas of research that address emerging and current environmental issues, helping to ensure that policy is science-based and mitigation strategies are feasible. PMID:12741529

  1. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  2. Middle Childhood: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Part of a series for 4-H members between 9 and 19 years of age, this age-graded guide to the development of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds aims to help 4-H members who are children and adolescents themselves: (1) understand the physical, mental, social, and emotional development of children in middle childhood; (2) learn to care for a child in middle…

  3. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  4. Students' Reactions to the Use of Animals as Instructional Tools for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzau, Vickie Anne

    Teaching science to students with special needs requires different approaches. A program at the study site supplemented packaged science kits with animal-assisted instruction, but such an approach was never evaluated. The purpose of this study was to provide a formative program evaluation documenting students' reactions to the use of animals as instructional tools for science. Conceptually this research project was framed in the constructivist paradigm based on the work of Dewey and Darling-Hammond. This evaluation involved a qualitative case-study approach to explore how 5th grade students with learning disabilities reacted toward science when animals were used to facilitate instruction. The research question was addressed based on the collection of data through focus group interviews, observations, and student journals. Data were analyzed as they emerged using inductive analysis in combination with typological analysis, to deconstruct the data into themes and patterns. Findings revealed students' reactions to the use of animals were positive, resulting from the engagement of students in the lesson activities and connections to the animals. Students' verbal and nonverbal engagements were noted, as well as feelings of curiosity, anxiety, and self-efficacy. The project for this study was an evaluation report for stakeholders that contained recommendations for enhancing science instruction with animals as instructional tools, acknowledging students' interests, and providing students with authentic, hands-on experiences. Implications for positive social change were that students with disabilities may be provided affirmation of their abilities to actively learn, experience, and understand science through the use of animals in such a way as to recognize their interests and develop their strengths.

  5. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  6. Examination, Analysis, and Application of Hair in Forensic Science - Animal Hair.

    PubMed

    Tridico, S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the examination of animal hairs and their role in the forensic arena. The forensic examination of animal hair is a well-established discipline and has been so for two centuries. Examination is largely based on microscopy, which may enable the hair analyst to identify a hair as animal in origin, to characterize the hair to a particular species, and to conduct comparative examinations. Education and training underpin the ability of the hair analyst with the specialized knowledge and expertise required to proficiently conduct these examinations and give appropriate weight to the findings. This article will also discuss the effect two relative "newcomers" have exerted on the forensic examination of animal hair - (a) the transfer and persistence of animal hairs and (b) DNA profiling. Opinions regarding the transfer and persistence of animal hairs have been based on the data obtained from studies conducted on textile fibers because of the lack of data available for animal hairs. Preliminary studies conducted specifically on the transfer and persistence of animal hairs has shown that the results are comparable to the studies conducted on textile fibers. The progress in DNA profiling has seen this method being used with increasing frequency in the examination of animal hair. The results provide a degree of individualization that has not been possible with comparative microscopy. In conclusion, this review article will clearly demonstrate the role, value, and eclectic application of animal hair examination to forensic science. PMID:26257108

  7. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

  8. Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in…

  9. SWOT Analysis of Veterinary and Animal Science Education in India: Implications for Policy and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Reddy, P. Gopal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the SWOT issues of India's veterinary and animal science education. Design: The data were collected at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) from 168 post-graduate students. The two surveys generated 72% (N = 121) and 68% (N = 114) response rates, respectively. In the first…

  10. Instructional Efficiency of Integrated and Separated Text with Animated Presentations in Computer-Based Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kablan, Z.; Erden, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the instructional efficiency of integrating text and animation into computer-based science instruction. The participants were 84 seventh-grade students in a private primary school in Istanbul. The efficiency of instruction was measured by mental effort and performance level of the learners. The results of the study showed…

  11. The Effects of Animation Technique on the 7th Grade Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of animation technique on academic achievement of students in the "Human and Environment" unit lectured as part of the Science and Technology course of the seventh grade in primary education. The sample of the study consists of 58 students attending to the 7th grade of Erzurum MEB…

  12. Youth Motivation to Participate in Animal Science-Related Career Development Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Kendra; Knobloch, Neil; Jones, Amy; Brady, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The explorative study reported here describes youth participants in three animal science-related career development events from 2010. Variables included students' self-efficacy, task value motivation, career interests, and to what extent they utilized resources in preparation. It was concluded that all three groups were self-efficacious,…

  13. Animated Pedagogical Agents Effects on Enhancing Student Motivation and Learning in a Science Inquiry Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; Harmsen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and testing of a motivational animated pedagogical agent (APA) in an inquiry learning environment on kinematics. The aim of including the APA was to enhance students' perceptions of task relevance and self-efficacy. Given the under-representation of girls in science classrooms, special attention was given to…

  14. Patterns in Parent-Child Conversations about Animals at a Marine Science Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Jennifer C.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child conversations are a potential source of children's developing understanding of the biological domain. We investigated patterns in parent-child conversations that may inform children about biological domain boundaries. At a marine science center exhibit, we compared parent-child talk about typical sea animals with faces (fish) with…

  15. 76 FR 54466 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Science Advisory Board's Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office is requesting public nominations of technical experts to serve on an expert panel under the auspices of the SAB to conduct a peer review of EPA's development of air emission estimating methodologies for animal feeding...

  16. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  17. Multi-state 4-H energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, U.B.; Garthe, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Through Agricultural Engineering 4-H Energy Programs, youth can be educated to gain knowledge, increase hands on skills, and incorporate energy-saving techniques into their lifestyle. In a pilot multi-state energy program tested by 13 states, youth increased their energy awareness.

  18. The Preschooler: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Intended for 4-H participants who plan and implement activities in the area of child development, this booklet provides a study guide to help young learners: (1) gain understanding of a preschool child's physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a preschooler and promote preschoolers' feelings of security and safety;…

  19. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  20. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  1. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  2. A safe place to grow: Children, animals and caring in a life science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Leslie

    The ecological systems of the earth are in crisis. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact an elementary school life science education program based on an ethic of care had on children's ability to value the natural world. It is a study of how care-based science education supports personal connections to animals and nature; and how strength-based science education emphasizes creativity as a means for students to explore and express scientific knowledge through the arts. This qualitative study was conducted in a life science classroom filled with a wide variety of animals: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals the students studied and developed caring relationships with. The participants were 55 fourth, fifth and sixth-grade students who spent two years studying the natural world both inside the classroom and outside in the field. Invertebrates, trees, birds, mammals and wildflowers were studied in fourth grade. Evolution, and the study of vertebrate animals, were studied in the fifth grade. As teacher researcher, I collected data including audio-taped interviews, observations, field notes, and artifacts including children's creative projects expressing their factual understanding and thoughts about the animals and the natural world. This study revealed themes reflecting children's caring for animals, scientific knowledge, creative expression of knowledge, and the natural world. The themes are illustrated through four "portraits of care" based on students' voices, experiences, and class-work. The findings indicate that caring relationships with animals supported personal connections to the natural world and scientific knowledge. Children had better understanding and retained knowledge due to their personal connections to the animals. The concepts of evolution and interdependence of living organisms enhanced their relationships with animals and nature. Through the arts, students expressed scientific knowledge in ways that had personal meaning

  3. Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy--A Professional Development Opportunity for Out-of-School-Time Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobley, Jennifer; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2013-01-01

    The Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy trained 369 after-school and out of school time providers in 2011. This easy-to-adapt professional development opportunity used blended learning, a combination of in-person and Web-based opportunities. Providers successfully learned concepts and practical knowledge regarding 4-H, specifically 4-H Science. In…

  4. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents'…

  5. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED C{sub 4}H

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksy, Andrew L.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C{sub 4}H were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground vibrational state of C{sub 4}H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with {sup 2}Σ and {sup 2}Π vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the 1ν{sub 6} and 1ν{sub 5} bending vibrational modes (both with {sup 2}Π symmetry), and the 1ν{sub 6}+1ν{sub 7} and 1ν{sub 5}+1ν{sub 6} combination levels ({sup 2}Σ symmetry) on the basis of the derived spectroscopic constants, relative intensities in our discharge source, and published laser spectroscopic and quantum calculations. Prior spectroscopic constants in the 1ν{sub 7} and 2ν{sub 7} levels were refined. Also presented are interferometric maps of the ground state and the 1ν{sub 7} level obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) near 257 GHz which show that C{sub 4}H is present near the central star in IRC+10216. We found no evidence with the SMA for the new vibrationally excited levels of C{sub 4}H at a peak flux density averaged over a 3{sup ′′} synthesized beam of ⩾0.15 Jy/beam in the 294–296 and 304–306 GHz range, but it is anticipated that rotational lines in the new levels might be observed in IRC+10216 when ALMA attains its full design capability.

  6. What's in a Name: Differential Labelling of Plant and Animal Photographs in Two Nationally Syndicated Elementary Science Textbook Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the…

  7. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: The World of Animals, Animal Life, Four Legged and Otherwise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This instructional package contains three animal life units developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. "The World of Animals" is a survey course of the animal kingdom (excluding man) and involves the students in many laboratory investigations and group activities. Typical animals of South Florida and unusual animals of the world are…

  8. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  9. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. PMID:20587155

  10. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. PMID:20587155

  11. On the Use of a Simple Physical System Analogy to Study Robustness Features in Animal Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Sadoul, Bastien; Martin, Olivier; Prunet, Patrick; Friggens, Nicolas C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental perturbations can affect the health, welfare, and fitness of animals. Being able to characterize and phenotype adaptive capacity is therefore of growing scientific concern in animal ecology and in animal production sciences. Terms borrowed from physics are commonly used to describe adaptive responses of animals facing an environmental perturbation, but no quantitative characterization of these responses has been made. Modeling the dynamic responses to an acute challenge was used in this study to facilitate the characterization of adaptive capacity and therefore robustness. A simple model based on a spring and damper was developed to simulate the dynamic responses of animals facing an acute challenge. The parameters characterizing the spring and the damper can be interpreted in terms of stiffness and resistance to the change of the system. The model was tested on physiological and behavioral responses of rainbow trout facing an acute confinement challenge. The model has proven to properly fit the different responses measured in this study and to quantitatively describe the different temporal patterns for each statistical individual in the study. It provides therefore a new way to explicitly describe, analyze and compare responses of individuals facing an acute perturbation. This study suggests that such physical models may be usefully applied to characterize robustness in many other biological systems. PMID:26322508

  12. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  13. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research. PMID:23940123

  14. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  15. Effect of science teaching on the young child's concept of piagetian physical causality: Animism and dynamism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether the young child's understanding of physical causality is affected by school science instruction. Sixty-four subjects, four and one-half through seven years of age, received 300 min of instruction designed to affect the subject's conception of causality as reflected in animism and dynamism. Instruction took place for 30 min per day on ten successive school days. Pretesting was done to allow a stratified random sample to be based on vocabulary level and developmental stage as well as on age and gender. Post-testing consisted of testing of developmental level and level within the causal relations of animism and dynamism. Significant differences (1.05 level) were found between the experimental and control groups for animism. Within the experimental group, males differed significantly (1.001 level) from females. The elimination of animism appeared to have occurred. For dynamism, significant differences (0.05 level) were found only between concrete operational subjects in the experimental and control groups, indicating a concrete level of operations was necessary if dynamism was to be affected. However, a review of interview protocols indicated that subjects classified as nonanimistic had learned to apply a definition rather than to think in a nonanimistic manner.

  16. Visual Display Study: National 4-H Center. A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farwell, Sanford W.

    An internship report cites ways in which the National 4-H Center could be more effective in a visual sense. The author suggests collecting the memorabilia already at the Center to form an historical museum and coordinating the historical items with present items. Impact areas, those with a lot of traffic, are discussed individually in terms of…

  17. Governing the moral economy: Animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a ‘moral economy’ is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. PMID:22507952

  18. Gender differences in learning physical science concepts: Does computer animation help equalize them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacek, Laura Lee

    This dissertation details an experiment designed to identify gender differences in learning using three experimental treatments: animation, static graphics, and verbal instruction alone. Three learning presentations were used in testing of 332 university students. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, binomial tests for differences of proportion, and descriptive statistics. Results showed that animation significantly improved women's long-term learning over static graphics (p = 0.067), but didn't significantly improve men's long-term learning over static graphics. In all cases, women's scores improved with animation over both other forms of instruction for long-term testing, indicating that future research should not abandon the study of animation as a tool that may promote gender equity in science. Short-term test differences were smaller, and not statistically significant. Variation present in short-term scores was related more to presentation topic than treatment. This research also details characteristics of each of the three presentations, to identify variables (e.g. level of abstraction in presentation) affecting score differences within treatments. Differences between men's and women's scores were non-standard between presentations, but these differences were not statistically significant (long-term p = 0.2961, short-term p = 0.2893). In future research, experiments might be better designed to test these presentational variables in isolation, possibly yielding more distinctive differences between presentational scores. Differences in confidence interval overlaps between presentations suggested that treatment superiority may be somewhat dependent on the design or topic of the learning presentation. Confidence intervals greatly overlap in all situations. This undercut, to some degree, the surety of conclusions indicating superiority of one treatment type over the others. However, confidence intervals for animation were smaller, overlapped nearly

  19. The 5 Rs: A New Teaching Approach to Encourage Slowmations (Student-Generated Animations) of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    "Slowmation" (abbreviated from "Slow Animation") is a simplified way of making an animation that enables students to create their own as a new way of learning about a science concept. When students make a slowmation, they create a sequence of five multimodal representations (the 5 Rs) with each one contributing to the learning process in…

  20. What is the pharmaceutical industry doing, and what does the pharmaceutical industry want from animal science departments?

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, J W

    1999-02-01

    Perceived contemporary issues are 1) food safety and food healthfulness, 2) environment, 3) sustainability, 4) biotechnology, 5) animal well-being, 6) animals as food, and 7) research funding. Food safety is the paramount contemporary issue, and environment and sustainability issues can be considered as a single issue. Biotechnology, animal well-being, and animals as food are addressed in this paper as separate issues, but they can be considered as components of food safety and healthfulness. The pharmaceutical industry addresses these issues by providing safe and effective products to the livestock industry. These products are used to treat and prevent disease and to increase livestock production efficiency. These products contribute to a safe food supply, enhance protection of the environment, and increase the sustainability of animal agriculture through increased efficiency of livestock production. The pharmaceutical industry wants the following from animal science departments: 1) students skilled in deductive and inductive thinking and communicating to peers and the public; 2) regional research on food safety, such as irradiation, steaming of carcasses, E. coli contamination, antibiotic resistance, production facilities, and carcass contamination; 3) improved research to identify the food values of animal products and effective communication of that research to the public; 4) research on topics having the greatest potential to increase efficiency of animal production consistent with a positive impact on the environment and sustainability of animal production; 5) leadership in developing and using technologies such as biotechnology, not only as descriptors of biological processes, but as technologies to test hypotheses leading to new understandings of biology; 6) research on animal well-being and production facilities that foster animal well-being; 7) research and education on ethical and moral aspects of animals as food through encouragement of one or more

  1. Stable Relationships: Horse Care Activities. Level 3. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the third in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  2. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Energy Project. 4-H Member's E-Book, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 1 (ages 9-11) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. In this project, members are required to: (1) use energy wisely by closing doors and turning off lights; (2) inspecting homes for energy use at least once; (3) judging the best use of lighting in a home; (4) sharing ideas about energy use in a…

  3. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.

    1988-01-01

    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  4. Agriscience Teachers' Implementation of Digital Game-based Learning in an Introductory Animal Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Angela W.; Bunch, J. C.; Wallace, Maria F. G.

    2015-12-01

    In today's technological age, visions for technology integration in the classroom continue to be explored and examined. Digital game-based learning is one way to purposefully integrate technology while maintaining a focus on learning objectives. This case study sought to understand agriscience teachers' experiences implementing digital game-based learning in an introductory animal science course. From interviews with agriscience teachers on their experiences with the game, three themes emerged: (1) the constraints of inadequate and inappropriate technologies, and time to game implementation; (2) the shift in teacher and student roles necessitated by implementing the game; and (3) the inherent competitive nature of learning through the game. Based on these findings, we recommend that pre-service and in-service professional development opportunities be developed for teachers to learn how to implement digital game-based learning effectively. Additionally, with the potential for simulations that address cross-cutting concepts in the next generation science standards, digital game-based learning should be explored in various science teaching and learning contexts.

  5. How could it be? calling for science curricula that cultivate morals and values towards other animals and nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Marianne R.; Russell, Joshua J.

    2016-02-01

    Can science curricula truly cultivate morals and values towards nature? This is the question that is raised by Carolina Castano Rodriguez in her critique of the new Australian Science curriculum. In this response to Castano Rodriguez's paper we ask two questions relating to: the influence of curricula on the relationships of children and other animals; and other models of science education regarding animals and nature that may be more relevant, just, or caring. In responding to these questions stimulated by the reading of Castano Rodriguez's paper, we reflect on our own experiences. We note the conflict between the values depicted in the curriculum priorities and the underlying anthropocentric view that appears to be embedded in the Australian Science Curriculum and in curricula generally. With this conflict in mind we encourage educators to examine our own practices regarding how the relationships between humans and other animals are promoted. We put forward the idea of science education that responds to the shifting views of science and its applications outside the confines of the laboratory to one that encourages both ethical and political discussion that is already taking place in the community relating to the role of science and technology in our lives and the lives of other animals.

  6. Hamsters?! What Does 4-H Stand for, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundeen, Brenda

    This paper briefly traces the history of 4-H youth development programs, explains what youth development is, and shows how the experiential learning model is used in 4-H. Begun over 75 years ago as a means of extending the learning of the land-grant university to rural youth, 4-H is part of the Cooperative Extension Service. The curriculum…

  7. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom…

  8. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  9. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  10. Computer animation in teaching science: Effectiveness in teaching retrograde motion to 9th graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenk, Kristin Elmstrom

    pathway are removed from the data set the analysis changes, the posttest1 and posttest2 means are not significantly different. Students in the A pathway did retain their understanding of the concept and were able to demonstrate it on the assessment. A detailed item analysis of the multiple choice question suggest that students in the B pathway were much more likely to guess on the multiple choice questions than students in the A pathway who show no evidence of guessing. The outcome of this study suggests that an instructional approach with includes viewing computer animations is an effective strategy for teaching and learning an abstract concept in a ninth grade Earth Science classroom.

  11. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-05-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species' phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological "status", or the ability to track presence-absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  12. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  13. Animals and Science. What You Should Know. What You Can Do. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides information for teachers about the value of appropriate animal use in the classroom and some suggestions for assuring the proper care and use of animals in education. Discussion includes: (1) the importance of animals in education; (2) contributions of animals in classroom learning; (3) contributions of animals to science…

  14. Association analysis of the LTA4H gene polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis in 9115 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, James; Kopanitsa, Liliya; Stebbings, Emma; Speirs, Arran; Ignatyeva, Olga; Balabanova, Yanina; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Hoffner, Sven; Horstmann, Rolf; Drobniewski, Francis; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Summary Immunoregulatory eicosanoids have been implicated in protection from mycobacterial infection in cell and animal models. Recently, a study of the zebrafish embryo demonstrated that mutants of the lta4h gene, which encodes the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) enzyme of the eicosanoid pathway, have hypersusceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum infection. It also reported that heterozygosity at the two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1978331 and rs2660898 located in introns of the LTA4H gene, a human homologue of lta4h, is associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis. To replicate this association we genotyped six LTA4H gene polymorphisms in samples from 3703 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 5412 healthy controls collected in Russia. We found no evidence of the protective effect of heterozygosity at the polymorphisms rs1978331 and rs2660898 (P = 0.29 and 0.49) and no association of the alleles of any of the six polymorphisms (P = 0.13–0.81). These results suggest that common polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene do not play any major role in susceptibility to clinical pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21112816

  15. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  16. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    PubMed

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers). PMID:26206166

  17. All about Plant & Animal Interdependency. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Plants provide oxygen, food, shelter, medicine and more for all animals, including humans. In fact, people depend on plants for their very survival just as plants rely on animals! In All About Plant & Animal Interdependency, join aspiring botanists as they discover how plants and animals interrelate. Learn about the constant exchange of gases in…

  18. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs in Laboratory Animal Science Technology. Interim Report. Research 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colling, Walter E.; Farnsworth, Wilbur M.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the necessary information for the writing of educational specifications for facilities to house career programs in laboratory animal science technology. The guide is also designed to: (1) assist planners in formation of creative solutions to the housing of desired educational programs, (2) prevent…

  19. What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and…

  20. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  1. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  2. Camping with a Purpose...A 4-H Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, John H.; And Others

    The 4-H handbook focuses on factors to consider and things to be done when developing a camping program. Since the emphasis, structure, and administration of 4-H camping varies, the booklet is flexible enough to be adapted to different state, district, and county situations. Major topics are camping's importance to extension education,…

  3. What's in a Name: Differential labelling of plant and animal photographs in two nationally syndicated elementary science textbook series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link-Pérez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the photographs with plant and/or animal content and evaluated them for two features: (1) the subject of the photograph, and (2) the specificity of the label (name) provided. We found that photographs with animal subjects were more numerous than those with plant subjects; they also represented a greater diversity of animals and had a higher instance of repetition than did plant photographs. We also found a significant naming disparity: animal photographs were three times more likely to be provided with a specific label (common name) than were plant photographs. Not only were plant photographs less likely to be provided with a specific name for the plant (e.g. orchid or dandelion), but also they were commonly identified only by the name for a plant part (such as flower or leaf) or life-form (e.g. tree or shrub). To address the disparity revealed by this study, and to encourage student interest in and knowledge about plants, we recommend that educators go beyond textbooks to expose students to a diversity of named plants, and present plants as distinct organisms rather than as a collection of parts.

  4. Stabilization of 4H hexagonal phase in gold nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Bosman, Michel; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Ding; Yu, Yi; Ong, Khuong P.; Akimov, Yuriy A.; Wu, Lin; Li, Bing; Wu, Jumiati; Huang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Eng Png, Ching; Lip Gan, Chee; Yang, Peidong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gold, silver, platinum and palladium typically crystallize with the face-centred cubic structure. Here we report the high-yield solution synthesis of gold nanoribbons in the 4H hexagonal polytype, a previously unreported metastable phase of gold. These gold nanoribbons undergo a phase transition from the original 4H hexagonal to face-centred cubic structure on ligand exchange under ambient conditions. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the strong infrared plasmon absorption of single 4H gold nanoribbons is observed. Furthermore, the 4H hexagonal phases of silver, palladium and platinum can be readily stabilized through direct epitaxial growth of these metals on the 4H gold nanoribbon surface. Our findings may open up new strategies for the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of advanced noble metal nanomaterials. PMID:26216712

  5. Texas 4-H Agents' Perceptions of Selected Competencies in the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many competencies necessary for success as a 4-H agent. The 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (PRKC) Model organizes competencies into six domains: (a) Youth Development, (b) Youth Program Development, (c) Volunteerism, (d) Partnerships, (e) Organizational Systems, and (f) Equity, Access and Opportunity (National 4-H…

  6. Insects & Other Arthropods. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. They also learn that there are more species of insects than any other animal class in the world. Insects are incredible creatures with many…

  7. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  8. Animations Are Dynamic, Effective Tools for Science Teaching: If You Just Follow the Rules!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2010-01-01

    Textbook companies are increasingly including larger numbers of animations as complementary resources for students and teachers. Are all animations useful as teaching tools? The answer is no. Animations can be useful for communicating dynamic events and processes but only when specific rules are followed. The authors review the important…

  9. The Impact of Raising and Exhibiting Selected 4-H Livestock Projects on the Development of Life and Project Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Clinton P.; Summerlot-Early, Jill M.; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Talbert, B. Allen; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 176 of 420 4-H members involved in livestock projects showed they were able to accomplish skills in sportsmanship, safety, and animal grooming and selection but were less confident about animal health care. The sense of responsibility acquired from these projects was applied to homework, punctuality, and care for younger siblings.…

  10. Pupils Produce their Own Narratives Inspired by the History of Science: Animation Movies Concerning the Geocentric-Heliocentric Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Siakas, Spyros; Seroglou, Fanny

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present the design and application of a teaching scenario appropriate for 12-years-old pupils in the primary school aiming to a better understanding of scientific concepts and scientific methods, linking the development of individual thinking with the development of scientific ideas and facilitating a better understanding of the nature of science. The design of the instructional material supporting this scenario has been based on the study of the history of astronomy and especially on: (a) The various theories concerning the movement of Earth, our solar system and the universe. (b) Key-stories highlighting the evolutionary character of scientific knowledge as well as the cultural interrelations of science and society. The design of the teaching scenario has focused on the participation of pupils in gradually evolving discourses and practices encouraging an appreciation of aspects of the nature of science (e.g. the role of observation and hypothesis, the use of evidence, the creation and modification of models). In this case, pupils are asked to produce their own narratives: animation movies concerning the geocentric-heliocentric debate inspired by the history of science, as the animation technique presents strong expressional potential and currently has many applications in the field of educational multimedia. The research design of this current case study has been based on the SHINE research model, while data coming from pupils' animation movies, questionnaires, interviews, worksheets, story-boards and drawings have been studied and analyzed using the GNOSIS research model. Elaborated data coming from our analysis approach reveal the appearance, transformation and evolution of aspects of nature of science appreciated by pupils and presented in their movies. Data analysis shows that during the application pupils gradually consider more and more the existence of multiple answers in scientific questions, appreciate the effect of culture on the way

  11. THE EFFECT OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASS ENROLLMENT AND FARM EXPERIENCE ON ANIMAL SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ENROLLED IN OKLAHOMA COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUTON, JOHN C.

    A WRITTEN EXAMINATION WAS ADMINISTERED TO 605 FRESHMEN ENROLLED IN OKLAHOMA COLLEGES OFFERING AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS TO DETERMINE WHETHER CERTAIN BACKGROUND EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE STUDENT'S KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF MAJOR CONCEPTS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE, TO MAKE INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO THE ANIMAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF OKLAHOMA STATE…

  12. 76 FR 36951 - In the Matter of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.): Order of Suspension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.): Order of Suspension... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc....

  13. Student training in large-animal handling at the School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Helen M; Taylor, Eric G; Buddle, J Ross; Murphy, David J

    2007-01-01

    The ability to handle animals safely, competently, and with confidence is an essential skill for veterinarians. Poor animal-handling skills are likely to compromise credibility, occupational health and safety, and animal welfare. In the five-year veterinary science degree at Murdoch University, animal handling is taught in a prerequisite unit in the second semester of the second year. From 2008, however, this unit will be taught in the first year of the five-year course. Students are taught to handle sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses safely and competently. Each student receives 30 hours of formal practical instruction. Animal-to-student ratios are 2:1, and staff-to-student ratios vary from 1:8 (sheep, cattle, horses) to 1:17 (pigs). Students must pass the practical exam to proceed into third year. Additional experience with animals is gained during third year (14 hours of practical instruction with sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) and during the 5 weeks and 2 days of vacation farm experience during the second and third years. In the fourth and fifth years, students consolidate their handling experience with sheep (including rams), goats, pigs, cattle (including bulls), horses (including stallions), and alpacas. As a result, students are able to handle and restrain client animals with confidence. There is no formal course in small-animal handling at Murdoch University. Factors that have enhanced the success of the large-animal handling program include purpose-built on-campus facilities. Inadequate resources (time, facilities, and animals) remain the main impediment to effective learning, further compounded by the increasing tendency of university administrators to make decisions based on economic expediency rather than educational benefit. PMID:18326766

  14. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  15. Survive? An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Animals and Adaptation Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research,…

  16. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Linnarsson, M. K. Hallén, A.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  17. The impact of maths support tutorials on mathematics confidence and academic performance in a cohort of HE Animal Science students

    PubMed Central

    Amory, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Students embarking on a bioscience degree course, such as Animal Science, often do not have sufficient experience in mathematics. However, mathematics forms an essential and integral part of any bioscience degree and is essential to enhance employability. This paper presents the findings of a project looking at the effect of mathematics tutorials on a cohort of first year animal science and management students. The results of a questionnaire, focus group discussions and academic performance analysis indicate that small group tutorials enhance students’ confidence in maths and improve students’ academic performance. Furthermore, student feedback on the tutorial programme provides a deeper insight into student experiences and the value students assign to the tutorials. PMID:25024925

  18. Development of 3D multimedia with advanced computer animation tools for outreach activities related to Meteor Science and Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Documentaries related to Astronomy and Planetary Sciences are a common and very attractive way to promote the interest of the public in these areas. These educational tools can get benefit from new advanced computer animation software and 3D technologies, as these allow making these documentaries even more attractive. However, special care must be taken in order to guarantee that the information contained in them is serious and objective. In this sense, an additional value is given when the footage is produced by the own researchers. With this aim, a new documentary produced and directed by Prof. Madiedo has been developed. The documentary, which has been entirely developed by means of advanced computer animation tools, is dedicated to several aspects of Meteor Science and Meteoritics. The main features of this outreach and education initiative are exposed here.

  19. Blue Sky Below My Feet. Adventures in Space Technology, Forces, Fibers, Foods. 4-H Leader/Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manholt, Donna; And Others

    This teaching guide for 4th through 6th grade classes integrates science, language arts, and math concepts into ready-to-use space and space technology lessons. Significant learning outcomes for this curriculum are linked to Ohio's educational objectives for science in an at-a-glance curriculum matrix. A summary of the significant 4-H life skills…

  20. Internationalization of the animal science undergraduate curriculum: a survey of its current status, barriers to its implementation and its value.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, N E; Taur, J S; Xiao, Y; Chesbrough, H

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the current level at which internationalization has been adopted as a theme in the North American animal science curriculum and to identify its value and the barriers to its implementation. We surveyed animal, dairy, and poultry science departments across Canada and the United States. One hundred twenty-four surveys were mailed and 60% were returned. Associations between aspects of internationalization and student outcomes (admission to veterinary and graduate schools and starting salaries) were examined. Although administrators strongly believed internationalization had value, implementation was limited. The most common practices included international content in core animal science classes, advising, international internships, and participation of faculty in international scholarly activities. Few departments have incorporated internationalization into their mission statements or developed a specific international-themed class, scholarships devoted to international activities, or roles for international students. Few departments reported participation of students in international programs. Barriers included finances and limited commitment from higher administration. Student outcomes were positively associated with faculty size, percentage of international faculty, the ratio of international students to the total student population, international content in core animal science classes, a specific international-themed class, availability of international internships, and exchange of class material internationally via the Internet. Departments that did not offer international opportunities had a negative association (r = -0.79) with starting salary, but these relationships may not be causal. Alternatively, progressive departments may attract and retain exceptional students. The analysis indicated an awareness of the value of international programs, positive impacts in student outcomes, and financial barriers to implementation

  1. Science and payload options for animal and plant research accommodations aboard the early Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Arno, Roger D.; Gustan, Edith; Rudiger, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The resources to be allocated for the development of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Space Station Animal and Plant Research Facility and the Growth Station Animal and Plant Vivarium and Laboratory may be limited; also, IOC accommodations for animal and plant research may be limited. An approach is presented for the development of Initial Research Capability Minilabs for animal and plant studies, which in appropriate combination and sequence can meet requirements for an evolving program of research within available accommodations and anticipated budget constraints.

  2. Isomer Energy Differences for the C4H3 and C4H5 Isomers UsingDiffusion Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, D.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Whitesides, R.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new diffusion Monte Carlo study is performed on the isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and C{sub 4}H{sub 5} emulating the methodology of a previous study [Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 33, 808 (2001)]. Using the same trial wave function form of the previous study, substantially different isomerization energies were found owing to the use of larger walker populations in the present work. The energy differences between the E and I isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} were found to be 10.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol and for C{sub 4}H{sub 5}, 9.7 {+-} 0.6 kcal/mol. These results are in reasonable accord with recent MRCI and CCSD(T) findings.

  3. Applications of Animal Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Effects of Chronic Exercise on Emotionality in Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Gerald D.

    The psychological effects of exercise training are difficult to study in humans, but analogous emotionality changes in animals can be studied using simple measurements employed in emergence and open-field tests. The basis of these tests is that animals that are more emotional are more fearful when placed in a novel situation and will exhibit less…

  4. Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Hadfield, Michael G; Bosch, Thomas C G; Carey, Hannah V; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Douglas, Angela E; Dubilier, Nicole; Eberl, Gerard; Fukami, Tadashi; Gilbert, Scott F; Hentschel, Ute; King, Nicole; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Knoll, Andrew H; Kremer, Natacha; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Metcalf, Jessica L; Nealson, Kenneth; Pierce, Naomi E; Rawls, John F; Reid, Ann; Ruby, Edward G; Rumpho, Mary; Sanders, Jon G; Tautz, Diethard; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-02-26

    In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Specifically, we highlight recent technological and intellectual advances that have changed our thinking about five questions: how have bacteria facilitated the origin and evolution of animals; how do animals and bacteria affect each other's genomes; how does normal animal development depend on bacterial partners; how is homeostasis maintained between animals and their symbionts; and how can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of animal-bacterial interaction. As answers to these fundamental questions emerge, all biologists will be challenged to broaden their appreciation of these interactions and to include investigations of the relationships between and among bacteria and their animal partners as we seek a better understanding of the natural world. PMID:23391737

  5. Evolution. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The story of evolution starts with the study of fossils that helps scientists link today's living organisms with those of the past. Students…

  6. Birds. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. There are many different types of birds, over 9,000 different species. While not all birds take to the air, they all have feathers. Students…

  7. Reptiles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The ancestors of reptiles date back to the dinosaurs. After the dinosaurs died out, it was one of the best-adapted species that survived and…

  8. Plant & Animal Interdependency. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In every ecosystem, organisms rely on each other in unique relationships that ensure each other's survival. In Plant & Animal Interdependency, find out how plants and animals interact, cooperate and compete. All living things have basic needs and depend on other living things to meet those needs. Discover why the constant exchange of nutrients and…

  9. Learning Science via Animated Movies: Its Effect on Students' Thinking and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Ashkar, Tamar; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-01-01

    Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students' meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered:…

  10. Fish. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. There are many types of fish that live in oceans, lakes, and streams. Students learn about fish characteristics and environmental habitats,…

  11. Mammals. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Students learn about the incredible variety of mammals and how they survive in different environments while discovering which characteristics…

  12. Food Chains. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The food chain provides a clear example of how life continues year after year. Students learn how the cycle of energy starts with the sun,…

  13. Amphibians. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Students find out about the world of amphibians as they examine their physical characteristics, environments, and life cycles, as well as…

  14. Connecting Kids To The Universe: Partnering With 4-H Youth Development To Pilot 'Afterschool Universe' In New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Nancy

    2008-05-01

    4-H Youth Development - as the youth program of the Cooperative Extension system associated with the land grant university in every state - is an ideal partner for statewide dissemination of EPO programs. With funding from a Chandra Cycle 9 EPO grant we are piloting `Afterschool Universe’ in five urban locations in New York State. `Afterschool Universe’ is an education/outreach effort sponsored by NASA's Beyond Einstein program and was developed in partnership with the Imagine the Universe EPO program. The program is targeted at middle school students in out-of-school-time settings and explores basic astronomy concepts focused on the Universe beyond the solar system. Consisting of 12 sessions of engaging hands-on activities, the flexibly structured program can be used in a variety of settings, including astronomy days, youth groups, summer camps, and afterschool programs. Partnering with 4-H Youth Development helps us reach large numbers of underserved and underrepresented minority youth and girls in widely dispersed areas of New York and fits ideally with the current national 4-H SET (science, engineering, and technology) initiative and emphasis on 4-H afterschool programming. The pilot program provides teaching kits and workshops for program leaders. Our 4-H county partners recruit afterschool program staff, science center staff, 4-H volunteers, 4-H teens, and other youth group leaders as workshop participants. The 4-H program will house and loan the kit to trained leaders. By providing kits and training in 2008, we are gearing up for International Year of Astronomy programs in 2009 in out-of-school settings. Based on pilot results, we will seek additional funding to expand the program. The poster will discuss kit development, 4-H partnership, workshops, participating organizations, target audiences, successes, and challenges.

  15. Science Inquiry into Local Animals: Structure and Function Explored through Model Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Tallakson, Denise A.; Glascock, Alex L.; Chao, Astoria

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an arts- and spatial thinking skill--integrated inquiry project applied to life science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards for fourth grade students that focuses on two unifying or crosscutting themes: (1) structure (or "form") and function and (2) use of models. Students made observations and…

  16. Animals, science, and ethics -- Preface; introduction: the troubled middle in medias res; future directions.

    PubMed

    Donnelley, Strachan; Nolan, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    This is a report from The Hastings Center project, "The Ethics of Animal Experimentation and Research." As project members, we wanted to take a fresh look at the complex ethical issues that arise in the scientific use of animals in a non-adversarial and non-ideological forum. We were convinced that these issues required a genuinely interdisciplinary approach. This meant including laboratory and field scientific researchers; veterinarians; philosophers, lawyers, and scientists particularly interested in animal welfare issues; and physicians and philosophers with long-standing bioethical interests but who previously had not confronted the ethics of the human use of animals. This Special Supplement to the Hastings Center Report is the outcome of two years of deliberation. PMID:11650361

  17. Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Hadfield, Michael G.; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Carey, Hannah V.; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Douglas, Angela E.; Dubilier, Nicole; Eberl, Gerard; Fukami, Tadashi; Gilbert, Scott F.; Hentschel, Ute; King, Nicole; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Knoll, Andrew H.; Kremer, Natacha; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Nealson, Kenneth; Pierce, Naomi E.; Rawls, John F.; Reid, Ann; Ruby, Edward G.; Rumpho, Mary; Sanders, Jon G.; Tautz, Diethard; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal–bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Specifically, we highlight recent technological and intellectual advances that have changed our thinking about five questions: how have bacteria facilitated the origin and evolution of animals; how do animals and bacteria affect each other’s genomes; how does normal animal development depend on bacterial partners; how is homeostasis maintained between animals and their symbionts; and how can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of animal–bacterial interaction. As answers to these fundamental questions emerge, all biologists will be challenged to broaden their appreciation of these interactions and to include investigations of the relationships between and among bacteria and their animal partners as we seek a better understanding of the natural world. PMID:23391737

  18. Science and animal welfare in France and European Union: Rules, constraints, achievements.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Servière

    2014-11-01

    The welfare of food-producing animals is a focus of public debate in Europe. Political institutions, have introduced regulations based on scientific data. Meanwhile, the practices of producers and transformers were modified. Implementation of care practices is added to the goal of sustainable basic health of animals. Nevertheless urban consumers still look for the "naturalness" of living animals. A brief historical perspective introduces the building process of European regulations. A short list of Directories and Recommendations provides a clue on the complexity of resulting construct. Now, this complexity is calling for simplification of rules while practices should be compatible with professional constraints. Few selected examples are brought to illustrate how the concepts initially studied by scientists (welfare, pain, stress, "consciousness"/awareness) were integrated in regulations and implemented by producers and meat industry in order to simultaneously maintain the requirements for high quality and security standards. At the same time, free trade market constraints introduced new distortions, in particular those linked to the world demand for proteins. Indeed, the controversy about animal welfare, initially brought on ethical grounds, became a case for ongoing adjustements of EU policy, requesting to combine scientific knowledge on animals, consequent evolution in the representation of animals by urban consumers with the challenge of adaptation and implemention of regulations. PMID:25060585

  19. Density Functional Exploration of C4H3N Isomers.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas; Szczepaniak, Urszula; Gronowski, Marcin; Fabisiewicz, Emilia; Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Kołos, Robert

    2016-07-28

    Molecules having C4H3N stoichiometry are of astrophysical interest. Two of these, methylcyanoacetylene (CH3C3N) and its structural isomer allenyl cyanide (H2CCCHN), have been observed in interstellar space, while several more have been examined in laboratories. Here we describe, for a broad range of C4H3N isomers, density functional calculations (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) of molecular parameters including the energetics, geometries, rotational constants, electric dipole moments, polarizabilities, vibrational IR frequencies, IR absorption intensities, and Raman activities. Singlet-triplet splittings as well as singlet vertical electronic excitation energies are given for selected species. The identification of less stable C4H3N molecules, generated in ongoing spectroscopic experiments, relies heavily on these quantum chemical predictions. PMID:27341606

  20. LARGE ANIMAL MODELS OF HEART FAILURE: A CRITICAL LINK IN THE TRANSLATION OF BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jennifer A.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome, with hallmarks of fatigue and dyspnea, which continues to be highly prevalent and morbid. Due to the growing burden of HF as the population ages, the need to develop new pharmacologic treatments and therapeutic interventions is of paramount importance. Common pathophysiologic features of HF include changes in left ventricle (LV) structure, function, and neurohormonal activation. The recapitulation of the HF phenotype in large animal models can allow for the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical therapies. Models of myocardial infarction/ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ventricular pressure and volume overload, and pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy have been created in dogs, pigs, and sheep for the investigation of HF and potential therapies. Large animal models recapitulating the clinical HF phenotype and translating basic science to clinical applications have successfully traveled the journey from bench to bedside. Undoubtedly, large animal models of HF will continue to play a crucial role in the elucidation of biologic pathways involved in HF and the development and refinement of HF therapies. PMID:19808348

  1. Our time is now - how companion animal veterinarians can transform biomedical science.

    PubMed

    Mellanby, R J

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in the "One Health" agenda, defined by the One Health Initiative to be "a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment." The concept has spawned numerous conferences, under- and post-graduate courses and has been the topic of dozens of articles that have discussed how medical doctors, scientists and veterinarians can work together to improve the health of both animals and humans. Although there is widespread agreement about the potential benefits of medical doctors and veterinarians working more closely together, this is far from routine practice for most companion animal veterinarians. This article reflects on why the topic of "One Health" is attracting such interest at the moment and discusses some of the reasons why the "One Health" agenda offers companion animal veterinarians a chance to be centre stage in the global drive to improve the health of both animals and humans. PMID:26735774

  2. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  3. Marketing Strategies for Recruiting 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Nestor, Cheryl; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean; Mulkeen, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    According to a survey of 174 West Virginia 4-H members aged 13-18, the Internet and word of mouth were most effective in recruiting new members. Active messages stressing camps, fun, and friendship had the most influence on retention. A statewide marketing plan was recommended. (SK)

  4. Self-Protection: A New Approach to 4-H Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sharon K. B.

    This document introduces the issue of self-protection as the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development response to self-destructive behavior among adolescents. It presents findings from a statewide survey of over 36,000 secondary school students using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Responses are given in the areas of health, school attitudes,…

  5. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  6. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  7. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  8. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  9. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  10. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  11. The Evaluation Attitudes and Practices of 4-H Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Bennett, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    Extension educators are expected to conduct program evaluation. An Internet survey was sent to county 4-H educators in Ohio to examine their evaluation attitudes and practices, as well as barriers to conducting evaluation. Respondents indicated a range of attitudes about evaluation and limited use of different designs and methods. Having enough…

  12. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  13. Animal Behaviour Fieldwork: Introducing Psychology Students to the Process of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Donovan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and running of a residential animal behaviour field trip. The trip has a number of elements that challenge and develop the students. First, this trip is open to students at levels two, three and M. This allows us to engineer a certain amount of peer assisted learning. Second, the students live together and…

  14. Hands-On Science: Cool Ways to Teach about Warm-Blooded Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Presents three activities for teaching elementary students about the built-in mechanisms that help warm-blooded animals maintain constant internal body temperatures. The activities help students understand why humans sweat, why dogs pant, and why blubber keeps whales warm in frigid water. (SM)

  15. Student Use of Animated Pedagogical Agents in a Middle School Science Inquiry Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Catherine D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents (APAs) have the potential to provide one-on-one, just-in-time instruction, guidance or mentoring in classrooms where such individualized human interactions may be infeasible. Much current APA research focuses on a wide range of design variables tested with small samples or in laboratory settings, while overlooking…

  16. Fostering Multimedia Learning of Science: Exploring the Role of an Animated Agent's Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsworth, Qi; Atkinson, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that students learn better when studying a picture coupled with narration rather than on-screen text in a computer-based multimedia learning environment. Moreover, combining narration with the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent may also encourage students to process information deeper than narration or on-screen…

  17. The methodological quality of animal research in critical care: the public face of science

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal research (AR) findings often do not translate to humans; one potential reason is the poor methodological quality of AR. We aimed to determine this quality of AR reported in critical care journals. Methods All AR published from January to June 2012 in three high-impact critical care journals were reviewed. A case report form and instruction manual with clear definitions were created, based on published recommendations, including the ARRIVE guidelines. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results Seventy-seven AR publications were reviewed. Our primary outcome (animal strain, sex, and weight or age described) was reported in 52 (68%; 95% confidence interval, 56% to 77%). Of the 77 publications, 47 (61%) reported randomization; of these, 3 (6%) reported allocation concealment, and 1 (2%) the randomization procedure. Of the 77 publications, 31 (40%) reported some type of blinding; of these, disease induction (2, 7%), intervention (7, 23%), and/or subjective outcomes (17, 55%) were blinded. A sample size calculation was reported in 4/77 (5%). Animal numbers were missing in the Methods section in 16 (21%) publications; when stated, the median was 32 (range 6 to 320; interquartile range, 21 to 70). Extra animals used were mentioned in the Results section in 31 (40%) publications; this number was unclear in 23 (74%), and >100 for 12 (16%). When reporting most outcomes, numbers with denominators were given in 35 (45%), with no unaccounted numbers in 24 (31%), and no animals excluded from analysis in 20 (26%). Most (49, 64%) studies reported >40, and another 19 (25%) reported 21 to 40 statistical comparisons. Internal validity limitations were discussed in 7 (9%), and external validity (to humans) discussed in 71 (92%), most with no (30, 42%) or only a vague (9, 13%) limitation to this external validity mentioned. Conclusions The reported methodological quality of AR was poor. Unless the quality of AR significantly improves, the practice may be

  18. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  19. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  20. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  1. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  2. Emerging technologies in education and training: applications for the laboratory animal science community.

    PubMed

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Niemi, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several new and exciting communication technologies. Many of the technologies were developed by the entertainment industry; however, other industries are adopting and modifying them for their own needs. These new technologies allow people to collaborate across distance and time and to learn in simulated work contexts. The article explores the potential utility of these technologies for advancing laboratory animal care and use through better education and training. Descriptions include emerging technologies such as augmented reality and multi-user virtual environments, which offer new approaches with different capabilities. Augmented reality interfaces, characterized by the use of handheld computers to infuse the virtual world into the real one, result in deeply immersive simulations. In these simulations, users can access virtual resources and communicate with real and virtual participants. Multi-user virtual environments enable multiple participants to simultaneously access computer-based three-dimensional virtual spaces, called "worlds," and to interact with digital tools. They allow for authentic experiences that promote collaboration, mentoring, and communication. Because individuals may learn or train differently, it is advantageous to combine the capabilities of these technologies and applications with more traditional methods to increase the number of students who are served by using current methods alone. The use of these technologies in animal care and use programs can create detailed training and education environments that allow students to learn the procedures more effectively, teachers to assess their progress more objectively, and researchers to gain insights into animal care. PMID:17420537

  3. Animated computer graphics models of space and earth sciences data generated via the massively parallel processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treinish, Lloyd A.; Gough, Michael L.; Wildenhain, W. David

    1987-01-01

    The capability was developed of rapidly producing visual representations of large, complex, multi-dimensional space and earth sciences data sets via the implementation of computer graphics modeling techniques on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) by employing techniques recently developed for typically non-scientific applications. Such capabilities can provide a new and valuable tool for the understanding of complex scientific data, and a new application of parallel computing via the MPP. A prototype system with such capabilities was developed and integrated into the National Space Science Data Center's (NSSDC) Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) data-independent environment for computer graphics data display to provide easy access to users. While developing these capabilities, several problems had to be solved independently of the actual use of the MPP, all of which are outlined.

  4. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  5. Phosphorus implantation into 4H-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Capano, M.A.; Santhakumar, R.; Venugopal, R.; Melloch, M.R.; Cooper, J.A. Jr.

    2000-02-01

    Sheet resistances in nitrogen- and phosphorus-implanted 4H-SiC are measured to assess the time and temperature dependencies of this variable. In 4H-SiC implanted with 3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} nitrogen ions to a depth of 2,800 {angstrom}, the minimum sheet resistance observed is 534 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square}, a record low value for any implanted element into any polytype of SiC. Time-independent sheet resistances are observed following anneals at 1,700 C for nitrogen and phosphorus samples. Lower temperature anneals produce sheet resistances which decrease monotonically with increasing time of anneal. Overall, sheet resistances from phosphorus-implanted 4H-SiC are an order of magnitude below those measured from nitrogen implanted samples. The response of phosphorus to low-temperature annealing is significant, and sheet resistances below 500 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square} are achieved at 1,200 C. Activation of phosphorus is attempted in an oxidizing atmosphere with and without prior argon annealing. A three-hour gate oxidation in wet O{sub 2} at 1,150 C, followed by a 30 min argon anneal, produced a sheet resistance of 1081 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square}. Oxidation after argon annealing caused sheet resistances to increase by about 20% compared to samples subjected solely to argon annealing. It is also found that oxide growth rates are much higher over phosphorus implanted than over unimplanted 4H-SiC. Reasons for the disparity in sheet resistances between nitrogen and phosphorus implants, and for the difference in oxide growth rates are suggested.

  6. A Perfect Fit: 4-H Involvement for Youth with Disabilities. A Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Greg W.; And Others

    This guide for 4-H leaders and volunteers offers information to help integrate youth with disabilities into various 4-H programs. After an introduction, a section on 4-H and mainstreaming reviews the mission of 4-H; considers what 4-H has to offer youth; defines mainstreaming; notes the benefits of mainstreaming; and distinguishes among the terms…

  7. Wetlands Are Wonderlands. Leader/Teacher Guide and Member/Youth Guide. 4-H Marine Education Series-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenen, Kimberly, Ed.; Goettel, Robin G., Ed.

    This guide, for a 4-H wetlands project, is designed for sixth to eighth grade youth and their leaders interested in learning and doing aquatic science activities that can help the environment. The project provides basic wetland information with one or more activities for each of six sections: (1) What is a wetland?; (2) value of wetlands; (3)…

  8. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2‑SiH4‑C2H4‑HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  9. Carbon-antisite vacancy defect in 4H silicon carbide for realizing solid state qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gali, Adam; Szász, Krisztián; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor; Bockstedte, Michel; Janzén, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Dopants in solids are promising candidates for implementations of quantum bits for quantum computing. Silicon carbide (SiC) with engineered point defects is considered as very promising material for the next generation devices, with applications ranging from electronics and photonics to quantum computing. Employing density functional theory and many body perturbation theory, we show that the neutral carbon antisite-vacancy pair (CAV) has high spin ground state, and that its spin may be coherently manipulated by optical excitation in n-type 4H SiC. As the positively charged CAV defect in 4H SiC has been recently engineered to act as single photon source, our finding brings a hope that optically addressed quantum bits can be realized by the neutral CAV defects in 4H SiC, and provide an additional target for researchers seeking for solid state single color centers for quantum information processes and metrology. The calculated zero-phonon line of the optically excited state is about 1550 nm (0.8 eV) which perfectly fits to the telecom wavelengths, that makes this qubit candidate very promising for integration of quantum optics devices with existing fiber optics technology. Lendület program of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, US DoE.

  10. How can comprehension adjunct questions focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of a computer-animated science lesson?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.; McGuire, Barry

    Two focusing hypotheses were evaluated. First, do adjunct questions, focusing on science concepts and inserted after computer-animated sequences, selectively alter students' attentional or practice processing and thus produce differential learning effects? Theoretically, such questions selectively focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of focused concepts. Second, do these questions still provide enough metacognitive scaffolding to produce differential learning effects when only the first 8 out of 12 sequences are followed by focusing questions? Eighth-grade students (n = 160) were randomly assigned to a control group (lesson alone) or one of four treatment groups (lesson plus 12 questions focusing either on heat or on temperature, or lesson plus the same first 8 questions on heat or temperature followed by 4 placebo questions). Two significant two-way interactions with widely varying F ratios supported the differential focusing hypotheses (12 questions - more robust interaction, 8 - less robust interaction).

  11. Sensitivity to Ethanol and Other Hedonic Stimuli in an Animal Model of Adolescence: Implications for Prevention Science?

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2011-01-01

    Age-related patterns of sensitivity to appetitive and aversive stimuli seemingly have deep evolutionary roots, with marked developmental transformations seen during adolescence in a number of relatively ancient brain systems critical for motivating and directing reward-related behaviors. Using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat, adolescents have been shown to be more sensitive than their adult counterparts to positive rewarding effects of alcohol, other drugs, and certain natural stimuli, while being less sensitive to the aversive properties of such stimuli. Adolescent-typical alcohol sensitivities may be exacerbated further by a history of prior stress or alcohol exposure as well as by genetic vulnerabilities, permitting relatively high levels of adolescent alcohol use and perhaps an increased probability for the emergence of abuse disorders. A number of potential (albeit tentative) implications of these basic research findings for prevention science are considered. PMID:20222058

  12. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  13. Omics approaches to probe markers of disease resistance in animal sciences.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, N; Horvatić, A; Kuleš, J; Galan, A; Mrljak, Vladimir; Bhide, M

    2016-06-21

    Omics technologies have been developed in recent decades and used in different thematics. More advancements were done in human and plant thematics. Omics is the conjugation of different techniques, studying all biological molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, etc.). Omics is then able to study entire pathways, elucidating phenotypes and their control. Thus, thanks to Omics, it is possible to have a broad overview of the linkage between genotypes and phenotypes. Disease phenotypes (tolerance or resistance) are important to understand in both production and health. Nowadays a plethora of research articles are presenting results in the field of natural disease resistance of animals using Omics technologies. Moreover, thanks to advanced high throughput technologies novel modes of infections (infection pathways) are coming to the surface. Such pathways are complex (hundreds to thousands of molecules implied, with complicated control mechanisms), and Omics can generate useful knowledge to understand those pathways. Here we aim to review several angles of Omics used to probe markers of disease resistance with recent publications and data on the field, and present perspectives and its utilization for a better understanding of diseases. PMID:27197117

  14. Experiential learning in the animal sciences: effect of 13 years of a beef cattle management practicum.

    PubMed

    Marshall, T T; Hoover, T S; Reiling, B A; Downs, K M

    1998-11-01

    As the source of students shifts from rural to urban and suburban communities, students entering agricultural programs have less practical livestock experience. The career goals indicated by most of these students require knowledge of and experience with practical applications of their course work. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of students enrolled in an experiential beef cattle course 1) to describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of students enrolled and 2) to assess the perceived value of course activities to graduates completing the course as related to their skill attainment and career development. The questionnaire was sent to all 312 students who were enrolled in the course from 1983 to 1996. Over 61% of the respondents indicated they had enrolled in the course to gain experience working with beef cattle. Over 39% took the course to enhance their application to the College of Veterinary Medicine. When asked to rate the value of the course, as it related to skill development, they noted it was most helpful in teaching cattle handling skills, growth performance measurement, live animal evaluation, nutritional management, carcass and meat product value determination, and breed identification. PMID:9856406

  15. Three-Dimensional Animation Technology: a New Interactive Model Designed for the Teaching of Cryospheric Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, P. R.; Marunchak, A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the key challenges facing educators in the cryospheric sciences is to explain to students the processes that operate and the landforms that exist in relatively unfamiliar glacial environments. In many cases these environments are also largely inaccessible which can hinder field-based teaching. This is particularly the case for en-glacial and sub-glacial hydrology and the closely related topic of sub-glacial glacier dynamics, yet a full understanding of these subject areas is pivotal to overall student understanding of glaciology. An ability to visualise these unfamiliar and inaccessible environments offers a potentially powerful tool to assist student conceptualisation and comprehension. To address this we have developed a three-dimensional interactive 'virtual glacier' simulation model. Based on standards and technology established by the rapidly evolving video gaming industry, the user is presented with an interactive real-time three-dimensional environment designed to accurately portray multiple aspects of glacial environments. The user can move in all directions in the fore-field area, on the glacier surface and within en-glacial and sub-glacial drainage networks. Descent into the glacier hydrological system is via a moulin, from which the user can explore en-glacial channels linking to this moulin and ultimately descend into the sub-glacial drainage system. Various sub-glacial drainage network morphologies can then be 'explored' to aid conceptualisation and understanding and the user can navigate through drainage networks both up- and down-glacier and ultimately emerge at the portal into the fore-field environment. Interactive icons relating to features of interest are presented to the user throughout the model, prompting multimedia dialogue boxes to open. Dialogue box content (e.g. text, links to online resources, videos, journal papers, etc.) is fully customisable by the educator. This facilitates the use of the model at different academic levels

  16. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  17. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  18. Tropical Medicine and Animal Diseases: Onderstepoort and the Development of Veterinary Science in South Africa 1908–1950*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the development of agricultural science at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, near Pretoria, from its founding in 1908 until the 1950s, by which time many enzootic and epizootic diseases had either been eradicated, or were largely controllable through various forms of prophylaxis. The Institute demonstrated the political and economic significance attributed to the pastoral industry in South Africa and the conviction that scientific discoveries could increase output. During this period, researchers explicated the aetiology and provenance of hitherto mysterious diseases such as lamsiekte, geeldikkop and African horsesickness. They developed vaccines, some of which were adopted internationally. The nature of their investigations showed that veterinary science increasingly entailed more than just progress in biomedical procedures. Ecological factors, in particular the nutritional state of the veld, became a priority from the 1920s onwards as veterinarians saw their function as promoting animal health as well as eliminating disease. Dealing with contagious infections also incorporated less welcome, and at times controversial, approaches to disease control. The imposition of pastoral regulations illustrated the expanding powers of the South African state, founded on presumptions of scientific legitimacy. The article also explores the contribution made by African communities and settler farmers to the institutionalisation of veterinary knowledge, as well as the role South African researchers played in the evolution of a colonial, as well as an increasingly international, scientific culture. PMID:16628249

  19. ASAS Centennial Paper: contributions in the Journal of Animal Science to understanding cattle metabolic and digestive disorders.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J T; Galyean, M L

    2008-07-01

    Acute and subacute ruminal acidosis, bloat, liver abscesses, and polioencephalomalacia (PEM) were reviewed with respect to contributions published in the Journal of Animal Science (JAS) regarding these metabolic and digestive disorders in beef cattle. Increased grain feeding and expansion of the feedlot industry in the 1960s led to considerable research on acidosis, and early publications defined ruminal changes with acute acidosis. The concept of subacute acidosis was developed in the 1970s. Significant research was published during the 1980s and 1990s on adaptation to high-grain diets, effects of ionophores, and the development of model systems to study ruminal and metabolic changes in acidosis. Since 2000, JAS publications on acidosis have largely focused on individual animal variability in response to acid loads and the role of management strategies in controlling acidosis. Increased grain feeding also was associated with an increase in the incidence of liver abscesses, which were quickly linked to insults to the ruminal epithelium associated with acidosis. The role of antibiotics, particularly tylosin, in decreasing the incidence and severity of liver abscesses was a significant contribution of JAS publications during the 1970s and 1980s. Papers on bloat were among the earliest published in JAS related to metabolic and digestive disorders in cattle. Noteworthy accomplishments in bloat research chronicled in JAS include the nature of ruminal contents in legume and feedlot bloat, the role of plant fractions and microbial populations in the development of bloat, and the efficacy of poloxalene, ionophores, and, more recently, condensed tannins in decreasing the incidence and severity of bloat. Although less research has been published on PEM in JAS, early publications highlighting the association between PEM and ruminal acidity and the role of thiaminase in certain forms of the disorder, as well as more recent publications related to the role of sulfur in the

  20. Exploring the World of Animals: Linking Fiction to Nonfiction. Literature Bridges to Science Series. Grades K-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Phyllis J.

    This teacher resource book, designed to encourage student interest and build learning across the curriculum in grades K-5, is based on the theme of animals. Resource lists and activities in the book focus on the following sections: (1) animals as pets; (2) animals on the farm; (3) animals in the woods; and (4) animals in the wild. Each section…

  1. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  2. Establishing a culture of care, conscience, and responsibility: addressing the improvement of scientific discovery and animal welfare through science-based performance standards.

    PubMed

    Klein, H J; Bayne, K A

    2007-01-01

    Science-based performance standards offer a viable means of reducing regulatory burden while ensuring that research animal welfare and high-quality research data are realized. Unlike rigid regulations, science-based performance standards evolve as new information becomes available, thereby allowing new discoveries to be implemented in a timely manner and in a way that more effectively benefits the animals and the science. The implementation of performance standards requires a well-coordinated institutional team composed of the administration, research staff, the institutional animal care and use committee, professional and technical animal care personnel, occupational health and safety staff, and physical plant staff. This animal program team is best supported in an institutional environment that reflects a culture of care, compliance, and responsibility. In such a culture, the professional judgment exercised by the team is well grounded in meeting the diverse needs of the program's customers, who include the animals, the researchers, and research stakeholders such as the public. The institutional culture of care, compliance, and responsibility fosters workplace integrity, an ethics-based decision-making paradigm, sound understanding of institutional expectations through good communication and clear lines of authority, the hiring and retention of trained and well-qualified individuals, and a system for continuous development and improvement of the program. PMID:17170491

  3. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  4. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  5. Experimental investigations of the hypernucleus Λ4H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, P.; Schulz, F.; Aulenbacher, S.; Beričič, J.; Bleser, S.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Gogami, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kusaka, W.; Margaryan, A.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Steinen, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tang, L.; Thiel, M.; Tsukada, K.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    Negatively charged pions from two-body decays of stopped Λ4H hypernuclei were studied in 2012 at the Mainz Microtron MAMI, Germany. The momenta of the decay-pions were measured with unprecedented precision by using high-resolution magnetic spectrometers. A challenge of the experiment was the tagging of kaons from associated K+∧ production off a Be target at very forward angles. In the year 2014, this experiment was continued with a better control of the systematic uncertainties, with better suppression of coincident and random background, improved particle identification, and with higher luminosities. Another key point of the progress was the improvement in the absolute momentum calibration of the magnetic spectrometers.

  6. 4H-SiC detectors for ultraviolet light monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Badalà, P.; Carbone, B.; Russo, A.; Coffa, S.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) provides the unique property of near-perfect visible blindness and very high signal-to-noise ratio due to the high quantum efficiency and low dark current even at high temperature. These features make SiC the best available material for the manufacturing of visible blind semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) light detectors. Thanks to their properties, SiC detectors have been extensively used in fact for flame detection monitoring, UV sterilization and astronomy. Here we report on the electrical and optical performance of patterned thin metal film NiSi/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes with different semiconductor exposed area suitably designed for UV light monitoring.

  7. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  8. Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

  9. Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

  10. Dog Helper's Guide: Dog Project Group Activities Grades 3-12. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08169

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This final guide in the series is designed to assist in one's role of helper for youth interested in the dog project. These learn-by-doing activities can be adapted for families, classrooms, dog project meetings, after school programs, camps or other settings. In this Helper's Guide, one will find helpful information about characteristics of…

  11. Riding the Range: Horse Riding Activities. Level 4. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08056

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  12. Head, Heart, & Hooves: Horse Raising Activities. Level 2. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08054

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  13. Jumping to New Heights: Horsemanship Activities. Level 5. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08057

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  14. Giddy up & Go: Discovering Horses Activities. Level 1. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08053

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the first in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. This guide focuses on the introductory basics and familiarizes youth with…

  15. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  16. The Effect of Participating in a Pre-Veterinary Learning Community of Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) Has on the Odds of New Animal Science Majors Graduate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Williams, James E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    All first-year students who entered the University of Missouri-Columbia as animal science majors between the fall of 1998 and 2004 (n = 619) had the opportunity to participate in a residentially-based Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) and/or a learning community specifically designed for them. The odds of graduating is significant for all three…

  17. "Our Zoo to You": The Link between Zoo Animals in the Classroom and Science and Literacy Concepts in First-Grade Journal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…

  18. The Effects of a Serious Digital Game on the Animal Science Competency, Mathematical Competency, Knowledge Transfer Ability, and Motivation of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, James Charles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods (i.e., lecture/discussion and digital game-based learning) on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma; 2) to…

  19. Effect of Computer Animation Technique on Students' Comprehension of the "Solar System and Beyond" Unit in the Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of computer animation technique on academic achievement of students in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit lecture as part of the Science and Technology course of the seventh grade in primary education. The sample of the study consists of 60 students attending to the 7th grade of primary school…

  20. Students' Choice of Animated Pedagogical Agents in Science Learning: A Test of the Similarity-Attraction Hypothesis on Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Flowerday, Terri

    2006-01-01

    College students learned about science with a multimedia program. One group (choice or C) chose to learn with or without an animated pedagogical agent (APA) representing a male or female of five different ethnicities. Another group (no-choice or NC) was assigned an APA by the system. All participants in C group chose to learn with APAs and…

  1. Characterization of phosphorus implantation in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Khemka, V.; Patel, R.; Ramungul, N.; Chow, T.P.; Ghezzo, M.; Kretchmer, J.

    1999-03-01

    Silicon carbide is expected to be a promising material for high-voltage semiconductor power devices. The authors report the characterization of phosphorus implantation in 4H-SiC. The implanted layers are characterized by analytical techniques (secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy) as well as electrical and a sheet resistance value as low as 160 {Omega}/{open_square} has been measured. The authors have also studied the effect of annealing time and temperature on activation of phosphorus implants. It has been shown to be possible to obtain low sheet resistance ({approximately}260 {Omega}/{open_square}) by annealing at a temperature as low as 1,200 C. High-dose ({approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2}) implants are found to have a higher sheet resistance than that on lower dose implants which is attributed to the near-surface depletion of the dopant during high temperature anneal. Different implantation dosages were utilized for the experiments and subsequently junction rectifiers were fabricated. Forward characteristics of these diodes are observed to obey a generalized Sah-Noyce-Shockly multiple level recombination model with four shallow levels and one deep level.

  2. High mobility Single Layer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (000-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yike; Guo, Zelei; Ruan, Ming; Hankinson, John; Palmer, James; Zhang, Baiqian; Dong, Rui; Kunc, Jan; Berger, Claire; Deheer, Walt

    2012-02-01

    Multi-layer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (000-1) has demonstrated very high mobility up to˜27,000 cm^2/Vs [1]. Recently single layer graphene grown by the Confinement Control Growth method [2] exhibits mobility up to ˜ 25,000cm^2/V.s at 4K and 13,000 cm^2/V.s at 300K with p=3 x 10^12 cm-2 The relation between Raman G peak features (FWHM and position) and carrier density of Epitaxial Graphene on carbon face is revealed. Quantum Hall Effect [3] is observed both for p and n type carriers on top gated sample. This indicates that top gated single layer graphene can be produced on the Carbon face with high quality and high carrier mobility. [4pt] [1] Science 312, 1191 (2006) [0pt] [2] PNAS 108 (41) 16900 (2011) [0pt] [3] APL 95, 223108 (2009)

  3. High current gain 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yourun, Zhang; Jinfei, Shi; Ying, Liu; Chengchun, Sun; Fei, Guo; Bo, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    A novel 4H-SiC BJT of high current gain with a suppressing surface traps effect has been proposed. It is effective to improve the current gain due to the lower electrons density in the surface region by extending the emitter metal to overlap the passivation layer on the extrinsic base surface. The electrons trapped in the extrinsic base surface induce the degeneration of SiC BJTs device performance. By modulating the electron recombination rate, the novel structure can increase the current gain to 63.2% compared with conventional ones with the compatible process technology. Optimized sizes are an overlapped metal length of 4 μm, as well as an oxide layer thickness of 50 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306093, 61401075).

  4. Introductory Earth science education by near real time animated visualization of seismic wave propagation across Transportable Array of USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanayake, J.; Ghosh, A.; Amosu, A.

    2010-12-01

    Students of this generation are markedly different from their predecessors because they grow up and learn in a world of visual technology populated by touch screens and smart boards. Recent studies have found that the attention span of university students whose medium of instruction is traditional teaching methods is roughly fifteen minutes and that there is a significant drop in the number of students paying attention over time in a lecture. On the other hand, when carefully segmented and learner-paced, animated visualizations can enhance the learning experience. Therefore, the instructors are faced with the difficult task of designing more complex teaching environments to improve learner productivity. We have developed an animated visualization of earthquake wave propagation across a generic transect of the Transportable Array of the USArray from a magnitude 6.9 event that occurred in the Gulf of California on August 3rd 2009. Despite the fact that the proto-type tool is built in MATLAB - one of the most popular programming environments among the seismology community, the movies can be run as a standalone stream with any built-in media player that supports .avi file format. We infer continuous ground motion along the transect through a projection and interpolation mechanism based on data from stations within 100 km of the transect. In the movies we identify the arrival of surface waves that have high amplitudes. However, over time, although typical Rayleigh type ground motion can be observed, the motion at any given point becomes complex owing to interference of different wave types and different seismic properties of the subsurface. This clearly is different from simple representations of seismic wave propagation in most introductory textbooks. Further, we find a noisy station that shows unusually high amplitude. We refrain from deleting this station in order to demonstrate that in a real world experiment, generally, there will be complexities arising from

  5. 77 FR 6795 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) Animal Feeding Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... and Basins at Swine and Dairy Animal Feeding Operations'' (February 2012 draft). DATES: The SAB Panel... at Swine and Dairy Animal Feeding Operations'' (February 2012 draft). EPA's Office of Air and... agreement signed in 2005 between EPA and nearly 14,000 broiler, dairy, egg layer, and swine animal...

  6. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector

  7. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Olav A; Haug, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector

  8. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such fund-raising programs and use of the...

  9. SADDLE HORSE AND OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS' PERCEPTIONS OF 4-H CLUB WORK IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROVES, ROBERT H.

    PERCEPTIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF 4-H OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMS OF 4-H SADDLE HORSE ADVISORS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS IN NORTHEASTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICTS OF OHIO. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRES FROM 90 SADDLE HORSE AND 133 OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS. STATE 4-H STAFF AND SUPERVISORS PROVIDED CORRECT ANSWERS.…

  10. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  11. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  12. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  13. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  14. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  15. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  16. Text to Speech: A 4-H Model of Accessibility and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    4-H project manuals play an integral part in a youth's ability to achieve mastery in a specific project area. For youth who struggle with reading, written 4-H materials prove inadequate in addressing the needs of the learner. This article proposes a new delivery method of 4-H educational material designed to create a more inclusive and…

  17. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  18. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  19. Density functional studies on the endohedral complex of fullerene C70 with tetrahedrane (C4H4): C4H4@C70.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Yuan; Jiang, Cai-Ying

    2012-07-01

    B3LYP/6-31G(d) hybrid HF/DFT calculations were carried out to determine the structural and electronic properties of the endohedral complex of a C(70) cage with tetrahedrane (C(4)H(4)). It was demonstrated that the formation of the complex is endothermic, with a destabilization energy of 72.56 kcal mol(-1). C(4)H(4) is seated in the center of the C(70) cage and exists in molecular form inside the fullerene. C(4)H(4) endohedral doping slightly perturbs the molecular orbitals of C(70). The calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps, the electron affinity (EA), and the ionization potential (IP) indicate that C(4)H(4)@C(70) is more chemically reactive than C(70). The IR active modes and harmonic vibrational frequencies of C(4)H(4)@ C(70) are also discussed. PMID:22246288

  20. Infrared spectrum of NH4+(H2O): Evidence for mode specific fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pankewitz, Tobias; Lagutschenkov, Anita; Niedner-schatteburg, Gereon; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Lee, Yuan-Tseh

    2007-02-21

    [CCSD(T)] level of theory with large basis sets allow for the determination of an accurate binding energy and enthalpy of the NH4+(H2O) cluster. Our extrapolated values at the CCSD(T) complete basis set (CBS) limit are H(0 K) (NH4+(H2O)) = 85.40(± 0.24) kJ/mol and H(298 K) (NH4+H2O)) = 78.1(± 0.3) kJ/mol, in which double standard deviations are indicated in parenthesis. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Departmetn of Energy.

  1. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education: Thoughts on mentoring graduate students in reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, M F

    2016-07-01

    Programs in animal science are particularly well suited for graduate education because students can receive comprehensive training in the laboratory as well as with the whole animal. Furthermore, graduate students in animal science have the opportunity to understand how their research relates to a real world problem. Graduate students need to take ownership of their education by identifying training goals, choosing a mentor who will help them achieve their goals, and becoming engaged in research as soon as possible. In my own graduate program, I emphasize concepts more than techniques and I believe that graduate course work should focus on the basic areas of science that underlie reproductive biology (e.g., endocrinology, biochemistry, physiology, immunology, and statistics). Based on the increase in technology available for scientific investigation and the diversity of expertise required to address important research problems, graduate students need to learn the importance of establishing productive collaborations and begin building a scientific network. Preparation for graduate school frequently begins early with a curiosity and passion for understanding how biology works. Undergraduate courses can facilitate scientific thinking by providing opportunities in lectures and laboratories for students to transition from passive learners to thinking of themselves as animal scientists. There is a profound difference between individuals who view themselves as practitioners of a discipline and those who are simply trying to complete a course requirement. Teachers of undergraduate courses should incorporate experiential learning exercises into their lectures and laboratories to provide undergraduate students the opportunity to function as animal scientists and to embrace their scientific education. Graduate training has been the most enjoyable aspect of my career and it has been a joy to witness the achievements of students following completion of their degree! PMID

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Christopher B.; Liddiard, Jessica R.; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI) to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students’ equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), the upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents) and an open wound (17.4%) were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI) was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling (30.4%) and being kicked (30.4%) accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3%) or an open wound (17.4%). Most (60.9%) injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related off

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University.

    PubMed

    Riley, Christopher B; Liddiard, Jessica R; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI) to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students' equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), the upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents) and an open wound (17.4%) were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI) was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling (30.4%) and being kicked (30.4%) accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3%) or an open wound (17.4%). Most (60.9%) injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related off

  4. Design, fabrication, and characterization of 4H-silicon carbide rectifiers for power switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, David Charles

    Silicon Carbide has received a substantial increase in research interest over the past few years as a base material system for high-frequency and high-power semiconductor devices. Of the over 1200 polytypes, 4H-SiC is the most attractive polytype for power devices due to its wide band gap (3.2eV), excellent thermal conductivity (4.9 W/cm·K), and high critical field strength (˜2 x 106 V/cm). Important for power devices, the 10x increase in critical field strength of SiC allows high voltage blocking layers to be fabricated significantly thinner than for comparable Si devices. For power rectifiers, this reduces device on-resistance, while maintaining the same high voltage blocking capability. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky, pn, and junction barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers for use in high voltage switching applications have been designed, fabricated, and extensively characterized. First, a detailed review of 4H-SiC material parameters was performed and SiC models were implemented into a standard Si drift-diffusion numerical simulator. Using these models, a SiC simulation methodology was developed in order to enable predictive SiC device design. A wide variety of rectifier and edge termination designs were investigated and optimized with respect to breakdown efficiency, area consumption, resistance to interface charge, and fabrication practicality. Simulated termination methods include: field plates, floating guard rings, and a variety of junction termination extensions (JTE). Using the device simulation results, both Schottky and JBS rectifiers were fabricated with a novel self-aligned edge termination design, and fabricated with process elements developed at the Alabama Microelectronics Science and Technology Center facility. These rectifiers exhibited near-ideal forward characteristics and had blocking voltages in excess of 2.5kV. The SiC diodes were subjected to inductive switching tests, and were found to have superior reverse recovery characteristics compared

  5. The Effects of Computer Animated Elaboration Strategies and Practice on Factual and Application Learning in an Elementary Science Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieber, Lloyd P.

    This study examined the effects of animation and practice on factual and application learning in computer based instruction (CBI), and the extent to which animation and practice promoted near and far transfer of these learning outcomes. Subjects were 192 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders, and the CBI content was an elementary physics lesson in…

  6. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  7. The reinvestigation of the kinetics of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr (HI) → i-C4H10 + Br• (I•) and of the t-C4H9• free radical thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2014-07-17

    A reinvestigation of the absolute rate constant of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr → i-C4H10 + Br• (1) and t-C4H9• + HI → i-C4H10 + I• (2) was performed thanks to a recently developed apparatus consisting of a Knudsen reactor coupled to detection based on single-photon (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (SPIMS). It enables the generation of thermalized hydrocarbon free radicals owing to a source upstream of and external to the Knudsen reactor. The following Arrhenius expressions were obtained: k1 = 5.6(±1.4) × 10(–12) exp(−6.76(±0.94)/(RT)) and k2 = 2.0(±0.6) × 10(–11) exp(−8.48(±0.94)/(RT)) with R = 8.314 J mol(–1) K(–1) over the range 293 to 623 K. The mass balance of the reaction system based on closed shell product detection (CSPD) was checked in order to ensure the accuracy of the used reaction mechanism and as an independent check of k1 and k2. The wall-loss rate constants of the t-butyl free radical, kw(C4H9), were measured and found to be low compared with the corresponding escape rate constant, ke(C4H9), for effusion of t-C4H9• out of the Knudsen reactor. On the basis of the present results, the free radical standard heat of formation ΔfH298°(t-C4H9•) = 44.3 ± 1.7 kJ mol(–1) was obtained when combined with the kinetics of the inverse halogenation reaction taken from the literature and using S298°(t-C4H9•) = 322.2 J K(–1) mol(–1) following a “Third Law” evaluation method. The standard enthalpy for t-butyl free radical is consistent for both the bromination and iodination reactions within the stated uncertainties. PMID:24942181

  8. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses. PMID:25464873

  9. Using Relational Developmental Systems Theory to Link Program Goals, Activities, and Outcomes: The Sample Case of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Wang, Jun; Chase, Paul A.; Gutierrez, Akira S.; Harris, Elise M.; Rubin, Rachel O.; Yalin, Ceren

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developmental science, relational development systems models have been used to frame the positive youth development (PYD) perspective, which posits that youth will thrive when there is alignment between their strengths and ecological resources in their context. Evidence from the 4-H Study of PYD indicates that out-of-school-time…

  10. Learning about Plants and Animals in Nature. Superific Science Book XII. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities that deal with plants and animals in nature. Basic concepts are presented through the use of laboratory experiments, worksheet exercises, diagrams,…

  11. Into the Curriculum. Music/Art/Reading/Language Arts: Can You Guess the Animal? [and] Science: The Ocean [and] Science: Biome and Animal Unit [and] Social Studies: How Many Forms of Transportation Can You Find?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz-Salminen, Dianne; Ely, Patricia; Asire, Marty

    2000-01-01

    Presents four fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in music and art, reading and language arts, science, and social studies. Each activity identifies library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, librarian and teacher instructional roles, procedures,…

  12. Microscopic origin of the prolonged coherence in 4H-SiC divacancy spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hosung; Falk, Abram; Klimov, Paul; Christle, David; Awschalom, David; Galli, Giulia

    Long coherence times of quantum bits (qubits) is a key prerequisite for quantum computing and quantum metrology. Recently, electronic spin qubits localized to divacancies in 4H-SiC were found to have a long spin coherence time (T2) exceeding 1 ms, which is longer than that of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in chemically but not isotopically purified diamond. In this talk, we discuss the microscopic origin behind the prolonged divacancy coherence. By using optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR), we show that the divacancy T2 rapidly increases as a function of magnetic field, saturating at 1.3 ms at T = 20 K. We used a quantum-bath model combined with a cluster correlation expansion technique to calculate the divacancy coherence function and found an excellent agreement between theory and experiment. We show that an effective decoupling of the 29Si and 13C nuclear spins due to their gyromagnetic ratio difference is one of the key reasons responsible for suppressing the decoherence of the divacancy qubits in SiC under magnetic fields larger than 100G. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation through the University of Chicago MRSEC under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  13. Pioneering Better Science through the 3Rs: An Introduction to the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs)

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community. PMID:25836967

  14. Pioneering better science through the 3Rs: an introduction to the national centre for the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animals in research (NC3Rs).

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-03-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community. PMID:25836967

  15. Participation of Brazil in the World Congresses on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: an increase in commitment to the Three Rs.

    PubMed

    Presgrave, Octavio; Caldeira, Cristiane; Moura, Wlamir; Cruz, Mayara; Méier, Gisele; Dos Santos, Elisabete; Boas, Maria H V

    2015-03-01

    Many Brazilian researchers have long been interested in the development and use of alternative methods. Most of their research groups work in isolation, due to the lack of funding for collaborative studies. Despite these problems, since the Third World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Brazilian researchers have strongly participated, not only by presenting posters and oral presentations, but also by being involved in the World Congress Committees. The Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM) must play an important role in the development and validation of alternative methods, through the active participation of the National Network of Alternative Methods (ReNaMA). In Brazil, Law 11,794/2008 regulates the use of animals in experimentation and education, and Law 9,605/1998 clearly states that use of the original animal test is not permitted, if an alternative method is available. Therefore, given the current legal framework, it is very important that all the Ministries involved with animal use, and the organisations responsible for funding researchers, strive to increase the financial support of those groups that are involved in the development and use of alternative methods in Brazil. PMID:25802998

  16. AB INITIO CHARACTERIZATION OF C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H, AND C{sub 4}H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.

    2010-01-10

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the stable isomers of C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H and C{sub 4}H{sup -}. Three of them are relevant for astrophysics and astrochemistry. These computations are performed using highly correlated ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) basis sets. In addition to the linear isomers, we predict the existence of several cyclic and branched forms for these molecules. For all the molecular species of interest here, sets of spectroscopic parameters are determined with perturbation theory, which compare quite well with experiment. For l - C{sub 4}H{sup -}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +}), the quartic force field is computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. This force field is derived from full nine-dimensional potential energy surface generated close to the equilibrium geometry of this anion. Finally, we treat the thermochemistry of the hydrogen attachment and the electron attachment reactions that may lead to the formation of the C{sub 4}H{sup -} from either C{sup -}{sub 4} or C{sub 4}H.

  17. The role of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Colby, M; Coats, M; Brake, D; Fine, J

    2013-01-01

    The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project. PMID:23689879

  18. Into the Curriculum. Art/Reading/Language Arts: Thumbs Up!; Health: Healthy Habits! Nutrition and You; Science: ABC Animal Newsletter; Science: What a Review!; Social Studies: Which Region?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casida, Fiona; Farthing, Jennifer C.; Tasota-Miklos, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units is art, reading, language arts, health, science, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)

  19. Contaminant exposures at the 4H shell mounds in the Santa Barbara Channel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Charles R; Salazar, Michael H; Salazar, Sandra M; Snyder, Barry J

    2006-12-01

    Remobilization, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of chemical contaminants were evaluated at the 4H shell mounds - the site of abandoned offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. Evaluations used a weight-of-evidence approach based on results from bulk phase chemical analyses and laboratory toxicity testing of shell mound cores, in situ field bioassays using caged mussels, and surficial sediment chemistry. Shell mound cores contained elevated concentrations of metals associated with drilling wastes (e.g., Ba, Cr, Pb, and Zn), as well as monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The highest concentrations along with pockets of free oil were associated with the middle "cuttings" stratum. Sediments composited from all core strata caused significant acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Ba and PAHs in test organisms during laboratory exposures. In contrast, caged mussels placed at each of the shell mounds for a period of 57-58 days had greater than 90% survival, and there were no significant differences in survival of mussels placed at the shell mounds and corresponding reference sites. While all mussel samples exhibited increases in shell length, whole animal weight, and tissue lipid content, in some cases growth metrics for the shell mound mussels were significantly higher than those for the reference sites. Concentrations of metals, PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tissues of the shell mound mussels were not significantly different from those at reference sites. The presence of labile aromatic hydrocarbons in shell mound cores and absence of significant contaminant accumulation of tissues of caged mussels indicated that chemical contaminants are not being remobilized from the 4H shell mounds. Surficial bottom sediments near the shell mounds contained elevated Ba concentrations that probably were associated with drilling wastes. However, concentrations did not

  20. The Use of Interactive Computer Animations Based on POE as a Presentation Tool in Primary Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Ercan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using interactive computer animations based on predict-observe-explain (POE) as a presentation tool on primary school students' understanding of the static electricity concepts. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test control group design was utilized in this study. The experiment group consisted of 30…

  1. 4-H's Influence on Advanced Training, Careers and Leadership Roles in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, S. Kay; And Others

    A study explored how adults felt their 4-H experience contributed to their selection of advanced education and/or a career and helped them with leadership skills in their occupations or community activities. To obtain data, a questionnaire was mailed to former 4-H members aged 25 to 35 in northeast Nebraska; 318 questionnaires were returned.…

  2. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  3. The First Fifty Years of the 4-H Program (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Beth E.; Flanagan, Constance A.; Thomson, Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews achievements during the first 50 years of 4-H club work, including volunteer leadership development, funding support, and response to society's needs during the war years. Demonstrates how 4-H has changed to meet societal needs while remaining true to the original mission. (SK)

  4. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  5. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  6. College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size…

  7. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  8. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting…

  9. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  10. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  11. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  12. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  13. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade…

  14. Simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Shahid, M. Y.; Iqbal, F.; Fatima, K.; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Arbi, H. M.; Tsu, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report thermal evaporation technique as a simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on p-type silicon substrate. A mixture of Si and C60 powder of high purity (99.99%) was evaporated from molybdenum boat. The as grown film was characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall Measurements. The XRD pattern displayed four peaks at 2Θ angles 28.550, 32.700, 36.100 and 58.900 related to Si (1 1 1), 4H-SiC (1 0 0), 4H-SiC (1 1 1) and 4H-SiC (2 2 2), respectively. FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties further strengthened the 4H-SiC growth.

  15. Tertiary amine-catalyzed (4 + 2) annulations of δ-acetoxy allenoates: synthesis of multisubstituted 4H-pyran and 4H-chromene.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yiting; Li, Falin; Hu, Pengfei; Liao, Daohua; Tong, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    The DABCO-catalyzed divergent (4 + 2) annulations of δ-acetoxy allenoates 1 are reported. The chemical behavior of 1 under DABCO catalyst was found to be substrate dependent. Allenoate 1 with an aromatic group at δC preferentially reacted with salicylaldehyde derivative 2, delivering 4H-chromenes 3. On the other hand, allenoates 1 with an alkyl group at δC readily underwent (4 + 2) annulations with oxo diene 4 to afford 4H-pyrans 5. PMID:25692476

  16. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  17. Non-ideal effect in 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor with double Gaussian-doped base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Song, Qing-Wen; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Men

    2015-06-01

    The non-ideal effect of 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) with a double Gaussian-doped base is characterized and simulated in this paper. By adding a specific interface model between SiC and SiO2, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment data. An obvious early effect is found from the output characteristic. As the temperature rises, the early voltage increases, while the current gain gradually decreases, which is totally different from the scenario of silicon BJT. With the same effective Gummel number in the base region, the double Gaussian-doped base structure can realize higher current gain than the single base BJT due to the built-in electric field, whereas the early effect will be more salient. Besides, the emitter current crowding effect is also analyzed. Due to the low sheet resistance in the first highly-doped base epilayer, the 4H-BJT with a double base has more uniform emitter current density across the base-emitter junction, leading to better thermal stability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60876061 and 61234006), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8012), and the Doctoral Fund of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20130203120017 and 20110203110010).

  18. The Use of Interactive Computer Animations Based on POE as a Presentation Tool in Primary Science Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpınar, Ercan

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of using interactive computer animations based on predict-observe-explain (POE) as a presentation tool on primary school students' understanding of the static electricity concepts. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test control group design was utilized in this study. The experiment group consisted of 30 students, and the control group of 27 students. The control group received normal instruction in which the teacher provided instruction by means of lecture, discussion and homework. Whereas in the experiment group, dynamic and interactive animations based on POE were used as a presentation tool. Data collection tools used in the study were static electricity concept test and open-ended questions. The static electricity concept test was used as pre-test before the implementation, as post-test at the end of the implementation and as delay test approximately 6 weeks after the implementation. Open-ended questions were used at the end of the implementation and approximately 6 weeks after the implementation. Results indicated that the interactive animations used as presentation tools were more effective on the students' understanding of static electricity concepts compared to normal instruction.

  19. Biopolitical science.

    PubMed

    Arnhart, Larry

    2010-03-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. PMID:20812796

  20. Investigations of 3C-SiC inclusions in 4H-SiC epilayers on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Si, W.; Dudley, M.; Kong, H.S.; Sumakeris, J.; Carter, C. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and Nomarski optical microscopy (NOM) have been used to characterize 4H-SiC epilayers and to study the character of triangular inclusions therein. 4H-SiC substrates misoriented by a range of angles from (0001), as well as (1 1{bar 0}0) and (11 2{bar 0}) oriented substrates were used. No evidence was found for the nucleation of 3C-SiC inclusions at superscrew dislocations (along the [0001] axis) in the 4H-SiC substrates. Increasing the off-axis angle of the substrates from 3.5 to 6.5{degree} was found to greatly suppress the formation of the triangular inclusions. In the case of substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) toward [112{bar 0}], the triangular inclusions were virtually eliminated. The crystalline quality of 4H-SiC epilayers grown on the substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) was very good. For the (11{bar 0}0) and (112{bar 0}) samples, there is no indication of 3C-SiC inclusions in the epilayers. Possible formation mechanisms and the morphology of 3C-SiC inclusions are discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Using Multiple Youth Programming Delivery Modes to Drive the Development of Social Capital in 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other…

  2. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  3. Synthesis and characterization of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hulluru Surya Prakash; Kamalraj, Mani

    2014-09-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a variety of fat-soluble, low-melting and medicinally useful 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol (side-chain perhydrogenated cardanol, 3-pentadecylphenol), a renewable and low-cost product from locally grown cashew nut trees (Anacardium occidentale L.). We incorporated H-cardanol into the aromatic rings of either 4H-chromene or phenol, or both. Substitution of C4SMe in N-methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4H-chromene-2-amines with H-cardanol was regio-specific at the C6 position. PMID:25918806

  4. International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology: the future of endocrine measures for reproductive science, animal welfare and conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, André; Brown, Janine L; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Kouba, Andrew J; Penfold, Linda M; Santymire, Rachel M; Vick, Mandi M; Wielebnowski, Nadja; Willis, Erin L; Milnes, Matthew R

    2012-10-23

    Hormone analysis is a precise and widely accepted tool for monitoring reproductive function and responses to stressors. Although hormones are present and can be measured in various biological matrices, non-invasive methods have gained popularity over the past 30 years as a more practical approach for assessing ovarian, testicular and, more recently, adrenocortical activity in intractable wildlife species. Non-invasive hormone monitoring also has been key to understanding biological mechanisms related to observed behaviours of captive and free-ranging animals. Despite the increasing popularity of this research field, wildlife endocrinologists have not had a specific forum for sharing and discussing their latest findings, technical developments and common challenges. To provide such a communication platform, the International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology (ISWE) was established in 2010, followed by an international meeting held on 3-4 November 2011 at the Toronto Zoo, Canada. Over several sessions, keynote speakers and participants discussed recent developments of new and innovative methods for hormone monitoring, as well as the latest advances in basic endocrinology as applied to adrenal function, reproductive physiology, animal health, ecology and evolution. Here, we introduce ISWE to the scientific community and discuss how this new society will serve as a resource for wildlife endocrinologists worldwide. PMID:22219389

  5. All about Animal Needs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Animals need the same things people do: air, food, water, and shelter. Each animal has different ways of fulfilling those needs. In this videotape, students explore some of the ways various animals stay healthy and full of energy. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics of…

  6. Al4H7− is a resilient building block for aluminum hydrogen cluster materials

    PubMed Central

    Roach, P. J.; Reber, A. C.; Woodward, W. H.; Khanna, S. N.; Castleman, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    The formation and oxygen etching of AlnHm− clusters are characterized in a flow reactor experiment with first-principles theoretical investigations to demonstrate the exceptional stability of Al4H7−. The origin of the preponderance of Al4H7− in the mass spectra of hydrogenated aluminum anions and its resistance to O2 etching are discussed. Al4H7− is shown to have the ability to bond with ionic partners to form stable hydrides through addition of an alkali atom [XAl4H7 (X = Li-Cs)]. An intuitive model that can predict the existence of stable hydrogenated cluster species is proposed. The potential synthetic utility of the superatom assemblies built on these units is addressed. PMID:17823245

  7. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  8. Characterization of deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Sochacki, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    Conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique was used to study deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers. 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, doped with nitrogen and grown on standard n+-4H-SiC substrates were exposed to low-dose aluminum ion implantation process under the Schottky contact in order to form both JBS grid and junction termination extension (JTE), and assure good rectifying properties of the diodes. Several deep electron traps were revealed and attributed to impurities or intrinsic defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, on the basis of comparison of their electrical parameters (i.e. activation energies, apparent capture cross sections and concentrations) with previously published results.

  9. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  10. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  11. Fabrication of High-Q Nanobeam Photonic Crystals in Epitaxially Grown 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Bracher, David O; Hu, Evelyn L

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an intriguing material due to the presence of spin-active point defects in several polytypes, including 4H-SiC. For many quantum information and sensing applications involving such point defects, it is important to couple their emission to high quality optical cavities. Here we present the fabrication of 1D nanobeam photonic crystal cavities (PCC) in 4H-SiC using a dopant-selective etch to undercut a homoepitaxially grown epilayer of p-type 4H-SiC. These are the first PCCs demonstrated in 4H-SiC and show high quality factors (Q) of up to ∼7000 as well as low modal volumes of <0.5 (λ/n)(3). We take advantage of the high device yield of this fabrication method to characterize hundreds of devices and determine which PCC geometries are optimal. Additionally, we demonstrate two methods to tune the resonant wavelengths of the PCCs over 5 nm without significant degradation of the Q. Lastly, we characterize nanobeam PCCs coupled to luminescence from silicon vacancy point defects (V1, V2) in 4H-SiC. The fundamental modes of two such PCCs are tuned into spectral overlap with the zero phonon line (ZPL) of the V2 center, resulting in an intensity increase of up to 3-fold. These results are important steps on the path to developing 4H-SiC as a platform for quantum information and sensing. PMID:26305122

  12. Key contribution of eIF4H-mediated translational control in tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Vaysse, Charlotte; Philippe, Céline; Martineau, Yvan; Quelen, Cathy; Hieblot, Corinne; Renaud, Claire; Nicaise, Yvan; Desquesnes, Aurore; Pannese, Maria; Filleron, Thomas; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Lawson, Malcolm; Rintoul, Robert C.; Delisle, Marie Bernadette; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Brousset, Pierre; Prats, Hervé; Touriol, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of translation initiation factors has been associated with carcinogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remains to be fully understood. Here we show that eIF4H (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H), an activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A, is overexpressed in lung carcinomas and predictive of response to chemotherapy. In lung cancer cells, depletion of eIF4H enhances sensitization to chemotherapy, decreases cell migration and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, in association with reduced translation of mRNA encoding cell-proliferation (c-Myc, cyclin D1) angiogenic (FGF-2) and anti-apoptotic factors (CIAP-1, BCL-xL). Conversely, each isoform of eIF4H acts as an oncogene in NIH3T3 cells by stimulating transformation, invasion, tumor growth and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis together with increased translation of IRES-containing or structured 5′UTR mRNAs. These results demonstrate that eIF4H plays a crucial role in translational control and can promote cellular transformation by preferentially regulating the translation of potent growth and survival factor mRNAs, indicating that eIF4H is a promising new molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:26498689

  13. Nature's Notebook and Extension: Engaging Citizen-Scientists and 4-H Youth to Observe a Changing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthumus, Erin E.; Barnett, LoriAnne; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Kish, George R.; Sheftall, Will; Stancioff, Esperanza; Warren, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Extension, with its access to long-term volunteers, has the unique ability to teach citizen scientists about the connection between climate variability and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and thus, humans. The USA National Phenology Network's Nature's Notebook on-line program provides a science learning tool for…

  14. ASAS centennial paper: Contributions in the Journal of Animal Science to the development of protocols for breeding management of cattle through synchronization of estrus and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, J W

    2009-02-01

    American Society of Animal Science members, publishing in Journal of Animal Science (JAS), completed research that resulted in understanding the estrous cycle of cattle, which led to the ability to inseminate cattle on a given day with pregnancy rates similar to those achieved by 21-d breeding by a fertile and sound bull. Research published in JAS led to understanding estrus, ovulation, the estrous cycle, and postpartum interval for cattle (1930s through 1960s) and hormonal factors affecting corpus luteum lifespan of cattle (1950s through 1980s). Research during the 1940s to 1960s, using gonadotropins and progesterone to manage the estrous cycle of cattle, established the concepts for estrous synchronization and stimulated commercial research directed at developing cost-effective progestogen estrous synchronization products, leading to commercially available products from 1967 through today (Repromix, melengestrol acetate, Syncro-Mate-B, controlled internal drug release). Prostaglandin F(2alpha) products were approved for estrous synchronization (1970s, 1980s), and GnRH products were approved for use in cattle to treat ovarian follicular cysts (1970s, 1980s). Research published in JAS was essential for understanding the biology of and potential value of both PGF(2alpha) and GnRH and contributed both to new knowledge and scientific bases for future Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine approval of those products. Research during the1980s through 2000s led to understanding ovarian follicular waves and described the timing of follicular recruitment, selection, dominance, and atresia; this research was essential for the ability to effectively manage follicles to achieve success with timed AI. The knowledge gained through research published in JAS resulted in development of the numerous estrous synchronization and breeding management protocols that are cost-effective and meet the breeding management needs of most beef and dairy enterprises. PMID

  15. The Classroom Animal: Cryptozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Explains how to establish and maintain a woodland terrarium. Points out how this environment can be used to study animal interaction and can serve as a focal point for learning about a variety of elementary science concepts. (ML)

  16. The complete genome sequence of the methanogenic archaeon ISO4-H5 provides insights into the methylotrophic lifestyle of a ruminal representative of the Methanomassiliicoccales.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Leahy, Sinead C; Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Altermann, Eric; Kelly, William J; Lambie, Suzanne C; Janssen, Peter H; Rakonjac, Jasna; Attwood, Graeme T

    2016-01-01

    Methane emissions from agriculture represent around 9 % of global anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. The single largest source of this methane is animal enteric fermentation, predominantly from ruminant livestock where it is produced mainly in their fermentative forestomach (or reticulo-rumen) by a group of archaea known as methanogens. In order to reduce methane emissions from ruminants, it is necessary to understand the role of methanogenic archaea in the rumen, and to identify their distinguishing characteristics that can be used to develop methane mitigation technologies. To gain insights into the role of methylotrophic methanogens in the rumen environment, the genome of a methanogenic archaeon has been sequenced. This isolate, strain ISO4-H5, was isolated from the ovine rumen and belongs to the order Methanomassiliicoccales. Genomic analysis suggests ISO4-H5 is an obligate hydrogen-dependent methylotrophic methanogen, able to use methanol and methylamines as substrates for methanogenesis. Like other organisms within this order, ISO4-H5 does not possess genes required for the first six steps of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Comparison between the genomes of different members of the order Methanomassiliicoccales revealed strong conservation in energy metabolism, particularly in genes of the methylotrophic methanogenesis pathway, as well as in the biosynthesis and use of pyrrolysine. Unlike members of Methanomassiliicoccales from human sources, ISO4-H5 does not contain the genes required for production of coenzyme M, and so likely requires external coenzyme M to survive. PMID:27602181

  17. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Neudeck,P.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Powell, J.; Du, H.; Skowronski, M.; Huang, X.; Dudley, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) measurements indicate non-trivial, in-plane, lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  18. Disruption of PF4/H multimolecular complex formation with a minimally anticoagulant heparin (ODSH)

    PubMed Central

    Joglekar, Manali V.; Quintana Diez, Pedro M.; Marcus, Stephen; Qi, Rui; Espinasse, Benjamin; Wiesner, Mark R.; Pempe, Elizabeth; Liu, Jian; Monroe, Dougald M.; Arepally, Gowthami M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have shown that ultra-large complexes (ULCs) of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin (H) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated disorder caused by PF4/H antibodies. Because antigenic PF4/H ULCs assemble through non-specific electrostatic interactions, we reasoned that disruption of charge-based interactions can modulate the immune response to antigen. We tested a minimally anticoagulant compound (2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin or ODSH) with preserved charge to disrupt PF4/H complex formation and immunogenicity. We show that ODSH disrupts complexes when added to pre-formed PF4/H ULCs and prevents ULC formation when incubated simultaneously with PF4 and UFH. In other studies, we show that excess ODSH reduces HIT antibody (Ab) binding in immunoassays and that PF4/ODSH complexes do not cross-react with HIT Abs. When ODSH and UFH are mixed at equimolar concentrations, we show that there is a negligible effect on amount of protamine required for heparin neutralization and reduced immunogenicity of PF4/UFH in the presence of ODSH. Taken together, these studies suggest that ODSH can be used concurrently with UFH to disrupt PF4/H charge interactions and provides a novel strategy to reduce antibody mediated complications in HIT. PMID:22318669

  19. Existence of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H: A variational Monte Carlo search

    SciTech Connect

    Shoeb, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    A variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculation for the binding energy B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of the lightest hypernucleus {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H has been performed in the four-body {lambda}{lambda}pn model. A range of input {lambda}{lambda} potentials of moderate strength produce a particle-stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H for the simulated NSC97e and f {lambda}N potentials, whereas the phenomenological Minnesota {lambda}N potential needs a much stronger {lambda}{lambda} potential to bind. The VMC results for B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} agree with the prediction of the stochastic variational model but contradict the recent Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculation. As reported earlier, B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} is sensitive to the triplet {lambda}N channel for a given {lambda}{lambda} potential. The B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in the three-body {lambda}{lambda}d cluster model is consistent with but slightly lower than the Faddeev calculation. The VMC method predicts a stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H system in both models and thus offers the possibility of identifying {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in a future extension of E906 or of a related experiment at KEK, provided the simulated potentials are true representations of realistic Nijmegen potentials.

  20. Self-assembly of C4H-type hydrogenated graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zilong; Xue, Qingzhong; Xing, Wei; Du, Yonggang; Han, Zhide

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations that patterned partially hydrogenated graphene (C4H) can self-assemble at room temperature. The main driving force of the self-assembly of C4H is due to the one-sided distribution of hydrogen and the corresponding asymmetric orientation of sp(3) bonding, there exists strong electrostatic repulsion between the relatively close H atoms. The simulations show that C4H can self-assemble into various carbon nanoscroll (CNS) structures, this is mainly controlled by its geometry (size and aspect ratio). And the carbon nanotube (CNT) is a good candidate to activate and guide C4H to form CNS, whose core size can be controlled. Meanwhile, a novel CNT/C4H core/shell composite nanostructure is also formed. The theoretical results shed important light on a feasible approach to fabricate high-quality CNS and other novel nanostructures including core/shell structures, which hold great potential applications in optics, optoelectronic devices, hydrogen storage, sensors, and energy storage in supercapacitors or batteries. PMID:24064528

  1. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  2. The lta4h Locus Modulates Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Vary, Jay C.; Ray, John P.; Walsh, Gregory S.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Khadge, Saraswoti; King, Mary-Claire; Hawn, Thomas R.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces varied early outcomes, ranging from resistance to infection to progressive disease. Here we report results from a forward genetic screen in zebrafish larvae that identify multiple mutant classes with distinct patterns of innate susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum. A hypersusceptible mutant maps to the lta4h locus encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and proinflammatory eicosanoid. lta4h mutations confer hypersusceptibility independent of LTB4 reduction, by redirecting eicosanoid substrates to anti-inflammatory lipoxins. The resultant anti-inflammatory state permits increased mycobacterial proliferation by limiting production of tumor necrosis factor. In humans, we find that protection from both tuberculosis and multibacillary leprosy is associated with heterozygosity for LTA4H polymorphisms that have previously been correlated with differential LTB4 production. Our results suggest conserved roles for balanced eicosanoid production in vertebrate resistance to mycobacterial infection. PMID:20211140

  3. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  4. Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveen, Lois

    2007-01-01

    It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet. This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating…

  5. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  6. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  7. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  8. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  9. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Asokan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E2 (TO) and the A1 (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  10. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,4,4-trisubstituted 5-amino-4 H-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanato, J.; Avendaño, C.; Ramos, M. T.; Smith-Verdier, P.; Florencio, F.; Garcia-Blanco, S.

    Three 5-amino-4 H-imidazole derivatives 2(2-pyridyl) and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-4,4-pentamethylene-5-amino-and 2(2-pyridyl)-4,4-dimethyl-5(2-pyridylamino)4 H-imidazoles have been studied by i.r. and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of one has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The tautomeric amino-imino equilibrium in different working conditions is also studied from spectroscopic data. The amino and the unconjugated imino forms are characterized.

  11. Analysis of Surface Defects on the Reverse Characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuno, Takashi; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Konishi, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takeo; Endo, Takeshi; Ishiko, Masayasu

    The good relations between the reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes and the surface defects were obtained. The reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes were categorized in three groups as follows: (A) low blocking voltage, (B) high leakage current and (C) low leakage current. The groups of (A) and (B) were caused by the existences of the micropipe and small particles, and the carrot-like defects on the SiC surfaces, respectively. In group (C), there was no defect on the surfaces observed by the optical microscope. The structure of carrot-like defect was analyzed by the cathode-luminescence and TEM.

  12. Managing for Motivation: Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Its Application to 4-H Leadership. National Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Walter J.

    A study examined the organizational factors contributing to the motivation of 4-H volunteer leaders. A modified form of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the research design of the study. A total of 149 4-H leaders were interviewed regarding thirteen job factors: recognition; personal growth; relationships with other 4-H leaders,…

  13. Current Practices for Training Staff to Accommodate Youth with Special Health Care Needs in the 4-H Camp Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Lauren; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2013-01-01

    The theory of inclusion is the foundation for the study reported here; inclusion is a focus not only of formal education, but also of nonformal educational settings such as 4-H. Ideally, 4-H camps are designed to serve youth of all backgrounds and abilities. By accommodating youth with special health care needs, 4-H camps are effectively meeting…

  14. E-Learning for 4-H Volunteers: Who Uses It, and What Can We Learn from Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Kristy L.; Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Lobley, Jennifer; Gross, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Orienting and training 4-H volunteers are critical to individuals and the organization. The two-part study reported here re-establishes the profile of the 4-H volunteer and evaluates both the format and content of e-Learning for 4-H Volunteers modules launched in 2006. Volunteers from seven states perceived that online modules made learning more…

  15. Soundsational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

  16. Team-based learning increases active engagement and enhances development of teamwork and communication skills in a first-year course for veterinary and animal science undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education. PMID:24077314

  17. More than Cows & Cooking: Newest Research Shows the Impact of 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Haynes, George W.

    2002-01-01

    A Montana survey of 2,500 students' use of out-of-school time found that only 17% reported no involvement in out-of-school activities. 4-H participants were less likely to shoplift, steal, smoke cigarettes, ride with a drunk driver, or damage property. They were more likely to develop self-confidence and social competence, demonstrate leadership,…

  18. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance…

  19. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  20. Promoting the Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development through an Experiential Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Shelley; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project reported here was to apply Experiential Learning Theory to a context involving middle and high school aged youth while assessing the four concepts (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) in relation to the 4-H youth development essential elements. The conclusions of the project's evaluation suggest…

  1. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  2. 4-H Tractor Operator Program Teaches Employability Skills and Safety to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    For Michigan State University Extension, the Berrien County 4-H Tractor Operator Program has provided tractor safety education to teens for over 30 years. The certification training satisfies current requirements for operation of a 20 PTO HP or greater agricultural tractor by 14- and 15-year-old youth employed on property "not" owned,…

  3. Stakeholder Satisfaction with a 4-H Extension Program for Five- to Eight-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Lafontaine, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    A 4-H K-2 program was evaluated by 277 parents, 144 volunteers, and 44 extension agents. These stakeholders believed the program was beneficial and effective in improving children's life skills (self-esteem, making friends, making choices, learning and physical skills). (SK)

  4. Performance statistics of the FORTRAN 4 /H/ library for the IBM system/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, N. A.; Cody, W. J., Jr.; Hillstrom, K. E.; Thieleker, E. A.

    1969-01-01

    Test procedures and results for accuracy and timing tests of the basic IBM 360/50 FORTRAN 4 /H/ subroutine library are reported. The testing was undertaken to verify performance capability and as a prelude to providing some replacement routines of improved performance.

  5. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide for Units 2 & 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This leader's guide is designed for units 2 and 3 of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) to enjoy together the challenges and creativity of…

  6. CareerSmarts. 4-H Mentoring Program. Agent's Handbook. Mentor's Handbook. Protege's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklear, Eddie L.

    The North Carolina 4-H CareerSmarts Program is designed to unite the public and private sectors to provide career education for young people. This packet contains three handbooks (for agents, proteges, and mentors) that explain the program and outline practical ways to conduct it. CareerSmarts consists of three phases. Phase one is conducted…

  7. Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens: A Descriptive View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cater, Melissa; Fox, Janet; Fletcher, Bobby Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens, a K-12 Learn and Serve Grant program, provides a descriptive view of how school gardens along with classroom instruction link curriculum to outdoor classrooms. The purpose of the process evaluation was to describe curriculum implementation fidelity, reach of the gardening program to participants, use…

  8. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  9. Temperature Dependence of Attenuation of Coplanar Waveguide on 4H High Resistivity SIC Through 540C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Schwartz, Z.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Downey, A. N.; Freeman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, the temperature and frequency dependence of the attenuation of a Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) on 4H, High Resistivity Sic substrate is reported. The low frequency attenuation increases by 2 dB/cm at 500 C and the high frequency attenuation increases by 3.3 dB/cm at 500 C compared to room temperature.

  10. The Value of 4-H Judging Teams--Missouri Dairy Judging Alumni Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Karla; Probert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Former Missouri 4-H Dairy Judging Team members responded to a survey about life skills development and the value of the judging team experience. Results of the survey indicate that judging team experience was highly influential in the development of communication, public speaking, and presentation skills. Respondents also indicated that judging…

  11. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds. PMID:17107102

  12. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  13. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  14. 4H-SiC photodiode model for DC SPICE circuit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociubiński, Andrzej; Duk, Mariusz; Korona, Mateusz; Muzyka, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Technology, characterization and in particularly modeling of 4H-SiC photodiode have been presented in this paper. Modeling and simulation has been performed using PSPICE environment. Comparison of simulation with real results for electrical characteristic (I-V) of circular SiC photodiodes has been also presented.

  15. Associated Factors in Recruitment and Retention of 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Meighan, Terence; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean M.

    1999-01-01

    Extension agents and 4-H Club leaders (n=115) rated the following as effective recruitment techniques: an active club, word of mouth, interesting programs, and members' active role. Successful retention techniques included effective leaders; praise, motivation, and encouragement; and fun meetings, programs, and activities. (SK)

  16. An Evaluation of the 4-H "Health Rocks" Program: Implications for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Carlton; Morgan, A. Christian; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The National 4-H Council developed the Health Rocks substance abuse educational program to prevent youth from engaging in risky behaviors. The program was presented in 2010 to more than 8,000 middle school youth in Georgia. A post-then-pre evaluation was conducted with youth who completed 10 hours of instruction to determine if changes in youth…

  17. South Carolina's Model for Initiating Hispanic 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Robert; Rembert, Kellye

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, through the initiative of several county Extension agents, South Carolina 4-H has established a successful model for bringing Hispanic youth into our program. We have found the most effective method is to initiate contact and establish partnerships with the principals and ESOL instructors in the local schools. Through this…

  18. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide [for Unit 1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This guide is designed for leaders of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) enjoy together the challenges and creativity of finding energy…

  19. A Partnership Model for Training Episodic Environmental Stewardship 4-H Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jane Chin; Alexander, Janice; Smith, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Marin Environmental Stewardship pilot project demonstrates the potential for a partnership model that brings together external and internal collaborators to recruit and train episodic 4-H volunteers to meet environmental education needs within a community. The clientele served by the volunteers trained through the project was at-risk, urban…

  20. Using multiple youth programming delivery modes to drive the development of social capital in 4-H participants.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-06-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other experiences such as leadership camps and conferences or activities in the local community afford youth the opportunity to build the relationships, trust, and respect reflective of social capital. Examples are derived from 4-H program participants-urban, suburban and rural youth-in Camden County, New Jersey. PMID:23878086

  1. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel; Spencer, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P+N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH3x) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm2. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm2, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 105-106 cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P+N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  2. American Physiological Society Statements on Animal Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains three policy statements involving the use of animals for proper teaching of students, research, and the utilization of pound animals. Discusses the benefits to society of using animals in the biomedical sciences. (CW)

  3. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  4. Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 4 h apart Human pharmacology of MDMA after repeated doses taken 4 h apart.

    PubMed

    Farré, Magí; Tomillero, Angels; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Yubero, Samanta; Papaseit, Esther; Roset, Pere-Nolasc; Pujadas, Mitona; Torrens, Marta; Camí, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular psychostimulant, frequently associated with multiple administrations over a short period of time. Repeated administration of MDMA in experimental settings induces tolerance and metabolic inhibition. The aim is to determine the acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics resulting from two consecutive 100mg doses of MDMA separated by 4h. Ten male volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. The four conditions were placebo plus placebo, placebo plus MDMA, MDMA plus placebo, and MDMA plus MDMA. Outcome variables included pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic parameters. After a second dose of MDMA, most effects were similar to those after a single dose, despite a doubling of MDMA concentrations (except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time). After repeated MDMA administration, a 2-fold increase was observed in MDMA plasma concentrations. For a simple dose accumulation MDMA and MDA concentrations were higher (+23.1% Cmax and +17.1% AUC for MDMA and +14.2% Cmax and +10.3% AUC for MDA) and HMMA and HMA concentrations lower (-43.3% Cmax and -39.9% AUC for HMMA and -33.2% Cmax and -35.1% AUC for HMA) than expected, probably related to MDMA metabolic autoinhibition. Although MDMA concentrations doubled after the second dose, most pharmacological effects were similar or slightly higher in comparison to the single administration, except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time which were greater than predicted. The pharmacokinetic-effects relationship suggests that when MDMA is administered at a 4h interval there exists a phenomenon of acute tolerance to its effects. PMID:26073279

  5. Interface annealing characterization of Ti/Al/Au ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Han; Yuming, Zhang; Qingwen, Song; Xiaoyan, Tang; Hui, Guo; Yimen, Zhang; Fei, Yang; Yingxi, Niu

    2015-12-01

    Ti/Al/Au ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC in terms of a different annealing time and Ti composition are reported. At 1050 °C, proper increase in annealing time plays a critical role in the Schottky to ohmic contact conversion. With the optimized annealing time, the contact with a high Ti content yields a lower specific contact resistivity (ρc) of 6.4 × 10-5 Ω·cm2 compared with the low-Ti contact. The annealed surface morphology and phase resultants were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. For the better ohmic contact, element distribution and chemical states were qualitatively identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth analysis. In particular, the presence of C and a Si-related phase was discussed and associated with the change in the surface status of the as-grown epilayer of 4H-SiC during annealing. The results reveal that the out-diffused C and Si atoms, with an approximate atomic ratio of 1 : 1 in the contact layer, can combine to form an amorphous Si-C state. The polycrystalline graphite instead of an unreacted C cluster in the whole alloyed structure and an extra nanosize graphite flake on the outermost surface of the annealed contact were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Project supported by the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (No. 625010101), the Specific Project of the Core Devices (No. 2013ZX01001001-004), and the Science Project of State Grid (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004).

  6. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  7. Synthesis and crystal and molecular structure of a tetranuclear cluster based on the rhenium(III)-bisorganohydrazino core: [Re(HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))(NNC(4)H(3)N(2))(OCH(3))(2)](4).

    PubMed

    Femia, Frank J; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Maresca, Kevin P; Babich, John W; Zubieta, Jon

    2000-09-01

    Reaction of NH(4)ReO(4) with excess 2-hydrazinopyrimidine in methanol yields [Re(eta(1)-NNC(4)H(3)N(2)H)(eta(2)-HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))Cl(3)] (1). Attempts to recrystallize 1 by slow diffusion of methanol into DMF after 8 months produced black crystals of [Re(HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))(NNC(4)H(3)N(2))(OCH(3))(2)](4) (2). The structure of 2 consists of isolated tetranuclear clusters, constructed from {Re(eta(2)-HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))(eta(1)-NNC(4)H(3)N(2))(OCH(3))(2)} units linked through the beta-nitrogen of the chelating organodiazene ligand of adjacent units into a box-like aggregate. PMID:20613968

  8. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  9. Solubility and diffusion of chromium in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danno, Katsunori; Saito, Makoto; Seki, Akinori; Sato, Kazuaki; Bessho, Takeshi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-06-01

    The solubility and diffusivity of Cr atoms in 4H-SiC epilayers are investigated. The formation energy of 4H-SiC containing Cr has been calculated by first-principles calculation. Si sites have been found to be more stable than C sites or interstitial sites for Cr atoms owing to the lower formation energy. The solubility estimated from the formation energy coincides with the saturated Cr concentration in SiC crystals grown by solution growth. The diffusivity of implanted Cr atoms (located at interstitial sites) was not affected by the charge states of Cr atoms and/or vacancies such as carbon vacancies and silicon vacancies, implying the interstitial diffusion of Cr atoms.

  10. Donor-acceptor-pair emission in fluorescent 4H-SiC grown by PVT method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xi Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Gao, Pan; Huang, Wei; Yan, Cheng-Feng; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Fluorescent SiC, which contains donor and acceptor impurities with optimum concentrations, can work as a phosphor for visible light emission by donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination. In this work, 3 inch N-B-Al co-doped fluorescent 4H-SiC crystals are prepared by PVT method. The p-type fluorescent 4H-SiC with low aluminum doping concentration can show intensive yellow-green fluorescence at room temperature. N-B DAP peak wavelength shifts from 578nm to 525nm and weak N-Al DAP emission occurred 403/420 nm quenches, when the temperature increases from 4K to 298K. The aluminum doping induces higher defect concentration in the fluorescent crystal and decreases optical transmissivity of the crystal in the visible light range. It triggers more non-radiative recombination and light absorption losses in the crystal.

  11. A novel 4H-SiC MESFET with clival gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hujun; Xing, Ding; Zhang, Hang; Pei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zhelin; Yuan, Yingchun

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) with a clival gate structure (CG-MESFET) is proposed. The drain current (ID) and the breakdown voltage (VB) are simulated and compared to the traditional double-recessed gate 4H-SiC MESFET (DR-MESFET). The results indicate that the drain current (ID) of the CG-MESFET transforms with the change of end point of clival gate (EPCG), and it reaches to a maximum value about 545 mA when EPCG is at 1/2 of whole gate, thus, the drain current (ID) has a much greater increase than that of the DR-MESFET. The CG-MESFET has the advantages of high breakdown voltage (VB) that is increased by 15% and superior DC performances over the DR-MESFET.

  12. Structure determination of an amorphous compound AlB4H11.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xuenian; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wang, Yongli; Zhou, Wei; Knight, Douglas A; Yisgedu, Teshome; Huang, Zhenguo; Lingam, Hima; Billet, Beau; Udovic, Terrence J; Brown, Gilbert M; Shore, Sheldon; Wolverton, Christopher; Zhao, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the amorphous aluminoborane compound AlB4H11 was identified through a collaborative study closely coupling a first-principles density functional based approach with experimental measurements using IR, NMR, and neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS). The AlB4H11 structure was found to contain distinct [BH4] and [B3H7] units without any [AlH4] units. It forms a [B3H7] Al(BH4) polymer chain with the [BH4] units twisted relative to each other perpendicular to the chain direction and bonded to Al, and a chain backbone consists of [B3H7] and Al where the [B3H7] unit exhibits a triangular boron configuration. The computed lowest energy structure shows good agreement with results of IR, NVS and NMR spectra; this agreement demonstrates the extended applicability of the structure prediction approach to the prediction of even amorphous compounds.

  13. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  14. Donor-acceptor-pair emission in fluorescent 4H-SiC grown by PVT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Gao, Pan; Huang, Wei; Yan, Cheng-Feng; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent SiC, which contains donor and acceptor impurities with optimum concentrations, can work as a phosphor for visible light emission by donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination. In this work, 3 inch N-B-Al co-doped fluorescent 4H-SiC crystals are prepared by PVT method. The p-type fluorescent 4H-SiC with low aluminum doping concentration can show intensive yellow-green fluorescence at room temperature. N-B DAP peak wavelength shifts from 578nm to 525nm and weak N-Al DAP emission occurred 403/420 nm quenches, when the temperature increases from 4K to 298K. The aluminum doping induces higher defect concentration in the fluorescent crystal and decreases optical transmissivity of the crystal in the visible light range. It triggers more non-radiative recombination and light absorption losses in the crystal.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in 4H- and 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C. C.; You, A. H.; Wong, E. K.

    2010-07-07

    The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of electron transport properties at high electric field region in 4H- and 6H-SiC are presented. This MC model includes two non-parabolic conduction bands. Based on the material parameters, the electron scattering rates included polar optical phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering are evaluated. The electron drift velocity, energy and free flight time are simulated as a function of applied electric field at an impurity concentration of 1x10{sup 18} cm{sup 3} in room temperature. The simulated drift velocity with electric field dependencies is in a good agreement with experimental results found in literature. The saturation velocities for both polytypes are close, but the scattering rates are much more pronounced for 6H-SiC. Our simulation model clearly shows complete electron transport properties in 4H- and 6H-SiC.

  16. The C4H radical and the diffuse interstellar bands. An ab initio study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbuszewski, Marcin

    1994-01-01

    An ab initio study of the low-lying electronic states of C4H has been presented where the species studied has a chi(2)sigma(+) ground state and two low lying pi states. Based on the vertical and adiabatic excitation energies between those states it is suggested that the 4428 A diffuse interstellar band is not carried by C4H. The application of the particle in a box model shows strong coincidences between the strong DIB's and predicted wavelengths of pi-pi transitions in C(2n)H series. Based on those coincidences, it is suggested the C(2n)H species as good candidates for carriers of diffuse interstellar bands.

  17. Strain energy analysis of screw dislocations in 4H-SiC by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Takahiro; Mizutani, Mitsutoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    We simulated screw dislocations with the Burgers vector parallel to the [0001] direction in 4H-SiC by a classical molecular dynamics method. A stable structure of an extended dislocation generated by the dissociation of a screw dislocation was identified by calculating the strain energy caused by dislocation cores and stacking faults. As a result, we conclude that the most expected structure of the extended dislocation is made of partial dislocations with the Burgers vector b = 1/2c + 1/2c (c is equal to the thickness of one period in the c-axis direction of 4H-SiC) and the stacking fault that is parallel to the a-plane, and that the distance between the dislocation cores is less than about 44 Å.

  18. Free carrier absorption and lifetime mapping in 4H SiC epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Galeckas, A.; Grivickas, V.; Linnros, J.; Bleichner, H.

    1997-04-01

    Results of carrier lifetime studies in low-doped epitaxial 4H SiC layers are reported. The free carrier absorption (FCA) technique was applied to extract carrier lifetime parameters and their spatial distribution in a wide photoexcitation range. The FCA magnitude is shown to scale linearly with the photoinjected carrier concentration, while the absorption cross section increases according to a {lambda}{sup 4.4} law for near infrared wavelengths. High spatial resolution carrier lifetime mapping of large 4H SiC areas revealed features related to structural imperfections of epilayers. Finally, a density dependent fast lifetime component was observed at high injection levels and attributed to band-to-band Auger recombination. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Detection of minority carrier traps in p-type 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Alfieri, G.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-03-03

    Contrarily to the case of n-type 4H-SiC, very little is known about the presence of minority carrier traps in p-type epilayers. In this study, we performed the electrical characterization of as-grown, electron irradiated, and thermally oxidized p-type 4H-SiC, by using minority carrier transient spectroscopy. Four minority carrier traps are reported in 1.6–2.3 eV energy range above the valence band edge (E{sub V}). Particular emphasis is given to the mid-gap minority carrier trap (EH{sub 6∕7}) and to its correlation to an energetically close mid-gap majority carrier trap (HK4)

  20. Fabrication and characteristics of a 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengping, Chen; Yuming, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Yimen, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Xin, Guo

    2011-06-01

    4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with four kinds of design have been fabricated and characterized using two different processes in which one is fabricated by making the P-type ohmic contact of the anode independently, and the other is processed by depositing a Schottky metal multi-layer on the whole anode. The reverse performances are compared to find the influences of these factors. The results show that JBS diodes with field guard rings have a lower reverse current density and a higher breakdown voltage, and with independent P-type ohmic contact manufacturing, the reverse performance of 4H-SiC JBS diodes can be improved effectively. Furthermore, the P-type ohmic contact is studied in this work.

  1. Hall scattering factors in p-type 4H-SiC with various doping concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Satoshi; Okuda, Takafumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The Hall scattering factor (γH) in p-type 4H-SiC with various aluminum doping concentrations of 5.8 × 1014-7.1 × 1018 cm-3 was investigated from 300 to 900 K. γH was determined by comparing the Hall coefficient with the theoretical carrier concentration derived from acceptor and donor concentrations obtained from secondary ion mass spectrometry and capacitance-voltage measurements. γH decreased with increasing temperature or doping concentration; γH = 1-0.4 for the doping concentration of 5.8 × 1014 cm-3 and γH = 0.5-0.2 for the doping concentration of 7.1 × 1018 cm-3. The dependence might be caused by the anisotropic and nonparabolic valence band structure of 4H-SiC.

  2. Crystal structure induced residue formation on 4H-SiC by reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-hong; Sun, Yu-jun; Zhao, Gao-jie; Liao, Li-ming; Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhi-zhan

    2016-06-01

    The (000 1 ¯) C face of 4H-SiC wafer was etched by reactive ion etching in SF6/O2 plasma. The effect of etching parameters, such as work pressure, SF6:O2 ratio and etching time, on the residue formation were systematically investigated. The residue morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The residues have spike shape and their facets are defined as { 1 1 ¯ 0 2 ¯ } crystal planes. They are formed at beginning of the etching and no new spikes are generated as prolonging etching time. Both work pressure and SF6:O2 ratio play significant role in the spike formation. The residues can be eliminated completely by increasing the SF6:O2 ratio and work pressure. On the basis of experimental results and of 4H-SiC crystal structure, the spike formation model is proposed.

  3. Nitrogen passivation of deposited oxides on n 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, G. Y.; Williams, J. R.; Isaacs-Smith, T.; Ren, F.; McDonald, K.; Feldman, L. C.

    2002-11-01

    Results for measurements of interface state density and breakdown field strength are reported for deposited oxides on n 4H-SiC following passivation with nitric oxide. Low-temperature oxides deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and high-temperature oxides deposited at 950 °C were investigated. Nitrogen passivation of deposited oxides on n 4H-SiC is found to produce interface state densities of 1-2×1012cm-2 eV-1 at Ec-E=0.1 eV, regardless of variations in oxide deposition procedures that affect the residual interfacial carbon concentration. Breakdown field strengths were higher for passivated high-temperature oxides compared to passivated low-temperature oxides at room temperature and 290 °C. We suggest that additional oxide growth during the NO passivation is the reason for the observed interface state densities.

  4. A 4H Silicon Carbide Gate Buffer for Integrated Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, N; Frank, S; Britton, C; Marlino, L; Ryu, SH; Grider, D; Mantooth, A; Francis, M; Lamichhane, R; Mudholkar, M; Shepherd, P; Glover, M; Valle-Mayorga, J; McNutt, T; Barkley, A; Whitaker, B; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Lostetter, A

    2014-02-01

    A gate buffer fabricated in a 2-mu m 4H silicon carbide (SiC) process is presented. The circuit is composed of an input buffer stage with a push-pull output stage, and is fabricated using enhancement mode N-channel FETs in a process optimized for SiC power switching devices. Simulation and measurement results of the fabricated gate buffer are presented and compared for operation at various voltage supply levels, with a capacitive load of 2 nF. Details of the design including layout specifics, simulation results, and directions for future improvement of this buffer are presented. In addition, plans for its incorporation into an isolated high-side/low-side gate-driver architecture, fully integrated with power switching devices in a SiC process, are briefly discussed. This letter represents the first reported MOSFET-based gate buffer fabricated in 4H SiC.

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones via sequential squaramide and silver catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Uğur; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Deckers, Kristina; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-28

    An enantioselective one-pot Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction between 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones and alkyne-tethered nitroalkenes catalyzed by a cinchona-derived squaramide and a silver(I) salt has been developed. The sequential protocol provides a direct access to 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones in moderate to very good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities at a very low catalyst loading (0.5 mol%) of the squaramide. PMID:26660230

  6. Electric-field dependence of electron drift velocity in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. A.; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Room temperature isothermal forward current-voltage characteristics of mesa-epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes were measured at high electric fields (beyond 105 V/cm) in the 34-μm thick n-base doped at 1 × 1015 cm-3. The effect of diode self-heating on current was minimized when using single 4-ns pulses. The analytical formula was derived for the dependence of electron drift velocity on electric field along c-axis.

  7. Defect formation in 4H-SiC single crystal grown on the prismatic seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeev, A. Yu; Lebedev, A. O.; Tairov, Yu M.

    2014-12-01

    The defect structure of 4H silicon carbide single crystals grown by PVT method on three prismatic seeds (10-10), (11-20) and (8.3.-11.0) is considered. The only defects existing in the grown ingots are stacking faults and basal plane dislocations. The type of stacking fault is studied. The dependence of stacking fault morphology on the seed orientation is analyzed.

  8. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M; Tsuchida, H; Chen, Y; Dudley, M

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  9. Polarographic study of cadmium 5-hydroxy 2-(hydroxymethyl) 4H-pyran-4-one complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Ray F.; Daniels, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    A polarographic study was performed on the products formed in the interaction of cadmium (II) with a 5-hydroxy 2-(hydroxymethyl) 4H-Pyran-4-one, using varying conditions of pH, supporting electrolytes, and concentrations. Measurements using the differential pulse method show that cadmium (II) exhibits a molar combining ratio of complexing agents to cation ranging from 1 to 1 to 3 to 1 depending on the pH and the supporting electrolyte employed.

  10. Resistance of 4H-SiC Schottky barriers at high forward-current densities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Samsonova, T. P.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Serebrennikova, O. Yu.; Kon’kov, O. I.; Potapov, A. S.

    2015-07-15

    The resistance of Schottky barriers based on 4H-SiC is experimentally determined at high forward-current densities. The measured resistance is found to be significantly higher than the resistance predicted by classical mechanisms of electron transport in Schottky contacts. An assumption concerning the crucial contribution of the tunnel-transparent intermediate oxide layer between the metal and semiconductor to the barrier resistance is proposed and partially justified.

  11. Bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)disulfane

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongsheng; Xu, Yaping; Li, Xinfa; Ying, Shaoming; Chen, Wentong

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C4H4N6S2, was synthesized by the reaction of 3-mercapto-1H-1,2,4-triazole with sodium hydrox­ide in ethanol. The mol­ecule possesses a crystallographically imposed twofold axis. Inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains along the c axis. PMID:21200812

  12. Theoretical microwave spectral constants for C3H/+/ and C4H/+/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S.; Green, S.

    1980-01-01

    A number of linear conjugated carbon chain molecules have been observed in the interstellar gas. It has been suggested that ion molecule chemistry schemes may explain the formation of these compounds. In the present paper, theoretical bond lengths and rotation constants are obtained for C3H(+) and C4H(+). Calculations for C3 are used to assess the accuracy of the former. Recent results for C2H(+) are examined.

  13. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  14. Extended charge accumulation in ruthenium-4H-imidazole-based black absorbers: a theoretical design concept.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Stephan

    2016-05-11

    A theoretical-guided design concept aiming to achieve highly efficient unidirectional charge transfer and multi-charge separation upon successive photoexcitation for light-harvesting dyes in the scope of supramolecular photocatalysts is presented. Four 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) complexes incorporating a biimidazole-based electron-donating ligand sphere have been designed based on the well-known 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl dyes. The quantum chemical evaluation, performed at the density functional and time-dependent density functional level of theory, revealed extraordinary unidirectional charge transfer bands from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet region of the absorption spectrum upon multi-photoexcitation. Spectro-electrochemical simulations modeling photoexcited intermediates determined the outstanding multi-electron storage capacity for this novel class of black dyes. These remarkable photochemical and photophysical properties are found to be preserved upon site-specific protonation rendering 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) biimidazole dyes ideal for light-harvesting applications in the field of solar energy conversion. PMID:27121270

  15. Identification of the Amorphous AlB4H11 Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Zhang, Yongsheng; Chen, Xuenian; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, Wei; Udovic, Terrence; Wolverton, C.

    2012-02-01

    In recent experimental work, AlB4H11 has been identified as a potential hydrogen storage material with a good desorption temperature and partial reversibility. It is an amorphous, white solid at room temperature and its molecular structure is presently unknown. We combine experimental measurements (NMR, neutron vibrational spectra and IR) and a theoretical structure prediction method to identify the (local) structure of the amorphous AlB4H11 phase. The theoretical structure prediction method is a combination of the Monte-Carlo based prototype electrostatic ground state search (PEGS) method and first-principles calculation (DFT). The PEGS+DFT method has successfully predicted many crystalline solid structures, but has never been applied to the prediction of amorphous solid structures. The PEGS predictions of the AlB4H11 structure are quite successful: we find the calculated phonon density of states (pDOS) of our PEGS+DFT predicted structures is in close agreement with the experimental vibrational measurements. More broadly, our findings indicate that first-principles theoretical design of new amorphous materials for energy storage is now possible, paving a promising way for similar studies in the future.

  16. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H. PMID:24573245

  17. Ab initio study of the O4H(+) novel species: spectroscopic fingerprints to aid its observation.

    PubMed

    Xavier, F George D; Hernández-Lamoneda, Rámon

    2015-06-28

    A detailed ab initio characterization of the structural, energetic and spectroscopic properties of the novel O4H(+) species is presented. The equilibrium structures and relative energies of all multiplet states have been determined systematically by analyzing static and dynamical correlation effects. The two and three body dissociation processes have been studied and indicate the presence of conical intersections in various states including the ground state. Comparison with available thermochemical data is very good, supporting the applied methodology. The reaction, H3(+) + O4→ O4H(+) + H2, was found to be exothermic ΔH = -19.4 kcal mol(-1) and therefore, it is proposed that the product in the singlet state could be formed in the interstellar medium (ISM) via collision processes. To aid in its laboratory or radioastronomy detection in the interstellar medium we determined spectroscopic fingerprints. It is estimated for the most stable geometry of O4H(+) dipole allowed electronic transitions in the visible region at 429 nm and 666 nm, an intense band at 1745 cm(-1) in the infrared and signals at 40.6, 81.2 and 139.2 GHz in the microwave region at 10, 50 and 150 K respectively, relevant for detection in the ISM. PMID:26028209

  18. Characterization of a n+3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, R. A.; Mihaila, A.; Farkas, I.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Hsu, C.-W.; Janzén, E.; Rahimo, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the fabrication of n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes (HJDs) potentially promising the ultimate thermal stability of the junction. The diodes were systematically analyzed by TEM, X-ray diffraction, AFM, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicating the formation of epitaxial 3C-SiC crystal on top of 4H-SiC substrate with continuous interface, low surface roughness, and up to ˜7 × 1017 cm-3 dopant impurity concentration. The conduction band off-set is about 1 V as extracted from CV measurements, while the valence bands of both SiC polytypes are aligned. The HJDs feature opening voltage of 1.65 V, consistent with the barrier height of about 1.5 eV extracted from CV measurement. We finally compare the electrical results of the n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes with those featuring Si and Ge doped anodes in order to evaluate current challenges involved in the fabrication of such devices.

  19. Demonstration of the First 4H-SiC EUV Detector with Large Detection Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Xiaobin; Yan, Feng; Koeth, Timothy W.; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Jian H.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) detectors are very attractive in astronomy, photolithography and biochemical applications. For EUV applications, most of the semiconductor detectors based on PN or PIN structures suffer from the very short penetration depth. Most of the carries are absorbed at the surface and recombined there due to the high surface recombination before reach the depletion region, resulting very low quantum efficiency. On the other hand, for Schottky structures, the active region starts from the surface and carriers generated from the surface can be efficiently collected. 4H-Sic has a bandgap of 3.26eV and is immune to visible light background noise. Also, 4H-Sic detectors usually have very good radiation hardness and very low noise, which is very important for space applications where the signal is very weak. The E W photodiodes presented in this paper are based on Schottky structures. Platinum (Pt) and Nickel (Ni) are selected as the Schottky contact metals, which have the highest electron work functions (5.65eV and 5.15eV, respectively) among all the known metals on 4H-Sic.

  20. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  1. Zoobiquity: What Animals Can Teach Us About Health and the Science of Healing. By Barbara Natterson-Horowitz and Kathryn Bowers. Knopf Doubleday Publishing: New York, NY, USA, 2012; Hardback, 320 pp;16.23; ISBN-10: 0307593487.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Zoobiquity: What Animals Can Teach Us About Health and the Science of Healing (Knopf 2012) is an easy to read and entertaining book co-written by Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, MD and Kathryn Bowers. Natterson-Horowitz is a practicing cardiologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) David Geffen School of Medicine, who also has training in psychiatry. Kathryn Bowers is a professional writer who teaches writing at UCLA. The book addresses traits shared by nonhuman animals (hereafter referred to simply as animals) and humans that have medical relevance. The authors are to be commended for discussing matters that should be obvious in the 21st century, but sadly still are not universally accepted. Humans share our lineage with animals and this has implications for the origin of traits. Clearly, animals have emotions, preferences, and suffer from diseases that are similar on some levels to the ones humans suffer from. The Cartesian view of animals has been debunked and the authors give many examples supporting a more scientifically advanced view of animals. PMID:26791670

  2. Interfacial atomic site characterization by photoelectron diffraction for 4H-AlN/4H-SiC(11\\bar{2}0) heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, Naoyuki; Horita, Masahiro; Matsui, Hirosuke; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsui, Fumihiko

    2016-08-01

    The interfacial atomic structure of an AlN thin film on a nonpolar 4H-SiC(11\\bar{2}0) substrate grown by atomic Al and N plasma deposition was studied by photoelectron diffraction and spectroscopy. The epitaxial growth of the thin film was confirmed by the comparison of element-specific photoelectron intensity angular distributions (PIADs). Depth profiles were analyzed by angle-resolved constant-final-state-mode X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). No polar angular dependence was observed in Al 2p spectra, while an additional intermixing component was found in interface-sensitive N 1s spectra. The site-specific N 1s PIADs for the AlN film and an intermixing component were derived from two N 1s PIADs with different binding energies. We attributed the intermixing component to SiN interfacial layer sites. In order to prevent SiN growth at the interface, we deposited Al on the SiC(11\\bar{2}0) substrate prior to the AlN growth. A significant reduction in the amount of intermixing components at the AlN/SiC interface was confirmed by AR-XPS.

  3. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Wen, Song; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yan-Jing, He; Guan-Nan, Tang; Yue-Hu, Wang; Yi-Meng, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Ren-Xu, Jia; Hong-Liang, Lv; Yi-Men, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFFETs) have been fabricated and characterized. A sandwich- (nitridation-oxidation-nitridation) type process was used to grow the gate dielectric film to obtain high channel mobility. The interface properties of 4H-SiC/SiO2 were examined by the measurement of HF I-V, G-V, and C-V over a range of frequencies. The ideal C-V curve with little hysteresis and the frequency dispersion were observed. As a result, the interface state density near the conduction band edge of 4H-SiC was reduced to 2 × 1011 eV-1·cm-2, the breakdown field of the grown oxides was about 9.8 MV/cm, the median peak field-effect mobility is about 32.5 cm2·V-1·s-1, and the maximum peak field-effect mobility of 38 cm2·V-1·s-1 was achieved in fabricated lateral 4H-SiC MOSFFETs. Projcet supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098, 61176070, and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110203110010 and 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), and the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101).

  5. Characteristics and analysis of 4H-SiC PiN diodes with a carbon-implanted drift layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangmei, Feng; Huajun, Shen; Xiaohua, Ma; Yun, Bai; Jia, Wu; Chengzhan, Li; Kean, Liu; Xinyu, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The characteristics of 4H-SiC PiN diodes with a carbon-implanted drift layer was investigated and the reason of characteristics improvement was analyzed. The forward voltage drops of the diodes with carbon-implanted drift layer were around 3.3 V, which is lower than that of devices without carbon implantation, the specific-on resistance was decreased from 9.35 to 4.38 mΩ·cm2 at 100 A/cm2, and the reverse leakage current was also decreased. The influence of carbon incorporation in the SiC crystalline grids was studied by using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS spectra revealed that the Z 1/2 traps, which were regarded as the main lifetime limiting defects, were dramatically reduced. It is proposed that the reduction of Z 1/2 traps can achieve longer carrier lifetime in the drift layer, which is beneficial to the performance of bipolar devices. Project supported by the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Ultra-High Voltage 4H-SiC Bi-Directional Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sauvik

    4H- Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) is an attractive material for power semiconductor devices due to its large bandgap, high critical electric field and high thermal conductivity compared to Silicon (Si). For ultra-high voltage applications (BV > 10 kV), 4H-SiC Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are favored over unipolar transistors due to lower conduction losses. With improvements in SiC materials and processing technology, promising results have been demonstrated in the area of conventional unidirectional 4H-SiC IGBTs, with breakdown voltage ratings up to 27 kV. This research presents the experimental demonstration of the world's first high voltage bi-directional power transistors in 4H-SiC. Traditionally, four (two IGBTs and two diodes) or two (two reverse blocking IGBTs) semiconductor devices are necessary to yield a bidirectional switch. With a monolithically integrated bidirectional switch as presented here, the number of semiconductor devices is reduced to only one, which results in increased reliability and reduced cost of the overall system. Additionally, by using the unique dual gate operation of BD-IGBTs, switching losses can be reduced to a small fraction of that in conventional IGBTs, resulting in increased efficiency. First, the performance limits of SiC IGBTs are calculated by using analytical methods. The performance benefits of SiC IGBTs over SiC unipolar devices and Si IGBTs are quantified. Numerical simulations are used to optimize the unit cell and edge termination structures for a 15 kV SiC BD-IGBT. The effect of different device parameters on BD-IGBT static and switching performance are quantified. Second, the process technology necessary for the fabrication of high voltage SiC BD-IGBTs is optimized. The effect of different process steps on parameters such as breakdown voltage, carrier lifetime, gate oxide reliability, SiO2-SiC interface charge density is quantified. A carrier lifetime enhancement process has been optimized for lightly doped

  7. Low specific contact resistance on epitaxial p-type 4H-SiC with a step-bunching surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Song, Qing-Wen; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Men; Guo, Hui; Wang, Yue-Hu

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports the performances of Ti/Al based ohmic contacts fabricated on highly doped p-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layer which has a severe step-bunching surface. Different contact schemes are investigated based on the Al:Ti composition with no more than 50 at.% Al. The specific contact resistance (SCR) is obtained to be as low as 2.6 × 10-6 Ω·cm2 for the bilayered Ti(100 nm)/Al(100 nm) contact treated with 3 min rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C. The microstructure analyses examined by physical and chemical characterization techniques reveal an alloy-assisted ohmic contact formation mechanism, i.e., a high degree of alloying plays a decisive role in forming the interfacial ternary Ti3SiC2 dominating the ohmic behavior of the Ti/Al based contact. Furthermore, a globally covered Ti3SiC2 layer with (0001)-oriented texture can be formed, regardless of the surface step bunching as well as its structural evolution during the metallization annealing. Project supported by the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61234006), the Natural Science Foundation of ShaanXi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8012), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120017), and the Specific Project of the Core Devices, China (Grant No. 2013ZX0100100-004).

  8. Anharmonic vibrations of the dicarbon antisite defect in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, F.; Devaty, R. P.; Choyke, W. J.; Gali, A.; Kimoto, T.; Ohshima, T.; Pensl, G.

    2012-03-26

    Dicarbon antisite defects were created by either electron irradiation or ion implantation into 4H-SiC. The no-phonon lines from the dicarbon antisite defect center were observed with their phonon replicas. The stretch frequencies of the defect were observed up to the fifth harmonic. The Morse potential model accounts for the anharmonicity quite well and gives a very good prediction of the vibration energies up to the fifth harmonic with an error of less than 1%. First principles calculations show that the model of a dicarbon antisite defect along with its four nearest neighboring carbon atoms can explain the observed anharmonicity.

  9. Light triggered 4H-SiC thyristors with an etched guard ring assisted JTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheilly, Nicolas; Planson, Dominique; Pâques, Gontran; Scharnholz, Sigo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an original termination, the etched guard ring assisted junction termination extension (JTE), is demonstrated on 4H-SiC light triggered thyristors. The termination structure, designed with finite element simulations, is detailed and particular attention is paid to the sensitivity to etching depth uncertainties. The fabrication processes and the electrical characterization of the devices are described. A blocking voltage of 6.3 kV is attained, validating the principle of the termination. Switching and quasi static on-state measurements are also performed to investigate the functionality of the thyristors.

  10. Atomic oxidation of large area epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Velez-Fort, E.; Ouerghi, A.; Silly, M. G.; Sirtti, F.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Shukla, A.

    2014-03-03

    Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC were studied before and after an atomic oxidation process. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicates that oxygen penetrates into the substrate and decouples a part of the interface layer. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the increase of defects due to the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, we observed on the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra a splitting of the π* peak into two distinct resonances centered at 284.7 and 285.2 eV. This double structure smears out after the oxidation process and permits to probe the interface architecture between graphene and the substrate.

  11. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Fabricated on Atomically Flat 4H-SiC Webbed Cantilevers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Evans, Laura J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Androjna, Drago

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on initial results from the first device tested of a "second generation" Pt-SiC Schottky diode hydrogen gas sensor that: 1) resides on the top of atomically flat 4H-SiC webbed cantilevers, 2) has integrated heater resistor, and 3) is bonded and packaged. With proper selection of heater resistor and sensor diode biases, rapid detection of H2 down to concentrations of 20 ppm was achieved. A stable sensor current gain of 125 +/- 11 standard deviation was demonstrated during 250 hours of cyclic test exposures to 0.5% H2 and N2/air.

  12. Structural defects in electrically degraded 4H-SiC p+/n-/n+ diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P. O. A.; Hultman, L.; Jacobson, H.; Bergman, J. P.; Janzen, E.; Molina-Aldareguia, J. M.; Clegg, W. J.; Tuomi, T.

    2002-06-01

    Triangular structural defects are occasionally generated during the long-term operation of 4H-SiC pin diodes and degrade the forward characteristics of the diode. We have used synchrotron white beam x-ray topography, scanning electron microscopy, in situ cathodo luminescence, and transmission electron microscopy to characterize the structure and formation of these defects. It is shown that the defects are stacking faults on the (0001) basal planes, bound by partial dislocations with Burgers vectors 1/3<1010> and 1/3<0110>. These partials are suggested to form by the dissociation of existing dislocations.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of 4H-SiC drift step recovery diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Kon’kov, O. I.; Samsonova, T. P.; Potapov, A. S.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2015-11-15

    The dynamic characteristics of 4H-SiC p{sup +}–p–n{sub 0}–n{sup +} diodes are experimentally studied in the pulsed modes characteristic of the operation of drift step recovery diodes (DSRD-mode). The effect of the subnanosecond termination of the reverse current maintained by electron-hole plasma preliminarily pumped by a forward current pulse is analyzed in detail. The influence exerted on the DSRD effect by the amplitude of reverse-voltage pulses, the amplitude and duration of forward-current pulses, and the time delay between the forward and reverse pulses is demonstrated and accounted for.

  14. 4H SiC BJTs with current gain of 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingchun (Jon); Agarwal, Anant; Burk, Al; Geil, Bruce; Scozzie, Charles

    2008-07-01

    4H-SiC BJTs with a common emitter current gain of 110 have been demonstrated. The high current gain was attributed to a thin base of 0.25 μm which reduces the carrier recombination in the base region. The device open base breakdown voltage (BVCEO) of 270 V was much less than the open emitter breakdown voltage (BVCBO) of 1560 V due to the emitter leakage current multiplication from the high current gain by "transistor action" of BJTs. The device has shown minimal gain degradation after electrical stress at high current density of >200 A/cm2up to 25 h.

  15. High quality interlayer dielectric for 4H SiC DMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayama, T.; Arthur, S. D.; Waldrab, P.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2007-11-01

    In this work useful weight percentages of boron and phosphorus in boro-phospho-silicate-glass (BPSG) interlayer dielectric (ILD) films to getter mobile ions effectively in 4H-SiC DMOSFET structures are developed, considering the limitations, such as the required low glass flow temperature, and the possible hygroscopic nature of the films and formation of crystalline BPO4 particles, which may occur for high B and P weight percentages. The B and P weight percentage viscous flow temperature contours and empirical inequalities representing the above-mentioned limitations are developed and discussed. Results of this work are useful for both silicon and compound semiconductor device technologies.

  16. Development of 10 kV 4H-SiC JBS diode with FGR termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runhua, Huang; Yonghong, Tao; Pengfei, Cao; Ling, Wang; Gang, Chen; Song, Bai; Rui, Li; Yun, Li; Zhifei, Zhao

    2014-07-01

    The design, fabrication, and electrical characteristics of the 4H-SiC JBS diode with a breakdown voltage higher than 10 kV are presented. 60 floating guard rings have been used in the fabrication. Numerical simulations have been performed to select the doping level and thickness of the drift layer and the effectiveness of the edge termination technique. The n-type epilayer is 100 μm in thickness with a doping of 6 × 1014 cm-3. The on-state voltage was 2.7 V at JF = 13 A/cm2.

  17. 4H-SiC junction-barrier Schottky diodes with high forward current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Zhao, Jian H.; Weiner, Maurice; Pan, Menghan

    2001-07-01

    4H-SiC junction-barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes blocking 1000 V have been fabricated. I-V characteristics have been evaluated at room temperature and 255 °C in comparison with the Schottky barrier (SB) and pin diodes fabricated on the same wafer. While the low reverse leakage confirms the functioning of JBS, the high forward current densities of 630 and 210 A cm-2 at 4.0 V at room temperature and 255 °C, respectively, with only ~20% reduction from those of the SB diodes, clearly demonstrate that the SiC JBS diodes can be fabricated with acceptable sacrifice in the forward current capacities.

  18. 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet flame detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as an appropriate material for the detection of very low ultraviolet photon fluxes even at elevated temperatures. In this paper we report on the electro-optical characteristics of large area interdigit Ni2Si/4H-SiC photodiodes in TO metal can package with a suitable molded cap quartz window with high transmission in the ultraviolet wavelength range. The detectors have been tested for the detection of the ultraviolet component of the yellow flame emitted by a small candle, showing good sensitivity for very weak photon fluxes notwithstanding the linear operation condition of the photodiodes.

  19. Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, F.; Vervisch, V.; Ottaviani, L.; Szalkai, D.; Vermeeren, L.; Lyoussi, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Lazar, M.; Klix, A.; Palais, O.; Hallén, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of 10B inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted 10B thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  20. Transient collector modulation of 4H-SiC BJTs during switch-on process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuferev, Valentin S.; Levinshtein, Michael E.; Ivanov, Pavel A.; Zhang, Jon Q.; Palmour, John W.

    2016-09-01

    Main physical features of the collector resistance modulation processes have been studied via a one-dimensional simulation for n+-p-n0-n+ 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor. The motion dynamics of minority carriers (holes) across the n0 collector layer during the switch-on process is traced. It is demonstrated that the effective modulation of the collector resistance is only possible in the case of a rather fast transistor switch-on. A necessary condition for the fast switch-on is the large amplitude and short leading edge of the base current pulse.

  1. 4H-SiC JFET Multilayer Integrated Circuit Technologies Tested Up to 1000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, D. J.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.; Chang, C. W.; Lukco, D.; Beheim, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of semiconductor electronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is recognized as vital to qualification and lifetime prediction of circuits. This work describes the high temperature electrical testing of prototype 4H silicon carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistor (JFET) integrated circuits (ICs) technology implemented with multilayer interconnects; these ICs are intended for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 773K (500 C). A 50 mm diameter sapphire wafer was used in place of the standard NASA packaging for this experiment. Testing was carried out between 300K (27 C) and 1150K (877 C) with successful electrical operation of all devices observed up to 1000K (727 C).

  2. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  3. A Mixed Method Study of Positional Leadership of North Dakota 4-H Ambassador and State FFA Officer Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nels Milan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine the positional leadership of North Dakota 4-H and FFA leadership alumni. This study determined the influence of youth development programs on statewide leadership alumni (those who served from 1970 to 2000) and community leadership roles as adults. Former North Dakota 4-H Ambassador Alumni…

  4. Complete genome sequence of the marine, cellulose and xylan degrading bacterium Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5

    SciTech Connect

    Klippel, Dr Barbara; Bruce, David; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Land, Miriam L; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nolan, Matt; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Wiebusch, Sigrid; Basner, Alexander; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Horikoshi, Koki; Antranikian, Garabed

    2011-01-01

    Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 was isolated from deep sea sediments at Suruga Bay in Japan and is capable of efficiently hydrolyzing cellulose and xylan. The complete genome sequence of Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 revealed several genes encoding putatively novel glycoside hydrolases associated with plant biomass degradation.

  5. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  6. Characterization of the Minimum Energy Paths for the Ring Closure Reactions of C4H3 with Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1995-01-01

    The ring closure reaction of C4H3 with acetylene to give phenyl radical is one proposed mechanism for the formation of the first aromatic ring in hydrocarbon combustion. There are two low-lying isomers of C4H3; 1-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (n-C4H3) and 2-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (iso-C4H3). It has been proposed that only n-C4H3 reacts with acetylene to give phenyl radical, and since iso-C4H3 is more stable than n-C4H3, formation of phenyl radical by this mechanism is unlikely. We report restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) plus singles and doubles configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson's correction (RHF+1+2+Q) using the Dunning correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ) for stationary point structures along the reaction pathway for the reactions of n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 with acetylene. n-C4H3 plus acetylene (9.4) has a small entrance channel barrier (17.7) (all energetics in parentheses are in kcal/mol with respect to iso-C4H3 plus acetylene) and the subsequent closure steps leading to phenyl radical (-91.9) are downhill with respect to the entrance channel barrier. Iso-C4H3 Plus acetylene also has an entrance channel barrier (14.9) and there is a downhill pathway to 1-dehydro-fulvene (-55.0). 1-dehydro-fulvene can rearrange to 6-dehydro-fulvene (-60.3) by a 1,3-hydrogen shift over a barrier (4.0), which is still below the entrance channel barrier, from which rearrangement to phenyl radical can occur by a downhill pathway. Thus, both n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 can react with acetylene to give phenyl radical with small barriers.

  7. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  8. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  9. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  10. Theoretical study of radiative electron attachment to CN, C2H, and C4H radicals.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Nicolas; Fonseca dos Santos, S; Raoult, Maurice; Dulieu, Olivier; Orel, Ann E; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

    2015-06-21

    A first-principle theoretical approach to study the process of radiative electron attachment is developed and applied to the negative molecular ions CN(-), C4H(-), and C2H(-). Among these anions, the first two have already been observed in the interstellar space. Cross sections and rate coefficients for formation of these ions by direct radiative electron attachment to the corresponding neutral radicals are calculated. For the CN molecule, we also considered the indirect pathway, in which the electron is initially captured through non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling into a vibrationally resonant excited state of the anion, which then stabilizes by radiative decay. We have shown that the contribution of the indirect pathway to the formation of CN(-) is negligible in comparison to the direct mechanism. The obtained rate coefficients for the direct mechanism at 30 K are 7 × 10(-16) cm(3)/s for CN(-), 7 × 10(-17) cm(3)/s for C2H(-), and 2 × 10(-16) cm(3)/s for C4H(-). These rates weakly depend on temperature between 10 K and 100 K. The validity of our calculations is verified by comparing the present theoretical results with data from recent photodetachment experiments. PMID:26093561

  11. Effect of Doping Concentration Variations in PVT-Grown 4H-SiC Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Guo, Jianqiu; Goue, Ouloide; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeff; Manning, Ian; Hansen, Darren

    2016-04-01

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography studies carried out on 4H-SiC wafers characterized by locally varying doping concentrations reveals the presence of overlapping Shockley stacking faults generated from residual surface scratches in regions of higher doping concentrations after the wafers have been subjected to heat treatment. The stacking faults are rhombus-shaped and bound by Shockley partial dislocations. The fault generation process is driven by the fact that in regions of higher doping concentrations, a faulted crystal containing double Shockley faults is more stable than a perfect 4H-SiC crystal at the high temperatures (>1000°C) that the wafers are subject to during heat treatment. We have developed a model for the formation mechanism of the rhombus-shaped stacking faults. Our studies show that during heat treatment of the wafer, such double Shockley faults can be generated in regions where dislocation sources are presents (e.g. scratches or low-angle boundaries) and when the nitrogen doping concentration exceeds a certain level.

  12. Characterization of V-shaped defects in 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric; Chung, Gil; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Bernd; Sanchez, Edward K; Mueller, Stephan G.; Hansen, Darren; et al

    2014-12-04

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography images show that faint needle-like surface morphological features observed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers using Nomarski optical microscopy are associated with V shaped stacking faults in the epilayer. KOH etching of the V shaped defect reveals small oval pits connected by a shallow line which corresponding to the surface intersections of two partial dislocations and the stacking fault connecting them. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from regions containing the V shaped defects were prepared using focused ion beam milling, and stacking sequences of (85), (50) and (63) are observed at the faulted regionmore » with high resolution TEM. In order to study the formation mechanism of V shaped defect, low dislocation density 4H-SiC substrates were chosen for epitaxial growth, and the corresponding regions before and after epitaxy growth are compared in SWBXT images. It is found that no defects in the substrate are directly associated with the formation of the V shaped defect. Simulation results of the contrast from the two partial dislocations associated with V shaped defect in synchrotron monochromatic beam x-ray topography reveals the opposite sign nature of their Burgers vectors. Therefore, a mechanism of 2D nucleation during epitaxy growth is postulated for the formation of the V shaped defect, which requires elimination of non-sequential 1/4[0001] bilayers from the original structure to create the observed faulted stacking sequence.« less

  13. Characterization of V-shaped defects in 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric; Chung, Gil; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Bernd; Sanchez, Edward K; Mueller, Stephan G.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2014-12-04

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography images show that faint needle-like surface morphological features observed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers using Nomarski optical microscopy are associated with V shaped stacking faults in the epilayer. KOH etching of the V shaped defect reveals small oval pits connected by a shallow line which corresponding to the surface intersections of two partial dislocations and the stacking fault connecting them. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from regions containing the V shaped defects were prepared using focused ion beam milling, and stacking sequences of (85), (50) and (63) are observed at the faulted region with high resolution TEM. In order to study the formation mechanism of V shaped defect, low dislocation density 4H-SiC substrates were chosen for epitaxial growth, and the corresponding regions before and after epitaxy growth are compared in SWBXT images. It is found that no defects in the substrate are directly associated with the formation of the V shaped defect. Simulation results of the contrast from the two partial dislocations associated with V shaped defect in synchrotron monochromatic beam x-ray topography reveals the opposite sign nature of their Burgers vectors. Therefore, a mechanism of 2D nucleation during epitaxy growth is postulated for the formation of the V shaped defect, which requires elimination of non-sequential 1/4[0001] bilayers from the original structure to create the observed faulted stacking sequence.

  14. Point defects in 4H-SiC epilayers introduced by neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazdra, Pavel; Záhlava, Vít; Vobecký, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Electronic properties of radiation damage produced in 4H-SiC by neutron irradiation and its effect on electrical parameters of Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes were investigated. 4H-SiC N-epilayers, which formed the low-doped N-base of JBS power diodes, were irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons with fluences ranging from 1.3 × 1013 to 4.0 × 1014 cm-2. Radiation defects were then characterized by capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy, I-V and C-V measurement. Results show that neutron irradiation introduces different point defects giving rise to acceptor levels lying 0.61/0.69, 0.88, 1.03, 1.08 and 1.55 eV below the SiC conduction band edge. Introduction rates of these centers are ranging from 0.64 to 4.0 cm-1. These defects have a negligible effect on blocking and dynamic characteristics of irradiated diodes. However, the acceptor character of introduced deep levels and their fast introduction deteriorate diode's ON-state resistance already at fluences exceeding 1 × 1014 cm-2.

  15. n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC diode: Structural, electrical, and photoresponse characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziewicz, M. Jung, W.

    2015-09-07

    Epitaxial n-type ZnO film has been grown, on a commercial 5 μm thick p-type 4H-SiC(00.1) Al doped epilayer, by atomic layer deposition. A full width at half maximum of the ZnO 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of 0.34°{sup  }± 0.02° has been measured. Diodes formed on the n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC heterostructure show rectifying behavior with a forward to reverse current ratio at the level of 10{sup 9} at ±4 V, a leakage current density of ∼6 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}, and a low ideality factor equal to 1.17 ± 0.04. In addition, the diodes exhibit selective photoresponse with a maximum at 367 nm, and with a current increase of ∼10{sup 3} under illuminations with respect to the dark value, which makes such devices prospective candidates for ultraviolet light sensors.

  16. Catalytic graphitization and Ohmic contact formation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijie; Mitchel, W. C.; Landis, G. R.; Crenshaw, T. R.; Collins, W. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    Electrical contact properties and graphitic structures of metal/carbon/4H-SiC structures are investigated. Metals studied include Ni, Co, Cr, NiCr, Ti, W, Mo, Al, and Au. Ohmic contacts are formed on Ni/C, Co/C, Cr/C, and NiCr/C films on 4H-SiC with n-type, C-face, and a doping concentration of 1.8×1019 cm-3 . Only Ni/C and Co/C films exhibit Ohmic contact behavior on SiC with n-type, Si-face, and a doping concentration of 1.6×1018 cm-3. Ni and Co are well known as excellent graphitization catalysts. Raman spectra show that the formation of graphitic carbon is related to the formation of Ohmic contacts in the annealed metal/carbon/SiC structures. Generally accepted catalytic graphitization mechanisms are applied to explain the scanning electron microscopy images, which demonstrate a relationship between the catalytically reacted morphology and Ohmic contact behavior. This study provides evidence that the metals with better catalytic graphitization activities form better Ohmic contacts on metal/carbon/SiC structures.

  17. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Transgenic plants and animals are organisms with foreign genes inserted into their cells. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chickens, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Multimedia Presentations on the Human Genome: Implementation and Assessment of a Teaching Program for the Introduction to Genome Science Using a Poster and Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kano, Kei; Yahata, Saiko; Muroi, Kaori; Kawakami, Masahiro; Tomoda, Mari; Miyaki, Koichi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Kato, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    Genome science, including topics such as gene recombination, cloning, genetic tests, and gene therapy, is now an established part of our daily lives; thus we need to learn genome science to better equip ourselves for the present day. Learning from topics directly related to the human has been suggested to be more effective than learning from…

  19. Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

  20. Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on At-Risk Urban Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past…