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Sample records for 4-h club model

  1. South Carolina's Model for Initiating Hispanic 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Robert; Rembert, Kellye

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, through the initiative of several county Extension agents, South Carolina 4-H has established a successful model for bringing Hispanic youth into our program. We have found the most effective method is to initiate contact and establish partnerships with the principals and ESOL instructors in the local schools. Through this…

  2. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  3. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  4. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  5. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom sessions…

  6. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  7. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  8. Factors Influencing Food Choices of 4-H Club Members in Williamson County, Tennessee. A Research Summary of a Graduate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Virginia Ruth; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify some of the eating habits and factors influencing food choices of selected junior (9 to 13 years old) and senior (14 to 19 years old) 4-H club members enrolled in Williamson County, Tennessee, in 1968. Data were collected through group interviews with 200 juniors and 70 seniors--116 boys and 154 girls.…

  9. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade club…

  10. Curtiss JN-4H Towing Model Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    In 1919 the NACA Langley laboratory received its first three research aircraft which were Curtiss JN-4Hs borrowed from the US Army Air Service at Langley Field. One of the first research projects of the laboratory initiated that year was a flight investigation of the lift and drag characteristics of the JN-4H. One of the objectives of the flight tests was to obtain data for correlation with wind-tunnel test results measured at MIT and to aid in the derivation of techniques for extrapolation of model results to full-scale conditions. In a pioneering aeronautical effort in 1920, pressure orifices were installed in the horizontal tail of one of the Jennies and connected to glass manometers for pressure measurements that could be photographed in flight. The NACA also used the aircraft in some of the earliest experiments on maneuverability in 1921. In addition to serving as test subjects, the aircraft were used for measurements of aerodynamic behavior of aircraft components. In this photograph made in 1921, one of the JN- 4Hs is towing a model of an aircraft wing to obtain lift and drag information for comparison to tunnel results. All three Jenny aircraft departed Langley in 1923. Reference: 'Flying the Frontiers: NACA and NASA Experimental Aircraft' by Arthur Pearcy. Naval Institute Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55750-258-7

  11. Texas 4-H Agents' Perceptions of Selected Competencies in the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many competencies necessary for success as a 4-H agent. The 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (PRKC) Model organizes competencies into six domains: (a) Youth Development, (b) Youth Program Development, (c) Volunteerism, (d) Partnerships, (e) Organizational Systems, and (f) Equity, Access and Opportunity (National 4-H…

  12. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  13. Sewing Skills Progress Chart. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This document, which was developed for use by Pennsylvania 4-H Club leaders and members, is a chart that can be used to help club members determine and document those sewing skills they already have and those they need to learn as they complete one or more 4-H Club sewing projects. The document begins with a note to club leaders and parents that…

  14. Teaching Note--Incorporating Journal Clubs into Social Work Education: An Exploratory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Megan; Fawley-King, Kya; Stone, Susan I.; Accomazzo, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the implementation of a journal club for master's and doctoral social work students interested in mental health practice. It defines educational journal clubs and discusses the history of journal clubs in medical education and the applicability of the model to social work education. The feasibility of implementing…

  15. A Partnership Model for Training Episodic Environmental Stewardship 4-H Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jane Chin; Alexander, Janice; Smith, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Marin Environmental Stewardship pilot project demonstrates the potential for a partnership model that brings together external and internal collaborators to recruit and train episodic 4-H volunteers to meet environmental education needs within a community. The clientele served by the volunteers trained through the project was at-risk, urban…

  16. A new model for in situ nitrogen incorporation into 4H-SiC during epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general model explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen incorporation (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a model based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this model, N incorporation is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface. It is shown that all the growth parameters are influencing the probability of C vacancies formation in a similar manner as they do for N incorporation. The surface exchange model proposes a new framework for explaining the experimental results even beyond the commonly accepted reactor type dependency. PMID:28211528

  17. A new model for in situ nitrogen incorporation into 4H-SiC during epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general model explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen incorporation (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a model based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this model, N incorporation is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface. It is shown that all the growth parameters are influencing the probability of C vacancies formation in a similar manner as they do for N incorporation. The surface exchange model proposes a new framework for explaining the experimental results even beyond the commonly accepted reactor type dependency.

  18. Characterization and Modeling of 4H-SiC Lateral MOSFETs for Integrated Circuit Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mudholkar, M; Mantooth, HA

    2013-06-01

    A new process in 4H-SiC is developed that features n-type buried and inversion channel lateral MOSFETs that are fabricated with several different channel lengths (2-8 mu m) and widths (8-32 mu m) and characterized over a wide temperature range (25 degrees C-225 degrees C). It is shown that the on-resistance of enhancement-mode SiC MOSFETs reduces with temperature despite a reduction in inversion mobility because of the interaction of interface states with temperature. To enable integrated circuit development using the developed MOSFETs, their electrical characteristics are modeled over geometry and temperature using the industry standard PSP MOSFET model. A new mathematical formulation to describe the presence of the interface states is also developed and implemented in the PSP model, and excellent agreement is shown between measurement and simulation using the modified PSP model.

  19. National 4-H School Enrichment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 4-H school enrichment programs (813 responses) found that they reach large numbers of diverse youth and develop credibility with community and schools. Long-term programs such as 4-H clubs have proven effective in helping youth develop life skills, but Extension must carefully consider the purpose and consequences of diverting…

  20. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  1. Generative models of rich clubs in Hebbian neuronal networks and large-scale human brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E.; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Rich clubs arise when nodes that are ‘rich’ in connections also form an elite, densely connected ‘club’. In brain networks, rich clubs incur high physical connection costs but also appear to be especially valuable to brain function. However, little is known about the selection pressures that drive their formation. Here, we take two complementary approaches to this question: firstly we show, using generative modelling, that the emergence of rich clubs in large-scale human brain networks can be driven by an economic trade-off between connection costs and a second, competing topological term. Secondly we show, using simulated neural networks, that Hebbian learning rules also drive the emergence of rich clubs at the microscopic level, and that the prominence of these features increases with learning time. These results suggest that Hebbian learning may provide a neuronal mechanism for the selection of complex features such as rich clubs. The neural networks that we investigate are explicitly Hebbian, and we argue that the topological term in our model of large-scale brain connectivity may represent an analogous connection rule. This putative link between learning and rich clubs is also consistent with predictions that integrative aspects of brain network organization are especially important for adaptive behaviour. PMID:25180309

  2. Promoting the Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development through an Experiential Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Shelley; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project reported here was to apply Experiential Learning Theory to a context involving middle and high school aged youth while assessing the four concepts (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) in relation to the 4-H youth development essential elements. The conclusions of the project's evaluation suggest…

  3. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  4. The reaction H + C4H2 - Absolute rate constant measurement and implication for atmospheric modeling of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Mitchell, M. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction H + C4H2 has been measured over the temperature (T) interval 210-423 K, using the technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence. At each of the five temperatures employed, the results were independent of variations in C4H2 concentration, total pressure of Ar or N2, and flash intensity (i.e., the initial H concentration). The rate constant, k, was found to be equal to 1.39 x 10 to the -10th exp (-1184/T) cu cm/s, with an error of one standard deviation. The Arrhenius parameters at the high pressure limit determined here for the H + C4H2 reaction are consistent with those for the corresponding reactions of H with C2H2 and C3H4. Implications of the kinetic carbon chemistry results, particularly those at low temperature, are considered for models of the atmospheric carbon chemistry of Titan. The rate of this reaction, relative to that of the analogous, but slower, reaction of H + C2H2, appears to make H + C4H2 a very feasible reaction pathway for effective conversion of H atoms to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere of Titan.

  5. The reaction H + C4H2 - Absolute rate constant measurement and implication for atmospheric modeling of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, D. F.; Mitchell, M. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1986-04-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction H + C4H2 has been measured over the temperature (T) interval 210-423 K, using the technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence. At each of the five temperatures employed, the results were independent of variations in C4H2 concentration, total pressure of Ar or N2, and flash intensity (i.e., the initial H concentration). The rate constant, k, was found to be equal to 1.39 x 10 to the -10th exp (-1184/T) cu cm/s, with an error of one standard deviation. The Arrhenius parameters at the high pressure limit determined here for the H + C4H2 reaction are consistent with those for the corresponding reactions of H with C2H2 and C3H4. Implications of the kinetic carbon chemistry results, particularly those at low temperature, are considered for models of the atmospheric carbon chemistry of Titan. The rate of this reaction, relative to that of the analogous, but slower, reaction of H + C2H2, appears to make H + C4H2 a very feasible reaction pathway for effective conversion of H atoms to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere of Titan.

  6. Improved quasi-unary nucleation model for binary H2SO4-H2O homogeneous nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangqun

    2007-08-01

    Aerosol nucleation events have been observed at a variety of locations worldwide, and may have significant climatic and health implications. Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN) of H2SO4 and H2O is the foundation of recently proposed nucleation mechanisms involving additional species such as ammonia, ions, and organic compounds, and it may dominate atmospheric nucleation under certain conditions. We have shown in previous work that H2SO4-H2O BHN can be treated as a quasi-unary nucleation (QUN) process involving H2SO4 in equilibrium with H2O vapor, and we have developed a self-consistent kinetic model for H2SO4-H2O nucleation. Here, the QUN approach is improved, and an analytical expression yielding H2SO4-H2O QUN rates is derived. Two independent measurements related to monomer hydration are used to constrain the equilibrium constants for this process, which reduces a major source of uncertainty. It is also shown that the capillarity approximation may lead to a large error in the calculated Gibbs free energy change for the evaporation of H2SO4 molecules from small H2SO4-H2O clusters, which affects the accuracy of predicted BHN nucleation rates. The improved QUN model—taking into account the recently measured energetics of small clusters—is thermodynamically more robust. Moreover, predicted QUN nucleation rates are in better agreement with available experimental data than rates calculated using classical H2SO4-H2O BHN theory.

  7. Implementing the Lab School Club Model at the Academy in Manayunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Central to The Lab School model is Sally Smith's Club Methodology, the full immersion of students into a time period where historical information is learned through multi-sensory activities. While immersed, through the use of costumes and elaborately decorated classrooms, students are engaged in project-based learning. As the student's…

  8. First-Order SPICE Modeling of Extreme-Temperature 4H-SiC JFET Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A separate submission to this conference reports that 4H-SiC Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) digital and analog Integrated Circuits (ICs) with two levels of metal interconnect have reproducibly demonstrated electrical operation at 500 C in excess of 1000 hours. While this progress expands the complexity and durability envelope of high temperature ICs, one important area for further technology maturation is the development of reasonably accurate and accessible computer-aided modeling and simulation tools for circuit design of these ICs. Towards this end, we report on development and verification of 25 C to 500 C SPICE simulation models of first order accuracy for this extreme-temperature durable 4H-SiC JFET IC technology. For maximum availability, the JFET IC modeling is implemented using the baseline-version SPICE NMOS LEVEL 1 model that is common to other variations of SPICE software and importantly includes the body-bias effect. The first-order accuracy of these device models is verified by direct comparison with measured experimental device characteristics.

  9. LES of turbulent lifted CH4 /H2 flames using a novel FGM-PDF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahizadeh, S. Ebrahim; van Oijen, Jeroen; Bastiaans, Rob; de Goey, Philip

    2014-11-01

    This study reports on numerical investigations of preferential diffusion effects on flame stabilization of turbulent lifted flames using LES with a FGM-PDF approach. The experimental test case is the Delft JHC burner to study Mild combustion; a clean combustion concept. In this burner, CH4 based fuel has been enriched from 0 to 25% of H2. Since the main stabilization mechanism of these turbulent flames is autoignition, the developed numerical model should be able to predict this complex event. Furthermore, addition of hydrogen makes modeling even more challenging due to its preferential diffusion effects. These effects are increasingly important since autoignition is typically initiated at very small mixture fractions where molecular diffusion is comparable to turbulence transport (eddy viscosity). In this study, first, a novel numerical model is developed based on the Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) to account for preferential diffusion effects in autoignition. Afterwards, the developed FGM approach is implemented in LES of the H2 enriched turbulent lifted jet flames. Main features of these turbulent lifted flames such as the formation of ignition kernels and stabilization mechanisms are thoroughly analyzed and compared with the measurements of OH chemiluminescence. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW) under Project No. 10414.

  10. Developing Physics-based Models for 4H-SiC High Voltage Power Switches---MOSFET, IGBT and GTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Chia

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop physics-based equivalent circuit models for 15kV˜20kV 4H-SiC power switches. The previous modeling works will be reviewed, and the parameter extraction methodologies will be discussed. MOSFET is modeled using a voltage-controlled current source for channel current and three nonlinear capacitances for the transient behavior. The high electron saturation velocity and its effect on the saturation current level will also be discussed. Final model has been implemented in Simulink/Matlab, and the execution time for the turn-on and off transient is less than 1 second. IGBT Analytical model that translate the local excess carrier to the diffusion capacitance will be derived first and implemented in a sub-circuit manner into Simulink/Matlab. A novel parameter extraction technique---Excess carrier density mapping (ECDM)---using inductive switching waveforms is introduced. The execution time of the model is about 7 seconds and 2 seconds for a turn-off and turn-on transient, respectively. IGBTs with two-zone drift region for slowing down the turn-off dv/dt are also proposed based on the developed analytical model. Finally, 4H-SiC p-GTO model based on the IGBT one is developed. Region-wise lifetimes throughout the drift region was observed when using the proposed ECDM technique. Simulated waveforms using region-wise lifetime have shown better fitting results than the case using constant lifetime. The difference between n-type and p-type ambipolar switches will be discussed and compared using the developed models.

  11. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural…

  12. The Oneida County 4-H Conservation Field Days Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen C.; Vonhof, Sarah; Kelley, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Examines the various perspectives held by the three major organizations involved (an environmental citizens group, a local sportsmen's club, and the cooperative extension service) regarding a conflict over a 4-H program involving hunting and wildlife management. Discusses why the 4-H program's attempt to build consensus among the organizations was…

  13. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  14. The Continuous Quality Improvement Book Club: Developing a Book Club to Promote Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Becky; Ray, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article poses a model for developing a book club to promote praxis. This model is built upon a basic four step framework for developing book clubs and includes specific recommendations to focus the book club on reflection of theory and how to incorporate it into practice. This model will be used to start a book club examining Continuous…

  15. Verification of Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling mechanism in Ni/SiO2/n-4H SiC and n+ poly-Si/SiO2/n-4H SiC MOS devices by different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2016-11-01

    This article emphasizes verification of Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling mechanism in the Ni/SiO2/n-4H SiC MOS devices by developing three different kinds of models. The standard semiconductor equations are categorically solved to obtain the change in Fermi energy level of semiconductor with effect of temperature and field that extend support to determine sustainable and accurate tunneling current through the oxide layer. The forward and reverse bias currents with variation of electric field are simulated with help of different models developed by us for MOS devices by applying adequate conditions. The latter is quite different from former in terms of tunneling mechanism in the MOS devices. The variation of barrier height with effect of quantum mechanical, temperature, and fields is considered as effective barrier height for the generation of current-field (J-F) curves under forward and reverse biases but quantum mechanical effect is void in the latter. In addition, the J-F curves are also simulated with variation of carrier concentration in the n-type 4H SiC semiconductor of MOS devices and the relation between them is established.

  16. Rich-club and page-club coefficients for directed graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilkov, Daniel; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2010-06-01

    Rich-club and page-club coefficients and their null models are introduced for directed graphs. Null models allow for a quantitative discussion of the rich-club and page-club phenomena. These coefficients are computed for four directed real-world networks: Arxiv High Energy Physics paper citation network, Web network (released from Google), Citation network among US Patents, and email network from a EU research institution. The results show a high correlation between rich-club and page-club ordering. For journal paper citation network, we identify both rich-club and page-club ordering, showing that “elite” papers are cited by other “elite” papers. Google web network shows partial rich-club and page-club ordering up to some point and then a narrow declining of the corresponding normalized coefficients, indicating the lack of rich-club ordering and the lack of page-club ordering, i.e. high in-degree (PageRank) pages purposely avoid sharing links with other high in-degree (PageRank) pages. For UC patents citation network, we identify page-club and rich-club ordering providing a conclusion that “elite” patents are cited by other “elite” patents. Finally, for email communication network we show lack of both rich-club and page-club ordering. We construct an example of synthetic network showing page-club ordering and the lack of rich-club ordering.

  17. Feature Modeling of HfO2 Atomic Layer Deposition Using HfCl4/H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Phillip J.; Adams, Vance; Ventzek, Peter L. G.

    2003-03-01

    A Monte Carlo based feature scale model (Papaya) has been applied to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 using HfCl_4/H_20. The model includes physical effects of transport to surface, specular and diffusive reflection within feature, adsorption, surface diffusion, deposition and etching. Discussed will be the 3D feature modeling of HfO2 deposition in assorted features (vias and trenches). The effect of feature aspect ratios, pulse times, cycle number, and temperature on film thickness, feature coverage, and film Cl fraction (surface/bulk) will be discussed. Differences between HfO2 ALD on blanket wafers and in features will be highlighted. For instance, the minimum pulse times sufficient for surface reaction saturation on blanket wafers needs to be increased when depositing on features. Also, HCl products created during the HfCl4 and H_20 pulses are more likely to react within a feature than at the field, reducing OH coverage within the feature (vs blanket wafer) thus limiting the maximum coverage attainable for a pulse over a feature.

  18. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity,…

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Analytical model for reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC merged PN-Schottky (MPS) diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Men; Lü, Hong-Liang; Chen, Feng-Ping; Zheng, Qing-Li

    2009-12-01

    A new analytical model for reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC merged PN-Schottky diodes (MPS or JBS) is developed. To accurately calculate the reverse characteristics of the 4H-SiC MPS diode, the relationship between the electric field at the Schottky contact and the reverse bias is analytically established by solving the cylindrical Poisson equation after the channel has pinched off. The reverse current density calculated from the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) theory is verified by comparing it with the experimental result, showing that they are in good agreement with each other. Moreover, the effects of P-region spacing (S) and P-junction depth (Xj) on the characteristics of 4H-SiC MPS are analysed, and are particularly useful for optimizing the design of the high voltage MPS diodes.

  20. The Clio Club: An Extracurricular Model for Elementary Social Studies Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an extracurricular social studies enrichment program called the Clio Club. "Clio" is derived from the Greek muse of history, and the club offers a variety of activities to help students discover and interpret social studies beyond the traditional school hours. They meet after school and on weekends both at their…

  1. Ohio 4-H Agents' Perceptions of the Level of Importance and Frequency of Use of the Eighteen Components of the GEMS Model of Volunteer Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppe, Catherine A.; Culp, Ken, III

    2001-01-01

    4-H youth development agents (n=81) identified the importance and frequency of use of the phases in the GEMS (Generate, Educate, Motivate, Sustain) model of volunteer administration. The greatest discrepancy between importance and frequency was in sustaining volunteer involvement. Areas for agents' professional development were identified.…

  2. Managing Collegiate Sport Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, David O., Ed.

    This book is written for the administrators of college sport clubs. It is comprised of a collection of articles on the topics of: (1) Sport Club Administration and Organization; (2) Student Development through Sport Clubs; (3) Sport Club Financing and Fund-Raising; (4) Liability Concerns of Sport Clubs; and (5) Sport Club Program Surveys.…

  3. [Club drugs].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Carmo, Ana Lisa; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Navarro, Rita; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse. They have distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, are not easy to detect and, many times, the use of club drugs is under diagnosed. Although the use of these drugs is increasingly common, few health professionals feel comfortable with the diagnosis and treatment. The authors performed a systematic literature review, with the goal of synthesising the existing knowledge about club drugs, namely epidemiology, mechanism of action, detection, adverse reactions and treatment. The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.

  4. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.

    PubMed

    Kress, Cathann

    2006-01-01

    Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service.

  5. Star Clubbing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Maria; Davis, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rewards, there are numerous barriers to teachers running clubs: (1) getting weekly fresh activity ideas and resourcing them; (2) the lack of a budget; and (3) shortage of time. With the best will in the world, it is easy to feel that time is already swallowed up with planning and assessment of normal lessons, let alone putting in the…

  6. Magnetostructural correlations for Fe2+ ions at orthorhombic sites in FeCl2·4H2O and FeF2·4H2O crystals modeled by microscopic spin Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Magdalena; Lipiński, Ignacy Eryk; Rudowicz, Czesław

    2016-03-01

    The microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) theory developed up to the fourth-order perturbation theory for 3d4 and 3d6 ions with spin S=2 within the 5D approximation is employed to predict the zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the Zeeman electronic (Ze) ones. The SH parameters, measurable by electron magnetic resonance (EMR), are expressed in terms of the microscopic parameters, i.e. the spin-orbit (λ), spin-spin (ρ) coupling constants, and the crystal-field (ligands-field) energy levels (∆i) within the 5D multiplet. The energies, ∆i, are indirectly related with structural data, thus enabling investigation of magnetostructural correlations. As a case study Fe2+ (3d6; S=2) ions at orthorhombic sites in FeCl2·4H2O and FeF2·4H2O crystals are considered. Calculations of the ZFS and Ze parameters are carried out for wide ranges of values of the microscopic parameters using the package MSH/VBA. Dependence of the theoretically determined ZFS parameters bkq (in the Stevens notation) and the Zeeman factors gi on λ, ρ, and ∆i is examined and suitable graphs are presented. The absolute value of dominant ZFS parameter |b20| is predicted to be in the range from nearly 8.5 to 1.4 cm-1. Matching the theoretical SH parameters and the experimental ones enables determination of the suitable values of λ, ρ, and ∆i. The fourth-rank ZFS parameters and the ρ(spin-spin)-related contributions, considered for the first time here, are found important. The MSH predictions may be verified and fine-tuned by high-magnetic field and high-frequency EMR measurements. The method employed here and the present results may be also useful for other structurally related systems.

  7. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  8. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  9. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  10. Large barrier, highly uniform and reproducible Ni-Si/4H-SiC forward Schottky diode characteristics: testing the limits of Tung's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Sabih U.; Sudarshan, Tangali S.; Rana, Tawhid A.; Song, Haizheng; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2014-07-01

    We report highly ideal (n < 1.1), uniform nickel silicide (Ni-Si)/SiC Schottky barrier (1.60-1.67 eV with a standard deviation <2.8%) diodes, fabricated on 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition. The barrier height was constant over a wide epilayer doping range of 1014-1016 cm-3, apart from a slight decrease consistent with image force lowering. This remarkable uniformity was achieved by careful optimization of the annealing of the Schottky interface to minimize non-idealities that could lead to inhomogeneity. Tung's barrier inhomogeneity model was used to quantify the level of inhomogeneity in the optimized annealed diodes. The estimated ‘bulk’ barrier height (1.75 eV) was consistent with the Shockley-Mott limit for the Ni-Si/4H-SiC interface, implying an unpinned Fermi level. But the model was not useful to explain the poor ideality in unoptimized, as-deposited Schottky contacts (n = 1.6 - 2.5). We show analytically and numerically that only idealities n < 1.21 can be explained using Tung's model, irrespective of material system, indicating that the barrier height inhomogeneity is not the only cause of poor ideality in Schottky diodes. For explaining this highly non-ideal behaviour, other factors (e.g. interface traps, morphological defects, extrinsic impurities, etc) need to be considered.

  11. A Study of Changes in Dental Health Care Behavior of 4-H Youth in Selected Louisiana Parishes. R and T--Summary 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael Alan

    The effectiveness of the Dental Hygiene Education Program in changing the dental health care practices of 4-H club youth in four Louisiana parishes and youth knowledge of dental care principles were studied in this before-after experimental design. The study sample consisted of 258 youth from 10 4-H clubs. Subjects completed a four-item…

  12. Microvascular and interstitial oxygen tension in the renal cortex and medulla studied in a 4-h rat model of LPS-induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Alex; Bezemer, Rick; Legrand, Matthieu; Balestra, Gianmarco; Singer, Mervyn; Ince, Can

    2011-07-01

    The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury remains poorly understood. As changes in renal perfusion and oxygenation have been shown, we aimed to study the short-term effects of endotoxemia on microvascular and interstitial oxygenation in the cortex and medulla, in conjunction with global and renal hemodynamics. In a 4-h rat model of endotoxemia, we simultaneously assessed renal artery blood flow and microvascular and interstitial oxygen tensions in the renal cortex and medulla using ultrasonic flowmetry, dual wavelength phosphorimetry, and tissue oxygen tension monitoring, respectively. Whereas medullary microvascular and interstitial oxygen tensions decreased promptly in line with macrovascular blood flow, changes in cortical oxygenation were only seen later on. During the entire experimental protocol, the gradient between microvascular PO₂ and tissue oxygen tension remained unchanged in both cortex and outer medulla. At study end, urine output was significantly decreased despite a maintained oxygen consumption rate. In this 4-h rat model of endotoxemia, total renal oxygen consumption and the gradient between microvascular PO₂ and tissue oxygen tension remained unaltered, despite falls in renal perfusion and oxygen delivery and urine output. Taken in conjunction with the decrease in urine output, our results could represent either a functional renal impairment or an adaptive response.

  13. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a)...

  16. The impact of global warming on Kuroshio Extension and its southern recirculation using CMIP5 experiments with a high-resolution climate model MIROC4h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Wang, Qiang; Mu, Mu

    2017-02-01

    Responses of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) and its southern recirculation gyre (SRG) to global warming are investigated using CMIP5 experiments with a high-resolution climate model MIROC4h. The results show that MIROC4h well reproduces the essential features of the KE system and its low-frequency variations. In three-member-ensemble future climate experiments (with a medium mitigation emissions scenario RCP4.5), the strengths of the KE and its SRG increase, relative to the prescribed historical run with natural and anthropogenic forcing. By investigating the mechanism resulting in these variations of the KE and its SRG, it turns out that wind stress changes and ocean stratification changes both contribute to the enhancement of the KE and its SRG. Specifically, the wind stress changes increase upper ocean momentum in the SRG region. Meanwhile, the increased stratifications hinder the transfer of momentum from the upper ocean to the deeper ocean. Besides, the strengthened ocean stratification could enhance the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the downstream KE region, which can feedback to intensify the SRG. As a result, the strength of the SRG increases under global warming condition. Then the intensification of the SRG leads to large acceleration of the KE. Eventually, both the KE and its SRG intensify.

  17. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Near You. Find a Club Clubs Change Lives. Boys & Girls Clubs help millions of kids and teens ... data More About Our Impact Celebrate in April! Boys & Girls Clubs will join the military community in ...

  18. Experimental verification of the model for formation of double Shockley stacking faults in highly doped regions of PVT-grown 4H-SiC wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Guo, Jianqiu; Goue, Ouloide; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeff; Manning, Ian; Hansen, Darren

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported on the formation of overlapping rhombus-shaped stacking faults from scratches left over by the chemical mechanical polishing during high temperature annealing of PVT-grown 4H-SiC wafer. These stacking faults are restricted to regions with high N-doped areas of the wafer. The type of these stacking faults were determined to be Shockley stacking faults by analyzing the behavior of their area contrast using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography studies. A model has been proposed to explain the formation mechanism of the rhombus shaped stacking faults based on double Shockley fault nucleation and propagation. In this paper, we have experimentally verified this model by characterizing the configuration of the bounding partials of the stacking faults on both surfaces using synchrotron topography in back reflection geometry. As predicted by the model, on both the Si and C faces, the leading partials bounding the rhombus-shaped stacking faults are 30° Si-core and the trailing partials are 30° C-core. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we have verified that the enclosed stacking fault is a double Shockley type.

  19. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richley, James C.; Fox, Oliver J. L.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Mankelevich, Yuri A.

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H2/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H2/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to ˜1:99). Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH4, H2, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C2, and C3 radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H2-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H2. Reducing the H2 content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H2-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H2] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently ˜3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H2] ratio, the fast H-shifting (CyHx + H ↔ CyHx-1 + H2; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma contains much higher relative abundances of "product" species like C atoms, and C2, and C3 radicals. The effects of Ar dilution on the absorbed power

  20. Modernizing the journal club.

    PubMed

    Dwarakanath, L S; Khan, K S

    2000-06-01

    Traditionally journal clubs provide a forum to learn presentation skills. We propose a new approach to teaching and learning in journal clubs, focusing on literature acquisition and critical appraisal skills. This approach will enable trainees to use journal clubs for personal professional development as well as for application of new knowledge in clinical medicine to improve patients' outcomes.

  1. Testing the Palma-Clary Reduced Dimensionality Model Using Classical Mechanics on the CH4 + H → CH3 + H2 Reaction.

    PubMed

    Vikár, Anna; Nagy, Tibor; Lendvay, György

    2016-07-14

    Application of exact quantum scattering methods in theoretical reaction dynamics of bimolecular reactions is limited by the complexity of the equations of nuclear motion to be solved. Simplification is often achieved by reducing the number of degrees of freedom to be explicitly handled by freezing the less important spectator modes. The reaction cross sections obtained in reduced-dimensionality (RD) quantum scattering methods can be used in the calculation of rate coefficients, but their physical meaning is limited. The accurate test of the performance of a reduced-dimensionality method would be a comparison of the RD cross sections with those obtained in accurate full-dimensional (FD) calculations, which is not feasible because of the lack of complete full-dimensional results. However, classical mechanics allows one to perform reaction dynamics calculations using both the RD and the FD model. In this paper, an RD versus FD comparison is made for the 8-dimensional Palma-Clary model on the example of four isotopologs of the CH4 + H → CH3 + H2 reaction, which has 12 internal dimensions. In the Palma-Clary model, the only restriction is that the methyl group is confined to maintain C3v symmetry. Both RD and FD opacity and excitation functions as well as differential cross sections were calculated using the quasiclassical trajectory method. The initial reactant separation has been handled according to our one-period averaging method [ Nagy et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 014104 ]. The RD and FD excitation functions were found to be close to each other for some isotopologs, but in general, the RD reactivity parameters are lower than the FD reactivity parameters beyond statistical error, and for one of the isotopologs, the deviation is significant. This indicates that the goodness of RD cross sections cannot be taken for granted.

  2. Hamsters?! What Does 4-H Stand for, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundeen, Brenda

    This paper briefly traces the history of 4-H youth development programs, explains what youth development is, and shows how the experiential learning model is used in 4-H. Begun over 75 years ago as a means of extending the learning of the land-grant university to rural youth, 4-H is part of the Cooperative Extension Service. The curriculum…

  3. Family Diversity in a Youth Organization: Involvement of Single-Parent Families and Stepfamilies in 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated involvement of children from single-parent and stepparent households in 4-H clubs. Used case study approach, with data collected via written materials; interviews with 4-H staff; and mailed questionnaires from professional staff, paraprofessionals, and parents. Children from single-parent households were found to be underrepresented, as…

  4. The DUDES Club

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Paul A.; Efimoff, Iloradanon; Patrick, Lyana; Josewski, Viviane; Hau, Keith; Lambert, Sandy; Smye, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed In Canada, there are few health promotion programs for men, particularly programs focused on indigenous and other men marginalized by social and structural inequities. Objective of program To build solidarity and brotherhood among vulnerable men; to promote health through education, dialogue, and health screening clinics; and to help men regain a sense of pride and fulfilment in their lives. Program description The DUDES Club was established in 2010 as a community-based health promotion program for indigenous men in the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver, BC. Between August 2014 and May 2015, 150 men completed an evaluation survey developed using a logic model approach. Responses were analyzed based on the 4 dimensions of the indigenous medicine wheel (mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual). Evaluation results demonstrated high participant satisfaction and positive outcomes across all 4 dimensions of health and well-being: 90.6% of respondents indicated that the DUDES Club program improved their quality of life. Participants who attended meetings more often experienced greater physical, mental, and social benefits (P < .05). Conclusion Findings indicate that this innovative model is effective in promoting the well-being of mainly indigenous men through culturally safe services in an urban community.

  5. Modeling of neutrals in the Linac4 H(-) ion source plasma: hydrogen atom production density profile and Hα intensity by collisional radiative model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Shibata, T; Ohta, M; Yasumoto, M; Nishida, K; Hatayama, A; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Sawada, K; Fantz, U

    2014-02-01

    To control the H(0) atom production profile in the H(-) ion sources is one of the important issues for the efficient and uniform surface H(-) production. The purpose of this study is to construct a collisional radiative (CR) model to calculate the effective production rate of H(0) atoms from H2 molecules in the model geometry of the radio-frequency (RF) H(-) ion source for Linac4 accelerator. In order to validate the CR model by comparison with the experimental results from the optical emission spectroscopy, it is also necessary for the model to calculate Balmer photon emission rate in the source. As a basic test of the model, the time evolutions of H(0) production and the Balmer Hα photon emission rate are calculated for given electron energy distribution functions in the Linac4 RF H(-) ion source. Reasonable test results are obtained and basis for the detailed comparisons with experimental results have been established.

  6. The Book Club Exploded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    One leader, 12 readers, and a few well-thumbed copies of Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice." That is all a book club once required, but this is no longer the case. This article describes how the runaway popularity of book clubs has brought with it a whole new set of possibilities. Thematic discussion? A fiction/nonfiction mix? Videoconferencing?…

  7. Multimodal Learning Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal learning clubs link principles of motivation and engagement with 21st century technological tools and texts to support content area learning. The author describes how a sixth grade health teacher and his class incorporated multimodal learning clubs into a unit of study on human body systems. The students worked collaboratively online…

  8. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.

  9. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  10. Engaging Library Partners in 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Nia Imani; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    When most people think about 4-H, they remember county fairs, livestock programs, and agricultural education. While these programs are still prominent, 4-H has grown in order to meet the growing demands of today's youth. The organization has expanded services and programs to serve rural, suburban, and urban youth in every state in the U.S. 4-H is…

  11. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  12. Club Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... different from other illicit drugs?What are the dangers of taking club drugs?What can I do ... Drug Use | Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)Learn about the dangers of taking gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), an illegal drug ...

  13. Living the Dream of Green Acres: Boy with Autism Finds Acceptance and Success Thanks to 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ginny

    2006-01-01

    Twelve-year-old Aaron Zibricky, a member of the Lucky Clovers 4-H Club, entered his prize sheep, Star, in the 2005 Will County Fair in Illinois. Zibricky, who is diagnosed with autism, had worked and strived for this moment, putting in long hours feeding, cleaning and shearing the sheep and learning showmanship skills. No one was more elated at…

  14. Effects of influent fractionation, kinetics, stoichiometry and mass transfer on CH4, H2 and CO2 production for (plant-wide) modeling of anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Solon, Kimberly; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of influent fractionation, kinetic, stoichiometric and mass transfer parameter uncertainties when modeling biogas production in wastewater treatment plants. The anaerobic digestion model no. 1 implemented in the plant-wide context provided by the benchmark simulation model no. 2 is used to quantify the generation of CH₄, H₂and CO₂. A comprehensive global sensitivity analysis based on (i) standardized regression coefficients (SRC) and (ii) Morris' screening's (MS's) elementary effects reveals the set of parameters that influence the biogas production uncertainty the most. This analysis is repeated for (i) different temperature regimes and (ii) different solids retention times (SRTs) in the anaerobic digester. Results show that both SRC and MS are good measures of sensitivity unless the anaerobic digester is operating at low SRT and mesophilic conditions. In the latter situation, and due to the intrinsic nonlinearities of the system, SRC fails in decomposing the variance of the model predictions (R² < 0.7) making MS a more reliable method. At high SRT, influent fractionations are the most influential parameters for predictions of CH₄and CO₂emissions. Nevertheless, when the anaerobic digester volume is decreased (for the same load), the role of acetate degraders gains more importance under mesophilic conditions, while lipids and fatty acid metabolism is more influential under thermophilic conditions. The paper ends with a critical discussion of the results and their implications during model calibration and validation exercises.

  15. Preliminary Experiments to Determine Scale and Slip-Stream Effects on a 1/24th Size Model of a JN4H Biplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, D L

    1923-01-01

    This work was undertaken to obtain results on a small model of a complete airplane which might be used for comparison with corresponding tests made in full flight. Somewhat similar tests have been previously made at various other laboratories; but as certain discrepancies exist between corresponding tests in different tunnels, it has been deemed advisable to obtain a direct comparison for this particular installation. The present work covers tests on a one-twenty-fourth scale model at speeds varying from 6.7 m/sec. (15 m.p.h.) to 40.2 m/sec, (90 m.p.h.). A slip stream correction has been obtained by the use of a small belt-driven propeller mounted in front of the model, and force coefficients thus obtained are compared with the measurements of the same forces made in full flight on a geometrically similar airplane. This report gives lift, drag, and longitudinal moment values obtained in tests of a particularly accurate model over a wide range of speeds. A measure of the slip stream corrections on lift and drag forces was obtained by the use of a power-driven model propeller. Measurements were also made of forces and longitudinal moments for all angles from 0 degree to 360 degrees.

  16. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cause Donate Now Retailers Team Up to Support Boys & Girls Clubs of America During Holiday Season Sixteen ... back to nation’s leading advocate for youth MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ...

  17. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  18. Community Development: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheneman, C. Stephen

    State progress reports on the 4-H/Community Development program, a 1973 nationwide Federally sponsored program facilitating youth in community decision-making processes, indicate that the program appears to be evolving into a viable and integral part of the total 4-H program. Although the report describes unique program features of various States,…

  19. Model for conductivity compensation of moderately doped n- and p-4H-SiC by high-energy electron bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Bogdanova, E. V.

    2015-04-01

    The model of conductivity compensation in SiC under irradiation with high-energy electrons is presented. The following processes are considered to cause a decrease in the free carrier concentration: (i) formation of deep traps by intrinsic point defects, Frenkel pairs produced by irradiation; (ii) "deactivation" of the dopant via formation of neutral complexes including a dopant atom and a radiation-induced point defect; and (iii) formation of deep compensating traps via generation of charged complexes constituted by a dopant atom and a radiation-induced point defect. To determine the compensation mechanism, dose dependences of the deep compensation of moderately doped SiC (CVD) under electron irradiation have been experimentally studied. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-FZ-Si, moderately doped SiC (CVD) exhibits linear dependences (with a strongly nonlinear dependence observed for Si). Therefore, the conductivity compensation in silicon carbide under electron irradiation occurs due to deep traps formed by primary radiation defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms) in the silicon and carbon sublattices. It is known that the compensation in silicon is due to the formation of secondary radiation defects that include a dopant atom. It is shown that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in only the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice or defects in both sublattices are responsible for the conductivity compensation.

  20. Model for conductivity compensation of moderately doped n- and p-4H-SiC by high-energy electron bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Bogdanova, E. V.

    2015-04-21

    The model of conductivity compensation in SiC under irradiation with high-energy electrons is presented. The following processes are considered to cause a decrease in the free carrier concentration: (i) formation of deep traps by intrinsic point defects, Frenkel pairs produced by irradiation; (ii) 'deactivation' of the dopant via formation of neutral complexes including a dopant atom and a radiation-induced point defect; and (iii) formation of deep compensating traps via generation of charged complexes constituted by a dopant atom and a radiation-induced point defect. To determine the compensation mechanism, dose dependences of the deep compensation of moderately doped SiC (CVD) under electron irradiation have been experimentally studied. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-FZ-Si, moderately doped SiC (CVD) exhibits linear dependences (with a strongly nonlinear dependence observed for Si). Therefore, the conductivity compensation in silicon carbide under electron irradiation occurs due to deep traps formed by primary radiation defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms) in the silicon and carbon sublattices. It is known that the compensation in silicon is due to the formation of secondary radiation defects that include a dopant atom. It is shown that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in only the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice or defects in both sublattices are responsible for the conductivity compensation.

  1. Development of Accurate Chemical Equilibrium Models for Oxalate Species to High Ionic Strength in the System: Na-Ba-Ca-Mn-Sr-Cl-NO3-PO4-SO4-H2O at 25°C

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of an accurate aqueous thermodynamic model is described for oxalate species in the Na-Ba-Ca-Mn-Sr-Cl-NO3-PO4-SO4-H2O system at 25°C. The model is valid to high ionic strength (as high as 10m) and from very acid (10m H2SO4) to neutral and basic conditions. The model is based upon the equations of Pitzer and co-workers. The necessary ion-interaction parameters are determined by comparison with experimental data taken from the literature or determined in this study. The proposed aqueous activity and solubility model is valid for a range of applications from interpretation of studies on mineral dissolution at circumneutral pH to the dissolution of high-level waste tank sludges under acidic conditions.

  2. The Other Club Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noah

    2007-01-01

    At colleges nationwide, students from diverse racial, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds meet and befriend each other under the auspices of club sports. Adam Pruett, the recreational sports coordinator at the University of California, Los Angeles, says any cultural uneasiness is overcome by the students' shared passion for the particular…

  3. The Kindergarten Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Elaine Mitchell

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of an after-school club for kindergarten-age children enrolled in a Montessori preschool program in Nashville, Tennessee. Activity units included performing a play of Sendak's "Where the Wild Things Are," studying country music and writing songs, and holding a dinner for the children's parents. (KB)

  4. Lessons Out-of-School: Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs as Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; Shinkwin, Anne

    By providing opportunities for closer youth-adult contact, exercising responsibility, performing community service, and learning practical skills, well-functioning youth groups create important educational occasions which are often lacking in school. To point out the overlooked features of traditional youth groups, researchers interviewed and…

  5. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

  6. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  7. Fashion Revue. 4-H Textile Science Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This publication was developed to help students participating in Fashion Review, a 4-H event in which students model a clothing outfit and accessories and are judged on their modeling ability, their presentation, and how well the clothing and accessory choices complement the students' skin tones, hair color, figure or physique, personality, and…

  8. Level up Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  9. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  10. Thermodynamic modeling of neptunium(V) solubility in concentrated Na-CO{sub 3}-HCO{sub 3}-Cl-ClO{sub 4}-H-OH-H{sub 2}O systems

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.; Roberts, K.E.

    1994-10-01

    Safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories often require estimation of actinide solubilities as a function of groundwater composition. Although considerable amount of research has been done on the solubility and speciation of actinides, relatively little has been done to unify these data into a model applicable to concentrate brines. Numerous authors report data on the aqueous chemical properties of Np(V) in NaClO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and NaCl media, but a consistent thermodynamic model for predicting these properties is not available. To meet this need, a model was developed to describe the solubility of Np(V) in Na-Cl-ClO{sub 4}-CO{sub 3} aqueous systems, based on the Pitzer activity coefficient formalism for concentrated electrolytes. Hydrolysis and/or carbonate complexation are the dominant aqueous reactions with neptunyl in these systems. Literature data for neptunyl extraction and solubility, and solubility data that the authors developed, are used to parameterize an integrated model for Np(V) solubility in the Np(V)-Na-CO{sub 3}-HCO{sub 3}-Cl-ClO{sub 4}-H-OH-H{sub 2}O system. The resulting model is tested against additional solubility data, and compared with Np(V) solubility experiments in complex synthetic brines.

  11. Clubbing of the fingers or toes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clubbing Images Clubbing Clubbed fingers References Davis JL, Murray JF. History and physical examinations. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst MD, et al. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  12. Methamphetamine Use in Club Subcultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes. The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast. PMID:23848380

  13. Redesigning journal club in residency

    PubMed Central

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  14. Book Clubbing! Successful Book Clubs for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This practical guide demonstrates how to sponsor a successful, student-led book club for grades K through 12 that is fun, easy-to-implement, and encourages reading. Establishing a book club for children and young people that's self-sustaining and successful long-term is a challenge that this book addresses and conquers. According to recent…

  15. 4-H Textile Science Textile Arts Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H textile arts projects for students in the textile sciences area. The projects cover weaving, knitting, and crocheting. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects for the area. Projects can be adapted for beginning, intermediate, or advanced…

  16. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  17. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  18. Professional Development Through The University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Nieberding, Megan N.; Austin, Carmen; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club creates a unique environment for undergraduates to accomplish goals early in their academic career. The club provides research opportunities with advisors, graduate students, and projects organized by fellow undergraduates. Undergraduates that work side-by-side develop strong working relationships which keeps students interested in astronomy and enables them to thrive in their studies and research. Club members are encouraged to attend and present their research at professional conferences where they are exposed early to the scientific research community, learn about internship and REU opportunities, and get information about graduate programs. In addition to preparing undergraduates to thrive in their academic career, the club also offers outreach opportunities for members to actively educate the southern Arizona community. Members of the club design and create many of their outreach materials including 3D models of our local stellar neighborhood and astronomical objects. Astronomy Club has had a positive impact on its members, the Department of Astronomy, and the southern Arizona community for the past seven years. The club continues to strive to improve undergraduate retention and prepare students for their future careers.

  19. School Book Club Expurgation Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keresey, Gayle

    1984-01-01

    Discusses expurgation practices (deletion, excision, alteration, obliteration of parts of books) of major school book clubs--Scholastic, Xerox's Read Book Club, Troll Associates--as identified by Intellectual Freedom Committee of Young Adult Services Division of the American Library Association. Implications for school libraries are noted.…

  20. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents' skills…

  1. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  2. A computational study of simultaneous cation/anion interactions in model clusters containing all-cis 1,2,3-trifluorocyclopropane (F3C3H3) and all-cis 1,2,3,4-tetrafluorobutane (F4C4H4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Sean A. C.

    2016-11-01

    A computational study of two model clusters involving the all-cis 1,2,3-trifluorocyclopropane (F3C3H3) and the all-cis 1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclobutane (F4C4H4) molecules was undertaken. These clusters involve the simultaneous attachment of a cation (Li+/Na+) to the "negative" face of F3C3H3/F4C4H4 (via interaction with the Csbnd F bonds) and a model F- anion to the "positive" face of F3C3H3/F4C4H4 (via the adjacent Csbnd H bonds). The relative stabilities of the two model clusters was investigated and extended to the neutral M+sbnd F4C4H4sbnd X- (M = Li, Na, K; X = F, Cl, Br) clusters. The cation-anion electrostatic interaction is the main source of attraction in these highly polar moieties.

  3. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED C{sub 4}H

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksy, Andrew L.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C{sub 4}H were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground vibrational state of C{sub 4}H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with {sup 2}Σ and {sup 2}Π vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the 1ν{sub 6} and 1ν{sub 5} bending vibrational modes (both with {sup 2}Π symmetry), and the 1ν{sub 6}+1ν{sub 7} and 1ν{sub 5}+1ν{sub 6} combination levels ({sup 2}Σ symmetry) on the basis of the derived spectroscopic constants, relative intensities in our discharge source, and published laser spectroscopic and quantum calculations. Prior spectroscopic constants in the 1ν{sub 7} and 2ν{sub 7} levels were refined. Also presented are interferometric maps of the ground state and the 1ν{sub 7} level obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) near 257 GHz which show that C{sub 4}H is present near the central star in IRC+10216. We found no evidence with the SMA for the new vibrationally excited levels of C{sub 4}H at a peak flux density averaged over a 3{sup ′′} synthesized beam of ⩾0.15 Jy/beam in the 294–296 and 304–306 GHz range, but it is anticipated that rotational lines in the new levels might be observed in IRC+10216 when ALMA attains its full design capability.

  4. New insight into the central benzodiazepine receptor-ligand interactions: design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of 3-substituted 6-phenyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepines and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Anzini, Maurizio; Valenti, Salvatore; Braile, Carlo; Cappelli, Andrea; Vomero, Salvatore; Alcaro, Stefano; Ortuso, Francesco; Marinelli, Luciana; Limongelli, Vittorio; Novellino, Ettore; Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Lucacchini, Antonio; Daniele, Simona; Martini, Claudia; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Giorgi, Gianluca; Mascia, Maria Paola; Biggio, Giovanni

    2011-08-25

    3-Substituted 6-phenyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepines and related compounds were synthesized as central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) ligands. Most of the compounds showed high affinity for bovine and human CBR, their K(i) values spanning from the low nanomolar to the submicromolar range. In particular, imidazoester 5f was able to promote a massive flow of (36)Cl(-) in rat cerebrocortical synaptoneurosomes overlapping its efficacy profile with that of a typical full agonist. Compound 5f was then examined in mice for its pharmacological effects where it proved to be a safe anxiolytic agent devoid of the unpleasant myorelaxant and amnesic effects of the classical 1,4-benzodiazepines. Moreover, the selectivity of some selected compounds has been assessed in recombinant α(1)β(2)γ(2)L, α(2)β(1)γ(2)L, and α(5)β(2)γ(2)L human GABA(A) receptors. Finally, some compounds were submitted to molecular docking calculations along with molecular dynamics simulations in the Cromer's GABA(A) homology model.

  5. Self Study Course for Adult 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Human Factors Research Lab.

    This self study programed text for training Four H Club leaders covers the value and the objectives of the Four H movement; basic principles of program planning; useful club meeting formats and guidelines for delegating authority; types of learning and examples of planned learning experiences; teaching methods and their objectives; growth and…

  6. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed and…

  7. Statistical significance of the rich-club phenomenon in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2008-04-01

    We propose that the rich-club phenomenon in complex networks should be defined in the spirit of bootstrapping, in which a null model is adopted to assess the statistical significance of the rich-club detected. Our method can serve as a definition of the rich-club phenomenon and is applied to analyze three real networks and three model networks. The results show significant improvement compared with previously reported results. We report a dilemma with an exceptional example, showing that there does not exist an omnipotent definition for the rich-club phenomenon.

  8. Club of Rome

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Club de Rome s'est fait connaître du grand public par la publication du premier ouvrage "Halte à la croissance" qui a fait l'object d'un débat, il y a 2 ans. Le Prof. Tinbergen a commencé par s'adonner à la physique, il est docteur en physique et très tôt il s'est tourné vers les problèmes sociaux économiques. Il est expert auprès des nombreux gouvernements et organisations internationales et il a vu ses travaux couronnés par le prix Nobel en 1969.

  9. Drink-driving in community sports clubs: adopting the Good Sports alcohol management program.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John; Allen, Felicity

    2012-09-01

    Throughout the developed world, community sports clubs are a high-risk setting for alcohol-impaired driving. The Good Sports program accredits community sports clubs to encourage implementation of alcohol-focussed harm-reduction and safe-transport strategies. This study tested for associations between participation in the Good Sports program and reduced rates of drink-driving amongst club members. Multilevel modelling indicated that for each season a club was in the program there was an 8% reduction in the odds of drink-driving. These findings may arise due to clubs with lower rates of alcohol use maintaining longer involvement in the program. However, the findings are also compatible with the intention of the Good Sports program to reduce the risk that club members will drive whilst alcohol impaired.

  10. Starting a Planet Protectors Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You do…

  11. Conceptions of risk in the lives of club drug-using youth.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes current patterns of club drug use and local conceptions of risk among New York City area youth. The data is drawn from a NIDA-funded ethnographic study of club drug initiation among "Bridge and Tunnel" youth. The paper entails an examination of the harmony and discontinuity between folk models of risk within this population and professional models of risk. The author explores how club drug-using youth conceive of risks related to club drug use, specifically ecstasy, and how such conceptions compare and contrast with current professional models of risk. These conceptions of risk are crucial to understand, as they form an informal logic by which club drug practices are guided. Ultimately, the author examines how the relationship between folk models and professional models might inform health promotion efforts targeting youth.

  12. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  13. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  14. Conflict in a Sixth-Grade Book Club: The Impact of a Rule-Driven Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, K. Dara

    2008-01-01

    This study examines unintended consequences during a 6th-grade book club discussion of Bette Bao Lord's (1984) In the Year of the Boar and Jackie Robinson. The participants modeled a book club discussion, otherwise known as the fish bowl, for a newly enrolled student. Unintended consequences occurred within the realm of deviating from the rules of…

  15. Officer Clubs--Options for Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    base. 6. T used that club how many times a month for: o+ficial functions social drinkinq break fast lunch dinner . dancing check cashing 7. My last...but ’Our corsoiidate(; club would nave separate dininj, dancing and drinkinq areas ftjr officers and NCOs. wkit chances are needed to improve clubs so...toaether in dining, dancing , and drinking areas) AWC: 28 (21%) ACSC: 24 (22%) SOS: 45 (31%) ൗ. Same question as # 14, but your consolidated club

  16. Book Clubs. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Book clubs provide a reading framework designed to supplement or organize regular classroom reading instruction for students in grades K-8. This review focuses on "Book Club" (Raphael & McMahon, 1994) and "Literature Circles" (Daniels, 2002), but it uses the general lowercase) term "book clubs" to embrace both…

  17. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and…

  18. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Energy Project. 4-H Member's E-Book, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 1 (ages 9-11) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. In this project, members are required to: (1) use energy wisely by closing doors and turning off lights; (2) inspecting homes for energy use at least once; (3) judging the best use of lighting in a home; (4) sharing ideas about energy use in a…

  19. Transference of Responsibility Model Goals to the School Environment: Exploring the Impact of a Coaching Club Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David S.; Ozaeta, Jimmy; Wright, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR) has been used throughout the USA and in several other countries to integrate systematically life skill development within physical activity-based programs. While TPSR is widely used in practice and has a growing empirical base, few studies have examined the degree of…

  20. Facilitating a midwifery book club.

    PubMed

    Chenery-Morris, Samantha

    2012-03-01

    A midwifery student book club was set up at University Campus Suffolk (UCS) with the aim of engaging students in alternative forms of literature relevant to their studies and to enhance their university experience. The book club was well attended by first and second year midwifery students, but less so by third years. There was evidence of informal student engagement with the lecturer through follow up emails about the meetings. Most of the books reviewed were enjoyed, but the responsibility of suggesting a book for their peers to review was deemed too much by some students.

  1. Estimating Impact Forces of Tail Club Strikes by Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. Methodology/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100° laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. Conclusions/Significance Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both. PMID:19707581

  2. Club position relative to the golfer's swing plane meaningfully affects swing dynamics.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Sasho J

    2012-06-01

    Previous research indicates that the motion of the golf club is not planar and that the plane traced out by the club is different than that of the golfer's hands. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the position of the club, relative to the golfer's swing plane, influences the motion of the club by using a four-segment (torso, upper arm, forearm, and club), three-dimensional forward dynamics model. A genetic algorithm optimized the coordination of the model's four muscular torque generators to produce the best golf swings possible under six different conditions. The series of simulations were designed to demonstrate the effect of positioning the club above, and below, the golfer's swing plane as well as the effect of changing the steepness of the golfer's swing plane. The simulation results suggest that positioning the club below the golfer's swing plane, early in the downswing, will facilitate the squaring of the clubface for impact, while positioning the club above the plane will have the opposite effect. It was also demonstrated that changing the steepness of the golfer's swing plane by 10 degrees can have little effect on the delivery of the clubhead to the ball.

  3. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  4. Modeling of neutrals in the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source plasma: Hydrogen atom production density profile and H{sub α} intensity by collisional radiative model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T. Shibata, T.; Ohta, M.; Yasumoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Sawada, K.; Fantz, U.

    2014-02-15

    To control the H{sup 0} atom production profile in the H{sup −} ion sources is one of the important issues for the efficient and uniform surface H{sup −} production. The purpose of this study is to construct a collisional radiative (CR) model to calculate the effective production rate of H{sup 0} atoms from H{sub 2} molecules in the model geometry of the radio-frequency (RF) H{sup −} ion source for Linac4 accelerator. In order to validate the CR model by comparison with the experimental results from the optical emission spectroscopy, it is also necessary for the model to calculate Balmer photon emission rate in the source. As a basic test of the model, the time evolutions of H{sup 0} production and the Balmer H{sub α} photon emission rate are calculated for given electron energy distribution functions in the Linac4 RF H{sup −} ion source. Reasonable test results are obtained and basis for the detailed comparisons with experimental results have been established.

  5. Club Drugs. The DAWN Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This report was prepared in response to requests from the media, law enforcement, and community leaders for information about club drugs. By being able to utilize statistics from hospital emergency departments and by compiling statistics on drug-related deaths, the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is able to alert parents, educators, and others…

  6. "WOW" (War on Weight) Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the content and successful use of the "WOW" Club Kit which provides general guidelines and 12 specific meeting outlines for public health nurses, home economics teachers and others with basic nutrition background to use in conducting nutrition and weight control programs in secondary schools. (MS)

  7. Science Club--A Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  8. A Science Club Takes Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeDee, Olivia; Mosser, Anna; Gamble, Tony; Childs, Greg; Oberhauser, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The after-school science club at Galtier Math, Science, and Technology Elementary Magnet School in St. Paul, Minnesota, learned some valuable lessons when they took newfound knowledge about pollution into their homes. After learning about the effects of various contaminants on health and what informed citizens can do about it, students tested…

  9. A nursing journal club thrives through shared governance.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Mary B; Robinson, Carolene B

    2010-01-01

    Promoting professional growth within the practice of nursing is a challenge for nurses in staff development. When that growth includes reading research articles and discussing implications for practice, it is even more difficult to spark interest among frontline clinicians. Most nurses struggle to understand research studies and find reading and critiquing the content intimidating. This article shares the success of a nursing research journal club that was launched through a community hospital's shared governance model. The article will encourage nurses in staff development to implement a journal club that is meaningful to the bedside nurse in all practice areas.

  10. Unexpected Stability of Al4H6: a Borane Analog?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Li; Grubisic, Andrej; Stokes, Sarah; Gantefor, Gerd; Bowen, Kit; Boggavarapu, Kiran; Willis, Mary; Jena, Puru; Burgert, Ralph; Schnockel, Hans; Cordes, James

    2007-03-01

    While boron has many hydrides, aluminum has been thought to exhibit relatively few. A combined anion photoelectron and density functional theory computational study of the Al4H6^- anion, and its corresponding neutral, Al4H6, showed that Al4H6 can be understood in terms of the Wade-Mingos rules for electron counting, suggesting that it may be a borane analog. The data support an Al4H6 structure with a distorted tetrahedral aluminum atom framework, four terminal Al-H bonds, and two sets of counter-positioned Al-H-Al bridging bonds. The large HOMO-LUMO gap found for Al4H6 together with its exceptionally high heat of combustion further suggests that Al4H6 may be an important energetic material, if it can be prepared in bulk. This report announces the opening of a new chapter in aluminum-hydrogen chemistry.

  11. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Club Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Club drugs affect your body. Different club drugs have different effects on your body. Some common effects include loss of muscle and motor control, blurred vision, and seizures. Club drugs like Ecstasy are stimulants that increase your heart ...

  12. View of yacht club and avila pier, facing west. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of yacht club and avila pier, facing west. The San Luis Bay Club is visible on the hill in the background. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  13. Learning and Identity in Overlapping Communities of Practice: Surf Club, School and Sports Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Nash, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Large numbers of children and young people spend their weekends and holidays engaged in the activities of over 300 surf clubs across Australia each summer. Long term membership in these clubs, beginning from as young as five years of age, forms a significant part of children's and young people's development yet surf clubs have yet to receive…

  14. Chinese Obstetrics & Gynecology journal club: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Ilene K; Dodson, William C; Kunselman, Allen R; Kuang, Hongying; Han, Feng-Juan; Legro, Richard S; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether a journal club model could improve comprehension and written and spoken medical English in a population of Chinese medical professionals. Setting and participants The study population consisted of 52 medical professionals who were residents or postgraduate master or PhD students in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, China. Intervention After a three-part baseline examination to assess medical English comprehension, participants were randomised to either (1) an intensive journal club treatment arm or (2) a self-study group. At the conclusion of the 8-week intervention participants (n=52) were re-tested with new questions. Outcome measures The primary outcome was the change in score on a multiple choice examination. Secondary outcomes included change in scores on written and oral examinations which were modelled on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Results Both groups had improved scores on the multiple choice examination without a statistically significant difference between them (90% power). However, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups in mean improvement in scores for both written (95% CI 1.1 to 5.0; p=0.003) and spoken English (95% CI 0.06 to 3.7; p=0.04) favouring the journal club intervention. Conclusions Interacting with colleagues and an English-speaking facilitator in a journal club improved both written and spoken medical English in Chinese medical professionals. Journal clubs may be suitable for use as a self-sustainable teaching model to improve fluency in medical English in foreign medical professionals. Trial registration number NCT01844609. PMID:26823180

  15. Prismatic Slip in PVT-Grown 4H-SiC Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Kim, Jungyu; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gilyong; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeffrey; Manning, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Basal plane slip is the most frequently observed deformation mechanism in 4H-type silicon carbon (4H-SiC) single crystals grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. However, it was recently reported that dislocations in such crystals can also glide in prismatic slip systems. In this study, we observed nonuniform distributions of three sets of prismatic dislocations in a commercial 4H-SiC substrate wafer. The nonuniformity is a result of the distribution of resolved shear stress on each prismatic slip system caused by radial thermal gradients in the growing crystal boule. A radial thermal model has been developed to estimate the thermal stress across the entire area of the crystal boule during PVT growth. The model results show excellent agreement with the observations, confirming that radial thermal gradients play a key role in activating prismatic slip in 4H-SiC during bulk growth.

  16. Prismatic Slip in PVT-Grown 4H-SiC Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Kim, Jungyu; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gilyong; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeffrey; Manning, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Basal plane slip is the most frequently observed deformation mechanism in 4H-type silicon carbon (4H-SiC) single crystals grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. However, it was recently reported that dislocations in such crystals can also glide in prismatic slip systems. In this study, we observed nonuniform distributions of three sets of prismatic dislocations in a commercial 4H-SiC substrate wafer. The nonuniformity is a result of the distribution of resolved shear stress on each prismatic slip system caused by radial thermal gradients in the growing crystal boule. A radial thermal model has been developed to estimate the thermal stress across the entire area of the crystal boule during PVT growth. The model results show excellent agreement with the observations, confirming that radial thermal gradients play a key role in activating prismatic slip in 4H-SiC during bulk growth.

  17. Camping with a Purpose...A 4-H Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, John H.; And Others

    The 4-H handbook focuses on factors to consider and things to be done when developing a camping program. Since the emphasis, structure, and administration of 4-H camping varies, the booklet is flexible enough to be adapted to different state, district, and county situations. Major topics are camping's importance to extension education,…

  18. Developing Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Science Teaching Through Video Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Heather J.; Cotterman, Michelle E.

    2015-06-01

    Though an adequate understanding of content is a natural prerequisite of teaching (Carlsen in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30:471-481, 1993), teachers also need to be able to interpret content in ways that facilitate student learning. How to best support novice teachers in developing and refining their content knowledge for teaching is a crucial and ongoing question for preservice teacher educators. Recently, video clubs are being explored as potential contexts for teacher learning (Barnhart & van Es in Teaching and Teacher Education 45:83-93, 2015; Sherin & Han in Teaching and Teacher Education 20:163-183, 2004). We hypothesized that pairing video clubs with student teaching experiences would provide a forum for preservice teachers to discuss issues relevant to their professional trajectory through exposure to models of peer teaching and opportunities to reflect on practice. In this study, we explored how secondary science preservice teachers used video club to restructure their overall science knowledge into science knowledge for teaching. Our findings suggest that video clubs allowed preservice teachers to access and leverage student thinking and instructional resources to deepen their understanding of science content and trajectories for science learning.

  19. Stabilization of 4H hexagonal phase in gold nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Bosman, Michel; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Ding; Yu, Yi; Ong, Khuong P.; Akimov, Yuriy A.; Wu, Lin; Li, Bing; Wu, Jumiati; Huang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Eng Png, Ching; Lip Gan, Chee; Yang, Peidong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gold, silver, platinum and palladium typically crystallize with the face-centred cubic structure. Here we report the high-yield solution synthesis of gold nanoribbons in the 4H hexagonal polytype, a previously unreported metastable phase of gold. These gold nanoribbons undergo a phase transition from the original 4H hexagonal to face-centred cubic structure on ligand exchange under ambient conditions. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the strong infrared plasmon absorption of single 4H gold nanoribbons is observed. Furthermore, the 4H hexagonal phases of silver, palladium and platinum can be readily stabilized through direct epitaxial growth of these metals on the 4H gold nanoribbon surface. Our findings may open up new strategies for the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of advanced noble metal nanomaterials. PMID:26216712

  20. Predictors of performance in a 4-h mountain-bike race.

    PubMed

    Novak, Andrew R; Bennett, Kyle J M; Fransen, Job; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-04-13

    This study aimed to cross validate previously developed predictive models of mountain biking performance in a new cohort of mountain bikers during a 4-h event (XC4H). Eight amateur XC4H cyclists completed a multidimensional assessment battery including a power profile assessment that consisted of maximal efforts between 6 and 600 s, maximal hand grip strength assessments, a video-based decision-making test as well as a XC4H race. A multiple linear regression model was found to predict XC4H performance with good accuracy (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.01). This model consisted of [Formula: see text] relative to total cycling mass (body mass including competition clothing and bicycle mass), maximum power output sustained over 60 s relative to total cycling mass, peak left hand grip strength and two-line decision-making score. Previous models for Olympic distance MTB performance demonstrated merit (R(2) = 0.93; P > 0.05) although subtle changes improved the fit, significance and normal distribution of residuals within the model (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.01), highlighting differences between the disciplines. The high level of predictive accuracy of the new XC4H model further supports the use of a multidimensional approach in predicting MTB performance. The difference between the new, XC4H and previous Olympic MTB predictive models demonstrates subtle differences in physiological requirements and performance predictors between the two MTB disciplines.

  1. Caveats of an English Conversation Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, JoEllen; Ossa, Carlos E.; Rutter, Frank P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an English conversation club that was initiated at the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia. Suggests ways in which other university communities can better serve their English-speaking populations by creating a similar English conversation club. (Author/VWL)

  2. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  3. What A Booster Club Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidinger, George

    This speech was presented at the 1976 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation national convention by the principal of an Iowa high school. It discusses the development and effectiveness of the Jefferson High School Booster Club which was developed by an interested parent and has been quite successful. The club has assisted…

  4. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs…

  5. STEM Club Participation and STEM Schooling Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Williams, Darryl N.

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science club…

  6. Al4H7(-) is a resilient building block for aluminum hydrogen cluster materials.

    PubMed

    Roach, P J; Reber, A C; Woodward, W H; Khanna, S N; Castleman, A W

    2007-09-11

    The formation and oxygen etching of Al(n)H(m)(-) clusters are characterized in a flow reactor experiment with first-principles theoretical investigations to demonstrate the exceptional stability of Al(4)H(7)(-). The origin of the preponderance of Al(4)H(7)(-) in the mass spectra of hydrogenated aluminum anions and its resistance to O(2) etching are discussed. Al(4)H(7)(-) is shown to have the ability to bond with ionic partners to form stable hydrides through addition of an alkali atom [XAl(4)H(7) (X = Li-Cs)]. An intuitive model that can predict the existence of stable hydrogenated cluster species is proposed. The potential synthetic utility of the superatom assemblies built on these units is addressed.

  7. Health promotion profile of youth sports clubs in Finland: club officials' and coaches' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the current health promotion orientation of youth sports clubs in Finland in view of the standards created previously for the health promoting sports club (HPSC). Ninety-seven youth sports clubs participated, and 273 sports club officials and 240 coaches answered the questionnaires. To describe clubs health promotion orientations, an HPSC index was created. The HPSC index was formulated on sub-indices by factor analysis. The sub-indices were: policy, ideology, practice and environment indexes. The results indicate that youth sports clubs are fairly health promoting in general. On average, the clubs fulfilled 12 standards for HPSC out of 22. Every fourth club was categorized as higher health promoting (> or = 15 fulfilled standards), and every third as lower health promoting (<11 fulfilled standards). The variation between clubs was wide. The clubs that had been recognized as exemplary and hence certified by the Young Finland Association were more likely to recognize health promotion than non-certified clubs (OR = 2.36, p = 0.016). The sports club officials were twice as likely to evaluate their clubs as higher health promoting than the coaches (OR = 2.04, p = 0.041). Under the sub-indices, ideologies were recognized best, others less. These findings indicate that minority of the youth sports clubs have realized health promotion comprehensively as a part of their activities. There is a lot of need for development, especially in the area of health promotion policies and practices. The instruments used proved valid and reliable and can therefore be recommended for international use.

  8. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Linnarsson, M. K. Hallén, A.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  9. Just how important is a good season start? Overall team performance and financial budget of elite soccer clubs.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important is a good season start on elite soccer teams' performance and (ii) to examine whether this impact is related to the clubs' financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the English FA Premier League, French Ligue 1, Spanish La Liga, Italian Serie A and German Bundesliga for three consecutive seasons (2010-2011 to 2012-2013). A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs, Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs, Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs and Low Range Budget Clubs. Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs' annual budget, with lower budgets being associated with a greater importance of having a good season start (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were differences in trends across the different leagues. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. Conversely, Lower-Mid and Lower Range Budget Clubs can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances.

  10. The Sierra Club--A History. Part 2: Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1977-01-01

    This second article on Sierra Club history brings the Club into the 1960s. It relates early conservation activities of the club, such as the efforts to save the Hetch Hetchy Valley. The campaign against construction of a dam in Dinosaur National Monument helped establish the club as a national organization. (MA)

  11. Hybrid Receptor-Bound/MM-GBSA-Per-residue Energy-Based Pharmacophore Modelling: Enhanced Approach for Identification of Selective LTA4H Inhibitors as Potential Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Appiah-Kubi, Patrick; Soliman, Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase has been identified as an enzyme with dual anti- and pro-inflammatory role, thus, the conversion of leukotriene to leukotriene B4 in the initiation stage of inflammation and the removal of the chemotactic Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide. These findings make leukotriene A4 hydrolase an attractive drug target: suggesting an innovative approach towards the identification and design of novel class of compounds that can selectively inhibit leukotriene B4 synthesis while sparing the aminopeptidase activity. Previous inhibitors block the dual activity of the enzyme. Recently, a small lead molecule inhibitor denoted as ARM1 has been identified to block the hydrolase activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase whilst sparing the aminopeptidase activity. In this study, a hybrid receptor-bound/MM-GBSA-per-residue energy based pharmacophore modeling approach was implemented to identify potential selective hydrolase inhibitors of leukotriene A4 hydrolase. In this approach, active site residues that favorably contributed to the binding of the bound conformation of ARM1 were derived from MD ensembles and MM/GBSA thermodynamic calculations. These residues were then mapped to key pharmacophore features of ARM1. The generated pharmacophore model was used to search the ZINC database for 3D structures that match the pharmacophore. Five new compounds have been identified and proposed as potential epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitors of leukotriene A4 hydrolase. Molecular docking and MM/GBSA analyses revealed that, these top five lead-like compounds ZINC00142747, ZINC94260794, ZINC01382396, ZINC02508448, and ZINC53994447 showed better binding affinities to the hydrolase active site pocket compared to ARM1. Per-residue energy decomposition analysis revealed that amino acid residues Phe314, Tyr378, Pro382, Trp311, Val367, and Ala377 are key residues critical in the selective inhibition of these hits. Information highlighted in this study may guide the the design the next

  12. A theoretical study on the reaction mechanism of O2 with C4H9• radical.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong-chen; Gong, Xue-dong

    2012-05-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed using the complete basis set model (CBS-QB3) to study the reaction mechanism of butane radical (C(4)H(9)•) with oxygen (O(2)). On the calculated potential energy surface, the addition of O(2) to C(4)H(9)• forms three intermediates barrierlessly, which can undergo subsequent isomerization or decomposition reaction leading to various products: HOO• + C(4)H(8), C(2)H(5)• + CH(2)CHOOH, OH• + C(3)H(7)CHO, OH• + cycle-C(4)H(8)O, CH(3)• + CH(3)CHCHOOH, CH(2)OOH• + C(3)H(6). Five pathways are supposed in this study. After taking into account the reaction barrier and enthalpy, the most possible reaction pathway is C(4)H(9)• + O(2) → IM1 → TS5 → IM3 → TS6 → IM4 → TS7 → OH• + cycle-C(4)H(8)O.

  13. Florida, National Space Club Embrace Commercial Endeavors

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Manager Ed Mango and Florida's Lt. Gov. Jennifer Carroll were guest speakers at the National Space Club Florida Committee's luncheon at the Radisson Resort at t...

  14. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  15. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  16. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  17. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  18. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  19. Implementing and Assessing 4-H Educational Activity Kits for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Yeske, Janine; Zimmer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Educational activity kits were developed and implemented through a statewide effort for 4-H Youth Development Extension programs serving 5-8 year-old children. The purpose of the kits was to promote life skills in children and assess the learning environment. Data was collected based on the observations of 577 children across 22 counties. Findings…

  20. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  1. New Jersey 4-H Marine Science Project. Leaders Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesuncosky, Betty Jean, Comp.

    This guide contains a collection of activities which are designed to provide opportunities for 4-H voluteers and youth in New Jersey to get involved in learning about the marine environment. The guide is divided into five sections which deal with habitats, organisms, career exploration, community involvement, and additional marine activities. Each…

  2. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  3. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  4. A chemical model for the major electrolyte components of the Hanford waste tanks. The binary electrolytes in the system: Na-NO{sub 3}-NO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}-CO{sub 3}-F-PO{sub 4}-OH-AI(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, A.R.; Rustad, J.R.; Mason, M.J.; Bretonne, R. de la

    1994-08-01

    An aqueous thermodynamic model is developed, based on the equations of Pitzer, which accurately model the major binary electrolytes in the Na-NO{sub 3}-NO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}-CO{sub 3}-F-PO{sub 4}-OH-Al(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O chemical system. This model was developed both from existing data in the literature, and from new osmotic and solubility measurements made as part of this study. Some of the new experimental data developed as part of this study include measurements of osmotic coefficients for NaNO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 2}, and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at both 50 and 100{degrees}C as well as selected measurements of NaF at 100{degrees}C. In addition, the solubility of gibbsite was measured in mixed NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions to determine the reliability of existing thermodynamic models of aluminum hydroxide solubility when applied to concentrated nitrate. In general the final model proposed here is valid from dilute solution to salt saturation over the temperature range 25-100{degrees}C. The accuracy of the model is tested by comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data in selected common-ion ternary systems. When necessary a few commonion ternary ion interaction parameters for the Pitzer model were developed.

  5. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Clinton, Ohio. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Catawba...

  6. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5,...

  7. YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health: Impact of a 4-H Teens-as-Teachers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mary E.; Flesch, Jeffrey M.; Ashton, Carolyn; Black, Lynette; Brody, Barbara; Hosty, Maureen; Northway, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an evaluation of the YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health--Teens as Teachers program. Consistent with previous research on the impact of teen teaching, the teens participating in the program gained confidence and skill with regard to teaching younger youths. The program also affected the teens' understanding that…

  8. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  9. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  10. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  11. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  12. Sensorineural hearing loss of noise in members of aviation club of Larissa (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Gerostergiou, E; Tsitiridis, I; Batzakakis, D; Limpanovnou, G; Vathilakis, I; Sandris, V

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and audiometric characteristics of noise by an one-engine Cessna (1300-1750 RPM), by ultra light aircrafts and different types of air modeling products which induce hearing loss in air modeling members of Aviation club of Larissa in Greece. Material-Methods: During the past 2 years members in the aviation club were referred for clinical and audiological examination in the ENT Department of hearing and speech and underwent a personal interview with a specific questionnaire. No one of the examined members was using individual protection systems during aviation activities. Results: From all members examined, a 30% had an audiogram with a slope in high frequencies, not attributed to presbyacousis and had experienced at least one symptom associated with hearing disturbance. Conclusions: Air modeling members in aviation club that are exposed to noise during aviation activities without protection are at high risk of noise induced hearing loss. PMID:19048094

  13. High School Political Clubs--A First Amendment Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Martin R.

    1977-01-01

    The First and Fourteenth Amendments guarantee that high school students may form political clubs. Such clubs should be recognized by the school unless they prevent others from learning, interrupt class, or violate valid school rules. (Author/IRT)

  14. Contextual view to northnorthwest of Burton Park Club House and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to north-northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater (90 mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  15. Contextual view to southwest of Burton Park Club House and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to southwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater (90mm lens). Pedestals within Amphitheater are supports for bench seating - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  16. Contextual view to north of Burton Park Club House and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to north of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater, taken from adjacent circular drive (135mm lens) - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  17. KIND Clubs: A Humane Education Innovation That's Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Patty

    1990-01-01

    The Kids in Nature's Defense (KIND) Club and the "adopt" a teacher program are described. The importance of animals and the environment is emphasized. Information on how to start a KIND Club is provided. (KR)

  18. 7. OFFICERS' CLUB INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, HALLWAY AND GATHERING ROOMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OFFICERS' CLUB INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, HALLWAY AND GATHERING ROOMS, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Brick Officers' Quarters, Officers' Club, Area A, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  19. Detail, exterior side of doubleplanked north end, Burton Park Club ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, exterior side of double-planked north end, Burton Park Club House, view to south-southwest (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  20. Interior detail, fireplace, main room, Burton Park Club House, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail, fireplace, main room, Burton Park Club House, view to northwest (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  1. Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club House, view to south (90mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  2. Detail, front doors, Burton Park Club House, view to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, front doors, Burton Park Club House, view to west northwest (135mm lens). Note simplified pilasters flanking doors. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  3. View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. Harbor storage building and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. A Perfect Fit: 4-H Involvement for Youth with Disabilities. A Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Greg W.; And Others

    This guide for 4-H leaders and volunteers offers information to help integrate youth with disabilities into various 4-H programs. After an introduction, a section on 4-H and mainstreaming reviews the mission of 4-H; considers what 4-H has to offer youth; defines mainstreaming; notes the benefits of mainstreaming; and distinguishes among the terms…

  5. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  6. Health Promotion Guidance Activity of Youth Sports Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…

  7. Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater. Steps lead up from wings of stage area to club house grade level (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  8. The Prevalence and Practices of Academic Library Journal Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip; Vilelle, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Increased mention of journal clubs in the library literature and the recent creation of clubs at the authors' institutions sparked curiosity about how widespread they are in academic libraries. An online survey announced on library listservs assessed their prevalence and practices. Library journal clubs promote current awareness, analysis skills,…

  9. An Exploration of Recent Club Drug Use among Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Raves are characterized by large numbers of youth dancing for long periods of time and by the use of "club drugs," such as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). While a small body of research has explored the use of ecstasy and other club drugs (EOCD) among club rave attendees in the United States, we are…

  10. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  11. Profiles of club drug users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T

    2005-01-01

    There is little in the literature about treatment of persons with problems with "club" or "party" drugs. This paper looks at the characteristics of individuals admitted to treatment for primary, secondary, or tertiary problems with club drugs such as ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), methamphetamine, and hallucinogens (e.g., LSD) in programs funded by the Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Some 38,350 unduplicated records from 1988 through 2003 of persons admitted with problems with club drugs were compared against users of alcohol or other drugs. Club drug users were more impaired on five of six Addiction Severity Index (ASI) indices at admission and they were more likely to use multiple substances more often. They were more likely than users of alcohol or other drugs to complete treatment, but this varied by drug. At follow-up 90 days after discharge, club drug users continued to report more ASI problems. Profiles of these clients show that ecstasy use has spread beyond the club culture, as indicated by the changes in client demographics over time. GHB clients presented a mixed picture of severe problems at admission and good response to treatment. Hallucinogen clients were young and less likely to complete treatment, while Rohypnol users were on the Texas-Mexico border. The methamphetamine epidemic has resulted in increased admissions, and the proportion of "Ice" smokers has increased. However, methamphetamine clients were less likely to complete treatment and their higher level of problems at admission and follow-up are of concern. Of special note are the indications of co-occurring problems and the need for both mental health and substance dependence treatment for some clients.

  12. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  13. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria.

    PubMed

    Circone, Susan; Kirby, Stephen H; Stern, Laura A

    2006-04-27

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within +/-2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol(-1) K(-1) for 1/nCH4.H2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled.

  14. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  15. Power and control in gay strip clubs.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Joseph R G

    2007-01-01

    The gay strip club is a place in which more than displays of male beauty take place. The mix of customers, performers, liquor, and nudity results in fascinating dynamics. Of interest in this article are the power relationships and issues of control played out both among and between strippers and customers. Based on extensive participant observation conducted in eight cities and numerous bars/clubs and including more than 150 in-depth interviews, this article concerns just one aspect of the world of male strippers who perform for men.

  16. Computational Study of Anisotropic Epitaxial Recrystallization in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yanwen; Posselt, Matthias; Weber, William J.

    2008-03-26

    Two nano-sized amorphous layers were employed within a crystalline cell to study anisotropic expitaxial recrystallization using molecular dynamics (MD) methods in 4H-SiC. Both amorphous layers were created with the normal of the amorphous-crystalline (a-c) interfaces along the [0001] direction, but one with a microscopic extension long the [0001] direction, i.e. the dimension along the [-12-10] direction is much larger than that along the [-12-10] direction (Ix model), and another with a microscopic extension long the [-1010] direction (Iy model). The amorphous layer within the Ix model can be completely recrystallized at 2000 K within achievable simulation time, and the recrystallization is driven by a step-regrowth mechanism. On the other hand, the nucleation and growth of secondary ordered phases are observed at high temperatures in the Iy model. The temperature for recrystallization of the amorphous layer into high quality 4H-SiC is estimated to be below 1500 K. As compared with other models, it is found that the regrowth rates and recrystallization mechanisms strongly depend on the orientation of 4H-SiC, whereas the activation energy spectra for recrystallization processes are independent on a specific polytypic structure, with activation energies ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 eV.

  17. Indicators of Club Management Practices and Biological Measurements of Patrons’ Drug and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Music Dance Events in nightclubs attract patrons with heavy alcohol/drug use. Public health concerns are raised from risks related to these behaviors. Practices associated with increased risk in these club settings need to be identified. Objectives The relationship between club management practices and biological measures of patrons’ alcohol/drug use is examined. Methods Observational data from 25 events across 6 urban clubs were integrated with survey data (N=738 patrons, 42.8% female) from patrons exiting these events, 2010–2012. Five indicators of club management practices were examined using mixed model regressions: club security, bar crowding, safety signs, serving intoxicated patrons, and isolation. Results Analyses revealed that serving intoxicated patrons and safety signs were related to less substance use. Specifically, serving intoxicated patrons was related to heavy alcohol and drug use at exit, while safety signs were marginally related to less exit drug use. Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate observable measures in nightclubs provide important indicators for alcohol/drug use, suggesting practices to target. Study strengths include the use of biological measures of substance use on a relatively large scale. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24832721

  18. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  19. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel; Spencer, M. G.

    2016-01-04

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P{sup +}N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH{sup 3}{sub x}) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm{sup 2}. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6 }cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P{sup +}N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  20. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 4H Resulting from Compound Heterozygous Mutations in FGD4 from Nonconsanguineous Korean Families.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Young Se; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Hye Jin; Hong, Young Bin; Koo, Heasoo; Smith, Alec S T; Kim, Deok-Ho; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2015-11-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4H (CMT4H) is an autosomal recessive demyelinating subtype of peripheral enuropathies caused by mutations in the FGD4 gene. Most CMT4H patients are in consanguineous Mediterranean families characterized by early onset and slow progression. We identified two CMT4H patients from a Korean CMT cohort, and performed a detailed genetic and clinical analysis in both cases. Both patients from nonconsanguineous families showed characteristic clinical manifestations of CMT4H including early onset, scoliosis, areflexia, and slow disease progression. Exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous mutations in FGD4 as the underlying cause in both families (p.Arg468Gln and c.1512-2A>C in FC73, p.Met345Thr and c.2043+1G>A (p.Trp663Trpfs*30) in FC646). The missense mutations were located in highly conserved RhoGEF and PH domains which were predicted to be pathogenic in nature by in silico modeling. The CMT4H occurrence frequency was calculated to 0.7% in the Korean demyelinating CMT patients. This study is the first report of CMT4H in Korea. FGD4 assay could be considered as a means of molecular diagnosis for sporadic cases of demyelinating CMT with slow progression.

  1. Deaf clubs today: do they still have a role to play? The cases of Cyprus and Greece.

    PubMed

    Hadjikakou, Kika; Nikolaraizi, Magda

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the current functions of Deaf clubs in Cyprus and in Greece. The researchers conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 24 Cypriot and 22 Greek deaf individuals ages 19-54 years. The researchers found that the Deaf clubs in both countries provide a gathering place for deaf people, organize social and sport activities, and promote their demands through legislation. In addition, Deaf clubs maintain and transmit Deaf culture and history to future generations, offer Deaf role models to young deaf children and their families, and provide Deaf awareness to hearing people (e.g., through sign languages classes). The study participants also stressed the role of Deaf clubs in deaf people's lives, unity, and prospects for future progress.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in 4H- and 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C. C.; You, A. H.; Wong, E. K.

    2010-07-07

    The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of electron transport properties at high electric field region in 4H- and 6H-SiC are presented. This MC model includes two non-parabolic conduction bands. Based on the material parameters, the electron scattering rates included polar optical phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering are evaluated. The electron drift velocity, energy and free flight time are simulated as a function of applied electric field at an impurity concentration of 1x10{sup 18} cm{sup 3} in room temperature. The simulated drift velocity with electric field dependencies is in a good agreement with experimental results found in literature. The saturation velocities for both polytypes are close, but the scattering rates are much more pronounced for 6H-SiC. Our simulation model clearly shows complete electron transport properties in 4H- and 6H-SiC.

  3. A bilingual "neighborhood club": intervening with children exposed to urban violence.

    PubMed

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Maltese, Kelly L; Bautista, Elida M

    2006-06-01

    Mental health practitioners have offered relatively little in response to the pervasive community violence faced by many children living in impoverished neighborhoods. The "neighborhood club" is a school-based, short-term, support group designed to assist children with the psychological impact of exposure to community violence. Ten "neighborhood clubs" were conducted in two public elementary schools in Detroit, Michigan. This paper reviews the implementation of a bilingual "neighborhood club," undertaken to better serve the Spanish-speaking Latino students in a school community. We discuss many of the rewards and challenges of conducting a bilingual, multicultural support group for children and conclude that a bilingual support group provides all children with a model that validates ethnic and cultural diversity while also building empathic bonds based on mutually-reinforcing, common experiences.

  4. Club drugs: reasons for and consequences of use.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Cheryl L

    2004-09-01

    This preliminary descriptive study was designed to assess the reasons, primary contexts, and consequences (physical, psychological, lifestyle) of club drug use in a sample of young adults in a mid-size U.S. city. Fifty young adults (18 to 30 years old) reported on their use of club drugs (Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, Rohypnol, methamphetamine, LSD) in face-to-face interviews that included quantitative and qualitative measures. Ecstasy was the most frequently used club drug followed by ketamine, LSD and methamphetamine. All of the participants reported using club drugs to "experiment" and most reported using these drugs to feel good and enhance social activities. Club drugs were frequently used at raves, in bars or clubs, and at home with friends. An average of 16 negative physical, psychological, and lifestyle consequences were reported for club drug use. Despite substantial negative consequences, participants perceived several positive consequences of regular recreational club drug use. These findings corroborate descriptions of club drug use in other countries (e.g., Australia, United Kingdom) and provide additional information on perceived positive consequences that users experience with club drug use. Further exploration of the reasons and positive consequences that are associated with use of each of the club drugs may provide important information on the growing trend in use of these drugs.

  5. I-V characteristics simulation of silicon carbide Ti/4H-SiC Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, P.; Rybalka, S.; Malakhanov, A.; Krayushkina, E.; Radkov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The simulation of current-voltage characteristics for 4H-SiC Schottky diode with Ti Schottky contact has been carried out with used of TCAD program. Obtained current-voltage characteristics has been analyzed and compared with theoretical and experimental results. It is established that the Schottky diode parameters (forward current, ideality coefficient, Schottky barrier height, breakdown voltage) obtained in proposed model are good agreement with data for such type diodes.

  6. Topics for Mathematics Clubs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    One of the main purposes of a mathematics club is to provide the opportunity for students to study exciting topics in mathematics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom. Each of the 10 chapters in this booklet is a collection of related subtopics. Each idea is presented and discussed; bibliographies then suggest in-depth reading. The chapters…

  7. Operations Course Icebreaker: Campus Club Cupcakes Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Brent; Southin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Campus Club Cupcakes is an in-class "introduction to operations management" experiential learning exercise which can be used within minutes of starting the course. After reading the one-page mini case, students are encouraged to meet each other and collaborate to determine if making and selling cupcakes to fellow business students would…

  8. Reflections from the Reading Detective Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee-Vignola, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This action research study explores how strategic conversations and Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) influences beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about reading, as well as reading proficiencies and strategies of my "readers in trouble." Creating a Reading Detective Club (Goodman, D. 1999) in my own classroom provided opportunities…

  9. Advice on Setting up a STEM Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Setting up a STEM club can be the most daunting item that one faces on a department's development plan. Coupled with all the other demands that exist within teaching and learning, teachers can be easily forgiven for pushing this task further and further into the school year until it eventually becomes one of next year's "to-do" items.…

  10. Digital clubbing: forms, associations and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, Simon; Pal, Shrestha; Singh, Sarneet; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2016-07-01

    Among proposed mechanisms to explain digital clubbing, the release of cytokines, specifically vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, from aggregated platelets and megakaryocytes has emerged as the most likely explanation. This review describes these and other contributory processes.

  11. New Methods for an Undergraduate Journal Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jordan M.; Rollins, Adam W.; Smith, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Journal clubs have been used to advance students' scientific skills beyond basic knowledge and comprehension, but students often view the traditional format of analyzing reported data and experimental design as laborious and intimidating. As such, the traditional approach can diminish student engagement and enthusiasm for the value of scientific…

  12. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  13. Making a Computer Club, Making a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillingham, M.; Youniss, E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer club at an inner city elementary school in Chicago. Discusses the sense of community that grew; parent involvement; scaffold learning; self-control; community service; difficulties in creating a sustainable innovation; and possible future directions. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  14. The Before and After School Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brountas, Maria

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the Before and After School Clubs program at Vine Street School in Bangor, Maine, which allows students to come to school 30 minutes early or stay 30 minutes late on alternate days to participate in learning activities of their own choice. (MDM)

  15. Horizons: A Mother-Daughter Mathematics Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Kimberly B.; Larson, Carol Novillis

    2002-01-01

    Describes a successful mother/daughter math club started by a third grade teacher which is designed to help participants increase positive feelings about mathematics; further develop problem-solving skills, especially involving construction and spatial visualization tasks; and become familiar with women's contributions to the world of mathematics.…

  16. The Miami Boys Club Delinquency Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul; Mooney, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Describes an instructional rehabilitation program that targets hard-core male delinquents. Run by the Boys Clubs of Miami, in conjunction with the Circuit Court's Juvenile Division, the program presently serves 120 youngsters at a third of the cost of the state training schools. (MD)

  17. Maxi program at IEEE EMBS Student Club of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfeng; Tao, Ningning; Tang, Luxian; Ma, Xu; Garcia, Gonzalo A; Mitsui, Mie

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the recently launched Maxi Program at IEEE EMBS Student Club of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. The program initiates a variety of seminar series covering biomedical expertise and professional communication skills, forms a cooperative partnership between students, university and industry through guest speakers events and industry tours, and sets in motion personal consultative services (PCS) to foster the individualized competence of students. This extended program could be an innovative model of self-development as an affiliated student chapter/club with IEEE EMBS.

  18. Leakage currents in 4H-SiC JBS diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Grekhov, I. V.; Potapov, A. S.; Kon'kov, O. I.; Il'inskaya, N. D.; Samsonova, T. P.; Korol'kov, O.; Sleptsuk, N.

    2012-03-15

    Leakage currents in high-voltage 4H-SiC diodes, which have an integrated (p-n) Schottky structure (Junction Barrier Schottky, JBS), have been studied using commercial diodes and specially fabricated (based on a commercial epitaxial material) test Schottky diodes with and without the JBS structure. It is shown that (i) the main role in reverse charge transport is played by SiC crystal structure defects, most probably, by threading dislocations (density {approx}10{sup 4} cm{sup -2}), and (ii) the JBS structure, formed by the implantation of boron, partially suppresses the leakage currents (by up to a factor of 10 at optimal separation, 8 {mu}m between local p-type regions).

  19. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  20. The Book Club Connection: Literacy Learning and Classroom Talk. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan I., Ed.; Raphael, Taffy E., Ed.

    This is a comprehensive text about beliefs, issues, and practices at the forefront of literacy education--language, ethnic, and academic diversity; authentic assessment; and social construction of meaning and knowledge--explored through the lens of a cohesive instructional design, the Book Club Program. It presents a pedagogical model based on a…

  1. The Use Value of "Fight Club" in Teaching Theories of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching theories and methods for the academic study of religion poses certain challenges, especially when first-year students are the primary targeted audience. In the following note from the classroom, the author describes a model for successfully employing the film "Fight Club" as a case study for exploring some of the theoretical concepts of…

  2. The magazine of a sadomasochism club: the tie that binds.

    PubMed

    Houlberg, R

    1991-01-01

    The monthly magazine of a sadomasochism club was investigated as a means of describing important issues for club members. The magazine was selected for this exploratory study because it is: (a) The club's only recorded history; (b) the only repository of club members' writings and photographs; and (c) the only link to the club for about 15% of the membership who do not attend meetings or other club activities because they reside some distance from the club's two West Coast chapters. A descriptive content analysis was performed on 47 issues of the club's magazine, published between October 1983 and January 1988, and the results were combined with the findings of a December 1987 magazine readership survey completed by 44% of the 812 dues-paying club members. The author's nonparticipant observations of club programs are also reported. The results indicate the magazine's space is filled by seven subject categories: S/M media reviews (2% of space), S/M poetry (5%), S/M issues (10%), S/M "how-to" (12%), S/M photography (14%), fantasy and real S/M stories (17%), and organizational reports (40%).

  3. Breakfast Clubs: Starting the Day in a Positive Way

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast clubs are widely promoted as having a beneficial impact on children’s behavior at the start of the school day, which can be conducive to their learning within the classroom. However, the few available studies that have considered the impact of breakfast club attendance on children’s behavior have yielded mixed results and no studies to date have directly observed children’s behavior within the breakfast club setting. Using a combination of real-time observation and filmed breakfast club footage, the aims of the current study were to: (1) devise a set of observational criteria appropriate for use in the breakfast club setting; (2) investigate the occurrence of both positive and negative behaviors. A sample of 30 children aged between 3 and 11 years were recruited from 3, opportunistically sampled primary school breakfast clubs in the North East of England, UK. The behaviors they displayed within the breakfast club setting on two separate days were observed and coded for subsequent analysis. Results of the investigation showed that children’s behavior could be classified into three positive and three negative behavioral categories. Using these categories to code children’s behavior as they engaged in breakfast club showed that children displayed more positive than negative behaviors within the breakfast club setting and this was the case regardless of the type of activity (i.e., quiet or boisterous) children were involved in. Findings are discussed in relation to breakfast club policy, implementation, and evaluation. PMID:26217653

  4. Regionalization of the Washington State University Extension 4-H Youth Development Program: Employee Awareness, Buy-In, and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison J.; Teuteberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Washington's 4-H program is transitioning from a predominately single-county faculty model to a regional system. This article highlights survey results regarding the level of awareness and buy-in that Extension administration, faculty, and staff have concerning the regional model and how communication about the model took place. While most…

  5. Effects on murine behavior and lifespan of selectively decreasing expression of mutant huntingtin allele by supt4h knockdown.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Chern, Yijuang; Chen, I-Hui; Liu, Chia-Rung; Li, Sih-Huei; Chun, Seung J; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C Frank; Deng, Ning; Feng, Yanan; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Yan, Yu-Ting; Cohen, Stanley N; Cheng, Tzu-Hao

    2015-03-01

    Production of protein containing lengthy stretches of polyglutamine encoded by multiple repeats of the trinucleotide CAG is a hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD) and of a variety of other inherited degenerative neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Earlier work has shown that interference with production of the transcription elongation protein SUPT4H results in decreased cellular capacity to transcribe mutant huntingtin gene (Htt) alleles containing long CAG expansions, but has little effect on expression of genes containing short CAG stretches. zQ175 and R6/2 are genetically engineered mouse strains whose genomes contain human HTT alleles that include greatly expanded CAG repeats and which are used as animal models for HD. Here we show that reduction of SUPT4H expression in brains of zQ175 mice by intracerebroventricular bolus injection of antisense 2'-O-methoxyethyl oligonucleotides (ASOs) directed against Supt4h, or in R6/2 mice by deletion of one copy of the Supt4h gene, results in a decrease in mRNA and protein encoded specifically by mutant Htt alleles. We further show that reduction of SUPT4H in mouse brains is associated with decreased HTT protein aggregation, and in R6/2 mice, also with prolonged lifespan and delay of the motor impairment that normally develops in these animals. Our findings support the view that targeting of SUPT4H function may be useful as a therapeutic countermeasure against HD.

  6. 4H-silicon carbide-dielectric interface recombination analysis using free carrier absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvanam, S. S.; Gulbinas, K.; Usman, M.; Linnarson, M. K.; Martin, D. M.; Linnros, J.; Grivickas, V.; Hallén, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative method to characterize the interface between 4H polytype of Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) and passivating dielectric layers is established. The studies are made on dielectric-semiconductor test structures using Al2O3 as dielectric on 4H-SiC n-type epitaxial layers. Samples with different pre- and post-dielectric deposition preparations have been fabricated on epilayers of varying thicknesses. Effective lifetimes (τeff) of all the samples were measured by an optical pump-probe method utilizing free carrier absorption (FCA) to analyse the influence of the 4H-SiC/dielectric interface on charge carrier recombination. The relative contribution to τeff from the surfaces increases with decreasing epilayer thickness, and by analysing the data in combination with numerical modelling, it is possible to extract values of the surface recombination velocities (SRVs) for interfaces prepared in different ways. For instance, it is found that SRV for a standard cleaning procedure is 2 × 106 cm/s compared to a more elaborate RCA process, yielding a more than 50 times lower value of 3.5 × 104 cm/s. Furthermore, the density of interface traps (Dit) is extracted from capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements using the Terman method and a comparison is made between the SRV extracted from FCA measurements and Dits extracted from CV measurements on the same structures fabricated with metal contacts. It is observed that the SRV increase scales linearly with the increase in Dit. The strong qualitative correlation between FCA and CV data shows that FCA is a useful characterization technique, which can also yield more quantitative information about the charge carrier dynamics at the interface.

  7. Why certain male grasshoppers have clubbed antennae?

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pascaline; Tetreau, Guillaume; Petit, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The significance of clubbed antennae in grasshoppers was assessed by investigating the sensilla repertoire of 15 gomphocerine species. The influence of the diet type (graminivorous or polyphagous) and the apical thickening of antenna on the number of sensilla were tested. It appears that the antennal thickening has a stronger impact on the number of sensilla than the food mode. The species bearing clubbed antennae are globally low in olfactive and contact sensilla, maybe in relation with a more complex courtship, but are richer in mechanoreceptors, probably involved in the control of antenna movements. The food mode change from oligophagy to polyphagy is not associated to an increase in the number of olfactive or contact sensilla. In contrast, the high number of these sensilla in a monophagous grasshopper feeding on Ulex bushes is interpreted in the context of alkaloid detection.

  8. Tracking club sport participation from childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally used correlation coefficients, summary statistics (intraclass correlations; ICC) from random effect models and stability coefficients from generalized estimating equations (GEE) were calculated using all the longitudinal data and controlling for the influence of covariates on tracking strength. Correlation coefficients revealed statistically significant tracking of club sport participation (7-21 years) at low levels (r = .07-0.28). The ICC summary statistic (0.23) was consistent with this, while the GEE suggested moderate tracking (0.59). The results of this study suggest that encouraging sport participation during childhood and adolescence may result in a modest increase in the likelihood of participation later in life. However, the substantial movement into and out of sport participation observed here and in other studies cautions against relying solely on sport promotion among youth as a strategy to promote lifelong participation.

  9. The Fuel Cell Powered Club Car Carryall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center initiated development of the Fuel Cell Powered Club Car Carryall as a way to reduce pollution in industrial settings, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The Club Car Carryall provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in electric vehicle technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via non-traditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future aeronautics and space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program. The Carryall is a state of the art, dedicated, electric utility vehicle. Hydrogen powered proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are the primary power source. Ultracapacitors were used for energy storage as long life, maintenance free operation, and excellent low temperature performance is essential. Metal hydride hydrogen storage was used to store hydrogen in a safe and efficient low-pressure solid form. The report concludes that the Fuel Cell Powered Club Car Carryall can provide excellent performance, and that the implementation of fuel cells in conjunction with ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant reliability and performance improvements.

  10. Nitrogen incorporation and interface trap reduction in silicon dioxide/4H-silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle

    2001-07-01

    Silicon carbide is a wide band gap semiconductor whose properties make it an ideal material for high power applications. Silicon carbide thermally oxidizes to form SiO2, which is used as a gate insulator in MOSFETs; however, MOSFETs produced from the 4H-SiC polytype exhibit much lower channel mobilities than expected. A large density of interface traps produced by carbon clusters and located near the conduction band has been proposed as the source of the poor mobility. The nitridation of the SiO2/4H-SiC interface using NO and NH3 has been shown to reduce this interface trap density and improve the channel mobility. In this work, the kinetics of nitrogen incorporation using NO and NH3 are compared, and the relationship between nitrogen content and interface trap density are discussed. The nitridation of SiO2/4H-SiC in NO at temperatures from 1050--1175°C incorporates ˜1014 cm-2 of nitrogen at the interface. Oxygen formed during the thermal decomposition of NO oxidizes the substrate and removes carbon and nitrogen from the interface. When the nitridation and oxidation reactions reach equilibrium, the nitrogen content saturates independently of temperature. The nitridation of SiO 2/4H-SiC in NH; at temperatures from 1050--1175°C incorporates ˜10 16 cm-2 uniformly throughout the oxide bulk. During nitridation, oxygen is removed from the oxide, and the stoichiometry of the film is changed significantly. The nitridation of SiO2/4H-SiC in NO reduces the interface trap density near the conduction band by a factor of 10, but the trap density remains high. The complete passivation of these particular traps occurs at a nitrogen content of ≈2.5 x 1014 cm-2 , regardless of the annealing conditions. The data are consistent with a model of the interface in which the traps near the conduction band are produced by large carbon clusters with a near-continuum of energy levels. The passivation of these traps with nitrogen then proceeds by the dissolution of these carbon clusters

  11. Environmental Strategies for Prevention of Drug Use and Risks in Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental prevention strategies in club settings where music and dance events are featured could provide an important new arena for the prevention of drug use and other risky behaviors (e.g., sexual risk taking, intoxication and drug use, aggression, and driving under the influence). Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) occur in clubs that attract young, emerging adults (18–25 years of age) and attract individuals who engage in various types of drug use. Borrowing from the environmental prevention studies that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems, a model for drug prevention in the club setting is proposed. Initially, an overview of the relationships between EMDEs and drug use and other risky behaviors are presented. Next, rationales for environmental strategies are provided. Finally, an environmental approach to prevention of drug use and risky behaviors in clubs is described. This comprehensive set of environmental strategies, is designed to be mutually supportive and interactive. Environmental strategies are believed to provide potential for developing an efficacious prevention strategy. The environmental prevention approach presented here is composed of three intervention domains: (1) Mobilization, (2) Strategies for the Exterior Environment, and (3) Strategies for the Interior Environment. PMID:20216925

  12. Poly-club-drug Use among Gay & Bisexual Men: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Palamar, Joseph J.; Mukherjee, Preetika Pandey

    2007-01-01

    Objective We sought to delineate patterns of poly-club-drug use among gay and bisexual men. Data were drawn from a large-scale twelve-month longitudinal investigation of club drug use and sexual behavior among 450 racially, ethnically, and geographically diverse sample of gay and bisexual men in New York City. Methods Using community-based sampling, we recruited the sample from numerous venues and assessed the self-reported use of five drugs and their relation to one another: cocaine, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and methamphetamine. Multivariate Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was utilized to examine associations of usage over the 12-month data collection period. Results Use of the five club drugs was highly related as noted by both parametric and non-parametric analyses of the cross-sectional data. Patterns of use over time also indicated significant longitudinal associations. Specifically, the use of methamphetamine over time was related to both the use of ecstasy and GHB. Conclusions The analyses suggest that usage patterns of individual club drugs such as methamphetamine, ecstasy, and GHB among gay and bisexual men are highly related across time. These findings hold implications for the treatment approaches that are utilized to address substance abuse in this segment of the population, and suggest that practitioners focus on the totality of the substance abuse behaviors and not necessarily individual drugs which are administered. PMID:17267140

  13. Social Background, Personality and Attitudinal Factors Influencing the Decision to Volunteer and Level of Involvement among Adult 4-H Leaders. Summary of Research 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, Frederick R.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study was conducted to investigate, using a portion of Smith's Sequential Specificity Model, the relationship between social background, personality, and attitudinal factors and the participation of adult volunteers in the 4-H program in Ohio. Data were collected from a sample of 300 adult 4-H volunteers in Ohio through a mailed questionnaire; a…

  14. Non-Micropipe Dislocations in 4H-SiC Devices: Electrical Properties and Device Technology Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Huang, Wei; Dudley, Michael; Fazi, Christian

    1998-01-01

    It is well-known that SiC wafer quality deficiencies are delaying the realization of outstandingly superior 4H-SiC power electronics. While efforts to date have centered on eradicating micropipes (i.e., hollow core super-screw dislocations with Burgers vectors greater than or equal to 2c), 4H-SiC wafers and epilayers also contain elementary screw dislocations (i.e., Burgers vector = 1c with no hollow core) in densities on the order of thousands per sq cm, nearly 100-fold micropipe densities. While not nearly as detrimental to SiC device performance as micropipes, it has recently been demonstrated that elementary screw dislocations somewhat degrade the reverse leakage and breakdown properties of 4H-SiC p(+)n diodes. Diodes containing elementary screw dislocations exhibited a 5% to 35% reduction in breakdown voltage, higher pre-breakdown reverse leakage current, softer reverse breakdown I-V knee, and microplasmic breakdown current filaments that were non-catastrophic as measured under high series resistance biasing. This paper details continuing experimental and theoretical investigations into the electrical properties of 4H-SiC elementary screw dislocations. The nonuniform breakdown behavior of 4H-SiC p'n junctions containing elementary screw dislocations exhibits interesting physical parallels with nonuniform breakdown phenomena previously observed in other semiconductor materials. Based upon experimentally observed dislocation-assisted breakdown, a re-assessment of well-known physical models relating power device reliability to junction breakdown has been undertaken for 4H-SiC. The potential impact of these elementary screw dislocation defects on the performance and reliability of various 4H-SiC device technologies being developed for high-power applications will be discussed.

  15. Group Influences on Individuals’ Drinking and Other Drug Use at Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines effects of the social group on individual alcohol and drug use upon entry and exit from the club. Based on collected biological measurements of alcohol and other drug use, this study explores whether social group indicators (e.g., group characteristics) are predictive of alcohol and other drug use for individual club patrons. Method: A total of 368 social groups, representing 986 individuals (50.7% female), were anonymously surveyed, and biological measures of alcohol and other drug use were collected at entrance and exit to clubs on a single evening. Both individual and group-level indicators were assessed. Because data were clustered by club, event, and group, mixed-model regressions were conducted to account for non-independence. Results: Group indicators of high blood alcohol concentration were being in a group that intends to get drunk, that has at least one member who regularly gets drunk, and that has discrepancies in its expectations regarding drug use. Group indicators related to cocaine use were high levels of drug use expected among group members, little discrepancy among the group members regarding the drug use expected, and high levels of intentions to get drunk. In addition, older groups were more likely to have higher levels of cocaine use. There were less consistent findings regarding group effects on marijuana use. The most consistent finding was that high drug use expectations were related to higher levels of marijuana use. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that strategies should focus on recognizing group indicators as risks for group members. Promoting social responsibility for group members may create safer club experiences among young adults. These efforts could model designated-driver programs as a way to increase safety and social responsibility. PMID:23384376

  16. An ab initio electronic density study of the CH4-Ar, CH4-Xe, CH4-H2O and CH4-H2S complexes: insights into the nature of the intermolecular interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Frati, Federica; Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Cappelletti, David; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The main point of this paper concerns the theoretical characterisation of the effects induced by the intermolecular interaction on the electron density upon the formation of CH4-H2X (X=O,S) and CH4-Ng (Ng=Ar,Xe) complexes. The work has been stimulated by recent molecular scattering beams experiments, which point out differences in both strength and anisotropy of the intermolecular potential between CH4-H2X respect to reference CH4-Ng systems. Herein, attention is focused on the electronic charge polarisation and particularly charge transfer (CT) effects between involved partners, directly related to the topology of the full potential energy surface. The modification of electron density and the occurrence of CT have been evaluated via the charge displacement function worked out by high level ab initio calculations. Moreover, in the case of a specific configuration of CH4-H2O system, we define the leading interaction components, including their relative stabilising role and test our intermolecular potential model with reference to ab initio calculations. The results obtained indicate that CT clearly affects the strength and the anisotropy of CH4-H2O complex, and covers a minor and negligible role for CH4-H2S and the noble gas complexes, respectively.

  17. Health promotion activities of sports clubs and coaches, and health and health behaviours in youth participating in sports clubs: the Health Promoting Sports Club study

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Sami; Selänne, Harri; Alanko, Lauri; Heinonen, Olli J; Korpelainen, Raija; Savonen, Kai; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannas, Lasse; Kujala, Urho M; Aira, Tuula; Villberg, Jari; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sports clubs form a potential setting for health promotion, but the research is limited. The aim of the Health Promoting Sports Club (HPSC) study was to elucidate the current health promotion activities of youth sports clubs and coaches, and to investigate the health behaviours and health status of youth participating in sports clubs compared to non-participants. Methods and analysis The study design employs cross-sectional multilevel and multimethod research with aspirations to a prospective cohort study in the next phase. The setting-based variables at sports clubs and coaching levels, and health behaviour variables at the individual level, are investigated using surveys; and total levels of physical activity are assessed using objective accelerometer measurements. Health status variables will be measured by preparticipation screening. The health promotion activity of sports clubs (n=154) is evaluated by club officials (n=313) and coaches (n=281). Coaches and young athletes aged 14–16 (n=759) years evaluate the coaches’ health promotion activity. The survey of the adolescents’ health behaviours consist of two data sets—the first is on their health behaviours and the second is on musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. Data are collected via sports clubs (759 participants) and schools 1650 (665 participants and 983 non-participants). 591 (418 athletes and 173 non-athletes) youth, have already participated in preparticipation screening. Screening consists of detailed personal medical history, electrocardiography, flow-volume spirometry, basic laboratory analyses and health status screening, including posture, muscle balance, and static and dynamic postural control tests, conducted by sports and exercise medicine specialists. Ethics and dissemination The HPSC study is carried out conforming with the declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was received from the Ethics Committee of Health Care District of Central Finland. The HPSC study is

  18. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  19. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  20. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  1. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  2. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  3. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  4. Cortical rich club regions can organize state-dependent functional network formation by engaging in oscillatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Senden, Mario; Reuter, Niels; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2017-02-01

    Cognition is hypothesized to require the globally coordinated, functionally relevant integration of otherwise segregated information processing carried out by specialized brain regions. Studies of the macroscopic connectome as well as recent neuroimaging and neuromodeling research have suggested a densely connected collective of cortical hubs, termed the rich club, to provide a central workspace for such integration. In order for rich club regions to fulfill this role they must dispose of a dynamic mechanism by which they can actively shape networks of brain regions whose information processing needs to be integrated. A potential candidate for such a mechanism comes in the form of oscillations which might be employed to establish communication channels among relevant brain regions. We explore this possibility using an integrative approach combining whole-brain computational modeling with neuroimaging, wherein we investigate the local dynamics model brain regions need to exhibit in order to fit (dynamic) network behavior empirically observed for resting as well as a range of task states. We find that rich club regions largely exhibit oscillations during task performance but not during rest. Furthermore, oscillations exhibited by rich club regions can harmonize a set of asynchronous brain regions thus supporting functional coupling among them. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that the rich club can actively shape integration using oscillations.

  5. Adolescent Multilinguals' Engagement with Religion in a Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jayoung; Tinker Sachs, Gertrude

    2017-01-01

    The study examines four adolescent multilinguals' engagement with religion, as well as outcomes of that engagement, in an out-of-school book club. The qualitative analysis of participants' talk in book club meetings, writing responses, and individual interviews revealed that multilinguals tap into their religious knowledge and identities in making…

  6. Resources for Teachers Starting a Planet Protector’s Club

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Planet Protector activities are a great way to get student’s interested in reducing, reusing and recycling. Use the activities to launch an ongoing club with our club factsheet, membership badge, activity calendar, and certificate of completion.

  7. Stalemate: Girls and a Mixed-Gender Chess Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galitis, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Observed and conducted discussions with female members of an elementary-level, mixed-gender, Australian chess club to investigate why girls left and boys came to dominate the club. Results indicated that both home values and schooling transmitted and reinforced inequalities between the sexes, though in more subtle and less overt forms than in the…

  8. Science Notes: The Clubbers' Guide--School Biology Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The STEM team at the University of Worcester support STEM activities in schools in Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Part of this help includes suggesting activities for STEM clubs. As the biologist on the team author, Sue Howarth was asked by teachers for ideas to use in biology clubs. This article was prompted by feedback that these ideas might…

  9. School Nurse Book Clubs: An Innovative Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawald, Deborah A.; Adams, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested…

  10. Contextual view to northnorthwest of Burton Park Club House and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to north-northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater (90 mm lens). View taken from top of steps visible in previous photo. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  11. Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater. Gable-roofed building at right is barn housing maintenance equipment for the park. Adobe wall with pilasters forms backdrop for amphitheater stage (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  12. 27 CFR 31.41 - Clubs or similar organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organizations. 31.41 Section 31.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.41 Clubs or similar organizations. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a club or similar organization is a dealer for purposes of this part if...

  13. Learning Masculinities in a Japanese High School Rugby Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on research conducted on a Tokyo high school rugby club to explore diversity in the masculinities formed through membership in the club. Based on the premise that particular forms of masculinity are expressed and learnt through ways of playing (game style) and the attendant regimes of training, it examines the expression and…

  14. Interior, main room , Burton Park Club House, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, main room , Burton Park Club House, view to south from north end door (90mm lens). Front doors visible at left, fireplace at right, while kingpost trusses supports the roof. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  15. Interior, main room, Burton Park Club House, view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, main room, Burton Park Club House, view to north (90mm lens). Fireplace at left, kitchen and restroom are through open doorway visible at right side of opposite end wall. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  16. The Use of Journal Clubs in Science Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Karen A.; Feldman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how in a 7-month-long journal club pre- and inservice science teachers engaged with education research literature relevant to their practice to reduce the theory-practice gap. In the journal club they had the opportunity to critique and analyze peer-reviewed science education articles in the context of their…

  17. Teaching the Women's Club Movement in United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on teaching a U.S. history course to secondary school students about the women's club movement which began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Explores five key topic areas involving theoretical frameworks, community activities of the women, and skill development due to club involvement. (CMK)

  18. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  19. 11. Photocopy of Photograph (Courtesy of the Detroit Hockey Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Photograph (Courtesy of the Detroit Hockey Club, Detroit, Michigan). GROUNDBREAKING FOR ADDITION, JUNE 23, 1965. Left Sid Abel, Genral Manager of the Detroit Hockey Club Center - Jerome Cavanaugh, Mayor, City of Detroit Right - Nick Landis, General Manager of the Olympia Stadium - Olympia Arena, 5920 Grand River Avenue, Detroit, MI

  20. After-Hours Science: Teaching Science with a Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyreng, Ivan

    1984-01-01

    Describes Salt Lake City's (Utah) East High School science club, recognized by the National Science Teachers Association's Search for Excellence in Science Education project as an outstanding science program. Unique aspects of the club's activities, instructional strategies, and other areas are discussed. (BC)

  1. Next Chapter Book Club: What a Novel Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Tom; Graff, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique program of The Ohio State University's Nisonger Center--the Next Chapter Book Club (NCBC). The NCBC promotes literacy learning, community inclusion, and social connectedness for adolescents and adults with intellectual disabilities. Developed in 2002, the program has expanded from two clubs in…

  2. View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck and the avila pier are on the right and the harbor storage and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west northwest. The main entry is to the right and the more recent deck addition is to the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  5. Microwave photoconductivity decay characterization of high-purity 4H-SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.; Gutmann, R. J.; Jenny, J. R.; Malta, D. P.; Hobgood, H. McD.; Carter, C. H.

    2007-07-01

    A microwave photoconductivity decay (MPCD) technique, which probes conductivity change in wafers in response to either an above-band-gap or below-band-gap laser pulse, has been used to characterize recombination lifetime in high-purity 4H-SiC substrates produced with three different anneal processes. The above-band-gap (266nm) decay times vary from ˜10ns to tens of microseconds in the 4H-SiC substrates depending on the wafer growth parameters. Wafers produced using the three processes A (as-grown), B (annealed at 2000°C), and C (annealed at 2600°C) have decay times of 10-20ns, 50-500ns, and tens of microseconds, respectively. The differences in decay times are attributed to low, medium, and high densities of recombination centers in process C, B, and A wafers, respectively. The MPCD results correlate with other characterization results such as deep level transient spectroscopy, which also showed that the 2600°C anneal process significantly reduces defect densities, resulting in the enhanced recombination lifetimes. Modeling and one-dimensional simulations indicate a trapping center closer to the conduction band results in a longer MPCD decay transient, but such a trapping based model for the enhanced lifetimes is not compatible with the wide range of experimental characterization results described in this work, which indicate an annealing out of recombination centers at 2600°C.

  6. Transfer of Training After an Organizational Intervention in Swedish Sports Clubs: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Leadership development programs are common in sports, but seldom evaluated; hence, we have limited knowledge about what the participants actually learn and the impact these programs have on sports clubs' daily operations. The purpose of the current study was to integrate a transfer of training model with self-determination theory to understand predictors of learning and training transfer, following a leadership development program among organizational leaders in Swedish sports clubs. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that autonomous motivation and an autonomy-supportive implementation of the program positively predicted near transfer (i.e., immediately after the training program) and that perceiving an autonomy-supportive climate in the sports club positively predicted far transfer (i.e., 1 year after the training program). This study extends previous research by integrating a transfer of training model with self-determination theory and identified important motivational factors that predict near and far training transfer.

  7. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    PubMed

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  8. Antiinflammatory 2-benzyl-4-sulfonyl-4H-isoquinoline-1,3-diones: novel inhibitors of COX-2.

    PubMed

    Lazer, E S; Sorcek, R; Cywin, C L; Thome, D; Possanza, G J; Graham, A G; Churchill, L

    1998-05-19

    A series of 2-benzyl-4-sulfonyl-4H-isoquinoline-1,3-diones was prepared. Members of this series are potent and selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in both microsomal and cellular assays. Two representatives demonstrated activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats upon oral administration.

  9. Club Drug Use among Young Adults Frequenting Dance Clubs and Other Social Venues in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A convenience sample of young adults (ages 18-25) in New York City was recruited to complete anonymous surveys in social venues (either dance clubs or other social settings, such as coffee shops and university "hangouts") regarding their use of "club drugs" (e.g., MDMA/Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, crystal methamphetamine, cocaine,…

  10. Why Children Join and Stay in Sports Clubs: Case Studies in Australian, French and German Swimming Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article builds upon research on youth sport clubs conducted from a socio-cultural perspective by reporting on a study that inquired into the reasons why children aged 9-12 joined swimming clubs in France, Germany and Australia. Comprising three case studies it employed a mixed method approach with results considered within the framework of…

  11. Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: Social media responses to the November 2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club.

    PubMed

    Radecki, Ryan P; Rezaie, Salim R; Lin, Michelle

    2014-04-01

    The Annals November 2013 Journal Club issue marked one of the first collaborations with Academic Life in Emergency Medicine, a medical education blog, in an effort to promote a worldwide, transparent, online effort to perform critical appraisals of journal articles. The Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club was hosted on the blog for 1 week during November 18 to 24, 2013, with comments moderated on the blog and on Twitter. This summary article compiles the discussion and insights.

  12. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y.; Liljas, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg2+ ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138071

  13. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Liljas, Anders; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2017-03-19

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg(2+) ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  14. ZC4H2, an XLID gene, is required for the generation of a specific subset of CNS interneurons

    PubMed Central

    May, Melanie; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Miles, Judith; Williams, Charlie; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Kahler, Stephen G.; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Steindl, Katharina; Van Der Spek, Peter J.; Swagemakers, Sigrid; Mueller, Jennifer; Stefl, Shannon; Alexov, Emil; Ryu, Jeong-Im; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Tarpey, Patrick; Neri, Giovanni; Holloway, Lynda; Skinner, Cindy; Stevenson, Roger E.; Dorsky, Richard I.; Wang, Tao; Schwartz, Charles E.; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Miles–Carpenter syndrome (MCS) was described in 1991 as an XLID syndrome with fingertip arches and contractures and mapped to proximal Xq. Patients had microcephaly, short stature, mild spasticity, thoracic scoliosis, hyperextendable MCP joints, rocker-bottom feet, hyperextended elbows and knees. A mutation, p.L66H, in ZC4H2, was identified in a XLID re-sequencing project. Additional screening of linked families and next generation sequencing of XLID families identified three ZC4H2 mutations: p.R18K, p.R213W and p.V75in15aa. The families shared some relevant clinical features. In silico modeling of the mutant proteins indicated all alterations would destabilize the protein. Knockout mutations in zc4h2 were created in zebrafish and homozygous mutant larvae exhibited abnormal swimming, increased twitching, defective eye movement and pectoral fin contractures. Because several of the behavioral defects were consistent with hyperactivity, we examined the underlying neuronal defects and found that sensory neurons and motoneurons appeared normal. However, we observed a striking reduction in GABAergic interneurons. Analysis of cell-type-specific markers showed a specific loss of V2 interneurons in the brain and spinal cord, likely arising from mis-specification of neural progenitors. Injected human wt ZC4H2 rescued the mutant phenotype. Mutant zebrafish injected with human p.L66H or p.R213W mRNA failed to be rescued, while the p.R18K mRNA was able to rescue the interneuron defect. Our findings clearly support ZC4H2 as a novel XLID gene with a required function in interneuron development. Loss of function of ZC4H2 thus likely results in altered connectivity of many brain and spinal circuits. PMID:26056227

  15. ZC4H2, an XLID gene, is required for the generation of a specific subset of CNS interneurons.

    PubMed

    May, Melanie; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Miles, Judith; Williams, Charlie; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Kahler, Stephen G; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Steindl, Katharina; Van Der Spek, Peter J; Swagemakers, Sigrid; Mueller, Jennifer; Stefl, Shannon; Alexov, Emil; Ryu, Jeong-Im; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Tarpey, Patrick; Neri, Giovanni; Holloway, Lynda; Skinner, Cindy; Stevenson, Roger E; Dorsky, Richard I; Wang, Tao; Schwartz, Charles E; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-09-01

    Miles-Carpenter syndrome (MCS) was described in 1991 as an XLID syndrome with fingertip arches and contractures and mapped to proximal Xq. Patients had microcephaly, short stature, mild spasticity, thoracic scoliosis, hyperextendable MCP joints, rocker-bottom feet, hyperextended elbows and knees. A mutation, p.L66H, in ZC4H2, was identified in a XLID re-sequencing project. Additional screening of linked families and next generation sequencing of XLID families identified three ZC4H2 mutations: p.R18K, p.R213W and p.V75in15aa. The families shared some relevant clinical features. In silico modeling of the mutant proteins indicated all alterations would destabilize the protein. Knockout mutations in zc4h2 were created in zebrafish and homozygous mutant larvae exhibited abnormal swimming, increased twitching, defective eye movement and pectoral fin contractures. Because several of the behavioral defects were consistent with hyperactivity, we examined the underlying neuronal defects and found that sensory neurons and motoneurons appeared normal. However, we observed a striking reduction in GABAergic interneurons. Analysis of cell-type-specific markers showed a specific loss of V2 interneurons in the brain and spinal cord, likely arising from mis-specification of neural progenitors. Injected human wt ZC4H2 rescued the mutant phenotype. Mutant zebrafish injected with human p.L66H or p.R213W mRNA failed to be rescued, while the p.R18K mRNA was able to rescue the interneuron defect. Our findings clearly support ZC4H2 as a novel XLID gene with a required function in interneuron development. Loss of function of ZC4H2 thus likely results in altered connectivity of many brain and spinal circuits.

  16. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  17. The reinvestigation of the kinetics of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr (HI) → i-C4H10 + Br• (I•) and of the t-C4H9• free radical thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2014-07-17

    A reinvestigation of the absolute rate constant of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr → i-C4H10 + Br• (1) and t-C4H9• + HI → i-C4H10 + I• (2) was performed thanks to a recently developed apparatus consisting of a Knudsen reactor coupled to detection based on single-photon (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (SPIMS). It enables the generation of thermalized hydrocarbon free radicals owing to a source upstream of and external to the Knudsen reactor. The following Arrhenius expressions were obtained: k1 = 5.6(±1.4) × 10(–12) exp(−6.76(±0.94)/(RT)) and k2 = 2.0(±0.6) × 10(–11) exp(−8.48(±0.94)/(RT)) with R = 8.314 J mol(–1) K(–1) over the range 293 to 623 K. The mass balance of the reaction system based on closed shell product detection (CSPD) was checked in order to ensure the accuracy of the used reaction mechanism and as an independent check of k1 and k2. The wall-loss rate constants of the t-butyl free radical, kw(C4H9), were measured and found to be low compared with the corresponding escape rate constant, ke(C4H9), for effusion of t-C4H9• out of the Knudsen reactor. On the basis of the present results, the free radical standard heat of formation ΔfH298°(t-C4H9•) = 44.3 ± 1.7 kJ mol(–1) was obtained when combined with the kinetics of the inverse halogenation reaction taken from the literature and using S298°(t-C4H9•) = 322.2 J K(–1) mol(–1) following a “Third Law” evaluation method. The standard enthalpy for t-butyl free radical is consistent for both the bromination and iodination reactions within the stated uncertainties.

  18. Promoting undergraduate involvement through the University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Austin, Carmen; Noyes, Matthew; Calahan, Jenny; Lautenbach, Jennifer; Henrici, Andrew; Ryleigh Fitzpatrick, M.; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2016-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is devoted to undergraduate success in astronomy, physics, planetary sciences and many other related fields. The club promotes many undergraduate opportunities; research projects, participating in telescope observational runs, sponsoring conference attendance as well as several public outreach opportunities. Research projects involving exoplanet transit observations and radio observations of cold molecular clouds allow undergraduates to experience data collection, telescope operations, data reduction and research presentation. The club hosts many star parties and various other public outreach events for the Tucson, Arizona location. The club often constructs their own outreach materials and structures. The club is currently working on creating a portable planetarium to teach about the night sky on the go even on the cloudiest of nights. The club is also working on creating a binocular telescope with two 10" mirrors as a recreation of the local Large Binocular Telescope for outreach purposes as well. This is a club that strives for undergraduate activity and involvement in a range of academic and extracurricular activates, and is welcoming to all majors of all levels in hopes to spark astronomical interest.

  19. The rich club of the C. elegans neuronal connectome.

    PubMed

    Towlson, Emma K; Vértes, Petra E; Ahnert, Sebastian E; Schafer, William R; Bullmore, Edward T

    2013-04-10

    There is increasing interest in topological analysis of brain networks as complex systems, with researchers often using neuroimaging to represent the large-scale organization of nervous systems without precise cellular resolution. Here we used graph theory to investigate the neuronal connectome of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, which is defined anatomically at a cellular scale as 2287 synaptic connections between 279 neurons. We identified a small number of highly connected neurons as a rich club (N = 11) interconnected with high efficiency and high connection distance. Rich club neurons comprise almost exclusively the interneurons of the locomotor circuits, with known functional importance for coordinated movement. The rich club neurons are connector hubs, with high betweenness centrality, and many intermodular connections to nodes in different modules. On identifying the shortest topological paths (motifs) between pairs of peripheral neurons, the motifs that are found most frequently traverse the rich club. The rich club neurons are born early in development, before visible movement of the animal and before the main phase of developmental elongation of its body. We conclude that the high wiring cost of the globally integrative rich club of neurons in the C. elegans connectome is justified by the adaptive value of coordinated movement of the animal. The economical trade-off between physical cost and behavioral value of rich club organization in a cellular connectome confirms theoretical expectations and recapitulates comparable results from human neuroimaging on much larger scale networks, suggesting that this may be a general and scale-invariant principle of brain network organization.

  20. Differentiation of Club Cells to Alveolar Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dahai; Soh, Boon-Seng; Yin, Lu; Hu, Guangan; Chen, Qingfeng; Choi, Hyungwon; Han, Jongyoon; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Jianzhu

    2017-01-01

    Club cells are known to function as regional progenitor cells to repair the bronchiolar epithelium in response to lung damage. By lineage tracing in mice, we have shown recently that club cells also give rise to alveolar type 2 cells (AT2s) and alveolar type 1 cells (AT1s) during the repair of the damaged alveolar epithelium. Here, we show that when highly purified, anatomically and phenotypically confirmed club cells are seeded in 3-dimensional culture either in bulk or individually, they proliferate and differentiate into both AT2- and AT1-like cells and form alveolar-like structures. This differentiation was further confirmed by transcriptomic analysis of freshly isolated club cells and their cultured progeny. Freshly isolated club cells express Sca-1 and integrin α6, markers commonly used to characterize lung stem/progenitor cells. Together, current study for the first time isolated highly purified club cells for in vitro study and demonstrated club cells’ capacity to differentiate into alveolar epithelial cells at the single-cell level. PMID:28128362

  1. Women's Clubs as Educative Agencies: Wilmington, Delaware New Century Club, 1889-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    2006-01-01

    There is no doubt that women had a role in progressive reform a century ago, despite their lack of vote. However, it may not be so clear what the nature of this reform effort was. This article suggests that women were highly organized in women's clubs that served as a major organ of change in society, and that they had a great impact on education…

  2. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@Metal Sulfide Core-Shell Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Wu, Xue-Jun; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-09-02

    Although great advances on the synthesis of Au-semiconductor heteronanostructures have been achieved, the crystal structure of Au components is limited to the common face-centered cubic (fcc) phase. Herein, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@Ag2S core-shell nanoribbon (NRB) heterostructures from the 4H/fcc Au@Ag NRBs via the sulfurization of Ag. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ag2S NRBs can be further converted to a novel class of 4H/fcc-Au@metal sulfide core-shell NRB heterostructures, referred to as 4H/fcc-Au@MS (M = Cd, Pb or Zn), through the cation exchange. We believe that these novel 4H/fcc-Au@metal sulfide NRB heteronanostructures may show some promising applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering, solar cells, photothermal therapy, etc.

  3. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  4. Ferritin, finger clubbing, and lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shneerson, J M; Jones, B M

    1981-01-01

    The serum ferritin concentration has been determined by an immunoradiometric assay in 90 subjects with a variety of pulmonary diseases. No association between ferritin concentrations and finger clubbing has been found in any of the diseases studied. Ferritin levels were significantly raised in the subjects with bronchial carcinoma, but were not useful in monitoring recurrence of the tumour. Pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein ferritin concentrations were similar to systemic venous concentrations. It is therefore unlikely that the tumour releases ferritin into the pulmonary circulation. Ferritin levels were raised in patients with acute pneumonias but did not correlate with the total white cell count or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum ferritin concentrations were also increased in a variety of chronic lung diseases but were normal in subjects with asbestosis. PMID:7314044

  5. 4H-SiC surface energy tuning by nitrogen up-take

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitthan, E.; Amarasinghe, V. P.; Xu, C.; Gustafsson, T.; Stedile, F. C.; Feldman, L. C.

    2017-04-01

    Surface energy modification and surface wettability of 4H silicon carbide (0001) as a function of nitrogen adsorption is reported. The surface wettability is shown to go from primarily hydrophilic to hydrophobic and the surface energy was significantly reduced with increasing nitrogen incorporation. These changes are investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The surface energy was quantitatively determined by the Fowkes model and interpreted primarily in terms of the variation of the surface chemistry with nitrogen coverage. Variable control of SiC surface energies with a simple and controllable atomic additive such as nitrogen that is inert to etching, stable against time, and also effective in electrical passivation, can provide new opportunities for SiC biomedical applications, where surface wetting plays an important role in the interaction with the biological interfaces.

  6. Optical properties of mesoporous 4H-SiC prepared by anodic electrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Marzaini; Horrocks, B. R.; Healy, N.; Goss, J. P.; Horsfall, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Porous silicon carbide was fabricated from n-type 4H-SiC substrates via anodic electrochemical etching in HF/ethanol solution and suspended in ethanol after ultrasonication. We observed three photoluminescence bands: two at wavelengths of 303 nm and 345 nm were above the bulk bandgap and one at 455 nm was below the bulk bandgap. These blue-shifted and red-shifted emission processes reveal the interplay between quantum confinement, surface states, and band edge related optical transitions. We propose a model to explain the frequently observed deviation from the quantum confinement in the photoluminesence trends for SiC-derived nanoparticles suspended in solvents. The quantum confined properties of the SiC structures provide a route for optical tunability in the UV-blue spectrum for use in novel photonic and biomedical applications.

  7. Temperature dependence of current-and capacitance-voltage characteristics of an Au/4H-SiC Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülnahar, Murat

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of an Au/4H-SiC Schottky diode are characterized as a function of the temperature in 50-300 K temperature range. The experimental parameters such as ideality factor and apparent barrier height presents to be strongly temperature dependent, that is, the ideality factor increases and the apparent barrier height decreases with decreasing temperature, whereas the barrier height values increase with the temperature for C-V data. Likewise, the Richardson plot deviates at low temperatures. These anomaly behaviors observed for Au/4H-SiC are attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities. The barrier anomaly which relates to interface of Au/4H-SiC is also confirmed by the C-V measurements versus the frequency measured in 300 K and it is interpreted by both Tung's lateral inhomogeneity model and multi-Gaussian distribution approach. The values of the weighting coefficients, standard deviations and mean barrier height are calculated for each distribution region of Au/4H-SiC using the multi-Gaussian distribution approach. In addition, the total effective area of the patches NAe is obtained at separate temperatures and as a result, it is expressed that the low barrier regions influence meaningfully to the current transport at the junction. The homogeneous barrier height value is calculated from the correlation between the ideality factor and barrier height and it is noted that the values of standard deviation from ideality factor versus q/3kT curve are in close agreement with the values obtained from the barrier height versus q/2kT variation. As a result, it can be concluded that the temperature dependent electrical characteristics of Au/4H-SiC can be successfully commented on the basis of the thermionic emission theory with both models.

  8. Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling mechanism in Ni/SiO2/n-4H SiC MOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah; Chattopadhyay, S.; Overton, C.; Ardoin, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Ni/SiO2/n-type 4H SiC MOS devices have been fabricated for microelectronic device applications. The SiO2 layer employed in the MOS devices is grown by wet thermal oxidation process. The current-field characteristics of Ni/SiO2/n-type 4H SiC MOS devices are quiet interestingly studied by employing Fowler Nordheim (FN) conduction tunneling model, which is verified by theoretical simulation. It is learnt that the tunneling current through the barrier in the MOS devices promptly obeys the FN conduction tunneling mechanism. The simulation results show that the current in the MOS device increases and barrier height decreases with increasing temperature and internal electric field. Therefore, the correction factor for the barrier height of n-type 4H SiC/SiO2 MOS device due to the influence of both the temperature and internal electric field is employed. The barrier height observed by the experiments is apparently smaller than the simulated one of an ideal MOS device. However, after employing all the correction factors to the barrier height, the simulated current-field curves fairly coincide with the experimental results. The reason for obtaining smaller experimental barrier height for MOS devices is substantially explored with the support of current-field (J-F) analysis. On the other hand, this article comprehensively addresses the effects of quantum mechanical, interface trap density and thickness of 4H-SiC on the barrier height.

  9. Kinesiology Career Club: Undergraduate Student Mentors' Perspectives on a Physical Activity-Based Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David S.; Veri, Maria J.; Willard, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present university student mentors' perspectives on the impact of a teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model youth program called the Kinesiology Career Club. Data sources in this qualitative case study included program observations, mentoring reflections, and semistructured interviews. Data…

  10. AB INITIO CHARACTERIZATION OF C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H, AND C{sub 4}H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.

    2010-01-10

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the stable isomers of C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H and C{sub 4}H{sup -}. Three of them are relevant for astrophysics and astrochemistry. These computations are performed using highly correlated ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) basis sets. In addition to the linear isomers, we predict the existence of several cyclic and branched forms for these molecules. For all the molecular species of interest here, sets of spectroscopic parameters are determined with perturbation theory, which compare quite well with experiment. For l - C{sub 4}H{sup -}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +}), the quartic force field is computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. This force field is derived from full nine-dimensional potential energy surface generated close to the equilibrium geometry of this anion. Finally, we treat the thermochemistry of the hydrogen attachment and the electron attachment reactions that may lead to the formation of the C{sub 4}H{sup -} from either C{sup -}{sub 4} or C{sub 4}H.

  11. 7. CLUBHOUSE. FIREPLACE IN CLUB ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLUBHOUSE. FIREPLACE IN CLUB ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. Southern Nevadas Club Ride Commuter Service Wins EPA Honor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    · Clean Air Partners Program - CLEAN AIR Force of Central Texas · Club Ride Commuter Services - Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada · Air Quality Partnership of the Delaware Valley - Delaware Valley Regional Planning

  13. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, 1950, by Bernard Locroft, Civil Engineer (Showing Grounds as They Were at End of Sumner Welles Era) SITE PLAN - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Leading the Fit Life: Jobs in Health Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Depicts the health club work force: fitness personnel, such as instructors, trainers, and directors, and nonfitness personnel, such as receptionists, marketers, and managers, as well as physicians and therapists. Gives information on how to acquire credentials in the field. (SK)

  15. Encouraging a Culture of Outreach in Astronomy Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G.; Gurton, S.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; Frank, K.; Jones, E.; Yocco, V.; John, M. S.; Castori, P.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable, experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multi-year NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance astronomy education and outreach. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs' abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. This paper shares initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describes ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  16. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE REFRIGERATION UNIT, SHOWING COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE REFRIGERATION UNIT, SHOWING COOLING COILS AND CORK-LINED ROOM. CAMERA IS BETWEEN SEVEN AND EIGHT FEET ABOVE FLOOR LEVEL, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Swan Falls Village, Clubhouse 011, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  17. Country Club Estates, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Country Club Estates, LLC, a business located at 3415 Mulberry Dr., Marion, Iowa, for alleged violations at Tower Tenac

  18. 14. Photocopy of Photograph (Courtesy of the Detroit Hockey Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of Photograph (Courtesy of the Detroit Hockey Club, Detroit, Michigan). AERIAL VIEW OF OLYMPIA ARENA, LOOKING NORTH, FEBRUARY 9, 1969. - Olympia Arena, 5920 Grand River Avenue, Detroit, MI

  19. Navy Flying Clubs: Management Control Systems and Performance Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    BUPERS Instruction 1710.22. The budget is not combined with the local MWR budget when the overall MWR budget is submitted to MWR headquarters. The...to evaluate Monterey Navy Flying Clubs control systems is a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. The strengths and...on the local MWR business office to provide the business guidance for each flying club. [Ref. 1] The implied assumption is that the business office

  20. R&W Club Frederick Sews for Kids | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Sewing enthusiasts of all skill levels are invited to attend a sewing party hosted by the R&W Club Frederick on Feb. 18. Stop by the Building 549 Café Room between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. to sew for a cause: help the club make pillowcases for ConKerr Cancer, a nonprofit organization that supports children in hospitals across the country.

  1. The ferrimagnetic compounds CoM[Mscript(EDTA)]2 . 4H2O(M,Mscript=Co,Ni): Magnetic characterization of CoCo[Ni(EDTA)2] . 4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiña, F.; Coronado, E.; Gomez-Romero, P.; Beltran, D.; Burriel, R.; Carlin, R. L.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the ordered bimetallic compound CoCo(NiEDTA)2ṡ4H2O (abbreviated as [CoCoNi]). The structure consists of ordered bimetallic layers formed by alternating octahedral sites of Co and Ni(II); tetrahedral Co sites connect different Co-Ni layers. We discuss the low-dimensional ferrimagnetic behavior of this compound in terms of a model that assumes three spin sublattices exchange coupled by an Ising interaction.

  2. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  3. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  4. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Omer, Sumita; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age.

  5. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  6. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  7. The 4-H Debate Project: Getting Adults and Children Involved in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Deborah F.

    Intended to enhance adult leadership skills, the 4-H Debate Project, developed by the 4-H Communication Committee of Delaware County (Pennsylvania), was designed to (1) increase the members' knowledge of library skills through research, (2) make them aware of current issues, (3) help them to become better public speakers and communicators, (4)…

  8. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting sports…

  9. An Examination of 4-H Youths' Needs and Interests, and Implications for State Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Tarri Lou

    A study was conducted to determine the needs and interests of teens in 4-H and whether the Washington State Conference is meeting those needs and interests. A mail survey was developed and sent to 557 teen 4-H members in Washington who were randomly selected from the 1985 state enrollment list. Three hundred and sixty questionnaires were returned…

  10. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such... Research, Education, and Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising program is multi-State or Nationwide. (b) When used to promote 4-H educational...

  11. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  12. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  13. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  14. HPGD mutations cause cranioosteoarthropathy but not autosomal dominant digital clubbing.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Wenke; Beninde, Julia; Hoffmann, Katrin; Lindner, Tom H; Bassir, Christian; Aksu, Fuat; Hübner, Christoph; Verbeek, Nienke E; Mundlos, Stefan; Horn, Denise

    2009-12-01

    Cranio-osteoarthropathy, clinically classified as a variant of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is a very rare autosomal-recessive condition characterized by delayed closure of the cranial sutures and fontanels, digital clubbing, arthropathy, and periostosis. Recently, mutations in the gene HPGD, which encodes the NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, were reported in four families affected with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and one family with autosomal-recessive isolated nail clubbing. We report the clinical and molecular findings in four patients from two families affected with cranio-osteoarthropathy and one family with isolated, autosomal dominant digital clubbing. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping identified a locus for cranio-osteoarthropathy harboring the HPGD gene in one affected family. We detected two novel homozygous mutations in HPGD in these families: a missense mutation affecting the NAD(+) binding motif and a frameshift mutation. The clinical presentation in our patients was variable. Digital clubbing and hyperhidrosis were present in all cases. Delayed closure of the cranial sutures and fontanels, periostosis, and arthropathy were not consistent clinical features. No HPGD mutation was detected in a familial case of autosomal dominant isolated digital clubbing. The failure to identify any mutation in a family with an autosomal dominant type of isolated digital clubbing suggests that HPGD is not the major gene for this condition.

  15. Digital clubbing in HIV-infected patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Dever, Lisa L; Matta, Jyoti S

    2009-01-01

    Digital clubbing is characterized by bulbous enlargement of the distal phalanges due to an increase in soft tissue. It has been associated with a variety of conditions including cyanotic heart disease, neoplasms and infections of the lungs, bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. We conducted an observational study at an urban Veterans Affairs Medical Center outpatient HIV clinic to confirm our clinical impression that clubbing is common in HIV-infected patients and to identify factors that might be associated with it. Clinical, laboratory, and physical examination data including measurement of the circumference of the nail bed and distal phalanx of each finger were obtained on 78 HIV-infected patients seen for their routine care over a 3-month period. A digital index (DI), the ratio of the nail bed:distal phalanx circumference was determined for each patient. Clubbing was found in 28 patients (36%). Clubbed patients did not differ from nonclubbed patients with respect to most patient characteristics; CD4 cell counts and quantitative HIV RNA were similar in both groups. Clubbed patients had a significantly higher DI than controls (1.03 versus 0.96, p < 0.001), were younger (45 versus 49 years, p = 0.04), and had longer duration of HIV disease (48 versus, 42 months, p = 0.03). HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired digital clubbing.

  16. Unusual reaction paths of SN2 nucleophile substitution reactions CH4 + H- → CH4 + H- and CH4 + F- → CH3F + H-: Quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyaev, Ruslan M.; Quapp, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Benjamin; Getmanskii, Ilya V.; Koval, Vitaliy V.

    2013-11-01

    Quantum chemical (CCSD(full)/6-311++G(3df,3pd), CCSD(T)(full)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)) and density function theory (B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd)) calculations were performed for the SN2 nucleophile substitution reactions CH4 + H- → CH4 + H- and CH4 + F- → CH3F + H-. The calculated gradient reaction pathways for both reactions have an unusual behavior. An unusual stationary point of index 2 lies on the gradient reaction path. Using Newton trajectories for the reaction path, we can detect VRI point at which the reaction path branches.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Oxolan-2-one C4H6O2 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4906_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Oxolan-2-one C4H6O2 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4906_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Structural analysis of the 3C|4H boundaries formed on prismatic planes in 4H-SiC epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Matsuhata, H.; Naijo, T.; Momose, K.; Osawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    The boundaries between 3C and 4H-SiC domains on the prismatic planes of hexagonal lattices formed in a 4H-SiC epitaxial film were investigated using both transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. These observations determined that the boundaries have a periodic structure, in which each unit cell consists of 12 basal planes of the hexagonal lattice. Six Shockley partial dislocations are situated in each unit cell of the boundary structure. Burgers vectors and core structures of these partial dislocations are discussed.

  19. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids accelerate airway repair by activating FFA4 in club cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Park, Soo-Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Koh, Jung-Min; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-03-17

    A GPCR named FFA4 (also known as GPR120) was found to act as a GPCR for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its expression has been reported in lung epithelial club cells. The authors investigated whether supplementation of the omega-3 fatty acids benefits lung health. Omacor® (7.75 mg kg-1), clinically prescribed preparation of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4-knockout mice were utilized in a naphthalene-induced mouse model of acute airway injury (one injection of 30 mg kg-1, i.p.). Naphthalene injection induced complete destruction of bronchiolar epithelial cells within a day. Appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed after 21 days in control mice. It was found, however, that supplementation of omacor accelerated the recovery. The appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed between 7 and 14 days after naphthalene injury in omacor-treated mice. In isolated club cells, omega-3 fatty acids were found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration but to inhibit cell differentiation. Using pharmacological tools and FFA4-knockout mice, FFA4 was found to be responsible for omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation in vitro in club cells. Furthermore, accelerated recovery from naphthalene-induced airway injury in omacor-treated mice was not observed in FFA4-knockout mice in vivo. Present findings indicate that omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation of bronchiole epithelial cells through FFA4 is responsible for omacor-induced accelerated recovery from airway injury. Therefore, intermittent administration of omacor needs to be tested for acute airway injury, because omega-3 fatty acids stimulate proliferation but inhibits differentiation of club cells.

  1. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26360608

  2. Benzodiazepine Dependence among Young Adult Participants in the Club Scene Who Use Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven P; Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L

    2017-01-01

    Young adults ages 18-29 report the highest rates of benzodiazepine (BZD) misuse in the United States. The majority of club drug users are also in this age group, and BZD misuse is prevalent among participants in club scenes. This article examines BZD dependence and its correlates among young adult participants in the electronic dance music (EDM) culture in Miami, Florida, who use drugs. Structured interviews were with men and women (N = 356) ages 18 to 29 who reported regular attendance at EDM venues and recent use of both club drugs and BZDs. Prevalences of BZD-related problems were 12.6% for BZD dependence, 21.1% BZD abuse, and 24.2% BZD abuse and/or dependence. In a multivariate logistic regression model, younger age (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.76, 0.96), severe mental distress (OR 8.30; 95% CI 3.07, 22.49), daily marijuana use (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.03, 4.27), and heavy opioid use (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.12, 4.83) were associated with BZD dependence. BZD dependence was higher in this sample than in other populations described in the literature. The links between BZD dependence, overdose history, and heavy opioid misuse are especially worrisome among this young sample. Recommendations for intervention and research are discussed.

  3. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  4. The Design and Development of a Management Information System for the Monterey Navy Flying Club.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-27

    Management Information System for the Monterey Navy Flying Club. It supplies the tools necessary to enable the club manager to maintain all club records and generate required administrative and financial reports. The Monterey Navy Flying Club has one of the largest memberships of the Navy sponsored flying clubs. As a result of this large membership and the amount of manual paperwork required to properly maintain club records, the Manager’s ability to provide necessary services and reports in severely hampered. The implementation of an efficient

  5. Disruption of rich club organisation in cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Anil M; Lawrence, Andrew; Norris, David G; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that structural connectivity of brain networks in SVD is disrupted. However, little is known about the extent and location of the reduced connectivity in SVD. Here they investigate the rich club organisation-a set of highly connected and interconnected regions-and investigate whether there is preferential rich club disruption in SVD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive assessment were performed in a discovery sample of SVD patients (n = 115) and healthy control subjects (n = 50). Results were replicated in an independent dataset (49 SVD with confluent WMH cases and 108 SVD controls) with SVD patients having a similar SVD phenotype to that of the discovery cases. Rich club organisation was examined in structural networks derived from DTI followed by deterministic tractography. Structural networks in SVD patients were less dense with lower network strength and efficiency. Reduced connectivity was found in SVD, which was preferentially located in the connectivity between the rich club nodes rather than in the feeder and peripheral connections, a finding confirmed in both datasets. In discovery dataset, lower rich club connectivity was associated with lower scores on psychomotor speed (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) and executive functions (β = 0.20, P = 0.009). These results suggest that SVD is characterized by abnormal connectivity between rich club hubs in SVD and provide evidence that abnormal rich club organisation might contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in SVD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1751-1766, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved.

  7. Journal club: screen, select, probe & evaluate.

    PubMed

    Kanthraj, G R; Srinivas, C R

    2005-01-01

    Postgraduate dermatology training programs like seminars, panel discussions, and case presentations help residents to acquire knowledge. Journal club (JC) exercises help residents to update themselves with the current literature. What article a resident should choose and how a resident should evaluate and analyze an article or critically appraise a topic are issues that are most relevant for the success of a JC. Little guidance is available in the biomedical literature on how to deal with such issues. The objective of this article is to provide guidance to neophytes on dealing with JC exercises in a way that helps them in learning the critical appraisal skills. A review of the literature and of the author's experience in JC exercises will be presented. Knowing the methodology of rapid screening of articles along with the art of evaluating them, coupled with a sound knowledge of epidemiology and bio-statistics, helps a resident to select appropriate articles and discard poorly conceived or designed topics that may not generate interest in JC attendees. Hence, such an approach helps the resident in acquiring new knowledge in the shortest time. Choosing the right topic and then applying the newly obtained information to clinical practice, participants succeed in making the JC a valuable learning experience. Further, such well-formatted JCs help residents to improve the quality of health care delivered to patients.

  8. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency protects against skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Karsikas, Sara; Myllymäki, Mikko; Heikkilä, Minna; Sormunen, Raija; Kivirikko, Kari I; Myllyharju, Johanna; Serpi, Raisa; Koivunen, Peppi

    2016-03-01

    We show here that mice hypomorphic for hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase-2 (HIF-P4H-2) (Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt)), the main regulator of the stability of the HIFα subunits, have normoxic stabilization of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in their skeletal muscles. The size of the capillaries, but not their number, was increased in the skeletal muscles of the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice, whereas the amount of glycogen was reduced. The expression levels of genes for glycolytic enzymes, glycogen branching enzyme 1 and monocarboxylate transporter 4, were increased in the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) skeletal muscles, whereas no significant increases were detected in the levels of any vasculature-influencing factor studied. Serum lactate levels of the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice recovered faster than those of the wild type following exercise. The Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice had elevated hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, which may have contributed to the faster clearance of lactate. The Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice had smaller infarct size following limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. The increased capillary size correlated with the reduced infarct size. Following ischemia-reperfusion, glycogen content and ATP/ADP and CrP/Cr levels of the skeletal muscle of the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice were higher than in the wild type. The higher glycogen content correlated with increased expression of phosphofructokinase messenger RNA (mRNA) and the increased ATP/ADP and CrP/Cr levels with reduced apoptosis, suggesting that HIF-P4H-2 deficiency supported energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion and protection against injury. Key messages: HIF-P4H-2 deficiency protects skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The mechanisms involved are mediated via normoxic HIF-1α and HIF-2α stabilization. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency increases capillary size but not number. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency maintains energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion.

  9. Effect of boron incorporation on slow interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Dai; Sometani, Mitsuru; Harada, Shinsuke; Kosugi, Ryoji; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The reason for the effective removal of interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC (0001) structures by boron (B) incorporation was investigated by employing low-temperature electrical measurements. Low-temperature capacitance-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements revealed that the density of electrons captured in slow interface traps in B-incorporated oxide is lower than that in dry and NO-annealed oxides. These results suggest that near-interface traps can be removed by B incorporation, which is considered to be an important reason for the increase in the field-effect mobility of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. A model for the passivation mechanism is proposed that takes account of stress relaxation during thermal oxidation.

  10. Radiation-stimulated photoluminescence in electron irradiated 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) arising in low doped CVD grown n- and p-type 4H-SiC upon electron irradiation (0,9 MeV) has been studied. After each doze of irradiation spectrum of PL was measured. The PL spectrum was dominated by a band peaked at hv  ≈  2,45 eV, commonly observed upon irradiation of SiC. The experiments demonstrated that, for samples with both types of conduction, the PL intensity approaches a constant value with increasing irradiation dose. A model was suggested, describing the PL characteristics in terms of the radiative recombination via a donor-acceptor pair constituted by nitrogen and a structural defect formed in the course of irradiation. Also, the concentration of nitrogen atoms was measured by the SIMS method. The experimental data were used to calculate in terms of the suggested model the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose. A good agreement between the calculated and experimental dependences was observed. A conclusion is made that the PL is activated by donor—acceptor pairs constituted by a nitrogen atom and a structural defect.

  11. The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs.

    PubMed

    Blanco, R Ernesto; Jones, Washington W; Rinderknecht, Andrés

    2009-11-22

    The importance of the centre of percussion (CP) of some hand-held sporting equipment (such as tennis rackets and baseball bats) for athletic performance is well known. In order to avoid injuries it is important that powerful blows are located close to the CP. Several species of glyptodont (giant armoured mammals) had tail clubs that can be modelled as rigid beams (like baseball bats) and it is generally assumed that these were useful for agonistic behaviour. However, the variation in tail club morphology among known genera suggests that a biomechanical and functional analysis of these structures could be useful. Here, we outline a novel method to determine the CP of the glyptodont tail clubs. We find that the largest species had the CP very close to the possible location of horny spikes. This is consistent with the inference that they were adapted to delivering powerful blows at that point. Our new analysis reinforces the case for agonistic use of tail clubs in several glyptodont species.

  12. The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, R. Ernesto; Jones, Washington W.; Rinderknecht, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the centre of percussion (CP) of some hand-held sporting equipment (such as tennis rackets and baseball bats) for athletic performance is well known. In order to avoid injuries it is important that powerful blows are located close to the CP. Several species of glyptodont (giant armoured mammals) had tail clubs that can be modelled as rigid beams (like baseball bats) and it is generally assumed that these were useful for agonistic behaviour. However, the variation in tail club morphology among known genera suggests that a biomechanical and functional analysis of these structures could be useful. Here, we outline a novel method to determine the CP of the glyptodont tail clubs. We find that the largest species had the CP very close to the possible location of horny spikes. This is consistent with the inference that they were adapted to delivering powerful blows at that point. Our new analysis reinforces the case for agonistic use of tail clubs in several glyptodont species. PMID:19710060

  13. Leakage current conduction and reliability assessment of passivating thin silicon dioxide films on n-4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Piyas; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2016-09-01

    We have analyzed the mechanisms of leakage current conduction in passivating silicon dioxide (SiO2) films grown on (0 0 0 1) silicon (Si) face of n-type 4H-SiC (silicon carbide). It was observed that the experimentally measured gate current density in metal-oxide-silicon carbide (MOSiC) structures under positive gate bias at an oxide field Eox above 5 MV/cm is comprised of Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling of electrons from the accumulated n-4H-SiC and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission of trapped electrons from the localized neutral traps in the SiO2 gap, IFN and IPF, respectively at temperatures between 27 and 200 °C. In MOSiC structures, PF mechanism dominates FN tunneling of electrons from the accumulation layer of n-4H-SiC due to high density (up to 1013 cm-2) of carbon-related acceptor-like traps located at about 2.5 eV below the SiO2 conduction band (CB). These current conduction mechanisms were taken into account in studying hole injection/trapping into 10 nm-thick tunnel oxide on the Si face of 4H-SiC during electron injection from n-4H-SiC under high-field electrical stress with positive bias on the heavily doped n-type polysilicon (n+-polySi) gate at a wide range of temperatures between 27 and 200 °C. Holes were generated in the n+-polySi anode material by the hot-electrons during their transport through thin oxide films at oxide electric fields Eox from 5.6 to 8.0 MV/cm (prior to the intrinsic oxide breakdown field). Time-to-breakdown tBD of the gate dielectric was found to follow reciprocal field (1/E) model irrespective of stress temperatures. Despite the significant amount of process-induced interfacial electron traps contributing to a large amount of leakage current via PF emission in thermally grown SiO2 on the Si-face of n-4H-SiC, MOSiC devices having a 10 nm-thick SiO2 film can be safely used in 5 V TTL logic circuits over a period of 10 years.

  14. Updated H2SO4-H2O binary homogeneous nucleation look-up tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangqun

    2008-12-01

    The calculated rates of H2SO4-H2O binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN), which is the only nucleation mechanism currently widely used in global aerosol models, are well known to have large uncertainties. Recently, we have reduced the uncertainties in the BHN rates on the basis of a kinetic quasi-unary nucleation (KQUN) model, by taking into account the measured bonding energetics of H2SO4 monomers with hydrated sulfuric acid dimers and trimers. The uncertainties were further reduced by using two independent measurements to constrain the equilibrium constants for monomer hydration. In this paper, we present updated BHN rate look-up tables derived from the improved KQUN model which can be used by anyone to obtain the BHN rates under given conditions. The look-up tables cover a wide range of key parameters that can be found in the atmosphere and laboratory studies, and their usage significantly reduces the computational costs of the BHN rate calculations, which is critical for multidimensional modeling. The look-up tables can also be used by those involved in experiments and field measurements to quickly assess the likeliness of BHN. For quick application, one can obtain the BHN rates and properties of critical clusters by browsing through the tables. A comparison of results based on the look-up tables with those from widely used classical BHN model indicates that, in addition to several orders of magnitude difference in nucleation rates, there also exists substantial difference in the predicted numbers of sulfuric acid molecules in the critical clusters and their dependence on key parameters.

  15. Finger clubbing: do we require digital index quantitator?

    PubMed

    Djojodibroto, R D; Thomas, P T; Kana, K T; Hla, M

    2014-04-01

    Some diseases may underlie finger clubbing. However, there is a dearth of information about early stage of finger clubbing because only few researchers have shown interest in it. We determined the Digital Index of normal, healthy subjects by using thread and manual Vernier calipers, the time used for the procedure, and its interrater reliability. The value of Digital Index was 8.86 ± 0.29 (Mean ± SD) with a range of 8.15 to 9.41. Interrater reliability was excellent with Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.966. Overall, the time taken to measure the Digital Index ranged from 21.93 to 68.80 minutes with an average of 35.97 ± 9.16 (Mean ± SD). Determining Digital Index need much time, but this can be overcome if we use Digital Index Quantitator (DIQ). Availability of DIQ in the hospital wards will be of much benefit. DIQ can also be used to accurately quantify the progression or regression of the clubbing process. This article proves that we need morphometry of digital clubbing as well as the correlation of the physical sign of clubbing with Digital Index.

  16. Enantioselective one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4-(indol-3-yl)-4H-chromenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Cai, Yunfei; Fu, Xuan; Liu, Xiaohua; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2011-09-16

    An enantioselective one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4-(indol-3-yl)-4H-chromenes via a Knoevenagel/Pinner/Friedel-Crafts reaction of salicylaldehyde, malononitrile, and indole is presented. Moderate to good yields (up to 89%) and high enantioselectivities (up to 90% ee) were obtained with an N,N'-dioxide-Zn(II) complex as the catalyst. This strategy provides an efficient and convenient method to access enantiomerically enriched 2-amino-4H-chromene derivatives.

  17. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  18. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  19. 27 CFR 31.136 - Change in membership of unincorporated club.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dissolution of the club and the formation of a new club, unless the changes involve a person with the power to control the management policies or buying or selling practices pertaining to alcohol. In the latter...

  20. What's in Those Boxes Anyway? An Analysis of School Book Club Offerings (Rapid Research Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dorothy S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the nature and range of materials available through school book clubs in the United States. Finds that the clubs offered a wide range of books that extend beyond contemporary realistic fiction. (SR)

  1. East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, view to north from Amphitheater stage (90 mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  2. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    PubMed Central

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic. PMID:28303931

  3. Key contribution of eIF4H-mediated translational control in tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Vaysse, Charlotte; Philippe, Céline; Martineau, Yvan; Quelen, Cathy; Hieblot, Corinne; Renaud, Claire; Nicaise, Yvan; Desquesnes, Aurore; Pannese, Maria; Filleron, Thomas; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Lawson, Malcolm; Rintoul, Robert C.; Delisle, Marie Bernadette; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Brousset, Pierre; Prats, Hervé; Touriol, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of translation initiation factors has been associated with carcinogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remains to be fully understood. Here we show that eIF4H (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H), an activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A, is overexpressed in lung carcinomas and predictive of response to chemotherapy. In lung cancer cells, depletion of eIF4H enhances sensitization to chemotherapy, decreases cell migration and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, in association with reduced translation of mRNA encoding cell-proliferation (c-Myc, cyclin D1) angiogenic (FGF-2) and anti-apoptotic factors (CIAP-1, BCL-xL). Conversely, each isoform of eIF4H acts as an oncogene in NIH3T3 cells by stimulating transformation, invasion, tumor growth and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis together with increased translation of IRES-containing or structured 5′UTR mRNAs. These results demonstrate that eIF4H plays a crucial role in translational control and can promote cellular transformation by preferentially regulating the translation of potent growth and survival factor mRNAs, indicating that eIF4H is a promising new molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:26498689

  4. Synthesis of 4H/fcc Noble Multimetallic Nanoribbons for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Huang, Xiao; Li, Bing; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Hua

    2016-02-03

    Noble multimetallic nanomaterials, if only consisting of Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd, typically adopt the high-symmetry face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Here for the first time, by using the 4H/fcc Au@Ag nanoribbons (NRBs) as seeds, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PdAg core-shell NRBs via the galvanic reaction method under ambient conditions. Moreover, this strategy can also be used to synthesize 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PtAg and quatermetallic Au@PtPdAg core-shell NRBs. Impressively, for the first time, these alloy shells, i.e., PdAg, PtAg, and PtPdAg, epitaxially grown on the 4H/fcc Au core with novel 4H hexagonal phase were successfully synthesized. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc Au@PdAg NRBs exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction, which is even quite close to that of the commercial Pt black. We believe that our findings here may provide a novel strategy for the crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of advanced functional noble multimetallic nanomaterials with various promising applications.

  5. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic.

  6. P4H9-detected molecule expression on spindle-shaped fibroblasts indicates malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Ieda, Junji; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Takifuji, Katsunari; Hotta, Tsukasa; Matsuda, Kenji; Watanabe, Takashi; Shively, John E; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our previous study using a mammary fat pad mouse model showed that P4H9, produced by the β2 integrin epitope, detected a molecule on fibroblasts in response to carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1)-expressing cancer cells. P4H9-detected molecule (PDM) expression appeared to be associated with myofibroblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated whether PDM is expressed on fibroblasts and cancer cells in clinical tissue samples, and whether the presence of PDM-expressing colorectal cancer cells is correlated with clinicopathological features of patients. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect P4H9 on clinical tissue samples from 156 patients with colorectal cancer. Risk factors for metastases and survival were calculated for clinical implication of PDM-expressing spindle-shaped fibroblasts. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that PDM-expressing spindle-shaped fibroblasts were an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis, hematogenous metastasis, and poor survival. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve indicated that PDM-expressing spindle-shaped fibroblasts were associated with shorter survival time (P<0.0001). Immunofluorescence showed PDM expression on CCD-18Co fibroblasts and two colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HCT-15). Conclusions: PDM-expressing spindle-shaped fibroblasts are associated with metastasis and shorter survival in colorectal cancer patients. PDM-expressing spindle-shaped fibroblasts may have a role in eliciting the malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer. PMID:26469833

  7. School Astronomy Club: from Project to Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folhas, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    Prepare a generation of young people for the challenges of the future is a task which forces us to rethink the school, not just for being difficult, but also because students feel that the school has very little to offer, especially something that interests them. Thus, the school is dysfunctional, is ill, and needs prompt treatment. School have to adjust to the new times, and this does not mean changing the old blackboards by advanced interactive whiteboards. The school has to find the way to the students with something that seduce them: the Challenge. The Astronomy Club that I lead in my school is essentially a Project space. Students who voluntarily joined the club, organize themselves according to their interests around projects whose outcome is not defined from the beginning, which requires them to do, undo and redo. Which obliges them to feel the need to ask for help to mathematics or physics to achieve answers, to feel the passion to study with a genuine purpose of learning. Some examples of the work: The younger students are challenged to reproduce the historical astronomical experiments that have opened the doors of knowledge such as the Eratosthenes experiment to determine the perimeter of the Earth (on equinox), or by using congruent triangles, determine the diameter the sun. These students are driven to establish distance scales in the solar system, which, to their astonishment, allows them to clear misconceptions that arise from some pictures of books and allows them to have a scientifically correct idea of the planetary orbit and distance separating the planets of the Solar System. For students from 15 to 18 years, I have to raise the level of the challenges and use the natural tendency of this age bracket to assert making new and exciting things. To this purpose, I am fortunate to have the support of large organizations like NUCLIO, ESA, CERN, and Go-Lab Project, Inspiring Science Education, Open Discovery Space and Global Hands on Universe. Through

  8. Impact of optical phonon scattering on inversion channel mobility in 4H-SiC trenched MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Kawaji, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Onishi, Toru; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Kensaku; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2017-04-01

    Temperature characteristics of the channel mobility were investigated for 4H-SiC trenched MOSFETs in the range from 30 to 200 °C. The conventional model of channel mobility limited by carrier scattering is based on Si-MOSFETs and shows a greatly different channel mobility from the experimental value, especially at high temperatures. On the other hand, our improved mobility model taking into account optical phonon scattering yielded results in excellent agreement with experimental results. Moreover, the major factors limiting the channel mobility were found to be Coulomb scattering in a low effective field (<0.7 MV/cm) and optical phonon scattering in a high effective field.

  9. Microscopic origin of the prolonged coherence in 4H-SiC divacancy spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hosung; Falk, Abram; Klimov, Paul; Christle, David; Awschalom, David; Galli, Giulia

    Long coherence times of quantum bits (qubits) is a key prerequisite for quantum computing and quantum metrology. Recently, electronic spin qubits localized to divacancies in 4H-SiC were found to have a long spin coherence time (T2) exceeding 1 ms, which is longer than that of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in chemically but not isotopically purified diamond. In this talk, we discuss the microscopic origin behind the prolonged divacancy coherence. By using optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR), we show that the divacancy T2 rapidly increases as a function of magnetic field, saturating at 1.3 ms at T = 20 K. We used a quantum-bath model combined with a cluster correlation expansion technique to calculate the divacancy coherence function and found an excellent agreement between theory and experiment. We show that an effective decoupling of the 29Si and 13C nuclear spins due to their gyromagnetic ratio difference is one of the key reasons responsible for suppressing the decoherence of the divacancy qubits in SiC under magnetic fields larger than 100G. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation through the University of Chicago MRSEC under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  10. Transport and photoconduction characteristics of metal-graphene-4H-SiC(0001) heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, T.; Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.; Kouklin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Vertically integrated graphene-semiconductor systems remain of significant technological importance for their promise to captivate new device physics and propel the development of advanced carbon-based opto-electronic devices. In this study, we carry out a series of bias-dependent transport, gate-dependent transport, and photoconduction measurements to probe the opto-electronic characteristics of metal-graphene-4H-SiC (0001) (Si-face) heterojunctions. The forward bias transport is found to deviate strongly from thermionic emission one as being controlled by the device circuitry and minority carrier injection mechanisms. An improved analytical model is offered and used to extract key junction parameters including series resistance of ˜80 kΩ, interface barrier height of ˜0.6 eV, and ideality factor of ˜6.1. The results of the photocurrent tests point to a light-assisted minority carrier injection as a key mechanism behind the photoconductive gain obtained in the devices subject to a weak, sub-bandgap cw-excitation.

  11. Time resolved QCLAS measurements in pulsed cc-rf CF4/H2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S.; Welzel, S.; Röpcke, J.; Meichsner, J.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorocarbon containing capacitively coupled radio frequency (cc-rf) plasmas are widely used in technical applications and as model systems for fundamental investigations of complex plasmas. Absorption spectroscopy based on pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL) was applied in the mid-IR spectral range of 1269-1275 cm-1. Absolute densities of the precursor molecule CF4 and of the stable product C3F8 were measured with a time resolution of up to 1 ms in pulsed CF4/H2 asymmetrical cc-rf (13.56 MHz) discharges. For this purpose both the non-negligible temperature dependence of the absorption coefficients and the interference of the absorption features of CF4 and C3F8 had to be taken into account in the target spectral range. Therefore, at two different spectral positions composite absorption spectra were acquired under the same plasma conditions in order to discriminate between CF4 and C3F8 contributions. A total consumption of~ 12 % was observed for CF4 during a 1 s plasma pulse, whereas C3F8 appeared to be produced mainly from amorphous fluorocarbon layers deposited at the reactor walls. A gas temperature increase by ~ 100 K in the plasma pulse was estimated from the measurements. Additionally, not yet identified unresolved absorption (potentially from the excited CF4 molecule) was found during the àon-phase'.

  12. Social media, medicine and the modern journal club.

    PubMed

    Topf, Joel M; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2015-04-01

    Medical media is changing along with the rest of the media landscape. One of the more interesting ways that medical media is evolving is the increased role of social media in medical media's creation, curation and distribution. Twitter, a microblogging site, has become a central hub for finding, vetting, and spreading this content among doctors. We have created a Twitter journal club for nephrology that primarily provides post-publication peer review of high impact nephrology articles, but additionally helps Twitter users build a network of engaged people with interests in academic nephrology. By following participants in the nephrology journal club, users are able to stock their personal learning network. In this essay we discuss the history of medical media, the role of Twitter in the current states of media and summarize our initial experience with a Twitter journal club.

  13. Journal clubs: a strategy to teach civility to nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Cindy; Jenkins, Sheryl; Woith, Wendy; Kim, Myoungjin

    2012-05-01

    Incivility affects nurses and nursing students and can negatively influence patient care and the quality of nursing education. The Institute of Medicine, The Joint Commission, and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing recommended implementation of strategies to manage incivility and build social capital. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the influence of a journal club as an educational intervention to build civility and academic integrity among nursing students. Seventy-nine nursing students completed the Nurses' Intervention for Civility Education Questionnaire and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire before and after the Civility Journal Club intervention. Students involved in the Civility Journal Club were more aware of civility and incivility, more likely to be helpful to their peers, and better equipped to cope with episodes of incivility.

  14. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Peter; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Stout, Julie C; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The 'rich club' is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub 'rich club' brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington's disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington's disease and manifest Huntington's disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic pattern of structural

  15. Job Search Club Program. Program Notebook. Planning/Operations/Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    Guides are provided for planning, operating, and leading a Job Search Club Program. The planning guide for use by club directors, program committees, and club staff presents a cohesive, systematic plan for launching a successful job search program. It offers a step-by-step description of the essential elements of the planning process, an…

  16. Difficulties Faced in Social Club Activities: A Qualitative Study Based on Teacher Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keçe, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the problems encountered in social club activities based on opinions of club advisors. This study was conducted in line with qualitative research methods using the interview technique to collect data. Therefore, interviews were held with 21 club advisors included in the study group. A category analysis, a…

  17. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

  18. Raising Money Through Gift Clubs: A Survey of Techniques at 42 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Robert D., Comp.

    The way that 42 private schools, colleges, and universities use gift clubs to motivate donors is examined. Based on a nationwide survey, information is presented on the clubs' origins, requirements for membership, methods of enlisting new members, and ways of encouraging current members to increase gifts. Attention is also directed to the clubs'…

  19. Making Every Day Count: Boys & Girls Clubs' Role in Promoting Positive Outcomes for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbreton, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The third in a series of reports from P/PV's three-year study of the role Boys & Girls Clubs play in the lives of the youth they serve, "Making Every Day Count" examines how Club participation is related to youth's positive and healthy development in three outcome areas identified by Boys & Girls Clubs of America as central to its mission: good…

  20. Coaches' Perceptions of French Sports Clubs: Health-Promotion Activities, Aims and Coach Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Aurélie; Sarrazin, Philippe; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Kokko, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the benefits of participating in sport, sports clubs have been recognised as health promoting organizations. To examine health-promotion activities in Finnish sports clubs, Kokko et al. developed a set of standards for health-promoting sports clubs (HPSC). Objective: The present study extends this line of research, by (1)…

  1. An Academic Club Service Learning Project as a Demonstration of Experiential Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonczek, James L.; Snyder, Lori Unruh; Ellis, Larry R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our pedagogical approaches and experiences with an academic club service learning project (one semester, 20 club participants, including both graduate students and lower and upper-level undergraduates). Our service learning project responds to the recent demand for more community service-based club projects within the College of…

  2. Charismatic Cops, Patriarchs and a Few Good Women: Leadership, Club Culture and Young Peoples' Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Hickey, Chris; Cormack, Sue; Harrison, Lyn; Lindsay, Jo

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on key findings of a research project that examined the roles that community-based sporting clubs in the Australian state of Victoria play in shaping young people's understandings and uses of alcohol. Our research imagined clubs as community hubs that are located in complex networks that impact on the ways that clubs understand…

  3. 7 CFR 795.10 - Club, society, fraternal or religious organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Club, society, fraternal or religious organization... General § 795.10 Club, society, fraternal or religious organization. Each individual club, society..., society, fraternal or religious organization is engaged in the production of crops as a separate...

  4. 7 CFR 795.10 - Club, society, fraternal or religious organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Club, society, fraternal or religious organization... General § 795.10 Club, society, fraternal or religious organization. Each individual club, society..., society, fraternal or religious organization is engaged in the production of crops as a separate...

  5. 7 CFR 795.10 - Club, society, fraternal or religious organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Club, society, fraternal or religious organization... General § 795.10 Club, society, fraternal or religious organization. Each individual club, society..., society, fraternal or religious organization is engaged in the production of crops as a separate...

  6. 7 CFR 795.10 - Club, society, fraternal or religious organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Club, society, fraternal or religious organization... General § 795.10 Club, society, fraternal or religious organization. Each individual club, society..., society, fraternal or religious organization is engaged in the production of crops as a separate...

  7. 7 CFR 795.10 - Club, society, fraternal or religious organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Club, society, fraternal or religious organization... General § 795.10 Club, society, fraternal or religious organization. Each individual club, society..., society, fraternal or religious organization is engaged in the production of crops as a separate...

  8. Toward an Ecstasy and Other Club Drug (EOCD) Prevention Intervention for Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Miller, Sarah; Pianim, Selwyn; Kunz, Michael; Orrick, Erin; Link, Tanja; Palacios, Wilson R.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of recent research has identified that "rave" attendees are at high risk for the use of "club drugs," such as 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). Rave attendees, however, comprise only one of several club-going populations. In the current study, we explore the prevalence of ecstasy and other club drug (EOCD) use…

  9. The Clubbers' Guide: New Academic Year, New Science/STEM Club?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Linda; Howarth, Sue

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present some ideas to help one start (or continue) a successful science/STEM club. Some "tips" are given by Mike Bullock, a teacher from the West Midlands, who set up a STEM club after his NQT (newly qualified teacher) year and whose club members went on to do well in the STEM Challenges. Information is provided about…

  10. Undergraduate Journal Club as an Intervention to Improve Student Development in Applying the Scientific Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, Conner I.; Gordy, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We developed and implemented a series of workshops and seminars in an undergraduate journal club targeted at improving student development in applying the scientific process. Students were surveyed before and after participating in the club about their confidence in accessing, analyzing, and reporting scientific research. Post-club, the students…

  11. The Supernova Club: Urban Youth Engagement that Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Philip J.; Luckey, V.; Balsara, D.

    2008-05-01

    One of IYA's goals is to promote greater involvement by underrepresented minorities in scientific and engineering careers. IYA can serve as a catalyst for such involvement, but ultimate success requires a longer-term approach. The Supernova Club is an experiment in such a long-term approach. The goal is to see if engagement in a year-round astronomy club can propel youths from some of the most severely disadvantaged areas of our region into careers in science. We recruited club members by bringing astronomy activities to over a hundred youths ages 10-16 who were on campus in Summer 2007 for Notre Dames’ National Youth Sports Program (NYSP). Approximately 20 percent of the participants, most of who were underrepresented minorities and from below poverty level, expressed interest in joining an after-school astronomy club, and thirteen of them ultimately did so. The club meets one evening a week at Notre Dame's Robinson Community Learning Center. Center staff provide extensive support with logistics, meals, training in social skills and conduct, and communications with parents. Notre Dame scientists, assisted by local teachers, provide weekly activities. After one year, the club members have shown large improvements in interest in science and astronomy, ability to focus on tasks or discussions, and general behavior at school and at home. Funding for this first pilot year was provided through education supplements to HST research grants. With NASA space science education funding currently on an indefinite stand down, we are seeking other funds with which to carry on this experiment.

  12. Method of transportation and drinking among club patrons

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examines the variation in alcohol use among nightclub patrons under three transportation conditions: those who departed from a club using modes of transportation other than cars or motorcycles (e.g., pedestrians, bicyclists, subway riders); those who were passengers of drivers (auto/taxi passenger patrons); and those who drove from the club (driving patrons). We seek to determine whether patrons' choice for how to leave the club contributes to their risk, as assessed by blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), after controlling for other factors that may contribute to their BAC including demographic characteristics and social drinking group influences. Methods Data were collected from social drinking groups as they entered and exited clubs for 71 different evenings at ten clubs from 2010 through 2012. Using portal methodology, a research site was established proximal to club entrances. Each individual participant provided data on themselves and others in their group. The present analyses are based upon 1833 individuals who completed both entrance and exit data. Our outcome variable is blood alcohol content (BAC) based upon breath tests attained from patrons at entrance and exit from the club. Independent variables include method of transportation, social group characteristics, drug use, and personal characteristics. We use step-wise multiple regressions to predict entrance BAC, change in BAC from entrance to exit, and exit BAC: first entering individual demographic characteristics, then entering group characteristics, then drug use, and finally entering method of transportation (two dummy coded variables such that drivers are the referent category). Results In sum, in all three of our analyses, only three variables are consistently predictive of BAC: presence of a group member who is frequently drunk and non-driving modes of transportation, either being the passenger or taking alternate methods of transportation. In particular, taking an

  13. The professionalization of Carl G. Jung's analytical psychology clubs.

    PubMed

    Samuels, A

    1994-04-01

    This paper addresses (1) the history of a cluster of unusual institutions-analytical psychology clubs--which started in 1916 and by 1934 had become established in many of the countries in the world in which there was interest in the analytical psychology of Carl G. Jung; (2) the conflicts involved in trying to unite the relatively informal earlier "Jung Clubs" with the more formal societies being established by the increasing numbers of professionally trained analysts; and (3) the wider cultural and social issues included in the professionalization of analytical psychology.

  14. Book clubs--outreach opportunities for hospital libraries.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Priscilla L; Clever, Shannon; Coady, Teresa R; Ender, Deniz; Heyd, Michael; Peth, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Book clubs and discussion groups provide opportunities for hospital librarians to reach out to staff from all areas of their facilities while introducing them to literature reflecting participants' personal and professional interests. Librarians presenting these case studies have coordinated local book clubs where topics ranged from titles about the nature of healing, to leadership development, and patient-centered care. Some also included contemporary novels of interest to participants. No matter the setting or scope of material discussed, each group has provided unique networking opportunities for staff to meet others working in various departments of their facilities.

  15. The use of a virtual learning environment in promoting virtual journal clubs and case-based discussions in trauma and orthopaedic postgraduate medical education: the Leicester experience.

    PubMed

    Palan, J; Roberts, V; Bloch, B; Kulkarni, A; Bhowal, B; Dias, J

    2012-09-01

    The use of journal clubs and, more recently, case-based discussions in order to stimulate debate among orthopaedic surgeons lies at the heart of orthopaedic training and education. A virtual learning environment can be used as a platform to host virtual journal clubs and case-based discussions. This has many advantages in the current climate of constrained time and diminishing trainee and consultant participation in such activities. The virtual environment model opens up participation and improves access to journal clubs and case-based discussions, provides reusable educational content, establishes an electronic record of participation for individuals, makes use of multimedia material (including clinical imaging and photographs) for discussion, and finally, allows participants to link case-based discussions with relevant papers in the journal club. The Leicester experience highlights the many advantages and some of the potential difficulties in setting up such a virtual system and provides useful guidance for those considering such a system in their own training programme. As a result of the virtual learning environment, trainee participation has increased and there is a trend for increased consultant input in the virtual journal club and case-based discussions. It is likely that the use of virtual environments will expand to encompass newer technological approaches to personal learning and professional development.

  16. Effect of neutron irradiation on charge collection efficiency in 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Lei, Jiarong; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Yu; Li, Meng; Zou, Dehui; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) in 4H-SiC Schottky diode is studied as a function of neutron fluence. The 4H-SiC diode was irradiated with fast neutrons of a critical assembly in Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Institute and CCE for 3.5 MeV alpha particles was then measured as a function of the applied reverse bias. It was found from our experiment that an increase of neutron fluence led to a decrease of CCE. In particular, CCE of the diode was less than 1.3% at zero bias after an irradiation at 8.26×1014 n/cm2. A generalized Hecht's equation was employed to analyze CCE in neutron irradiated 4H-SiC diode. The calculations nicely fit the CCE of 4H-SiC diode irradiated at different neutron fluences. According to the calculated results, the extracted electron μτ product (μτ)e and hole μτ product (μτ)h of the irradiated 4H-SiC diode are found to decrease by increasing the neutron fluence.

  17. On the Origin of C4H and CH3OH in Protostellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.

    2016-12-01

    The formation pathways of different types of organic molecules in protostellar envelopes and other regions of star formation are subjects of intense current interest. We present here observations of C4H and CH3OH, tracing two distinct groups of interstellar organic molecules, toward 16 protostars in the Ophiuchus and Corona Australis molecular clouds. Together with observations in the literature, we present C4H and CH3OH data from single-dish observations of 40 embedded protostars. We find no correlation between the C4H and CH3OH column densities in this large sample. Based on this lack of correlation, a difference in line profiles between C4H and CH3OH, and previous interferometric observations of similar sources, we propose that the emission from these two molecules is spatially separated, with the CH3OH tracing gas that has been transiently heated to high (˜70-100 K) temperatures and the C4H tracing the cooler large-scale envelope where CH4 molecules have been liberated from ices. These results provide insight in the differentiation between hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry in embedded protostars. Based on observations with the Kitt Peak 12 m telescope telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The Kitt Peak 12 m telescope is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. APEX is a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.

  18. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  19. The Club of Rome and its computer.

    PubMed

    Chase, S

    1973-03-01

    When the Club of Rome, an assemblage of 75 scientists and businessmen gathered to study the ''predicament of mankind in the face of technology growing at an exponential rate,'' issued its computer study it launched a battle between proponents of gross national product and those favoring quality of life. The computer simulation studied the interaction of population growth, food supply, inductrial production, resource use, and pollution under varying conditions. It concluded that our industrial system is headed for too many people in relation to food and living space, too much production in relation to natural resources, and for too much pollution. This will affect all countries. The traditional economists say the continued growth of the gross national product is the only way to ensure better living conditions while the ecologists point out that quality of life is being destroyed. The author cites arguments both for and against the quality-of-life view. The problem is that continued industrial growth creates wants as well as satisfying them and leads to waste as well as needful consumption. John Stuart Mill stated 100 years ago that the world could not support continued technological expansion and society must reach an equilibrium. 8 steps must be taken if the planet is to reach such an equilibrium, which is essential to the survival of all: 1) a zero rate of population growth, although there may be variations between countries with some over and some under; 2) a zero rate of industrial output with overall new investment equal to overall rate of industrial depreciation; 3) a policy of recycling and conserving material resources; 4) an adequate budget of food, shelter, clothing, health services, and education for every human being (a budget which does not allow for autos and air conditioning); 5) a sharp decline in consumption of material goods in affluent societies with a corresponding shift to more services and an increase in material goods for low energy societies

  20. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Club entrance channel,” defined as the water area between the Lakeside Yacht Club jetties and the Burke... no. 1. Restricted area no. 1 is the water area on the southwest end of the Lakeside Yacht Club...) Restricted area no. 2. Restricted area no. 2 is the water area of the Lakeside Yacht Club entrance...

  1. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Club entrance channel,” defined as the water area between the Lakeside Yacht Club jetties and the Burke... no. 1. Restricted area no. 1 is the water area on the southwest end of the Lakeside Yacht Club...) Restricted area no. 2. Restricted area no. 2 is the water area of the Lakeside Yacht Club entrance...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... college club, fraternity or sorority. 404.1014 Section 404.1014 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... a local college club, fraternity or sorority. (a) General. If you are a student and do work of a household nature in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... college club, fraternity or sorority. 404.1014 Section 404.1014 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... a local college club, fraternity or sorority. (a) General. If you are a student and do work of a household nature in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... college club, fraternity or sorority. 404.1014 Section 404.1014 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... a local college club, fraternity or sorority. (a) General. If you are a student and do work of a household nature in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... college club, fraternity or sorority. 404.1014 Section 404.1014 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... a local college club, fraternity or sorority. (a) General. If you are a student and do work of a household nature in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... college club, fraternity or sorority. 404.1014 Section 404.1014 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... a local college club, fraternity or sorority. (a) General. If you are a student and do work of a household nature in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a...

  7. Comparison of Coaches' Perceptions and Officials Guidance towards Health Promotion in French Sport Clubs: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, A.; Heuzé, J.-P.; Larsen, T.; Sarrazin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the call to improve health promotion (HP) in sport clubs in the existing literature, little is known about sport clubs' organizational capacity. Grounded within the setting-based framework, this study compares HP activities and guidance among 10 football clubs. At least three grassroots coaches from each club (n = 68) completed the Health…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study on Meaning and the Nature of Children's Experiences in Australian and French Swimming Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Australia and France that inquired into the meaning and the nature of children's experiences of being in swimming clubs with a focus on the positive aspects of membership that keep them in their clubs. Three-month long case studies were conducted in a club in Australia and in a club in France, employing…

  9. Sense Determination of Micropipes via Grazing-Incidence Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography in 4H Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,Y.; Dhanaraj, G.; Dudley, M.; Sanchez, E.; MacMillan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Computer modeling using the ray-tracing method has been used to simulate the grazing-incidence x-ray topographic images of micropipes in 4H silicon carbide recorded using the pyramidal (11-28) reflection. Simulation results indicate that the images of micropipes appear as white features of roughly elliptical shape, canted to one side or other of the g vector depending on the dislocation sense. Observed images compare well with the simulations, demonstrating that the direction of cant provides a simple, nondestructive, and reliable way to reveal the senses of micropipes. Sense assignment has been validated using back-reflection reticulography.

  10. Numerical analysis of the Gibbs-Thomson effect on trench-filling epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Ji, Shiyang; Kosugi, Ryoji; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion equation was numerically analyzed to examine the rate of homoepitaxial growth on a trenched 4H-SiC substrate. The radii of curvature at the top and bottom of the trenches were used to take the Gibbs-Thomson effect into account in the analysis based on the conventional boundary-layer model. When the trench pitch was less than or equal to 6.0 µm, the measured dependence of the growth rate on the trench pitch was found to be explained by the Gibbs-Thomson effect on the vapor-phase diffusion of growing species.

  11. Running an Elementary School Astronomy Club: Engaging Children in the Wonders of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Odenwald, S.; Lundberg, C.; Dimarco, A.

    2000-10-01

    ``At the elementary school level, children are motivated by two things, dinosaurs and space" (Dr. Harold Williams, Montgomery College Planetarium Director). Yet, many elementary school science objectives include only the most basic astronomical concepts. Some ignore the subject all together in favor of more traditional courses (e.g. math and reading) or Earth science based curricula such as weather and local ecosystems. In addition, most elementary school teachers are unfamiliar with astronomical concepts and are poorly equipped to teach the subject. With teacher requirements increasing due to increasing class sizes, state competency exams, and a back to basics political climate, there is often little room to capitalize on the natural sense of curiosity children have about the universe during the normal school day. An after school astronomy club can provide a solution. In this paper, we present a model for setting up and running an after school astronomy club for students in grades 3-6. Our model was developed at two Maryland schools, Sligo Creek Elementary and Holy Redeemer Elementary/Middle School and incorporates national education standards as well as NASA OSS guidelines for effective education outreach programs. We propose here, a Community Based Learning (CBL) approach with the goal of engaging multiple elements of the community in the learning process including local amateur astronomy clubs, industry, community colleges, parents, and teachers. Methods for using astronomy as a basis for teaching reading, writing, math, and presentation skills are introduced. Resources, teaching methods, preparation guidelines, discipline, and safety are discussed and a list of grade appropriate, hands-on astronomy activities is presented along with procedures and expected outcomes.

  12. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  13. Cathodoluminescence Study of the Properties of Stacking Faults in 4H-SiC Homoepitaxial Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence study of the properties of stacking faults in 4H- SiC homoepitaxial layers Serguei I. Maximenko,1,a Jaime A. Freitas, Jr.,1 Paul...2009 In-grown stacking faults in n-type 4H- SiC epitaxial layers have been investigated by real-color cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy...carried out at room and liquid helium temperatures. Stacking faults with 8H stacking order were observed, as well as double layer and multilayer 3C- SiC

  14. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Asokan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E2 (TO) and the A1 (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  15. Electrical properties of extended defects in 4H-SiC investigated by photoinduced current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Stefania M. S.; Litrico, Grazia; Camarda, Massimo; Piluso, Nicolò; La Via, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    We study the correlation between crystal quality and electrical transport in 4H-SiC by micro-photoluminescence and laser-beam-induced photocurrent measurements. A focused HeCd laser at 325 nm has been employed to simultaneously measure, with a spatial resolution of a few microns, both the photoluminescence and current–voltage characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes. We found that the laser-induced photocurrent acquired along a defect can give information on its spatial distribution in depth and that the local minority carrier lifetime and generation depend on the type of stacking fault, both decreasing for defects with deeper intragap levels.

  16. Club-based and non-club-based physiotherapists' views on the psychological content of their practice when treating sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, M E; Kenyon, R; Wright, C J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether there were any differences in the psychological content of practice between club-contracted and non-club-contracted physiotherapists when treating sports injuries. Eighty-seven certified physiotherapists (non-club contracted N = 42, club contracted N = 45) from the United Kingdom completed a modified version of the Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire (ATSPQ). Results revealed significant between-group differences in psychological skills use and the importance of psychological skills knowledge. Non-club-contracted physiotherapists reported a higher use of improving social support and higher-order psychological skills (e.g., reducing depression, stress, and anxiety) and rated knowledge of these psychological skills to be more important whilst club-contracted physiotherapists reported a higher use of short-term goal settings. These findings suggest that non-club-based physiotherapists may approach the treatment of injured athletes in a different way to their club-based counterparts. Results suggest athletes treated outside of the club system may experience a different recovery process.

  17. The impact of alcohol management practices on sports club membership and revenue.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, L; Kingsland, M; Rowland, B; Dodds, P; Sidey, M; Sherker, S; Wiggers, J

    2016-04-13

    Issue addressed: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an alcohol management intervention on community sporting club revenue (total annual income) and membership (number of club players, teams and spectators).Methods: The study employed a cluster randomised controlled trial design that allocated clubs either an alcohol accreditation intervention or a control condition. Club representatives completed a scripted telephone survey at baseline and again ~3 years following. Demographic information about clubs was collected along with information about club income.Results: Number of players and senior teams were not significantly different between treatment groups following the intervention. The intervention group, however, showed a significantly higher mean number of spectators. Estimates of annual club income between groups at follow-up showed no significant difference in revenue.Conclusions: This study found no evidence to suggest that efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm in community sporting clubs will compromise club revenue and membership.So what?: These findings suggest that implementation of an intervention to improve alcohol management of sporting clubs may not have the unintended consequence of harming club viability.

  18. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was…

  19. The Environmental Message of Audubon and the Sierra Club Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoesterey, John; Bowman, James S.

    1976-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the impact of environmental values on two periodicals: Audubon and the Sierra Club Bulletin. The two periodicals were analyzed for the period 1969-1974. Many conclusions are presented including that the Audubon Society may be undergoing an organizational change by becoming more politically oriented. (BT)

  20. Engaging Teens in Recreational Reading through Book Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Jil'Lana

    2015-01-01

    Being concerned about the decline in recreational reading among adolescent students, with several colleagues, the author began brainstorming ideas on how to better promote reading. One of the ideas that kept recurring was hosting a book club for students. Since the focus would be on reintroducing the idea of reading for pleasure and not just for…

  1. Teens, Crime, and the Community in Boys & Girls Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Andrea

    Teens, Crime, and the Community (TCC) curriculum creates an awareness among teens of the crime problems facing our communities and how they affect our nation. It encourages youth to take responsibility for reducing crime and victimization, making schools and neighborhoods safer. Boys and Girls Clubs offer a variety of programs for youth, and TCC…

  2. Marshall Amateur Radio Club experiment (MARCE) post flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, Charles C.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment (MARCE) data system, the data recorded during the flight of STS-61C, the manner in which the data was reduced to engineering units, and the performance of the student experiments determined from the data are briefly described.

  3. Inducting an Eighth Grader into the Literacy Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    Explains how a teacher uses a mystery novel and an aesthetic approach to literature appreciation, as opposed to one concerned with facts in the text, to engage students and prep them for writing their own mystery stories. Shows how one student in particular overcame her sense of exclusion and felt a part of the "literacy club." (TB)

  4. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  5. Transnational Alliances: "La Clase Mágica--Nepohualtzitzin" Ethnomathematics Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Linda; Claeys, Lorena; González, Everardo Lara

    2015-01-01

    This article exposes the ancient "Nepohualtzitzin" as an important contemporary mathematical tool. The design and development of "Nepohualtzitzin" Ethnomathematics Clubs (NECs) in predominantly Latina/o and low-income schools is also presented. NECs provide informal learning opportunities to develop and strengthen cultural…

  6. Registration of “Pritchett” soft white winter club wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft white club winter wheat (Triticium aestivum L. ssp. compactum) is a unique component of the wheat production in the PNW, comprising 6-10% of the wheat crop. It is valued for milling and baking functionality and marketed for export in a 20-30% blend with soft white wheat as Western White. Our g...

  7. Magical Mysteries. Texas Reading Club, 1984. A Librarian's Planning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jim

    Designed to encourage library use by Texas youth, the Texas Reading Club programs usually include a structured reading program and a variety of entertaining literature-related storyhours, puppet shows, films, and other attractive happenings. This handbook for the 1984 theme--"magical mysteries"--focuses on mysteries, magic, and adventure…

  8. Sports Club Development--The '70'S Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juncker, D. F.

    A large-scale movement toward sports clubs is evolving in colleges and universities in response to widespread professionalism in varsity sports, limited sports opportunities available to highly skilled student athletes, and most importantly, substantial increases in the desire for sports participation by students in general, as a supplement to…

  9. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE BEDROOM ON SOUTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE BEDROOM ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF HOTEL. BOAT HOUSE AND DOCK VISIBLE FROM WINDOW ON LEFT; SWAN FALLS POWER HOUSE AND CONSTRUCTION SITE VISIBLE FROM WINDOW ON RIGHT. CAMERA FACING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Swan Falls Village, Clubhouse 011, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  10. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Isaccs

    2009-09-17

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  11. 17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south and west additions to the Clubhouse. Camera pointed W. Stairs in foreground lead to the 'Gallery' room. Stairs in background lead to the 'Callahan' room. 'Broderick' room (not shown) is entered from south side of 'Gallery' room. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  12. Library-Based Summer Reading Clubs: Who Participates and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Capps, Janet L.; Levitt, Stephanie R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a research study designed to identify who participates in library-based summer reading clubs (SRCs) and why they elect to do so. To address this aim, questionnaires were completed by caregivers of 246 children upon enrollment to the SRC of a metropolitan library as well as 480 youth; the questionnaire was designed to learn…

  13. Bullying 101: The Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bullying 101" is the Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention. A visually-friendly, age-appropriate, 16-page colorful guide for students to read or for parents to use when talking with children, this guide describes and explains what bullying is and is not, the roles of other students, and tips on what each student can do to prevent…

  14. The Morehouse College Glee Club: History and Recent Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, David

    1987-01-01

    The history of the Morehouse College Glee Club, founded around 1911 at the Black college, is highlighted by appearances before such notables as Franklin D. Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Jr., Haile Selassie, Jimmy Carter, and Benjamin E. Mays and performances with people such as Robert Shaw, Leontyne Price, Diahann Carroll, Maynard Jackson, Billy…

  15. Bears, Trolls, and Pagemasters: Learning about Learners in Book Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Carolyn R.; Dixon, Carol N.; Brandts, Lois R.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how in one particular second-grade classroom students had opportunities for learning the academic and social content of literature while simultaneously engaging in the processes and practices of reading. Focuses on the kinds of opportunities offered to students in their involvement in Book Clubs and how those opportunities occur when…

  16. Kids Food CyberClub. Teacher's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belyea, Monica

    This guide is designed to help teachers educate students to be healthier now and in the future. It presents fun, learner-centered activities about nutrition, food, hunger, and food sources. It offers an overview of each section of the Kids Food CyberClub web site, and classroom activities teachers can use to expand on information students will…

  17. Change Agent Research for Windsor Aquatic Club (CAR/WAC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Olafson, Gord

    This study of the Windsor Aquatic Club (WAC) was undertaken to investigate the following problems and questions: (a) identification of goals; (b) conflict in the interface of age class and school class swimming, as well as the interface of municipal, regional, provincial, federal, and international organizations; (c) identification of task,…

  18. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Isaccs

    2016-07-12

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  19. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  20. Interdisciplinary Journal Club: Advancing Knowledge Translation in a Rural State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.; Potvin, Marie-Christine; MacLeod, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Professionals who provide health and related supports and services to children with disabilities in educational programs and community settings must practice in an evidence-based manner to ensure children and families receive the highest quality care. Vermont's Interdisciplinary Journal Club provides a successful approach to supporting…

  1. Extracurricular School Clubs: A Time for Fun and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Alicia R.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion in school clubs affords students with severe disabilities learning opportunities as well as a natural context for addressing curricula. These learning opportunities expand the number of settings in which students can practice, master, and generalize skills associated with priority IEP objectives. Teaching skills within natural activities…

  2. Journal Club Format Emphasizing Techniques of Critical Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, James R., Jr.; Winkel, Craig E.

    1982-01-01

    The journal club format offers the resident a unique opportunity to develop specific skills in reading, comprehending, and evaluating medical literature. A course designed for residents in obstetrics and gynecology at the Letterman Army Medical Center and at the University of Cincinnati is described. (MLW)

  3. "Space Capers." Texas Reading Club 1982: A Librarian's Planning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Peggy Jemelka

    Originally designed as a summer program to be offered through the network of bookmobiles and rural public libraries in the state, the Texas Reading Club is now also promoted year round by school and institutional libraries to encourage young readers and to acquaint them with libraries and their services. A theme, formats and ideas, and basic…

  4. Imaginary Indians: Representations of Native Americans in Scholastic Reading Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, Amina; Schau, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Scholastic Reading Clubs are a popular and inexpensive way for teachers to build classroom libraries and for parents to purchase books for their children. The books made accessible to children through the order forms are assumed to be suitable for young readers in terms of their content, popularity, currency, and curricular relevance.…

  5. Biology Blogs: An Online Journal Club & Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Souza-Hart, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    A "blog" can be used as an online journal club to supplement classroom learning. When crafted in a certain way, it can help students develop their scientific reading comprehension, critical thinking, and writing skills in a way that can easily be assessed by educators.

  6. Discovery of a 6.4 h black hole binary in NGC 4490

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, P.; Israel, G. L.; Sidoli, L.; Mapelli, M.; Zampieri, L.; Motta, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the discovery with Chandra of a strong modulation (˜90 per cent pulsed fraction) at ˜6.4 h from the source CXOU J123030.3+413853 in the star-forming, low-metallicity spiral galaxy NGC 4490, which is interacting with the irregular companion NGC 4485. This modulation, confirmed also by XMM-Newton observations, is interpreted as the orbital period of a binary system. The spectra from the Chandra and XMM-Newton observations can be described by a power-law model with photon index Γ ˜ 1.5. During these observations, which span from 2000 November to 2008 May, the source showed a long-term luminosity variability by a factor of ˜5, between ˜2 × 1038 and 1.1 × 1039 erg s-1 (for a distance of 8 Mpc). The maximum X-ray luminosity, exceeding by far the Eddington limit of a neutron star, indicates that the accretor is a black hole. Given the high X-ray luminosity, the short orbital period and the morphology of the orbital light curve, we favour an interpretation of CXOU J123030.3+413853 as a rare high-mass X-ray binary system with a Wolf-Rayet star as a donor, similar to Cyg X-3. This would be the fourth system of this kind known in the local Universe. CXOU J123030.3+413853 can also be considered as a transitional object between high-mass X-ray binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), the study of which may reveal how the properties of persistent black hole binaries evolve entering the ULX regime.

  7. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  8. The Use of Journal Clubs in Science Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallman, Karen A.; Feldman, Allan

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study explored how in a 7-month-long journal club pre- and inservice science teachers engaged with education research literature relevant to their practice to reduce the theory-practice gap. In the journal club they had the opportunity to critique and analyze peer-reviewed science education articles in the context of their classroom practice. Data sources included audio recordings of the meetings; semi-structured pre- and post-interviews of the teachers; focus groups; and artifacts (e.g., journal articles, reflective paper, email exchanges, and researcher's field notes). Data were analyzed using the techniques of grounded theory (Corbin & Strauss in Basics of qualitative research, 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, 2008). In addition we used some preconceived categories that we created from existing literature on journal clubs and communities of practice (Newswander & Borrego in European Journal of Engineering Education 34(6): 561-571, 2009; Wenger in Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) and from our previous research (Tallman & Feldman, 2012). We found that the journal club incorporated the three characteristics of a community of practice (Wenger in Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) into its functioning (mutual engagement, joint enterprise, and shared repertoire). The teachers mutually engaged around the joint enterprise of reading, critiquing, and understanding the research studies with the goal of improving practice. The teachers also asked each other analytical questions, which became a shared repertoire of the journal club. They reflected on their practice by presenting, reading, and discussing the articles, which helped them to determine whether and how the findings from the articles could be incorporated into their teaching practice. In doing so, they learned the skills needed to critique the research literature in

  9. Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy--A Professional Development Opportunity for Out-of-School-Time Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobley, Jennifer; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2013-01-01

    The Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy trained 369 after-school and out of school time providers in 2011. This easy-to-adapt professional development opportunity used blended learning, a combination of in-person and Web-based opportunities. Providers successfully learned concepts and practical knowledge regarding 4-H, specifically 4-H Science. In…

  10. Enhancement of atmospheric H2SO4/H2O nucleation: organic oxidation products versus amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, T.; Sipilä, M.; Stratmann, F.; Petäjä, T.; Vanhanen, J.; Mikkilä, J.; Patokoski, J.; Taipale, R.; Mauldin, R. Lee, III; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric H2SO4/H2O nucleation influencing effects have been studied in the flow tube IfT-LFT (Institute for Tropospheric Research - Laminar Flow Tube) at 293 ± 0.5 K and a pressure of 1 bar using synthetic air as the carrier gas. The presence of a~possible background amine concentration in the order of 107-108 molecule cm-3 throughout the experiments has to be taken into account. In a first set of investigations, ozonolysis of olefins (tetramethylethylene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, α-pinene and limonene) for close to atmospheric concentrations, served as the source of OH radicals and possibly other oxidants initiating H2SO4 formation starting from SO2. The oxidant generation is inevitably associated with the formation of a series of organic oxidation products arising from the parent olefins. These products (first generation mainly) showed no clear effect on the number of nucleated particles within a wide range of experimental conditions for H2SO4 concentrations higher than ~107 molecule cm-3. A comparison of the results of two different particle counters (50% cut-off size: about 1.5 nm or 2.5-3 nm) suggested that the early growth process of the nucleated particles was not significantly influenced by the organic oxidation products. An additional, H2SO4-independent process of particle (nano-CN) formation was observed in the case of α-pinene and limonene ozonolysis for H2SO4 concentrations smaller than ~10 7 molecule cm-3. Furthermore, the findings confirm the existence of an additional oxidant for SO2 beside OH radicals, very likely stabilized Criegee Intermediate (sCI). In the case of the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene, the H2SO4 measurements in the absence and presence of an OH radical scavenger were well described by modelling using recently obtained kinetic data for the sCI reactivity in this system. A second set of experiments has been performed in the presence of added amines (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, aniline and pyridine) in the concentration range

  11. 77 FR 32394 - Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for Recovery, Lake Erie, Sterling State Park, Monroe, MI; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... ] Sterling State Park, Monroe, MI; and on Lake Erie in the vicinity of South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay,...

  12. 4-H Tractor Operator Program Teaches Employability Skills and Safety to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    For Michigan State University Extension, the Berrien County 4-H Tractor Operator Program has provided tractor safety education to teens for over 30 years. The certification training satisfies current requirements for operation of a 20 PTO HP or greater agricultural tractor by 14- and 15-year-old youth employed on property "not" owned,…

  13. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  14. An Evaluation of the 4-H "Health Rocks" Program: Implications for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Carlton; Morgan, A. Christian; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The National 4-H Council developed the Health Rocks substance abuse educational program to prevent youth from engaging in risky behaviors. The program was presented in 2010 to more than 8,000 middle school youth in Georgia. A post-then-pre evaluation was conducted with youth who completed 10 hours of instruction to determine if changes in youth…

  15. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  16. Factors Related to Motivating Adult Somalis with Refugee Status to Volunteer for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mitchell D.; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2016-01-01

    Focus group interviews were held with adult Somali immigrants to assess their likelihood of volunteering for 4-H in Maine. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify best practices for engaging the growing Somali-Mainer population as a volunteer base. Results of the study demonstrate that Somali immigrant adults are willing to volunteer for…

  17. A novel synthesis of 4H-chromen-4-ones via intramolecular wittig reaction

    PubMed

    Kumar; Bodas

    2000-11-30

    The acylphosphoranes formed in a sequential manner from the reaction of the silyl ester of O-acyl(aroyl)salicylic acids and (trimethylsilyl)methylenetriphenylphosphorane undergo intramolecular Wittig cyclization on the ester carbonyl to afford the 4H-chromen-4-ones in good to excellent yields.

  18. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  19. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  20. N-[4-(Dimethyl-amino)-benzyl-idene]-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2012-05-01

    The title compound, C(11)H(13)N(5), is a Schiff base synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(dimethyl-amino)-benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the benzene and triazole rings is 43.09 (11)°. The crystal structure displays weak C-H⋯N inter-actions.

  1. Temperature Dependence of Attenuation of Coplanar Waveguide on 4H High Resistivity SIC Through 540C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Schwartz, Z.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Downey, A. N.; Freeman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, the temperature and frequency dependence of the attenuation of a Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) on 4H, High Resistivity Sic substrate is reported. The low frequency attenuation increases by 2 dB/cm at 500 C and the high frequency attenuation increases by 3.3 dB/cm at 500 C compared to room temperature.

  2. 4-H Chickquest: Connecting Agri-Science with STEM Standards in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Robert L.; Krieger, Jackie; Halasa, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    While young students are more capable of scientific inquiry than previously believed, elementary school teachers are often inexperienced in and lack confidence with teaching science. ChickQuest is a 4-H-created embryology curriculum for third-graders that meets Ohio state science standards, teaches STEM skills, and promotes ongoing interaction…

  3. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  4. Diastereoselectivity in prebiotically relevant 5(4H)-oxazolone-mediated peptide couplings.

    PubMed

    Beaufils, Damien; Danger, Grégoire; Boiteau, Laurent; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-03-21

    A stereochemical study of a potentially prebiotic peptide-forming reaction was carried out as the first part of a systems chemistry investigation of potential paths for symmetry breaking. Substantial diastereomeric excesses result from a fast epimerization of the 5(4H)-oxazolone intermediate in aqueous solution.

  5. Community Pride: An Oregon 4-H Activity Relating to Beautification and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The Community Pride program is a 4-H activity in conservation and beautification. Instructions for selecting and carrying out a Community Pride activity are presented: planning, organizing, and doing the project. Suggestions for possible activities are offered, and instructions for reporting the activity to the county extension office are given.…

  6. 4-H Shooting Sports Hits the Mark with Youth-at-Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, Wendy V.

    1997-01-01

    A 4-H program in a public housing project in New Mexico involved at-risk youth in activities such as archery and other shooting sports. These activities were found to promote motivation, cognitive development, self-esteem, and responsibility. (SK)

  7. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds.

  8. Pennsylvania Youth in Action: 4-H Community Development. Adult Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    Designed to assist leaders in their roles as catalysts, advisors, and resource persons for the Pennsylvania Youth in Action 4-H Community Development program, the guide provides complementary educational, craft, and recreation suggestions to enhance student workbooks for three community development activity units. The first section focuses on the…

  9. Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens: A Descriptive View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cater, Melissa; Fox, Janet; Fletcher, Bobby Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens, a K-12 Learn and Serve Grant program, provides a descriptive view of how school gardens along with classroom instruction link curriculum to outdoor classrooms. The purpose of the process evaluation was to describe curriculum implementation fidelity, reach of the gardening program to participants, use…

  10. A Historical Review of Leadership Development in the FFA and 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Tracy S.; Scholl, Jan F.; Dunigan, Anne H.; Mamontova, Nadezhda

    2007-01-01

    FFA and 4-H are two youth-based organizations that cite leadership development as a key foundational component. The purpose of this study was to review and document the historical development of leadership events and activities in both programs. Evidence can be found of leadership development in schools, conferences, and camps. Leadership-related…

  11. An Occupational Analysis Comparing 4-H Youth Development Agents Serving Traditional and Non-Traditional Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Harris, William

    1998-01-01

    Six 4-H agents working with traditional clients and six with nontraditional clients participated in a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) analysis of job tasks. They performed similar duties but the nontraditional group spent more time assessing individual members; the traditional group focused more on program management. (SK)

  12. The Value of 4-H Judging Teams--Missouri Dairy Judging Alumni Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Karla; Probert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Former Missouri 4-H Dairy Judging Team members responded to a survey about life skills development and the value of the judging team experience. Results of the survey indicate that judging team experience was highly influential in the development of communication, public speaking, and presentation skills. Respondents also indicated that judging…

  13. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  14. Performance statistics of the FORTRAN 4 /H/ library for the IBM system/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, N. A.; Cody, W. J., Jr.; Hillstrom, K. E.; Thieleker, E. A.

    1969-01-01

    Test procedures and results for accuracy and timing tests of the basic IBM 360/50 FORTRAN 4 /H/ subroutine library are reported. The testing was undertaken to verify performance capability and as a prelude to providing some replacement routines of improved performance.

  15. National Invitational Training Conference on Working with Youth with Special Needs Through 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Phyllis, Comp.

    A conference set up to exchange and disseminate ideas and information on the mentally retarded is presented. Specific purposes of the conference are: (1) to promote appreciation and understanding of handicapped youth--mentally retarded, and physically and visually handicapped youth, (2) to promote knowledge of on-going programs through 4-H with…

  16. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide [for Unit 1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This guide is designed for leaders of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) enjoy together the challenges and creativity of finding energy…

  17. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide for Units 2 & 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This leader's guide is designed for units 2 and 3 of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) to enjoy together the challenges and creativity of…

  18. Diffusion of Social Media among County 4-H Programs in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Rebekah D.; Stephens, Carrie A.; Childers, Courtney C.; Avery, Elizabeth J.; Stripling, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, Cooperative Extension and 4-H professionals have been faced with the decision of whether to adopt new communication technologies such as social media. Research on social media and Cooperative Extension has identified risks and barriers to adoption; however, many Cooperative Extension professionals believe that social media…

  19. Experimental Durability Testing of 4H SiC JFET Integrated Circuit Technology at 727 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David; Neudeck, Phil; Chen, Liangyu; Chang, Carl; Lukco, Dorothy; Beheim, Glenn M

    2016-01-01

    We have reported SiC integrated circuits (IC's) with two levels of metal interconnect that have demonstrated prolonged operation for thousands of hours at their intended peak ambient operational temperature of 500 C [1, 2]. However, it is recognized that testing of semiconductor microelectronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is vital to qualification. Towards this end, we previously reported operation of a 4H-SiC JFET IC ring oscillator on an initial fast thermal ramp test through 727 C [3]. However, this thermal ramp was not ended until a peak temperature of 880 C (well beyond failure) was attained. Further experiments are necessary to better understand failure mechanisms and upper temperature limit of this extreme-temperature capable 4H-SiC IC technology. Here we report on additional experimental testing of custom-packaged 4H-SiC JFET IC devices at temperatures above 500 C. In one test, the temperature was ramped and then held at 727 C, and the devices were periodically measured until electrical failure was observed. A 4H-SiC JFET on this chip electrically functioned with little change for around 25 hours at 727 C before rapid increases in device resistance caused failure. In a second test, devices from our next generation 4H-SiC JFET ICs were ramped up and then held at 700 C (which is below the maximum deposition temperature of the dielectrics). Three ring oscillators functioned for 8 hours at this temperature before degradation. In a third experiment, an alternative die attach of gold paste and package lid was used, and logic circuit operation was demonstrated for 143.5 hours at 700 C.

  20. Nano-scale elastic-plastic properties and indentation-induced deformation of single crystal 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, A; Mao, W G; Lu, C; Shen, Y G

    2017-02-01

    The nanoscale elastic-plastic response of single crystal 4H-SiC has been investigated by nanoindentationwith a Berkovich tip. The hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) determined in the load-independent region were 36±2GPa and 413±8GPa, respectively. The indentation size effect (ISE) of hardness within an indentation depth of 60nm was systematically analyzed by the Nix-Gao model. Pop-in events occurring at a depth of ~23nm with indentation loads of 0.60-0.65mN were confirmed to indicate the elastic-plastic transition of the crystal, on the basis of the Hertzian contact theory and Johnson's cavity model. Theoritically calculated maximum tensile strength (13.5GPa) and cleavage strength (33GPa) also affirms the deformation due to the first pop-in rather than tensile stresses. Further analyses of deformation behavior across the indent was done in 4H-SiC by a combined technique of focused ion beam and transmission electron microscope, revealing that slippage occurred in the (0001) plane after indentation.

  1. Schottky barrier height of Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ivan R.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri I.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes were analysed through measurements of current-voltage curves varying the temperature. The Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) which increased with temperature was studied by simulation of the Thermionic Emission Model, considering Ni/SiC Schottky structures with an insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. This model shows that a new method of calculation should be applied to diodes that have a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Misleading results for SBH are obtained if the thin insulator layer is not considered. When applying the suggested method to the Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes it was necessary to consider not only the deposited TiO2 layer, but also a second dielectric layer of native SiCxOy at the surface of SiC. By measuring I-V-T curves for two samples with different thicknesses of TiO2, the suggested method allows one to estimate the thicknesses of both dielectric layers: TiO2 and SiOxCy.

  2. Using queuing theory to analyse the government's 4-H completion time target in accident and emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, L; Smith, D

    2008-03-01

    This paper uses a queuing model to evaluate completion times in Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments in the light of the Government target of completing and discharging 98% of patients inside 4 h. It illustrates how flows though an A&E can be accurately represented as a queuing process, how outputs can be used to visualise and interpret the 4-h Government target in a simple way and how the model can be used to assess the practical achievability of A&E targets in the future. The paper finds that A&E targets have resulted in significant improvements in completion times and thus deal with a major source of complaint by users of the National Health Service in the U.K. It suggests that whilst some of this improvement is attributable to better management, some is also due to the way some patients in A&E are designated and therefore counted through the system. It finds for example that the current target would not have been possible without some form of patient re-designation or re-labelling taking place. Further it finds that the current target is so demanding that the integrity of reported performance is open to question. Related incentives and demand management issues resulting from the target are also briefly discussed.

  3. Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 4 h apart Human pharmacology of MDMA after repeated doses taken 4 h apart.

    PubMed

    Farré, Magí; Tomillero, Angels; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Yubero, Samanta; Papaseit, Esther; Roset, Pere-Nolasc; Pujadas, Mitona; Torrens, Marta; Camí, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular psychostimulant, frequently associated with multiple administrations over a short period of time. Repeated administration of MDMA in experimental settings induces tolerance and metabolic inhibition. The aim is to determine the acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics resulting from two consecutive 100mg doses of MDMA separated by 4h. Ten male volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. The four conditions were placebo plus placebo, placebo plus MDMA, MDMA plus placebo, and MDMA plus MDMA. Outcome variables included pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic parameters. After a second dose of MDMA, most effects were similar to those after a single dose, despite a doubling of MDMA concentrations (except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time). After repeated MDMA administration, a 2-fold increase was observed in MDMA plasma concentrations. For a simple dose accumulation MDMA and MDA concentrations were higher (+23.1% Cmax and +17.1% AUC for MDMA and +14.2% Cmax and +10.3% AUC for MDA) and HMMA and HMA concentrations lower (-43.3% Cmax and -39.9% AUC for HMMA and -33.2% Cmax and -35.1% AUC for HMA) than expected, probably related to MDMA metabolic autoinhibition. Although MDMA concentrations doubled after the second dose, most pharmacological effects were similar or slightly higher in comparison to the single administration, except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time which were greater than predicted. The pharmacokinetic-effects relationship suggests that when MDMA is administered at a 4h interval there exists a phenomenon of acute tolerance to its effects.

  4. Using Relational Developmental Systems Theory to Link Program Goals, Activities, and Outcomes: The Sample Case of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Wang, Jun; Chase, Paul A.; Gutierrez, Akira S.; Harris, Elise M.; Rubin, Rachel O.; Yalin, Ceren

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developmental science, relational development systems models have been used to frame the positive youth development (PYD) perspective, which posits that youth will thrive when there is alignment between their strengths and ecological resources in their context. Evidence from the 4-H Study of PYD indicates that out-of-school-time…

  5. Exploring strategies to improve the health promotion orientation of Flemish sports clubs.

    PubMed

    Meganck, Jeroen; Seghers, Jan; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2016-02-29

    Sports clubs are increasingly recognized as an innovative setting for health promotion, as exemplified by the health promoting sports club concept. This study aims to assess the health promotion orientation of both youth sports clubs (YSC) and adult sports clubs (ASC) in Flanders and to identify the motives and barriers as reported by their representatives as a basis for proposing intervention strategies to improve the health promotion orientation in sports clubs. A total of 253 Flemish sports clubs, consisting of 156 YSC and of 97 ASC, completed the online questionnaire, covering club characteristics (e.g. finances, human resources), perceived motives and barriers for health promotion and the health promoting sports club index. Even though YSC were more health promoting than ASC, the results indicated that all sports clubs could improve their health promotion orientation. The most consistent predictors of health promotion orientation are perceived motives index for YSC and perceived lack of resources for ASC. Based on these results, interventions to enhance the health promoting orientation need to tackle the lack of resources such as lack of expertise regarding health promotion. Interventions aimed specifically at YSC should emphasize the direct benefits, for example by demonstrating how health promotion helps clubs to improve the provision of high quality sports participation and by awarding a health promotion quality label.

  6. New Mononuclear Cu(II) Complexes and 1D Chains with 4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    PubMed Central

    Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Boland, Yves; Gillard, Damien; Tinant, Bernard; Robeyns, Koen; Safin, Damir A.; Devlin, Eamonn; Sanakis, Yiannis; Garcia, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of two mononuclear Cu(II) NH2trz complexes [Cu(NH2trz)4(H2O)](AsF6)2 (I) and [Cu(NH2trz)4(H2O)](PF6)2 (II) as well as two coordination polymers [Cu(μ2-NH2trz)2Cl]Cl·H2O (III) and [Cu(μ2-NH2trz)2Cl] (SiF6)0.5·1.5H2O (IV) are presented. Cationic 1D chains with bridging bis-monodentate μ2-coordinated NH2trz and bridging μ2-coordinated chloride ligands are present in III and IV. In these coordination polymers, the Cu(II) ions are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled with J = −128.4 cm−1 for III and J = −143 cm−1 for IV (H = −J∑SiSi+1), due to the nature of the bridges between spin centers. Inter-chain interactions present in the crystal structures were taken into consideration, as well as g factors, which were determined experimentally, for the quantitative modeling of their magnetic properties. PMID:24300095

  7. Investigation of current transport parameters of Ti/4H-SiC MPS diode with inhomogeneous barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Men; Chen, Feng-Ping; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2011-05-01

    The current transport parameters of 4H-SiC merged PiN Schottky (MPS) diode are investigated in a temperature range of 300-520 K. Evaluation of the experimental current-voltage (I—V) data reveals the decrease in Schottky barrier height Φb but an increase in ideality factor n, with temperature decreasing, which suggests the presence of an inhomogeneous Schottky barrier. The current transport behaviours are analysed in detail using the Tung's model and the effective area of the low barrier patches is extracted. It is found that small low barrier patches, making only 4.3% of the total contact, may significantly influence the device electrical characteristics due to the fact that a barrier height of 0.968 eV is much lower than the average barrier height 1.39 eV. This shows that ion implantation in the Schottky contact region of MPS structure may result in a poor Ti/4H-SiC interface quality. In addition, the temperature dependence of the specific on-resistance (Ron—sp), T2.14, is determined between 300 K and 520 K, which is similar to that predicted by a reduction in electron mobility.

  8. Comparable structural and optical properties of 4H-pyrano [3, 2-c] quinoline derivatives thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyada, H. M.; El-Nahass, M. M.; El-Shabaan, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The structural and optical properties of 2-Amino-6-ethyl-5-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl) - 5, 6- dihydro - 4H-pyrano [3,2-c] quinoline-3- carbonitrile (Ph-HPQ) and 2-Amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano [3,2-c] quinoline-3-carbonitrile (Ch-HPQ) thin films are studied. The compounds are polycrystalline in as- synthesised powder form; they became nanocrystallites dispersed in amorphous matrix upon thermal deposition to form thin films. FTIR spectral measurements showed no change in chemical bonds of the compounds after being deposited to form thin films. The optical properties have been determined based on spectrophotometer measurements of transmittance and reflectance at nearly normal incidence of light in the spectral range of 200-2500 nm. The absorption parameters, molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength and electric dipole strength, are reported. The type of electron transition is determined from analysis of absorption coefficient spectra near the onset and optical absorption edges. The onset and optical energy gaps for Ph-HPQ and Ch-HPQ thin films are determined. The single oscillator model is applied to calculate the dispersion parameters of the investigated thin films. In addition, oscillator and dispersion energies, the high-frequency dielectric constant, lattice dielectric constant and ratio of free charge carriers concentrations to their effective masses are evaluated for the compounds under investigation.

  9. Nanocrystalline diamond films as UV-semitransparent Schottky contacts to 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadjer, Marko J.; Hobart, Karl D.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Butler, James E.; Liu, Kendrick X.; Eddy, Charles R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Lew, K. K.; VanMil, Brenda L.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Ancona, Mario G.; Kub, Fritz J.; Feygelson, Tatyana I.

    2007-10-01

    A heterojunction between thin films of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and 4H-SiC has been developed. Undoped and B-doped NCDs were deposited on both n- and p- SiC epilayers. I-V measurements on p + NCD /n- SiC indicated Schottky rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of around 0.2V. The current increased over eight orders of magnitude with an ideality factor of 1.17 at 30°C. Ideal energy-band diagrams suggested a possible conduction mechanism for electron transport from the SiC conduction band to either the valence band or acceptor level of the NCD film. Applications as an UV semitransparent electrical contact to 4H-SiC are discussed.

  10. A 4H Silicon Carbide Gate Buffer for Integrated Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, N; Frank, S; Britton, C; Marlino, L; Ryu, SH; Grider, D; Mantooth, A; Francis, M; Lamichhane, R; Mudholkar, M; Shepherd, P; Glover, M; Valle-Mayorga, J; McNutt, T; Barkley, A; Whitaker, B; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Lostetter, A

    2014-02-01

    A gate buffer fabricated in a 2-mu m 4H silicon carbide (SiC) process is presented. The circuit is composed of an input buffer stage with a push-pull output stage, and is fabricated using enhancement mode N-channel FETs in a process optimized for SiC power switching devices. Simulation and measurement results of the fabricated gate buffer are presented and compared for operation at various voltage supply levels, with a capacitive load of 2 nF. Details of the design including layout specifics, simulation results, and directions for future improvement of this buffer are presented. In addition, plans for its incorporation into an isolated high-side/low-side gate-driver architecture, fully integrated with power switching devices in a SiC process, are briefly discussed. This letter represents the first reported MOSFET-based gate buffer fabricated in 4H SiC.

  11. 4-[4-(Diethyl-amino)benzyl-ideneamino]-4H-1,2,4-triazole.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian Xin; Zhang, Ju Zhou; Chen, Qian Wang

    2008-05-03

    The title compound, C(13)H(17)N(5), is a Schiff base synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(diethyl-amino)benzaldehyde. The triazole ring forms a dihedral angle of 5.77 (16)° with the benzene ring. The crystal structure is stabilized by an inter-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bond.

  12. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M; Tsuchida, H; Chen, Y; Dudley, M

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  13. Resistance of 4H-SiC Schottky barriers at high forward-current densities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Samsonova, T. P.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Serebrennikova, O. Yu.; Kon’kov, O. I.; Potapov, A. S.

    2015-07-15

    The resistance of Schottky barriers based on 4H-SiC is experimentally determined at high forward-current densities. The measured resistance is found to be significantly higher than the resistance predicted by classical mechanisms of electron transport in Schottky contacts. An assumption concerning the crucial contribution of the tunnel-transparent intermediate oxide layer between the metal and semiconductor to the barrier resistance is proposed and partially justified.

  14. The Supernova Club: Bringing Space Science to Urban Youths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, P. J.; Pettit, R.; Balsara, D.; Garnavich, P.

    2008-06-01

    The Supernova Club is an experiment aimed at bringing space science to youths, almost all African Americans, from the most severely disadvantaged areas of the South Bend, Indiana, region. It leverages the National Youth Sports Program (NYSP) that, in Summer 2007, brought 100 children, ages 10-16 and living at or below the poverty level, to the Notre Dame campus for a 4-week non-residential summer program. Six contact hours of space science instruction were added to the core curriculum of nutrition, physical fitness, and academic study. At summer's end, 13 high interest/high potential youths were selected to form ``The Supernova Club''-a year-round, after-school, weekly follow-up program.

  15. Photophysics of a ruthenium 4H-imidazole panchromatic dye in interaction with titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Julian; Kupfer, Stephan; Wächtler, Maria; Guthmuller, Julien; Rau, Sven; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2015-04-07

    The photophysics of bis(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine-κ(2)N,N')[2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-bis(p-tolylimino-κN)imidazolato]ruthenium(II) hexafluorophosphate is investigated, both in solution and attached to a nanocrystalline TiO2 film. The studied substitution pattern of the 4H-imidazole ligand is observed to block a photoinduced structural reorganization pathway within the 4H-imidazole ligand that has been previously investigated. Protonation at the 4H-imidazole ring decreases the excited-state lifetime in solution. When the unprotonated dye is anchored to TiO2, photoinduced electron injection occurs from thermally nonrelaxed triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) states with a characteristic time constant of 0.5 ps and an injection efficiency of roughly 25%. Electron injection from the subsequently populated thermalized (3)MLCT state of the dye does not take place. The energy of this state seems to be lower than the conduction band edge of TiO2.

  16. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  17. Combustion of CH4/H2/air mixtures in catalytic microreactors.

    PubMed

    Specchia, Stefania; Vella, Luigi D; Burelli, Sara; Saracco, Guido; Specchia, Vito

    2009-03-23

    The combustion of CH(4)/H(2)/HC mixtures in a very small space represents an alternative, innovative way to produce thermal/electrical energy. Pd/NiCrO(4) catalysts are lined on SiC monoliths via in situ solution combustion synthesis (SCS), and the monoliths are then tested by feeding CH(4), H(2), and lean CH(4)/H(2) mixtures into a lab-scale test rig at an output thermal power of 7.6 MW(th) m(-3). In all cases, the combustion temperature shifts to values lower than those observed in non-catalytic combustion. When the power density is kept constant (by adding H(2) to the gas mixture), the value of CH(4)-T(50) (the half-conversion temperature of CH(4)) decreases relative to that of pure CH(4), and the slope of the conversion curve becomes steeper. The higher the H(2) concentration is, the higher the reactivity of the mixture towards CH(4) oxidation-probably due to a higher production of H(2) reactive radicals (OH).

  18. Demonstration of the First 4H-SiC EUV Detector with Large Detection Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Xiaobin; Yan, Feng; Koeth, Timothy W.; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Jian H.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) detectors are very attractive in astronomy, photolithography and biochemical applications. For EUV applications, most of the semiconductor detectors based on PN or PIN structures suffer from the very short penetration depth. Most of the carries are absorbed at the surface and recombined there due to the high surface recombination before reach the depletion region, resulting very low quantum efficiency. On the other hand, for Schottky structures, the active region starts from the surface and carriers generated from the surface can be efficiently collected. 4H-Sic has a bandgap of 3.26eV and is immune to visible light background noise. Also, 4H-Sic detectors usually have very good radiation hardness and very low noise, which is very important for space applications where the signal is very weak. The E W photodiodes presented in this paper are based on Schottky structures. Platinum (Pt) and Nickel (Ni) are selected as the Schottky contact metals, which have the highest electron work functions (5.65eV and 5.15eV, respectively) among all the known metals on 4H-Sic.

  19. Incipient plasticity in 4H-SiC during quasistatic nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Saurav; Yan, Jiwang; Luo, Xichun; Agrawal, Anupam

    2014-06-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an important orthopedic material due to its inert nature and superior mechanical and tribological properties. Some of the potential applications of silicon carbide include coating for stents to enhance hemocompatibility, coating for prosthetic-bearing surfaces and uncemented joint prosthetics. This study is the first to explore nanomechanical response of single crystal 4H-SiC through quasistatic nanoindentation. Displacement controlled quasistatic nanoindentation experiments were performed on a single crystal 4H-SiC specimen using a blunt Berkovich indenter (300nm tip radius) at extremely fine indentation depths of 5nm, 10nm, 12nm, 25nm, 30nm and 50nm. Load-displacement curve obtained from the indentation experiments showed yielding or incipient plasticity in 4H-SiC typically at a shear stress of about 21GPa (~an indentation depth of 33.8nm) through a pop-in event. An interesting observation was that the residual depth of indent showed three distinct patterns: (i) positive depth hysteresis above 33nm, (ii) no depth hysteresis at 12nm, and (iii) negative depth hysteresis below 12nm. This contrasting depth hysteresis phenomenon is hypothesized to originate due to the existence of compressive residual stresses (upto 143MPa) induced in the specimen by the polishing process prior to the nanoindentation.

  20. Club-Cutting” Dystonic Tremor: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kinley; Mahon, Barry; O’Rourke, Killian; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal task-specific dystonic postures are well recognized. Often a tremor may be the main feature with little or no dystonia. These have been well reported in writers, musicians, and sportspeople. Case Report Herein we report a novel task-specific dystonic tremor in a 44-year-old Irish hairdresser due to club-cutting, a standard haircutting technique. Discussion Hairdresser’s dystonia is a novel task-specific dystonia. PMID:24156085

  1. A little nightclub medicine: the healthcare implications of clubbing

    PubMed Central

    Luke, L; Dewar, C; Bailey, M; McGreevy, D; Morris, H; Burdett-Smith, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the scale and range of acute medical problems among patients who present to an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department after attending nightclubs in Liverpool. Methods: From April 1997 to April 1998, all patients identified as having attended a nightclub before their arrival at the department were included in the study. Information regarding their attendance was gathered retrospectively using a standard proforma. Setting: A large, city centre, teaching hospital A&E department with an annual new patient attendance rate of over 95 000. Result: 777 such patients were enrolled in the study (0.81% of all new attendances during the same period). This was probably an underestimate, as some eligible patients were not identified during the study. Predictably, most presentations were at the weekend between midnight and 08.00. Suprisingly, the commonest mode of transport to the hospital was an ambulance (38%, 298 of the total). Assault accounted for most presentations (57%, 443 of the total) and lacerations were the commonest injury (the face being most frequently affected). Alcohol was the commonest intoxicant overtly associated with the A&E department attendance. Conclusions: Injury after assault is the commonest precipitant of hospital care among clubbers in Liverpool. Alcohol is the most important contributory factor, although illegal drug misuse is a considerable challenge in the clubs themselves. A number of measures such as (a) the introduction of unbreakable glass or plastic containers; (b) the elimination of glass from outside clubs; (c) the provision of high quality immediate medical care at larger venues; (d) the curbing of over crowding and cheap drinks promotions; (e) registration of doormen, and (f) targeted policing of the areas around nightclubs are urgently required to reduce the healthcare (and civic) burden of clubbing. The cost for these should be borne by the highly profitable clubbing and brewing industries. A national

  2. ASBMB Journal Club - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    On Wednesday, November 12, 2014 from 2:00 PM to 3:00 PM EST, Daniel Liebler, PhD (Vanderbilt University) and Karin Rodland, PhD (Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory) and Ruedi Aebersold, PhD (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) will share their research insight as part of the ASBMB Journal Club.  Both Doctors Liebler and Rodland are Principal Investigators in the NCI’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium.

  3. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  4. Fabrication, characterization and simulation of 4H-SiC Schottky diode alpha particle detectors for pyroprocessing actinide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Timothy Richard

    Pyroprocessing is a method of using high-temperature molten salts and electric fields to separate and collect fuel isotopes of used nuclear fuel. It has been has been tested in the U.S. at Idaho National Laboratory as a key step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One technical problem with the pyroprocessing method is a lack of knowledge regarding the actinide concentrations in the salt bath during operation, since on-line techniques for measuring these concentrations are not presently available. 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors can potentially fulfill this need. Such detectors would operate in contact with the molten salt, and measure concentrations via alpha-particle spectroscopy. This work seeks to fabricate and characterize 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors at high temperature, model the alpha particle spectrum expected in a molten salt, and model the operation of the detectors to confirm the physics of operation is as expected. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors were fabricated at OSU Nanotech West. After fabrication, these detectors were characterized using both I-V curves and Am-241 alpha-particle energy spectra. All measurements were made as a function of temperature, from room temperature up to 500°C. The average energy required to create an electron-hole pair was observed to decrease with an increase of temperature, due to a decrease of both the 4H-SiC bandgap and non-linear energy loss terms. Furthermore, the FWHM of the spectra was observed to be dependent on the leakage current at a certain temperature, and not dependent on the temperature itself. Secondly, the alpha particle energy spectrum in the pyroprocessing environment was modeled using SRIM. The molten salt was modeled in 3 different geometries, with or without a protective cover material on top of the detector. Due to the loss of alpha-particle energy in the molten salt itself, a high-energy alpha emitter may completely cover the spectrum from a lower-energy alpha emitter. Each of the

  5. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese, is... before being comminuted. (3)(i) The moisture content of a cold-pack cheese made from a single variety...

  6. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese, is... before being comminuted. (3)(i) The moisture content of a cold-pack cheese made from a single variety...

  7. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese, is... before being comminuted. (3)(i) The moisture content of a cold-pack cheese made from a single variety...

  8. Global emergency medicine journal club: social media responses to the January 2014 online emergency medicine journal club on subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa M; Rosenberg, Hans; Lin, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    From January 20 to 24, 2014, Annals continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 Journal of the American Medical Association article "Clinical Decision Rules to Rule Out Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Acute Headache" by Perry et al. This online journal club used the power of rapid Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and more detailed discussions hosted on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. There were more than 1,431 individuals from 501 cities in 59 countries who viewed the blog post. During this 5-day event, 28 comments (average word count 153 words) and 206 tweets were made. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated during this novel, multiplatform approach.

  9. Undergraduate journal club as an intervention to improve student development in applying the scientific process

    PubMed Central

    Sandefur, Conner I; Gordy, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Active learning improves student performance in STEM courses. Exposure to active learning environments generally occurs through traditional laboratory courses and independent research, both of which require access to resources that are limited at many universities. A previously reported active learning-based undergraduate journal club improved student achievement in communicating science. Here, we expanded on this previous journal club to improve student performance in the process of science. We developed and implemented a series of workshops and seminars referred to as “CASL Club,” an undergraduate journal club targeted at improving student development in applying the scientific process. Students were surveyed before and after CASL club about their confidence in accessing, analyzing, and reporting scientific research. Post-CASL club, the students reported increases in confidence in their abilities to access and present scientific articles and write scientific abstracts. Additionally, the students reported improved confidence and performance in their courses. Compared to the previous journal club study, the majority of sampled journal club participants were not exposed to primary literature as part of their general coursework. Our results illustrate active-learning based undergraduate journal clubs as a way to expose students to primary literature and improve students’ ability to apply scientific process in an active-learning environment at resource-limited universities. PMID:27212737

  10. The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research

    PubMed Central

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Eriksson, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this review is to compile and identify key issues in international research about youth sports clubs as health-promoting settings, and then discuss the results of the review in terms of a framework for the youth sports club as a health-promoting setting. Methods: The framework guiding this review of research is the health-promoting settings approach introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The method used is the integrated review. Inclusion criteria were, first, that the studies concerned sports clubs for young people, not professional clubs; second, that it be a question of voluntary participation in some sort of ongoing organized athletics outside of the regular school curricula; third, that the studies consider issues about youth sports clubs in terms of health-promoting settings as described by WHO. The final sample for the review consists of 44 publications. Results: The review shows that youth sports clubs have plentiful opportunities to be or become health-promoting settings; however this is not something that happens automatically. To do so, the club needs to include an emphasis on certain important elements in its strategies and daily practices. The youth sports club needs to be a supportive and healthy environment with activities designed for and adapted to the specific age-group or stage of development of the youth. Conclusions: To become a health-promoting setting, a youth sports club needs to take a comprehensive approach to its activities, aims, and purposes. PMID:23349167

  11. [Synthesis and characterization of complex of Na2[Cu5(Shi)4].4H2O].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-sheng; Hu, Yong-gang; Chen, Zhao-bin; Liu, Wen

    2002-12-01

    The complex, which is formed by reacting copper (II) with salicylhydroxamic acid (H3Shi), has been synthesized. The chemical formula of the complex was determined to be Na2[Cu5(Shi)4].4H2O by elemental analysis and spectrometric titration. The structure and the properties were tentatively investigated by using UV-Vis, IR, NMR, TG, fluorescence, molecular modeling and magnetic susceptibility measurement. The results show that the UV absorption peak corresponding to the pi-->pi* transition shifts towards red 25 nm, the d proton of salicylhydroxamic acid behaves as that of alkyl hydrocarbon in NMR and there is a strong magnetic interaction among the copper (II) ions in the complex.

  12. Ultra-High Voltage 4H-SiC Bi-Directional Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sauvik

    4H- Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) is an attractive material for power semiconductor devices due to its large bandgap, high critical electric field and high thermal conductivity compared to Silicon (Si). For ultra-high voltage applications (BV > 10 kV), 4H-SiC Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are favored over unipolar transistors due to lower conduction losses. With improvements in SiC materials and processing technology, promising results have been demonstrated in the area of conventional unidirectional 4H-SiC IGBTs, with breakdown voltage ratings up to 27 kV. This research presents the experimental demonstration of the world's first high voltage bi-directional power transistors in 4H-SiC. Traditionally, four (two IGBTs and two diodes) or two (two reverse blocking IGBTs) semiconductor devices are necessary to yield a bidirectional switch. With a monolithically integrated bidirectional switch as presented here, the number of semiconductor devices is reduced to only one, which results in increased reliability and reduced cost of the overall system. Additionally, by using the unique dual gate operation of BD-IGBTs, switching losses can be reduced to a small fraction of that in conventional IGBTs, resulting in increased efficiency. First, the performance limits of SiC IGBTs are calculated by using analytical methods. The performance benefits of SiC IGBTs over SiC unipolar devices and Si IGBTs are quantified. Numerical simulations are used to optimize the unit cell and edge termination structures for a 15 kV SiC BD-IGBT. The effect of different device parameters on BD-IGBT static and switching performance are quantified. Second, the process technology necessary for the fabrication of high voltage SiC BD-IGBTs is optimized. The effect of different process steps on parameters such as breakdown voltage, carrier lifetime, gate oxide reliability, SiO2-SiC interface charge density is quantified. A carrier lifetime enhancement process has been optimized for lightly doped

  13. 4H-SiC JFET Multilayer Integrated Circuit Technologies Tested Up to 1000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, D. J.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.; Chang, C. W.; Lukco, D.; Beheim, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of semiconductor electronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is recognized as vital to qualification and lifetime prediction of circuits. This work describes the high temperature electrical testing of prototype 4H silicon carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistor (JFET) integrated circuits (ICs) technology implemented with multilayer interconnects; these ICs are intended for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 773K (500 C). A 50 mm diameter sapphire wafer was used in place of the standard NASA packaging for this experiment. Testing was carried out between 300K (27 C) and 1150K (877 C) with successful electrical operation of all devices observed up to 1000K (727 C).

  14. Insight into metal-enhanced oxidation using barium on 4H-SiC surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Katsu, Yoshihito; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2016-12-01

    Metal-enhanced oxidation (MEO) using ultrathin Ba layers on 4H-SiC surfaces was investigated by physical and electrical characterizations. We found that while comparable oxidation rates were enhanced for Si- and C-face surfaces even at a low temperature, significant surface and interface roughness were induced by initial MEO termed the incubation period. Depth profiling revealed that although most Ba atoms aggregated on the oxide surface, a tiny amount (˜1014 cm-2) remaining at the oxide interface was responsible for the following stable MEO reaction and the reduced interface state density with the drawbacks of degraded leakage current and breakdown characteristics of SiC-MOS devices.

  15. Compensation Mechanism in High Purity Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    online 15 March 2007 A study of deep levels in high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC has been made using temperature dependent Hall effect TDH , thermal and...optical admittance spectroscopies, and secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS. Thermal activation energies from TDH varied from a low of 0.55 eV to a...high of 1.65 eV. All samples studied showed n-type conduction with the Fermi level in the upper half of the band gap. Fits of the TDH data to

  16. C4H2, HC3N and C2N2 in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Aikin, A. C.; Hanel, R. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Maguire, W. C.; Samuelson, R. E.

    1981-08-01

    Voyager 1 took IR measurements of the atmosphere of Titan, and obtained an average of 346 spectra, mostly from the center of the disk. The compounds C4H2, HC3N, and C2N2 were detected in the atmosphere of Titan. The identification of two compounds containing nitrogen, in addition to HCN, provides further evidence for the abundance of free N2 on Titan. The organic compounds observed in the atmosphere of Titan are summarized in a table, which also indicates the approximate mole fraction for each compound identified previously. The observed compounds originate by reactions of methane and nitrogen radicals in a predominantly nitrogen atmosphere.

  17. Transient collector modulation of 4H-SiC BJTs during switch-on process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuferev, Valentin S.; Levinshtein, Michael E.; Ivanov, Pavel A.; Zhang, Jon Q.; Palmour, John W.

    2016-09-01

    Main physical features of the collector resistance modulation processes have been studied via a one-dimensional simulation for n+-p-n0-n+ 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor. The motion dynamics of minority carriers (holes) across the n0 collector layer during the switch-on process is traced. It is demonstrated that the effective modulation of the collector resistance is only possible in the case of a rather fast transistor switch-on. A necessary condition for the fast switch-on is the large amplitude and short leading edge of the base current pulse.

  18. Orientation of the water moiety in CF4-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Guidetti, Gloria; Caminati, Walther

    2012-12-01

    The rotational spectrum of CF4-H217O has been investigated by pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. A symmetric top effective rotational spectrum has been observed, similarly to the case of the parent species (W. Caminati, A. Maris, A. Dell'Erba, P.G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 (2006) 6711). The experimental value of the 17O χaa quadrupole coupling constant, 0.54(1) MHz, allows to determine the average value of the angle between the C2 axis of H2O and the C⋯O line, β = 24°.

  19. Atomic oxidation of large area epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Velez-Fort, E.; Ouerghi, A.; Silly, M. G.; Sirtti, F.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Shukla, A.

    2014-03-03

    Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC were studied before and after an atomic oxidation process. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicates that oxygen penetrates into the substrate and decouples a part of the interface layer. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the increase of defects due to the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, we observed on the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra a splitting of the π* peak into two distinct resonances centered at 284.7 and 285.2 eV. This double structure smears out after the oxidation process and permits to probe the interface architecture between graphene and the substrate.

  20. Surface organometallic chemistry on metals: Evidence for a new surface organometallic material Rh(Sn(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub x}){sub y} obtained by controlled hydrogenolysis of Sn(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4} on Rh/SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Didillon, B.; Clause, O.; Lefevbre, F.; Lamb, H.; Houtman, C.; Shay, T.; Candy, J.P.; Basset, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is shown that it is possible to graft organometallic fragments, namely Sn(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub x}(x=1,2,3) at the surface of a rhodium particle supported on silica. These organometallic fragments are obtained by selective hydrogenolysis of Sn(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4} on a Rhodium/silica catalyst. They are thermally stable on the particle up to a temperature of 423 K. The surface organometallic fragments have been characterized by micro-analytical data. Electron microscopy (CTEM and STEM), infrared spectroscopy, XPS Analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, MAS{sup 13}C NMR, EXAFS and molecular modeling. Depending on experimental conditions, it is possible to propose various surface structures for the organometallic fragments. However, the most likely fragment can be represented by the general formula: Rh{sub 8}Sn[Sn(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 3}]{sub 2}.